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Design of Machine Elements I

Prof. B. Maiti
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology – Kharagpur

Lecture – 10
Design for Strength

Good day. Today, we continue the lecture on design for strength and this we are going for the
lecture 10. Now, in our earlier lecture we have discussed about various failure theories for
design and those theories were based on the design for static loading. Now, one thing is there
when we come, when we did some example problems you have seen the condition of the
stress at a point was equated with what?
(Refer Slide Time: 02:13)

It was equated with the material property mainly yield point stress for ductile material and the
ultimate strength point stress for the brittle material. Now, actually in the design we normally
do not take into account the full strength of the material that means the expression should not
have been equated with the full strength like the sigma yield point or sigma UT respectively.
What we do is that we consider one factor, what you can see as written over here.

The allowable stresses or the factor of safety, now this factor of safety one should use in the
design and those factor of safety are basically based on to the yield strength and ultimate
strength of a material. Now, you have; by now already know that how material is being tested
say for a tension test in a universal testing machine, now this universal testing machines are
used for testing of the materials and where we get a yield strength of the material.
The ultimate strength of the material and the ultimate fracture point, just to have a very quick
recapitulation, just you remember that we had; if we consider a tension test that this is a strain
direction and this is a stress direction which we define as load acted upon by the cross
sectional area of the specimen. Now, here we call normally as you know that the stress is an
engineering stress okay.

Because we do not take into account the continuous reduction and area which takes place
while a simple tension test is being held. Now, if we plot the sets of data for the strain and
corresponding stresses, then we get a curve something like this. Now, in this case normally,
this is being called as the yield point whereas the proportional limit is little ahead and this is a
yield point from where the plastic flow begins.

And then we are having an ultimate stress point and we are having a somewhat a fracture
point. Normally, in the fracture point to be little ever maybe somewhere around here, this is a
schematic representation, so this represents your sigma UT, sigma y and this is the zone
where it is coming out to be the fracture. Now, in some materials like structural steel of mild
steel, it might be have seen in the experiment or in the figures in the book that you get a
situation like this, where you are having an upper yield point and a lower yield point.

But this behaviour is not common for all materials. Now, in this case the general trend of this
type of stress strain curve as you know is something like this and also you know that just to
get this yield point where there is no definite yield point is available, what we do? We draw a
line; we draw a line somewhat, will consider this line to be parallel; somewhat a parallel line
to this one to intersect at this point and this is what we call as an offset.

What is this offset? That this is basically something around 0.2 to 0.5% strength of the; based
on gauge length. So, this value can be also around 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, even it goes up to
around 1%. So, depending upon the suitability, people can take this type of offset method to
find out this yield point in the cases, where you do not have any definite yield point.
(Refer Slide Time: 08:28)
So, I do not go further on this one, the stress strain diagram for a material testing because
already we have; we know that how it is being done and I think that you must have carried
out such experiments in your earlier courses. Now, what was the idea is that we can find out
that yield strength and ultimate strength by such experiments. Now, when we have done this
type of experiments, then what we get is that for design purpose, an allowable stress is used
in place of the ultimate strength or the yield strength.

That what we have; I was talking at the very beginning of the day that means that earlier we
have used always the ultimate strength and the yield strength to be the criteria of the failure,
when we have been using some failure theories. Now, here we decide an allowable stress,
now this allowable stress obviously is lower than this ultimate strength or the yield strength
in design. Why it is being taken?

It takes into account the uncertainties what has been listed over here, some of the salient
points have been listed, the uncertainty loading in homogeneity of materials that you
understand that all materials are not homogeneous materials, there could be defects in the
materials and the load; the first point on uncertainty loading means, we understand that
always a constant load what we think is being applied may not be there.

And there could be some increase or decrease in the load, decrease of the load from the
design one does not matter but increase of the load from the design value do matter. Now,
various material behaviours that is the corrosion, plastic flow, creep, we have already taken
into account of these ideas particularly, creep we have discussed earlier there is a temperature
with a continuous high temperature phenomena.

