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Drive Test Analysis 05/07/2006 1/30

Drive Test Analysis

05/07/2006

1/30

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Alexandre Silva

UMTS-RN0-0005

Drive Test Analysis
Drive Test Analysis

Contents

1

Measurements on a drive test

3

 

1.1

Radio measurements

4

 

1.1.1 Spectral measurements on UTRA carrier

4

1.1.2 Measurements on common channels

5

1.1.3 Measurements on dedicated channels

8

 

1.2

Higher-layer measurements

10

 

1.2.1 Transport channels

10

1.2.2 User-data measurements

11

1.3 Load simulation 12 1.3.1 Uplink radio load12 1.3.2 Downlink radio load 13 2 Radio
1.3
Load simulation
12
1.3.1 Uplink radio load12
1.3.2 Downlink radio load
13
2
Radio optimization based on drive tests
14
2.1
Call set-up failure
15
2.1.1 Coverage problem
16
2.1.2 Admission Control problem
17
2.1.3 Interference problem
18
2.1.4 Active Set Management
19
2.2
Call drop
19
2.2.1 Coverage problem
19
2.2.2 Interference problem
22
2.2.3 Active Set Management problem
22
1.1.4 RLC problem
24
1.1.5 RL problem
25
1.3
Higher-layer performances on User plane
25
1.3.1 Offered bit-rate
26
1.3.2 Transport Channel BLER
27
1.3.3 Performances for RLC AM
27
1.4
Higher-layer performances on Control plane
27
Abbreviations
29

1. Measurements on a drive test

1. Measurements on a drive test

In this section, we are listing the different measurements that could be taken on a drive test, while using either a 3G scanner or a trace mobile or both.

The purpose of this document is not to tackle with implementation-specific measurements for commercial 3G scanners or trace mobiles.

On a drive test, one tester can take following measurements:

Radio measurements

Higher-layer measurements (RLC and over)

measurements ■ Higher-layer measurements (RLC and over) Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda

1.1

Radio measurements

The 3GPP25.215 and the 3GPP25.133 are specifying the UE measurement capabilities required in UMTS FDD.

3G scanner versus trace mobile

The main advantage of a 3G scanner is that the user can specify the UTRA carrier to monitor, whereas a trace mobile will only measure the various UTRA carriers at the cell selection without reporting this measurement to the system.

Then, the user can specify the cells to monitor on a 3G scanner, whereas a
Then, the user can specify the cells to monitor on a 3G scanner, whereas
a trace mobile will only measure the various cells at the cell selection in
idle mode and the active cells together with the declared neighboring
cells in connected mode.
A 3G scanner may also give some measurements onto the P-SCH and S-
SCH.
1.1.1 Spectral measurements on UTRA carrier
UTRA carrier RSSI
The UTRA carrier RSSI is the key measurement for the DL interference
seen by the UE.
From the 3GPP TS25.215, the Received Signal Strength Indicator is the
wide-band received power within the relevant channel bandwidth. In
wide-band systems, the spreading of the power by code channels do not
ensure a perfectly homogeneous power level over the spectrum. The
PAR (Peak to Average Ratio) gives an indication of the homogeneity of
the power level over the 5MHz bandwidth. The higher the number of
codes mixed the lower the PAR.

From 3GPP TS25.133, the reporting range for UTRA carrier RSSI is from –100dBm to -25 dBm.

The UTRA carrier RSSI mainly encompasses the intra- and inter-cell load on the UTRA carrier. But, interference due to adjacent channels or other radio transmitters are also included.

The intra-cell contribution I intra to the UTRA carrier RSSI can be extracted from the Transmitted Carrier Power measured at the Node B antenna connector and the path-loss measured by the drive test chain on the CPICH as:

I intra = Transmitted Carrier Power cell, Node B - Pathloss cell, UE

In the same way, the contributions of the neighboring cells for which the CPICH can be demodulated can be analyzed.

1.1.2 Measurements on common channels

Cell detection

On one UMTS carrier, a cell is identified by its PSC (Primary Scrambling Code). There
On one UMTS carrier, a cell is identified by its PSC (Primary
Scrambling Code). There are 512 scrambling codes grouped into 64
groups of each 8 different scrambling codes.
To detect a cell, the UE searches sequentially for:
● the universal 256-chip primary synchronization code, being
identical for all cells and repeated at the beginning of each slot
of the P-SCH. Once the peak is detected, the slot boundary is
known.
● the largest peak from the secondary synchronization code
word based on the slot boundary. The UE needs to check the
64 possible scrambling code group for the secondary
synchronization code word, beginning at each of the 15
positions, since only the slot boundary is known and not the
frame boundary.
● the current PSC in the identified scrambling code group by
scanning the CPICH: the correlation peak obtained while
descrambling the CPICH with the current PSC allows the
detection of the PSC.
RAKE measurements

The RAKE receiver performs the multi-path combining at the mobile side. The 3GPP definitions for measurements are always after RAKE recombining. It does not make sense to analyze each path for radio optimization for following reasons:

The RAKE coefficients are not configurable

The RAKE algorithm is proprietary

Multi-path profile changes from one test to the other

CPICH measurements

The CPICH is emitted continuously with a fixed power level, so that it serves for the cell evaluation and downlink channel estimation at the UE.

