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Frames vs. Bases

A set vectors form a basis for M if they span M and are linearly inde- pendent.

A set of N M vectors form a frame for M if they span M .

A

C

B

D

Figure 1: (A) A basis. (B) A frame with overcompleteness 3. (C) A basis. (D) A frame with overcompletness 3/2.

Frame Operator

Let F consist of the N frame vectors,

N M . Let x

N be a representation of y M in F .

It follows that

f 1 f N M , where

y

x 1 f 1

x 2 f 2 x N f N

This is just the matrix vector product

y Fx

where the frame operator , F , is the M N matrix,

F f 1

f 2

f N

Inverse Frame Operator (contd.)

We might guess that

x F 1 y

where FF 1 I . Unfortunately, because F is not square, it has no simple inverse. However, it has an inﬁnite number of right-inverses. Each of the x produced when y is multiplied by a distinct right- inverse is a distinct representation of the vector y in the frame, F .

Pseudoinverse

If there are an inﬁnite number of right- inverses, then we should be able to ﬁnd at least one of them. We observe that the pseudoinverse

F

F T FF T 1

is a right-inverse of F . We call the N M matrix, F , an inverse frame oper- ator because it maps vectors, y M , into representations, x N .

Frame Bounds

Let F consist of the N frame vectors, f 1 f N M , where N M , and let F be the inverse frame operator. F is a frame iff for all y M there exist A and B where 0 A B and where

1

B

y 2

F

y 2

1

A y 2

A and B are called the frame bounds.

Dual Frame

If F consists of the N frame vectors, f 1 f N M , with inverse frame oper-

ator F , then the dual frame , F , con-

 sists of the N frame vectors, M : f 1 f N

F T

1

f

f 2

f N

Let x N be a representation of y M in F . It follows that

y F T x

Consequently, F T is the frame oper-

ator for the dual frame,

F .

Dual Frame (contd.)

Because F T is a right inverse of F T :

F T

F T

I

It follows that F T is the inverse frame operator for the dual frame, F , and

A y 2 F T y 2 B y 2

for all y M .

Tight-Frames

If A B then

F T y 2 A y 2

and F is said to be a tight-frame . When

F is a tight-frame,

F

1

A

F

T

If f i 1 for all frame vectors, f i , then A equals the overcompleteness of the representation. When A B 1, then

F is an orthonormal basis and F

F .

Summary of Notation

y M – a vector.

x N – a representation of y in F .

f 1 f N M where N M – frame vectors for F .

F f 1 f 2 f N – frame op- erator for F .

F : N

F F T F T F 1 – inverse frame op- erator for F .

M .

F : M

N .

0 A B – bounds for F .

Summary of Notation (contd.)

x M – a representation of y in

f 1

f N M – frame vectors for

F .

F

.

F T f 1

operator for

f 2

F .

F T : N M .

f N – frame

F T – inverse frame operator for

F T : M N .

F .

0

1

B

1

A – bounds for

F .