And the corrosion as you know; we have already know this idea, the plastic flow which also
takes place in the material that all these things material behaviours are can be considered as
uncertainties. Now, residual stresses due to manufacturing process particularly in this residual
stresses although people do relieve the residual stresses in the machine components by proper
metallurgical processes like annealing or tempering etc.
(Refer Slide Time: 11:09)

But the still some residual stresses might occur. Fluctuating load situation will be also taking
up in details and for the safety and reliability of the product, this allowable stress is used
instead of the ultimate strength and or the yield strength. Now, how we define the allowable
stress? This allowable stress as I have told you just now, that allowable stress is set
considerably lower than the ultimate strength or the yield strength.

So, we define FS which designates for the factor of safety is defined as a ultimate or yield
strength divided by the allowable stress. Now, normally in the design, if we are considering a
material which are brittle in nature or it is better that people take up the ultimate strength of
the material, whereas in structural steels like in mild steels, for example the people take yield
strength as one of the criteria for defining the factor of safety.

Now, this goes the definition of the factor of safety, so obviously allowable stress becomes
what, this ultimate strength and the factor of safety. So, what we are basically doing? We are
doing that this yield strength or ultimate strength is reduced by a factor of safety, so that value
is actually what we call at the allowable stress. Now, again one thing is that the above ratio
must always be greater than unity that is all always understood that.

Otherwise, you would not be get any reduction in the value of the allowable stresses. Then
our question might arise that what should be the values of the factor of safety? It really
depends from the design to design, a process where a mechanical process for which you are
designing a machine component, if you are very confident of all the forces that might come
onto the machine member that means the number of uncertainties that we have just described
in the last slide is easy within your grip then you might use a factor of safety lower value.

But in cases, where really not a good amount of knowledge is present then to be a safer
design, one should take up a factor of safety on a higher side. Suppose, our case like a
welding etc, takes a quite a good amount of factor of safety whereas a simple structural
designs for the static load etc, it takes a design factor of 1.5 or 2 like that, so really this factor
of safety depends upon the type of design you are interested for.
(Refer Slide Time: 14:27)

Now, once we know this particular factor of safety, then we go to another idea that is called
the stress concentration factor. What is a stress concentration factor? I think by now looking
at the figure, you might have understood something. Now, the idea is that what we did in all
our calculations for the determination of sizes while using the failure theories for the static
loading, you must be remembering that the problem what we have chosen in the class were
simple circular members.
And it was acted upon by a simple load, I mean it was acted upon by torsional load, axial
load, bending load, loading is not a problem, it could be anything but only thing within the
within the zone, where we have taken the stress calculations, there were no changes in the
dimension, it was a straight round bar. It could have been a straight rectangular bar; it could
have been something like what I have just told you.

Now, this type of stress concentration comes into picture when; whenever you are having
some sort of irregularities as has been prescribed over here. This type of irregularities means
you can concede that we are having a hole over here. Now, once you are having a hole, then
the entire situation changes that means, you have considered the stress here away from the
hole to be uniform, what we mean by uniform?

That means the entire load well as because I have taken and segment, you can understand that
this load; the looking at this particular stress distribution this member; this machine member
was actually under a tensile load. So, when there are no discontinuities like an hole or notches
or any fillet like that, then what you are having? You can have a stress simply p divided by a
equals to the nominal stress or the average stress which is uniform.

But whenever you come across a hole like this as an example, what has been shown in this
figure, you get a stress distribution like this, you can see near the hole the stresses has gone
up to a great a great extent and this what we are calling over here as an sigma max. So, the
idea of always computing the stress as an uniform in tension or something else in bending
torsion is little dangerous, whenever there is some sort of irregularities in the geometry.

So, that is what we call as an stress concentration factor where you would constitute like now,
this is a stress concentration which as if the stresses are concentrated over this zone. Actually,
this situation is something like that if we draw some stress trajectories it will be something
like going over here then it changes is path, okay, something like this also similar situation,
something like this, which is something synonymous to flow past a cylinder when you have
been reading your fluid mechanics courses.

You know, this is some sort of a streamline, if we compare with a fluid mechanics situation,
so you can see the number of stress lines, if it again, stress lines going through this section;
this width of the section then obviously the same number of stress line is going past a zone
where it is compressed. So, that gives you rise to some sort of stress intensities what has been
defined as a sigma x in this situation.
(Refer Slide Time: 19:28)

So, this situation takes into account in the design by a factor called stress concentration
factor. Now, here we give a definition of a theoretical stress concentration factor Kt or Kts.
Well, let me tell you that what does it mean? This theoretical stress concentration factor Kt or
kts; Kt is what based on the normal stresses and Kts is used where you get a shear process a
situation say a torsion so, where you use a Kts.