The reference point for the CPICH measurements is the antenna connector of the UE, even though the RAKE receiver combines measurements.

The CPICH measurements are the key radio measurements for cell optimization.

CPICH RSCP The CPICH RSCP is the key measurement for DL coverage. The CPICH RSCP
CPICH RSCP
The CPICH RSCP is the key measurement for DL coverage. The
CPICH RSCP is an RXLEV measurement. This measurement is for:
● Cell re-/selection
● UL open loop power control
From the 3GPP TS25.215, the CPICH RSCP (Received Signal Code
Power) is the received power on one code measured on CPICH.
From the 3GPP TS25.133, the reporting range is for CPICH RSCP is
from –115dBm to -25 dBm.
As a rule of thumb, one can say (for dense urban):
► -108dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -105dBm
Uncertain CS64 coverage on unloaded network
► -105dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -98dBm
Uncertain CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network
► -98dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -85dBm
CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network for outdoors
► -85dBm ≤ CPICH RSCP < -70dBm

CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network for in-car

-70dBm CPICH RSCP < -62dBm

CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network for indoor daylight

-62dBm CPICH RSCP

CS64 coverage on 50%UL-loaded network for indoor first-wall

Downlink path-loss

The path-loss measured on the CPICH is defined as:

Pathloss = CPICH TX Power - CPICH RSCP

With a typical value of 33dBm for the CPICH TX power, the range for path loss is then 58dB to 148dB.

One should be careful with the figures for the path-loss, since this definition does not correspond to the pure radio loss.

3GPP Pathloss = CPICH TX power @ NB antenna connector - CPICH RSCP @ UE antenna connector

Pure Radio Loss = CPICH TX power @ NB antenna output - CPICH Rx power
Pure Radio Loss = CPICH TX power @ NB antenna output -
CPICH Rx power @ UE antenna input
3GPP Pathloss = Pure Radio Loss + feeder losses - NB antenna
gain + UE antenna gain
With typical values of feeder losses (3dB), NB antenna gain (17dBi)
and UE antenna gain (0dBi), 3GPP Pathloss = Pure Radio Loss – 14dB
and the range for radio loss is then 72dB to 162dB.
CPICH E C /I 0
The CPICH E C /I 0 is the key measurement for radio optimization for
CDMA. The CPICH E C /I 0 measures the soft radio capacity. This
measurement is for:
● Cell re-/selection
● Radio admission control
● DL open-loop power control
● Soft HO and inter-frequency Hard HO

From the 3GPP TS25.215, the CPICH E C /I 0 is the received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band. The E C /I 0 is identical to RSCP/RSSI.

From the 3GPP TS25.133, the reporting range for CPICH E C /I 0 is from –24dB to 0dB.

The typical distribution of the CPICH E C /I 0 highly depends on the cell load. Requirements in term of CPICH E C /I 0 depends on:

The non-limitation in UL and DL coverage

The number of cells that can be recombined

The mobile sensitivity

As a rule of thumb, one can say:

-15dB CPICH E C /I 0 -18dB

Preferred situation is more than 1 active RL

-12dB CPICH E C /I 0 -15dB

Good value for 60%-loaded network

-8dB CPICH E C /I 0 -12dB

Preferred situation is not more than 1 active RL

► CPICH E C /I 0 ≥ -8dB Only 1 active RL for high-quality best
► CPICH E C /I 0 ≥
-8dB
Only 1 active RL for high-quality best server
1.1.3 Measurements on dedicated channels
Per definition, a 3G scanner does not perform measurements on
dedicated channels.
Uplink
UE TX power
The UE TX power is the key measurement to analyze UL coverage.
It is the only uplink measurement that is available at the UE side. It is
defined in the 3GPP TS25.215 as the total UE transmitted power on one
carrier at the UE antenna connector.
From the 3GPP TS25.133, the reporting range for UE transmitted power
is from -50 dBm to 33 dBm. But, the Power Class of the UE bounds the
upper limit (defined in 3GPP TS25.101).
Power Class
Maximum TX power
1
+33 dBm
2
+27 dBm
3
+24 dBm
4
+21 dBm

Test mobiles in R1 and R2 were Power class 3 only.

