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Q1.

(a) Define Long & short duration voltage variation, Voltage Sag, Voltage Swell, Voltage
Interruptions & Voltage fluctuations. [5]

Ans. Long duration voltage variation: Long-duration variations encompass root-mean-square (rms)
deviations at power frequencies for longer than 1 min. Long-duration variations can be either
overvoltages or undervoltages. These are caused by load variations on the system and system switching
operations. Such variations are typically displayed as plots of rms voltage versus time.Interruption,
sustained >1 min 0.0 pu, Undervoltages >1 min 0.8–0.9 pu, Overvoltages >1 min 1.1–1.2 pu

Short-Duration Voltage Variations: This type of variation can be designated as instantaneous,


momentary, or temporary, depending on its duration. Short-duration voltage variations are caused by
fault conditions, the energization of large loads which require high starting currents, or intermittent loose
connections in power wiring. Depending on the fault location and the system conditions, the fault can
cause either temporary voltage drops (sags), voltage rises (swells), or a complete loss of voltage
(interruptions). Interruption 0.5–30 cycles <0.1 pu, Sag (dip) 0.5–30 cycles 0.1–0.9 pu, Swell 0.5–30
cycles 1.1–1.8 pu

Voltage sag: A sag is a decrease to between 0.1 and 0.9 pu in rms voltage or current at the power
frequency for durations from 0.5 cycle to 1 min. Voltage sags are usually associated with system faults
but can also be caused by energization of heavy loads or starting of large motors. Sag durations are
subdivided here into three categories—instantaneous, momentary, and temporary—which coincide with
the three categories of interruptions and swells. Example shown in fig. 1.

Fig. 1 Fig 2

Voltage Swells: A swell is defined as an increase to between 1.1 and 1.8 pu in rms voltage or current at
the power frequency for durations from 0.5 cycle to 1 min. As with sags, swells are usually associated
with system fault conditions, but they are not as common as voltage sags. One way that a swell can occur
is from the temporary voltage rise on the unfaulted phases during an SLG fault. Swells can also be caused
by switching off a large load or energizing a large capacitor bank. Example is shown in fig 2.

Voltage Interruptions: Disappearance of the supply voltage on one or more phases. When the supply
voltage has been zero for a period of time in excess of 1 min, the long-duration voltage variation is
considered a sustained interruption. Voltage interruptions longer than 1 min are often permanent and
require human intervention to repair the system for restoration. Also, use of the term interruption in the
context of power quality monitoring has no relation to reliability or other continuity of service statistics.

Voltage fluctuations: Voltage fluctuations are systematic variations of the voltage envelope or a series
of random voltage changes, the magnitude of which does not normally exceed the voltage ranges
specified by ANSI C84.1 of 0.9 to 1.1 pu. Loads that can exhibit continuous, rapid variations in the load
current magnitude can cause voltage variations that are often referred to as flicker. The term flicker is
derived from the impact of the voltage fluctuation on lamps such that they are perceived by the human
eye to flicker. To be technically correct, voltage fluctuation is an electromagnetic phenomenon while
flicker is an undesirable result of the voltage fluctuation in some loads.
Q. 1 (b) What are objectives of Grounding? Explain different problems due to poor grounding.[5]

Ans. The most important reason for grounding is safety. Other objectives are mentioned below.
1. Personnel safety. Personnel safety is the primary reason that all equipment must have a safety
equipment ground. This is designed to prevent the possibility of high touch voltages when there is a fault
in a piece of equipment. There should be no “floating” panels or enclosures in the vicinity of electric
circuits.
2. Grounding to assure protective device operation. A ground fault return path to the point where the
power source neutral conductor is grounded is an essential safety feature. The NEC and some local
wiring codes permit electrically continuous conduit and wiring device enclosures to serve as this ground
return path.
3. Noise control. Noise control includes transients from all sources. This is where grounding relates to
power quality. Grounding for safety reasons defines the minimum requirements for a grounding system.
Anything that is done to the grounding system to improve the noise performance must be done in
addition to the minimum requirements defined in the NEC and local codes.