Now, this is used to relate the actual maximum stress at the discontinuity to the nominal
stress, so we define a Kt = sigma max/ sigma 0 and Kts in the similar manner, we define as an
tau max/tau 0, where sigma 0 and tau 0 are the stresses which we define as a nominal stress.
Now, one thing is interesting that this type of stress concentration factors can be determined
by just considering the geometrical aspects of the specimen.
(Refer Slide Time: 22:03)
And thereby this factor as it has been called as by the word theoretical stress concentration
factor, so it has got no link with the material property; material property that means it is
independent of the material used in the design. So, this particular values of the Kt or Kts as
defined in the; for the shear can be obtain geometrically. As for an example, we just show one
typical curve.

So, you can see that this is a flat part having an reduction of diameter from capital T to small
T. Now, these are actually called; this curve small amount of curvature is called the fillet and
this fillet radius is given as R. The arrow mark shows a typical loading condition and this
loading condition is a tensile load. Now, it is not all; for this particular situation of the flat bar
under tension having these geometrical irregularities at this situation, you can have the value
of the Kt with respect to r/ D ratio.

And for a given ratio of D/D, you get a series of curves like that, where knowing the r/D
ratio, you can say for this point 1, 2, you get a value over here, for a D/D 1.2 and you can get
the value of the Kt. So, obviously this curve can be used for aluminium, this curve can be
used for cast iron, this curve can be used for mild steel because it is independent of the
material property.
(Refer Slide Time: 23:46)
Now, in this case I would like to just tell you something about this particular fillet. What is
the idea is that whenever you understand a machine member is there without any change of
cross section then what we know that there is no stress concentration factor to be used in the
design because there is no irregularity in the geometry. However, if the irregular to the
geometry is there, as we have just discussed then what will happen?
(Refer Slide Time: 24:58)

That, you have to consider the situations of stress concentration factor. Now, if I make a
design like this acted upon by say any load P; tensile, so if you consider this tensile load, then
what will happen? There is a geometrical irregularity and will be having a discontinuity in the
stress lines and you have to utilize the stress concentration factor. Now, once I have given this
load P over here, one thing reminds me that just I go back to the earlier one see I have just
shown you a typical figure for a load which is acted upon as a tensile load.
So, if instead of this tensile load, had it been a say; if would had been a compressive load, I
mean bending load, suppose then also we will be getting similar type of curves not exactly
the same curves, it is what I mean to say that you can same type of flat bar once you can use
bending moment you find out different type of K factors, use a normal load as because over
here a tensile load you have got these type of situations.

If we did in the torsional mode, you will get again a similar type of this stress concentration
plots of course, in that particular case, it would have not been Kt but you will be defining as
Kts. Any way or any standard design book will give you; a design data book will give you
such series of the curves from where you can estimate the values of the stress concentration
factor depending upon your need.
(Refer Slide Time: 26:31)

Now, what I was just showing you is that if we had a design like this, then we are having a
discontinuity and that calls for use of a stress concentration factor. Now, one thing you should
remember that such abrupt change of the cross section in the designs should be avoided,
instead one can think of a situation that is like the smooth transition from this one. This is
what we call as fillet.

Now, I think I need not explain you the smooth transition means from this higher dimension
to the lower dimension means that a stress lines are not abruptly changing but it takes a
smooth change, so thereby it reduces a stress concentration factor over here that you might
have seen the earlier results, that larger the fillet radius then, what you are getting? That you
are being getting the; this stress concentration values to be the lower.

Now, in this way if we consider the same specimen what we have shown you to explain the
stress concentration factor or the genesis of stress concentration factor, I take up the same
situation once again. There is a hole in the machine member, so you understand that there will
be a stress concentration. Now, a clever design could be like this, you put 2 small holes one
before the large hole, another after this large hole.

I need not explain, you understand that there will be no sharp change in the stress line but
there will be gradual change in the stress lines compared to what we had, if there would have
been only a big hole. To state further, sometimes you know, you have seen; I just draw one
side of the profile, say this is what is a bolt okay. So, what we consider that if we just ignore
this threaded portion, you have a change in dimension something like this, of course without
fillet.