UE Tx power = P DPCCH,UL + P DPDCH,UL

P DPCCH,UL = (β D /β C ) 2 x P DPDCH,UL

β C and β D are parameterized, β D being fixed at 15

Downlink

As a rule of thumb, one can say:

16dBm UE TX power < 24dBm (shadowing and fading)

9dBm UE TX power < 16dBm (in-car penetration)

0dBm UE TX power < 9dBm

-10dBm UE TX power < 0dBm

UE TX power < -10dBm(deep indoor)

(indoor day-light)

(indoor first-wall)

Signal-to-Interference Ratio The Signal-to-Interference ratio is not standardized for the UE. This internal measurement
Signal-to-Interference Ratio
The Signal-to-Interference ratio is not standardized for the UE.
This internal measurement should be used in the DL outer-loop power
control. The SIR target for DL is defined through UE-proprietary
algorithms to achieve the BLER Quality Value assigned by the UTRAN
(see Downlink Transport Channel BLER).
Therefore, one should be cautious when analyzing such measurements
in a mobile trace, since various definitions are possible.
Metrics for synchronization
The UE Rx-Tx time difference, the CFN-SFN observed time difference
and the SFN-SFN observed time difference are concerning
synchronization issue at the UE side over the radio interface.
● The SFN-SFN observed time difference is for identifying time
difference between two cells.
● The CFN-SFN observed time difference is for handover timing
purposes to identify active cell and neighbor cell time
difference.

The UE RX-TX time difference is used for RL set up purposes to compensate propagation delay of DL and UL in order to get TPC commands on DL with the right timing for the UL power control.

1.2

Higher-layer measurements

1.2.1 Transport channels

Downlink BLER

The Transport Channel block error rate (BLER) is based on evaluating the CRC of each transport block associated with the measured transport channel after RL combination (performed by the Rake receiver). It is computed as the ratio between the number of received transport blocks resulting in a CRC error and the number of received transport blocks over the measurement period.

Transport channel BLER value shall be calculated from a time window with following size: ►
Transport channel BLER value shall be calculated from a time window
with following size:
► if periodical reporting mode is specified by the UTRAN, the size
should be equal to the IE Reporting interval in mentioned SIB11 or
12 (see 3GPP TS 25.331)
► otherwise, this is an internal measurement at the UE side and the
window size is freely designed
The Transport channel BLER reporting range is from 0 to 1.
The BLER Quality value is a target indicated by the UTRAN at the
RRC CONNECTION SETUP and at the RADIO BEARER SETUP for
the initiated service. Therefore, the follow-up of the BLER helps
assessing whether the UE is performing according to the quality
requirements or not.
If the BLER is lower than the targeted Quality value, the QoS
offered by the UTRAN is sufficient, as far as the data integrity is
concerned.

If the BLER is higher than the targeted Quality value, the radio interface is not able to satisfy the required QoS. This could be due to:

Shortage of power to be dedicated to the UE on DL

Power limitations due to radio parameter settings

Power limitations due to high traffic on DL

High interference level on DL

Poor performances of the DL outer-loop power control

Logically, the Transport channel BLER and the SIR are bound through the DL outer-loop power control, which is a mobile-proprietary algorithm.

Poor performances could be following:

Bad or slow convergence

RLC statistics

Three RLC modes are available for Radio Bearers: Transparent, Unacknowledged and Acknowledged.

For all RLC modes, statistics can be done on traffic volume and data rate.

In the RLC Acknowledged Mode, several algorithms manage packet retransmission, mainly:

● Transmission and reception windows ● Polling and Status signaling In the RLC Acknowledged Mode,
● Transmission and reception windows
● Polling and Status signaling
In the RLC Acknowledged Mode, following measurements can be done:
● Transmitted but not acknowledged PDU (UL)
● Retransmitted PDU (UL)
● Received erroneous PDU (DL)
● Window follow-up (UL and DL)
1.2.2 User-data measurements
TCP statistics
Mostly used assessments are the FTP throughput and the PING round-
trip time.

1.3

Load

We are not dealing with stress of network elements to determine critical load in terms of processing capacity. Radio load consists only in interference on radio interface. Therefore, no signaling or data processing is generated. Radio load is critical for W-CDMA systems.

1.3.1 Uplink radio load

The main concern on uplink is to figure out the increase of the interference level due to the traffic available on the cell. The interference level can be expressed as the noise rise in dB and depends on the cell load in % of the pole capacity.

Cell load, X UL , is in term of % of pole capacity and impacts
Cell load, X UL , is in term of % of pole capacity and impacts the noise
rise as follows:
NoiseRise = -10log (1- X UL )
Following reference values can be used:
Cell load
Noise Rise
50%
3dB
75%
6dB
Noise rise as a function of the Cell load 45 40 No 35 ise Ris
Noise rise as a function of the Cell load
45
40
No
35
ise
Ris
30
e
25
in
dB
20
15
10
5
0
0.00%
20.00%
40.00%
60.00%
80.00%
100.00%
Cell Load

1.3.2

Downlink radio load

The limiting factor on downlink will be the maximum TX power for the Node B. Therefore, the power usage on DL is expressed as the percentage of the maximum TX power for the cell.