Problems with conductors and connectors: One of the first things to be done during a site survey is to
inspect the service entrance, main panel, and major subpanels for problems with conductors or
connections. A bad connection (faulty, loose, or resistive) will result in heating, possible arcing, and
burning of insulation.
Missing safety ground: If the safety ground is missing, a fault in the equipment from the phase
conductor to the enclosure results in line potential on the exposed surfaces of the equipment. No breakers
will trip, and a hazardous situation results.
Multiple neutral-to-ground connections: Unless there is a separately derived system, the only neutral-
to-ground bond should be at the service entrance. The neutral and ground should be kept separate at all
panel boards and junction boxes. Downline neutral- to-ground bonds result in parallel paths for the load
return current where one of the paths becomes the ground circuit. This can cause misoperation of
protective devices.
Ungrounded equipment: Isolated grounds are sometimes used due to the perceived notion of obtaining
a “clean” ground.
Additional ground rods: Ground rods should be part of a facility grounding system and connected
where all the building grounding electrodes (building steel, metal water pipe, etc.) are bonded together.
Multiple ground rods can be bused together at the service entrance to reduce the overall ground
resistance. Isolated grounds can be used for sensitive equipment, as described previously.
Ground loops: Ground loops are one of the most important grounding problems in many commercial
and industrial environments that include data processing and communication equipment. If two devices
are grounded via different paths and a communication cable between the devices provides another ground
connection between them, a ground loop results. Slightly different potentials in the two power system
grounds can cause circulating currents in this ground loop if there is indeed a complete path.
Insufficient neutral conductor: Switch-mode power supplies and fluorescent lighting with electronic
ballasts are widely used in commercial environments. The high third harmonic content present in these
load currents can have a very important impact on the required neutral conductor rating for the supply
circuits. Third-harmonic currents in a balanced system appear in the zero sequence circuit. This means
that third-harmonic currents from three single-phase loads will add in the neutral, rather than cancel as is
the case for the 50-Hz current.

Q. 2 (a) What are symptoms of poor power quality? How good grounding practice improve power
quality? [5]

Ans. Symptoms of Poor Power Quality:


1) Equipment fails at the same time of day.
2) Circuit Breaker trips without being overloaded.
3) Equipment fails during a thunderstorm.
4) Automated systems stops or restarts for no apparent reasons.
5) Electronic systems fail to operate on frequent basis.
6) Electronic system work in one location but not in another location.
Symptoms of poor power quality can also be classified as:
A] Electricity bill: B] Computer problems: C] Office Problems:
~ High demand charges ~ Computer crashing ~ Dropped telephone calls
~ Power Factor penalties ~ Computer locking up ~ Erratic equipment operation
~ Low Power Factor (below 90 ~ Computer memory loss ~ Equipment running hot
%) ~Computer crashing

D] HVAC Problems: E] General Problems:


~ Motor Failure ~ Nuisance Tripping
~ Speed/Setting Drifting ~ Circuit Board Failure
~ Component Failure ~ Overheating of Transformers
& cables
~ Excessive neutral current
~ Surge Suppressor/UPS Failure
~ Power supply failure.

Good Grounding Practices:


1. Good electrical conductivity.
2. Conductors capable of withstanding available electrical fault currents
3. Objective of grounding must be such that the equipment has Long life – at least 40 years.
4. Low ground resistance and impedance.
5. Equipotential bonding helps ensure that hazardous potential differences do not occur between
different incoming conductors such as metallic water services, power systems,
telecommunication systems and the local ground, and also minimizes step and touch potentials.

Q 2 (b) Explain various definitions of power Quality with reference to each stake holders and why
power quality is gaining more importance now a days. [5]

Ans. Power quality can be defined as “Any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency
deviations that results in failure or misoperation of customer equipment. “There can be completely
different definitions for power quality, depending on one’s frame of reference. For example,
 A utility may define power quality as reliability and show statistics demonstrating that its system
is 99.98 percent reliable. Criteria established by regulatory agencies are usually in this vein.
 A manufacturer of load equipment may define power quality as those characteristics of the power
supply that enable the equipment to work properly.
 These characteristics can be very different for different criteria. Power quality is ultimately a
consumer-driven issue, and the end user’s point of reference takes precedence.
 Power quality can be defined by many ways. There is a problem in detecting where the power
quality problem lies. One survey conducted by the Georgia Power Company in which both utility
personnel and customers were polled about what causes power quality problems. While surveys
of other market sectors might indicate different splits between the categories, these charts clearly
illustrate one common theme that arises repeatedly in such surveys:
 The utility’s and customer’s perspectives are often much different. While both tend to blame
about two-thirds of the events on natural phenomena (e.g., lightning), customers, much more
frequently than utility personnel, think that the utility is at fault
 The end-use equipment was knocked off line 30 times in 9 months, but there were only five
operations on the utility substation breaker. It must be realized that there are many events
resulting in end-user problems that never show up in the utility statistics.

Significance & Importance of Power Quality


1. The ultimate reason that we are interested in power quality is economic value. There are economic
impacts on utilities, their customers, and suppliers of load equipment.
2. The quality of power can have a direct economic impact on many industrial consumers. There has
recently been a great emphasis on revitalizing industry with more automation and more modern
equipment.
3. This usually means electronically controlled, energy-efficient equipment that is often much more
sensitive to deviations in the supply voltage than were its electromechanical predecessors.
4. Thus, like the blinking clock in residences, industrial customers are now more acutely aware of minor
disturbances in the power system.
5. There is big money associated with these disturbances.
6. The electric utility is concerned about power quality issues as well. Meeting customer expectations and
maintaining customer confidence are strong motivators.
7. Residential customers typically do not suffer direct financial loss or the inability to earn income as a
result of most power quality problems, but they can be a potent force when they perceive that the utility
is providing poor service.