Now, a better result could be obtained, if we consider a bolt which has got all through a
nominal diameter having a thread profile onto that one like this, so these are some examples I
am just trying to show you and give the idea of the stress concentration. There are numerous
such a design methodologies by which one can reduce the stress concentration by a clever
design. No matter, we will come across the stress concentration factors in design.
(Refer Slide Time: 30:44)
Because no machine member really exists without any geometrical irregularities in actual
practice, so we go back to this slide that is the theoretical stress concentration factor is
defined by this situation now, this one I think I have not mentioned that this sigma 0 and tau 0
is calculated based on to the net cross section, you understand net section means, leaving out
the hole, you get this value of the sigma 0.

Sometimes, people do on based on to the what? based on to the area where there was no hole,
that means based on to the gross area, people also compute sigma 0 and tau 0 that will be
much more conservative design I suppose; now, the 2 methods are applicable but net cross
section method is more popular. As I told you, this determination of the stress concentration
factor is purely a theoretical one.

So; and for that reason people can use the numerical techniques like finite element method
which is a very good powerful tool for finding out the stresses and several experimental
techniques are also available that is; as I have shown you here photo elasticity, brittle coating
method, this is a paint; a bit paint which is having a brittle characteristics and that shows the
yields whenever it is acted upon.
(Refer Slide Time: 32:38)

Because it cannot; it separates very quickly, you know the brittle material separates quickly
and then the yield takes place and electrical strain gauge methods. So, these are the certain
experimental techniques what we use for determination of the stress concentration factor and
the numerical technique, finite element method is also quite popular in this regard. Then
comes another phenomenon which is noted as notch sensitivity.
What is this notch sensitivity? You can see, it is written how sensitive a material is due to
presence of irregularities in a machine member. Actually, the theoretical stress concentration
factor for which we had a discussion right now, is totally applicable to all materials, means in
other words what we can say, how much intensity of the theoretical stress concentration has
gone inside the material, so that is called the notch sensitivity.

So, that means notch sensitivity somewhat gives you physically that is the material totally
sensitive to the notches present or it is insensitive to the notches present, so thereby again a
definition comes into picture, where sigma marks as usual is written as Kf * sigma 0 as you
can see in this equation. I need not define, what is sigma max at 0 but in this particular case
the Kf is what?

Kf is actually the reduced value of Kt that is what I was trying to tell you precisely that Kt
was a theoretical stress concentration factor, there was no consideration of the material in use,
now when we consider the Kf, then we call is the total Kt applicable to this typical material
or it is; or what is a situation? So, in this particular case this K notch sensitivity has come into
picture.

Now, this Kf; the notation Kf what has been given over here is also commonly known as
fatigue stress concentration factor. This fatigue stress concentration factor you will be seeing
later that we will be widely using for the cases where the materials or the machine
components will be acted upon by the variable load. Now, this notch sensitivity is expressed
by very commonly by a term small Q and is defined through this expression Kf = q Kt–1 and
the value of q normally lies between q and 1.

So, if you want an independent definition of this Kf, then what we can; what we can write
down Kf is something as an ratio is the maximum stress in a notched specimen is divided by
stress in a notch free specimen, so this is the definition of the Kf what we have been
discussing over here, but anyway, so this is coming out to be the Kf = 1+q*Kt–1, so what we
have been discussing, just come down to this one.

So, this equation Kf = 1+q*Kt-1 is the definition through which we define the notch
sensitivity q, so basically the notch sensitivity q is actually anchoring between the Kt and the
Kf and this q obviously is the best on to the specimen material of the machine component
material. Now, as far as an example, the value of q is very low around say 0.2 for cast iron
and it could be around 8.9 something like that for a standard steel a grossly, if I say and that
means if I can understand that q=0, it is totally insensitive.

And q = 1 means the total theoretical stress concentration factor is basically the Kf. So, how
you find out the value of KF? You can compute the value of Kt that you have seen that Kt can
be found out from the theoretical or experimental techniques, then a series of experimental
data or through graphs is available to find out the value of the q which is available in any
design data book.