Other mobiles traffic Trace mobile OD settings dBm dB related Activity factor to CPICH (%
Other mobiles
traffic
Trace mobile
OD settings
dBm
dB related
Activity factor
to CPICH
(% time)
CPICH
33,0
1
P-SCH
28,0
-5
0,05
S-SCH
28,0
-5
0,05
PCCPCH (BCH)
31,0
-2
0,9
SCCPCH (FACH, PCH)
31,0
-2
1
AICH
24,0
-9
1
PICH
28,0
-5
1
Total power (common channels)
37,3
MAX cell power
(total power for 60% cell load)
(OCNS = 60%cell load - CCH)
43,0
40,8
38,2

Maximum output power

Others traffic

Trace Mobile

 

dBm

Total cell power

MAX DL power for AMR

31,0 37,0 39,0
31,0
37,0
39,0

41,2

MAX DL power for CS64

42,3

MAX DL power for PS128

43,0

2

Radio optimization based on drive tests

2 Radio optimization based on drive tests The analysis of drive test measurements allows the detection

The analysis of drive test measurements allows the detection and eventually the localization of radio problems over the coverage area. Generally, radio problems are sorted into:

Coverage issues

Mobility-management issues

Best-server issues

Interference issues

In this section, we are analyzing following aspects: ■ Call set-up failure ■ Call drop
In this section, we are analyzing following aspects:
Call set-up failure
Call drop
Higher-layer performances

2.1

Call set-up failure

Here, we only consider call set-up failures that are due to the radio. Following call set-up failures are not considered:

Invalid USIM

Unavailability of the network (CN, UTRAN, transport)

Investigations on call set-up problems should go through the following list:

Coverage problem

● Admission Control problem ● Interference problem ● Active Set Management problem Following questions should
● Admission Control problem
● Interference problem
● Active Set Management problem
Following questions should drive the investigations:
► Are the CPICH measurements for the selected cell at normal values
with regard to the path loss?
► What is the load status of this cell at the Call set-up?
► At which stage of the call set-up did the procedure fail?
UE
RNC
RRC connection request
DCCH Radio Link set-up
Initiate AAL2 Iub data
connection for DCCH
RRC connection setup
RRC connection setup complete
Initial
NAS message transfer
Authentication Procedure
Security mode command
RAB assignment request
Synchronised Radio Link reconfiguration
Initiate AAL2 Iub data
connection for DTCH
Iu UP initialisation
RB setup request
RB setup complete
RAB Assignment Response

Uu

Iub

Iu

2.1.1

Coverage problem

Call set-up may fail because of Coverage limitation when:

The RACH message can not be sent: the RRC CONNECTION REQUEST can not be addressed (UL, PRACH power settings)

The UE can not serve the power required after the UL Open-Loop Power Control

The UE does not receive the Paging message for MTC (DL, PICH and S-CCPCH power settings)

In case of repeated errors, further investigations must be driven, respectively on:

► RRC CONNECTION REQUEST sending can be checked at the mobile side ► Path loss
► RRC CONNECTION REQUEST sending can be checked at the
mobile side
► Path loss on DL can be assessed based on scanner or mobile
measurements (CPICH RSCP). This should be done on the UE-
selected cell. Then, the UL Open-loop power result can be checked.
► Reception of PAGING notification can be checked at the mobile
side
► UL and DL MAPL for call set-up
In case of errors repeated over an area, further investigations must be
driven, especially on:
● Feeder installation for RX diversity for UL limitation
● Feeder losses
● Antenna azimuth
● PRACH , PICH, S-CCPCH power setting
● RACH parameters
UL MAPL for call set-up

When establishing the DPCCH, the proprietary SRNC calculation for initial DPCCH power will require from the UE a given power level for the DL DPCCH, which should be lower than the maximum Tx power of the UE power class.

DPCCH_Initial_power = (CPICH_TX_power - CPICH_RSCP) + (UL_SIR_target – 10log(UL_SF=256)) – 97

AND

DPCCH_Initial_power < UE_Max_Tx_Power

Following default values are given as indications for R2:

UL_SIR_target

UL_SF

UE_MaxTxPower

CPICH_TX_power

(on a per-service basis, DCCH: 2dB)

(on a per-service basis, DCCH: 256)

(on a per-mobile basis: 24dBm)

(on a per-cell basis: 33dBm)

DL MAPL for call set-up

When establishing the DL DPCCH, the proprietary SRNC calculation for initial DPCCH power will require from the Node B a given power level for the DL DPCCH, which should be lower than the maximum allowed Tx power on DPCCH.

DL_SIRTarget m 1 DPCCH _ initial _ power = ⋅ ⋅ Pt ⋅ 0.4 10
DL_SIRTarget
m 1
DPCCH
_
initial
_
power =
Pt
0.4 10
CPICH i
,
CPICH_Ec Io
SF
m,i
m
AND
DPCCH_Initial_power < MaximumDLpower+CPICH_Tx_power
Following default values are given as indications for R2:
● UE_MaxTxPower
(on a per-mobile basis:24dBm)
● DL_SIR_target
(on a per-service basis,DCCH:5dB)
● DL_SF
(on a per-service basis,DCCH:256)
● Margin
(on a per-service basis,0dB)
● MaxDLpower
(on a per-service basis,DCCH:-2dB)
2.1.2 Admission Control problem
Call set-up may fail because of Admission Control limitation when:
► DL radio resources are overloaded
(RAC issue)

Margin /10

UL radio resources are overloaded

Node B processing resources are overloaded

Transport resources are overloaded (CAC issue - tbc)

RNC resources are overloaded

(RAC issue)

(RAC issue)

(CAC issue - tbc)

RAC issue can be assessed by monitoring NBAP messages for RADIO LINK SETUP FAILURE with the associated cause.

UL and DL radio overload can be due to:

High cell load due to user traffic for UL a/o DL

OCNS activation for DL

Interference problem for UL a/o DL

2.1.3 Interference problem

Interference problems may be due to:

Surrounding cells of the operating UTRAN

Other radio sources than the operating UTRAN

Call set-up failure may be due to Interference problem when the RAC rejects the call, while the effective cell load is not at maximum:

► The RTWP on UL in Node B measurements are high but with a small
► The RTWP on UL in Node B measurements are high but with a
small number of users, i.e. not only cell users are contributing to
the noise rise.
► The RSSI on DL is higher than the Transmitted Carrier Power on
DL
of the detected cells decreased by the Path Loss seen on CPICH
for
each detected cell.
Intra-network interference
Intra-network interference can be analyzed with the help of the scanner
on DL.
See Pilot pollution
See Missing adjacencies in the neighboring cell list
External interference
Specific investigations with a spectrum analyzer have to be performed
for interference coming from other radio sources than the operating
UTRAN.
This becomes a Spectrum Clearance issue.

Two kinds of problems may then be distinguished:

Interference that is due to out-of-band emissions from other transmitters. In this case, filters must be set at the interfering transmitter.

Interference that is due parasite transmitters that should not transmit in this band. In this case, parasite emissions must be stopped in the UMTS band.

2.1.4

Active Set Management

The mobile can not synchronize on the Radio Link due to high pollution

2.2 Call drop

Here, we only consider call drops that are due to the radio. Following call drops are not considered:

Mobile auto-reset, power-off, etc.

CN-generated reasons (to be analyzed in RANAP IU RELEASE)

► Failure in transport network Possible reasons for radio call-drop are: ► Coverage problem ►
► Failure in transport network
Possible reasons for radio call-drop are:
► Coverage problem
► Interference problem
► Active Set Management problem
► RLC unrecoverable error
► RL failure
Following questions should drive the investigations:
► Are the CPICH measurements for the Active Cells and the UE TX
power at normal values with regard to the path loss seen on the
cells?
► What are the last messages that the UE sent or received? (CELL
UPDATE, MEASUREMENT REPORT, ACTIVE SET UPDATE)
► What are the last BLER measurements from the UE?
2.2.1 Coverage problem
Call drop may be due to Coverage limitation when:

The UE TX power reached the maximum value at the end of the call (UL limitation)

The UE SIR or the UE Rx power or the UE BLER on DL did not reach its target value at the end of the call (DL limitation)

See Call set-up failure, Coverage problem

On unloaded networks

On unloaded networks, coverage problem on UL a/o DL reveals RNP defects a/o tradeoffs (propagation model, database accuracy, calibration settings, etc.) or errors in RNP implementation.

Path loss on DL can be assessed based on scanner measurements (CPICH RSCP). This should be done on the cells of the Active Set only.

In case of errors repeated over an area, further investigations must be driven, especially on:

Feeder installation for RX diversity for UL limitation

● Feeder losses ● Antenna azimuth ● CPICH power setting On radio-loaded networks On loaded
Feeder losses
Antenna azimuth
CPICH power setting
On radio-loaded networks
On loaded networks, coverage problems may be linked to radio
limitations on DL. Indeed, the cell may not be able to serve the power
required by the Radio Link if the cell is already emitting at full power.
Cell TX power can be assessed based on Node B measurements on DL
Transmitted carrier power.
Drop Calls examples with explanation
As all sites are co-channel, if the RF is present, it will be used (for better
or worse). Therefore, it is imperative that each sector is carefully RF
controlled. Ideally each serves its intended area but not beyond.
Controlling and managing the RF environment is central to
optimization.
Problem
Maps
Solution
COVERAGE: Best
server CPICH RSCP
below required level
-
Best RSCP Scanner/Mobile
Tx Power Mobile (note that high mobile
power can mean either coverage or
interference problem)
-
- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io
Check antennas and feeders are OK, with nothing obscuring
view of antenna, like block building, rooftop effect or any
radiating object nearby the antenna pattern radiation,
consider reducing the antenna down-tilt to improve
coverage. As a last resort, increase pilot power.
QUALITY: Best
CPICH Ec/Io below
required level
- Best CPICH Ec/Io Scanner/Mobile
- RSSI CPICH from Scanner
- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io
If Ec/Io lower than -9 db (network without load), the best-
server RSCP is at expected levels, and the RSSI is high, need
to reduce Interference from other cells.
Scanner/Mobile
- Best RSCP 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , (…) Scanner
- Tx Power Mobile
Check Best RSCP 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , (…) in order to decide
which cells to remove from the interference area.
Can the azimuth of other cells be changed to reduce number

of servers in that area? Can neighbouring cells be down- tilted? Avoid facing sectors shooting against each other.