And then, knowing that one can have an idea of the fatigue stress concentration factor or Kf.
So, obviously you can understand that Kf = Kt, if one concentrates on to this idea that Kf =
Kt, then what we get? That this is a very conservative design means a safe design okay and
once again the expressions for shear are similar, what these means? That the way we have
defined Kt and Kf.

Similarly, Kfs or Kts also can be defined which actually will be required for the design where
we consider the shear stresses. Now, we now; we talk something about the design for variable
load. In earlier lectures, we have taken some specific theories of failure for design of the
static load and now, let us consider, what are the situations one should consider while
designing for the variable load?
(Refer Slide Time: 40:30)
Now, first of all while designing for the variable load, one important property or important
situation is that material property under variable load. So, although we have seen the simple
tensile tests and we have discussed here in this lecture also about the simple tensile test in the
similar manner, one can study the material property under the variable load. Now, what is
that?

In this particular case, just like a tensile test specimen people do have the specimen for
variable load and this specimen are subjected to repeated or varying forces of specific
magnitude. Now, there will be as because I told you the variable load, then the variable
means there will be a cyclic pattern and we see that at number of cycles where the failure
takes place is recorded.

Now, in this particular situation we can give an example something like this that if you are
considering of; suppose, this pen is a simple wire and you are utilizing this wire for some
binding purpose in a field or somewhere, you do not have any plier to cut, then how do you
cut this material, this wire, why I am taking as an example? Do you pull it to cut it apart? No.
What you do? You just give a twist; continuous twist, so what is happening?

That if you are giving a twist like this then you can understand the fibres below this were
suppose is in the tension and fibres ever this one is under the compression, next instant you
twist in this way, it is a tension in these direction, compression in this direction, so this what I
am just trying to tell you that this is a cyclic loading continuously you are giving a twist and
then what is happening, that ultimately you will be getting in failure of this wire.

So, that you have might have experienced in your actual life; so that is the; that is what is
meant by the failures in variable load. So, from that you understand how severe the cyclic
loads onto a machine member whereas you could not put it apart into 2 pieces by simple
tension, you can do that easily just giving few cyclic loads on to that. So, that is the number
of cycles required for failure is recorded and above 2 steps are repeated for different force
magnitudes.
(Refer Slide Time: 43:59)
A very common type of situation is that here you can see a typical fatigue test specimen, now
this particular specimen what is being done is that you can make an experimental setup, I am
just showing you a schematic idea; schematic view of this one okay, now you understand this
specimen is mounted on pairs of bearings, so that by an external motor, you can give a
rotation and by some means, we apply a load Fi, say and so, corresponding to load Fi, we can
compute the stress sigma i.

And in the experiment what it is being done, that corresponding to this load Fi, the number of
cycles as we have just seen earlier slide that number of rotations required for the failure of the
material is recorded. Next, suppose, I was 1, next time you take another load say F2
corresponding stress will be sigma2 and failure cycles stress cycles where the failure takes
place is N2.

So, this way by changing the load on to this machine member or this fatigue test specimen,
you can have a set of data generated as a stress cycles and the amount of stress generated.
Now, one thing is that the word what is called is a fatigue; I think we have told about this
word fatigue so many times, so it is just like a human behaviour. Suppose, someone is asked
that from ground floor to top floor, say in a 3 storey building, you go up and come down in 2
minutes.

Then the amount of exertion you can imagine and if I say that the same steps to be climbed
and come down in 5 minutes, then obviously you; the stress requirement is much less. So,
that way after continuously working for the entire day, we say it is fatigue, so that is the same
thing and material just by continuously having and cyclic loading, it gets fatigue. One of the
simple practical example, you might have come across sometimes or you might have seen is
something like this.

Suppose, you take a a simple wire and this wire you are twisting okay, where you require,
you want to cut away, you do not have any plier, if you just pull it, will it cut? I think it will
never cut but what you do? You just give some rotations like this that means you give a cyclic
tension compression; tension compression okay in the reverse directions for few cycles then
the wire will break. So, this is what we understand by the fatigue failure of the material under
a cyclic loading.
(Refer Slide Time: 49:00)

Now, this experiment is actually originated by R. R. Moore and that is a reason this
experiment is very popularly known as Moore’s experiment. Now, what you get after such
data plotted onto this type of schematic diagram; I am just shown you a schematic diagram,
you see the abscissa, sorry this ordinate has got a fatigue strength and the abscissa is a stress
cycles N, as I just explained earlier.