QUALITY/CAPACI TY: Active set too large, Soft handovers area too high and too many handovers along routes

- Number of link in the AS Mobile

- Number of link in the AS simulated Scanner

- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io

Scanner/Mobile

- Number of link in the AS Excel Graph

(desired values for Urban environments

will be 10 to 20% of soft HO areas)

(Generally this will correspond also to areas with low Ec/Io, but not always). Check that the cell best server areas are confined, not excessive, but big enough to guarantee a small overlap between cells in order to allow the soft handover.

Can the azimuth of neighbouring cells be changed? Balance coverage levels with other cells using down-tilts?

Optimizing capacity will be important when traffic grows. AS < 4 pilots, for 5dB window (ReportingRange) relative to the best Ec/Io should be used to calculate the number of cell in the active set.

- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner - Best RSCP SC Scanner - Best SC
- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner
- Best RSCP SC Scanner
- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner
- Best RSCP SC Scanner
- Number of link in the AS Mobile
- Number of link in the AS simulated
Scanner
- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner
If the correct cell is not used in soft
handovers, the Ec/No and BLER will
degrade and Ue_Tx_Power will increase
in Mobile Plots.
Tuning neighbour lists is a major aspect of optimisation.
Check ACTIX options to find quickly missing neighbour
cells between Mobile and Scanner measurements.
Check correct values for parameters:
Compare also:
ReportingRangeEvent1A_1B_1C and
- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Scanner
HysteresisEvent1A_1B_1C.

Check azimuths between co-site cells: where possible maintain the azimuth between cells to 100-120 o for 3 sectors site. Check antennas have unobstructed views, including at roof edges to minimise scatter.

- Best SC regarding CPICH Ec/Io Mobile

Based on IS-95 experience, the best performing networks are those that are designed for three-way hand-off or less.

Typical of high sites. Ensure electrical down-tilt is sufficient. Increase combined down-tilt, but not below 10 to 12 o (depending on antenna type). Be aware that once off the main lobe of the antenna, increasing tilting will be unlikely to reduce interference, hence consider maintaining tilt to cover desired area.

Can antennas be lowered? As a last resort, reduce pilot power; however be aware that this will also reduce in- building coverage of the cell: hence reduce power just sufficiently to keep the cell out of active sets or raise Ec/No values.

Site with coverage far beyond desired area

Cell appears in neighbour list of cells beyond the area desired

CAPACITY: Cells from the same site appear at similar coverage levels

Call Performance:

Neighbour Lists

Check Active Set Management problems, mainly: The UE is sending repetitive MEASUREMENT REPORT without getting an ACTIVE SET UPDATE; The UE can not manage as many radio links as present in the Active Set (e.g. in case of Rake limitations)-PILOT POLLUTION.

Call Performance:

For AMR, any areas where the voice quality degrades or the call drops happen should be noted and analysed.

Check BLER Exit Criteria’s:

Voice/PS performance

- Voice AMR 12.2: BLER<2%

- PS 64/384: DL- BLER<2% and Throughput>345 kb/s UL- BLER<2% and Throughput>57 kb/s

For PS, it should note areas where the throughput of the application reduces and identify any parameter or RF related issues that may be causing this.

Check Call Drops Reasons and related parameters. For radio optimization solutions please refer to Quality problems.

Analyse also:

- BLER Mobile

- BLER Statistics

2.2.2 Interference problem Call drop may be due to Interference problem when: ● The UE
2.2.2 Interference problem
Call drop may be due to Interference problem when:
● The UE TX power reached the maximum value at the end of
the call (UL limitation) but the path loss should allow the
service coverage
● The UE SIR or the UE Rx power or the UE BLER on DL did
not reach its target value at the end of the call (DL limitation)
but the path loss should allow the service coverage
See Call set-up failure, Interference problem
2.2.3 Active Set Management problem
Call drop may be due to Active Set Management problem when:
► The UE is polluted by cells that could enter the Active Set but that
are not monitored
► The UE is sending repetitive MEASUREMENT REPORT without
getting an ACTIVE SET UPDATE

The UE is adding a cell to the Active Set that is too low (e.g. in case of radio resurgence)

The UE can not manage as many radio links as present in the Active Set (e.g. in case of Rake limitations)

The UE has lost the synchronization between UL and DL (event 6f, 6g on UE RX-TX time difference)

In case of repeated errors, further investigations must be driven, respectively on:

Pilot pollution and Missing adjacencies in the neighboring cell list

Reason for the non-reception of ACTIVE SET UPDATE from the RNC

MEASUREMENT REPORT are not received at the RNC

ACTIVE SET UPDATE are not received at the UE

Maximum numbers of RL a/o Node B in AS are reached

RAC on target cell rejects the RL establishment

Time-to-trigger and Hysteresis, Antenna tilt to cancel resurgence

UE radio capabilities and maximum AS size

Missing adjacencies in a cell neighborhood The UE is evaluating the radio quality of neighboring
Missing adjacencies in a cell neighborhood
The UE is evaluating the radio quality of neighboring cells to detect
potential cells to add to the Active Set. The UE does not report
measurements on other cells that may be detectable but only on the list
of neighboring cells signaled by the S-RNC.
The list of neighboring cells is compiled at the S-RNC and transmitted
to the UE in RRC MEASUREMENT CONTROL messages. The
compilation of this list is proprietary. It mainly consists in assembling
the different sets of neighboring-cell lists for all the cells of the Active
Set.
The operator parameterizes the neighboring-cell list for each cell. The
first computed list is inherited from the RNP, which runs proprietary
algorithms to list neighboring cells. These lists may be not optimized
due to used algorithms or due to inappropriate methods for
neighborhood follow-up in deployment/densification phases.
Drive tests may help detecting missing adjacencies on a live network.
► Criteria for Event 1A
10Log(M New ) ≥ Wx10Log(M Best )+(1-W)x10Log(∑M I ) -(R 1a +H 1a )

M New : measurement on the cell entering the reporting range M i : measurement on a cell in the active set N A : number of cells in the current active set M Best : measurement result of the strongest cell in the active set R 1a : reporting range for the event 1a H 1a : hysteresis parameter for the event 1a

Criteria for Event 1B

10Log(M Old ) Wx10Log(M Best )+(1-W)x10Log(M I )-(R 1b +H 1b )

M Old : measurement on the cell leaving the reporting range M i : measurement on a cell in the active set

N A : number of cells in the current active set M Best : measurement result of the strongest cell in the active set R 1b : reporting range for the event 1b H 1b : hysteresis parameter for the event 1b

Criteria for Event 1C

10Log(M New ) 10Log(M I ) + H 1c

M New : measurement on the cell leaving the reporting range M i : measurement on a cell in the active set H 1c : hysteresis parameter for the event 1c

Pilot pollution Soft handover is working well, when: ● Radio links have a non-negligible life
Pilot pollution
Soft handover is working well, when:
● Radio links have a non-negligible life time and no Ping-Pong
overloads the signaling,
● Radio links can be recombined in an effective manner at the
Rake receiver.
A polluter transmitter is a transmitter that checks all criteria to enter in
active-set but which is not admitted due to the active-set limit size.
One can distinguish different levels of criticality for pilot pollution:
● A non-potential candidate cell for soft handover
● A potential candidate cell for soft handover but with poor
performance
● A potential candidate cell for soft handover but not declared in
the neighboring cell list
To limit pilot pollution, further investigations must be driven, especially
on:
● Antenna azimuth and tilt

CPICH power setting

Cell maximum TX power

Neighboring-cell list and Monitored Set

2.2.4 RLC problem

The Radio Link Control protocol can engender call drops, when errors

in this protocol can not be recovered. Errors do only concern the

Acknowledged Mode. In an error case, the UE drops the call and sends

a RRC CELL UPDATE message on the RACH with the cause “RLC unrecoverable error”.

Possible deadlocks in RLC AM are:

Not acknowledged PDU in the Sending Window (UL)

Not received error-free PDU in the Receiving Window (DL)

Not received Status

Not received Polling result

2.2.5 RL problem

The Radio Link maintenance can engender call drops, when unrecoverable RL failures occur. In a
The Radio Link maintenance can engender call drops, when
unrecoverable RL failures occur. In a failure case on DL, the UE drops
the call and sends a RRC CELL UPDATE message on the RACH with
the cause “RL failure”.
RL failures are described in 3GPP TS25.331. They consist in L1
synchronization loss. In CELL_DCH State, after receiving N313
consecutive "out of sync" indications from L1 for the established
DPCCH physical channel, the UE starts T313. If N315 successive "in
sync" indications from L1 are received before T313 expiry, the RL
failure is recovered and T313 is stopped. Otherwise, this is a RL failure.
L1 reports "out of sync" if one of these criteria is fulfilled:
► The UE estimates the DPCCH quality over the previous 160ms
period to be worse than a threshold Q out
► The 20 most recently received transport blocks with a non-zero
length CRC have been received with incorrect CRC. In addition,
over the previous 160ms, all transport blocks with a non-zero
length CRC have been received with incorrect CRC.
2.3 Higher-layer performances on User plane

The offered end-user QoS should also be monitored upon drive-tests. However, one should separate Application Optimization from Radio Optimization. Indeed, the assessment of the QoS offered by the UTRAN should only restrict to QoS that the UTRAN can actually offer, this mean RAB QoS.