Now, you can see the more the load or the fatigue stress on to this material then lesser the
number of cycles it can withstand. So, in this case what happens that if you lower down the
fatigue strength means, a fatigue stress up to a point somewhere here then you can see that
within this zone, if somewhere even if you are giving and varying load like that and the stress
generated on to the machine member is within this zone, then the material can withstand an
infinite life.
So, in terms of cycles, this is a zone called infinite life, so obviously you have to keep the
stress within these zone and the converse is this one is an finite life, there is an overlapping
zone in between these 2 and these are actually low cycle that is low cycle fatigue that means
what I was telling that climb the stairs in 5 minutes, high cycle fatigue, climbed the stairs in 2
minutes okay, so that way we get a behaviour.

Now, let us talk about this line, this is a very important stress point and this is called
endurance limit of a material. Now, this endurance limit of the material what has been given
shown here as an sigma e is not always a true constant line, I mean true parallel line to this x
axis. In fact, this is a typical behaviour somewhat resembling a steel material but if we have
some non-ferrous materials or alloys; non-ferrous materials are alloys, we can expect again
schematically.

I am just trying to show you some behaviour like this, I am sorry; it is going to this anyway
this is a schematic view, something like this that means, you can see there is no definite
endurance limit presence for that one. Anyway, in those cases what we have to do that,
obviously the design in a true sense cannot be for infinite life of course, this situation of
infinite life is not always true.

Because only thing it might be taking more, it may be taking that more number of cycles
compared to this one. Here, what I have shown it is also not very truly a flat but anyway for
the mild steels and others it is possible that we can design for an infinite life provided we
keep the stress level below the endurance limit and other situation also I have shown.
(Refer Slide Time: 53:32)
This is typically for some non-ferrous materials and alloys, this type of situation comes into
picture. Now, in the design, this endurance limit calculation or determination is a very
lengthy procedure as you can see that we have to take up or wait for the days together to find
out at which cycle the specimen break and that again you have to change the load, you have
to take another specimen that way it is not impossible, people have done it.

It is being done, it is a very routine test but it is a lengthy procedure as I have telling you. So,
always a designer wants to obtain a quick estimation of endurance limit without going to such
lengthy procedure. It is possible that a plot of results of simple tension test which is relatively
easier and quick procedure and rotating beam test, the results obtained from the rotating beam
test can be related, means can give rise to some correlations between these 2 strengths.

And we will try to explore such situations that whether or what are the correlations which one
can develop, if we can have a simple test results and the rotating beam results plotted together
and obtain some feasible and practically useful correlation. We continue our lecture in the
next day. Thank you.
(Refer Slide Time: 55:32)
(Refer Slide Time: 55:37)

Good day, we continue our lecture on design for strength and todays lecture is lecture 11. We
have been concentrating in the last class, the design for variable loads.
(Refer Slide Time: 55:57)
Now, you remember that we have been talking about the material property when subjected to
varying forces of specific magnitude.
(Refer Slide Time: 56:10)

And for which we took up a typical specimen as shown here and this is called the fatigue test
specimen.
(Refer Slide Time: 56:21)
And the results for the fatigue stress specimen were plotted in this graph or the; this particular
graph where you can see the entire results being represented in the form of low cycle, high
cycle, infinite life and we considered that this particular situation, this line was basically what
we called as an endurance limit, that means any stress which is occurring beyond this within
these zone.

If it is applied onto a machine member then machine will work for theoretically an infinite
life and at the same time we have also noted one situation that in case, we consider or this
type of fatigue strength and stress cycles for an materials of non-ferrous and its alloys, then I
think that we plotted a graph like that anyway it is coming to close like. But anyway, that
what was main interest was that, it does not have any specific endurance limit.

And for this type of alloys and this was a representation for a typical steel materials say mild
steel or so, here also this infinite life cycle, where the endurance limit becomes a flat line is
also not exactly true but however, we consider such line where which gives you the critical
zone, means that beyond this line if we consider the stress, then the machine member can
withstand an infinite life.

However, it is known that always we go for infinite life design also; we can have a finite life
design where just by modelling these lines, we can find out the corresponding endurance
limit corresponding to some cycles of our interest.