Optimization of end-user QoS should be driven next and if the subjective end-user QoS is not sufficient, following changes could apply:

Modify the Application settings for a better use of the RAB

If it not sufficient, higher the RAB QoS requirements. This will trigger further Radio Optimization with the new RAB implementation

The RAB QoS is described in 3GPP TS23.107 with following attributes:

Maximum bit-rate (kbps)

Guaranteed bit-rate (kbps)

SDU error ratio a/o Residual bit error ratio

Delivery order (y/n)

► Delivery of erroneous SDU (y/n/-) ► Transfer delay (ms) ► Traffic handling priority ►
► Delivery of erroneous SDU (y/n/-)
► Transfer delay (ms)
► Traffic handling priority
► Allocation/Retention Priority
Following attributes are taken into account for the choice of the Radio
Bearer:
► Maximum bit-rate for PS and Guaranteed bit-rate for CS
► SDU error ratio a/o Residual bit error ratio for RB BLER for CS
► RLC mode is Transparent for CS and Acknowledged for PS (in-
order delivery, max SDU size, delivery of erroneous SDU)
Therefore, the monitoring of the QoS offered by the UTRAN relies on:
► Offered bit-rate
► Transport Channel BLER
► Performances for RLC AM (Acknowledged Mode)
2.3.1 Offered bit-rate

Maximum SDU size (octets)

For CS services, the offered bit-rate can only be the requested one. The bit-rate is guaranteed.

For PS services, the UTRAN can apply service downgrade, if the RAC can not admit the requested bit-rate. The downgrade is then reconsider at each Cell-FACHCell-DCH transition. Once a bit-rate is attributed, a channel with the corresponding bandwidth is allocated over the radio interface.

2.3.2

Transport Channel BLER

For CS services, the Transport Channel BLER is the Frame Error Rate for the service, since no retransmission is allowed.

For PS services, the Transport Channel BLER is a tradeoff between the effort in terms of bandwidth to support retransmission and the effort in terms of radio to limit errors.

2.3.3 Performances for RLC AM

For PS services, the RLC performances in terms of retransmission rate and delay impact the higher-layer QoS.

2.4 Higher-layer performances on Control plane For the proper working of the Telecom procedures, minimal
2.4
Higher-layer performances on Control plane
For the proper working of the Telecom procedures, minimal
performances on Control plane are required, especially in terms of
delay. But, the delay introduced for the Telecom procedures definitely
impacts the end-user perception of the network quality, especially at the
Call set-up.
Performances in terms of delay on the Control Plane depend on:
► The buffering and the processing times in the nodes
► The quality offered by the Transport Network
► The quality offered by the Radio Links for signaling
This is on this last item that the Radio Optimization can bring
improvement. The quality offered by the Radio Links can be mainly
monitored through:
Access to common channels
Offered bit-rate
Transport Channel BLER

Performances for RLC AM (Acknowledged Mode)

Radio optimization is done in the same way as for traffic channels.

End-user assessment will rely on Procedure times, such as:

Attach time

Paging time

Call set-up time (MOC, MTC, MTM)

Time for PDP context establishment

Other Procedure Times, such as the time for SHO completion, may only impact call set-up failure rate and call drop rate from an end-user point of view.

Other Procedure Times, such as the Detach time, may only impact the network performances from an operator point of view.

Events for the definition of the time interval are often specific for each operator and related to commitments.

specific for each operator and related to commitments. Drivetel – Serviços e Projectos de Telecomunicações Lda
Title: Date: Page Number:

Title:

Date:

Page Number:

Drive Test Analysis

05/07/2006

29/30

Created by:

Approved by:

Doc Ref.:

Alexandre Silva

UMTS-RN0-0005

Abbreviations

AM

AS

Acknowledged Mode Active Set Block Error Rate Connection Admission Control Connection Frame Number Core Network Common Pilot Channel Cyclic Redundancy Check Downlink Dedicated Physical Control Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel File Transfer Protocol Handover Maximum Allowable Path Loss Mobile Originating Call Mobile Terminating Call Mobile To Mobile Node B Node B Application Protocol Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulation Protocol Data Unit Primary Scrambling Code Quality of Service Radio Access Bearer Radio Admission Control RAN Application Protocol Radio Link Control Radio Network Planning Radio Resource Control Received Signal Code Power Received Signal Strength Indicator Received Total Wide-band Power Synchronization Channel (Primary: P-SCH, Secondary: S-SCH) Sequence Frame Number Signal to Interference Ratio Serving RNC Transmit Power Command Transmitted

BLER CAC CFN CN CPICH CRC DL DPCCH DPDCH FTP HO MAPL MOC MTC MTM
BLER
CAC
CFN
CN
CPICH
CRC
DL
DPCCH
DPDCH
FTP
HO
MAPL
MOC
MTC
MTM
NB
NBAP
OCNS
PDU
PSC
QoS
RAB
RAC
RANAP
RLC
RNP
RRC
RSCP
RSSI
RTWP
SCH
SFN
SIR
SRNC
TPC
TX

UE

UL

UTRA

User Equipment

Uplink

UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

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