3. (a) Explain in Brief the impact of voltage sag on equipment. [5]

Ans. Generally, equipment sensitivity to voltage sags can be divided into three categories:
1. Equipment sensitive to only the magnitude of voltage sag.
This group includes devices such as under voltage relays, process controls, motor drive controls, and
many types of automated machines (e.g., semiconductor manufacturing equipment). Devices in this
group are sensitive to the minimum (or maximum) voltage magnitude experienced during a sag (or
swell). The duration of the disturbance is usually of secondary importance for these devices.
2. Equipment sensitive to both the magnitude and duration of voltage sag.
This group includes virtually all equipment that uses electronic power supplies.
3. Equipment sensitive to characteristics other than magnitude and duration.
Some devices are affected by other sag characteristics such as the phase unbalance during the sag event,
the point-in-the wave at which the sag is initiated, or any transient oscillations occurring during the
disturbance. These characteristics are more subtle than magnitude and duration, and their impacts are
much more difficult to generalize. As a result, the rms variation performance indices defined here are
focused on the more common magnitude and duration characteristics.
IT and Process Control Equipment: The voltage regulator converts the non-regulated dc voltage into a
regulated dc voltage of a few volts and feeds sensitive digital electronics. If the ac voltage drops, so does
the voltage at the dc side. The voltage regulator is able to keep its output voltage constant over a certain
range of input voltage. If the dc voltage becomes too low the regulated dc voltage will start to drop and
ultimately errors will occur in the digital electronics.
Contactors and Asynchronous Motors: Alternating current contactors (and relays) can drop out when
the voltage is reduced below about 80% of the nominal for duration of more than one cycle, i.e. a sag to
80%. A recent paper has presented test results for contactor sensitivity. The main conclusion states that
most of the contactors open when the voltage drops below 50%, but the most sensitive ones tolerate only
a 30% voltage depression.
Power Drives: Power drives can be very sensitive to voltage dips. Such systems generally contain a
power converter/inverter, motor, control element and a number of auxiliary components. The effect on
the control element can be critical, since it has the function of managing the response of the other
elements to the voltage dip.

Q 3. (b) Explain area of vulnerability and Critical Distance and Procedure to determine area of
vulnerability. [5]

Ans. The concept of an area of vulnerability has been developed to help evaluate the likelihood of
sensitive equipment being subjected to voltage lower than its minimum voltage sag ride-through
capability. The latter term is defined as the minimum voltage magnitude a piece of equipment can
withstand or tolerate without misoperation or failure. This is also known as the equipment voltage sag
immunity or susceptibility limit. An area of vulnerability is determined by the total circuit miles of
exposure to faults that can cause voltage magnitudes at an end-user facility to drop below the equipment
minimum voltage sag ride-through capability. Fig 2.11 shows an example of an area of vulnerability
diagram for motor contactor and adjustable-speed-drive loads at an end- user facility served from the
distribution system. The loads will be subject to faults on both the transmission system and the
distribution system. The actual number of voltage sags that a facility can expect is determined by
combining the area of vulnerability with the expected fault performance for this portion of the power
system. The expected fault performance is usually determined from historical data.

Q. 4 (a) Discuss sag requirements for computer and allied equipment. Explain CBEMA and ITIC
curve in reference to power quality. [5]

Ans. Sag requirements for computer and allied equipment:


 Although the computers tested covered a wide range of model, type, and hardware
configurations, the tests high- lighted a few fundamental differences in general behaviour of the
computers.
 The voltage-tolerance curves for different computers have the same rectangular shape with two
clearly distinctive parts: vertical and horizontal, with a very sharp “knee” between them.
 A wide ranges for both voltage sag magnitude and duration thresholds were identified for tested
computers
 No correlation between the age/price/operating system installed and the sensitivity to voltage
sags has been found/established for tested computers.
 When the computer is designed to operate connected to either the 230-V/50-Hz or 110-V/60-Hz
power supply, somewhat higher sensitivity is to be expected in the latter case.
 All tested computers satisfy the ITIC standard voltage tolerance curve. However, all of them
except one, violate the most recent SEMI F47 standard.
 The point on wave of voltage sag initiation and the phase shift during the voltage sag do not have
any significant influence on the computer sensitivity to voltage sags.
 Nonideal supply characteristics (variation in the supply voltage magnitude and different
harmonic content) influence only the vertical part of the related voltage-tolerance curves (i.e.,
duration threshold). The identified differences may be significant, especially when variations in
supply-voltage magnitude and harmonic content are introduced simultaneously.
 When two computers are connected in parallel and supplied from the same power point, they do
not influence each other’s sensitivity to voltage sags and short interruptions.
 For some computers, three different voltage-tolerance curves were obtained for lockup of
read/write operations, blockage of the operating system, and restart/reboot malfunction criteria.
The shortest duration threshold was determined for lockup of read/write operations, and the
lowest voltage magnitude threshold for restart/reboot malfunction criteria
CBEMA Curve:
Throughout the sphere of Power Quality you'll hear the terms "spike", "transient", and
"dip/sag/surge/swell". These three categories are very real and refer to loosely defined boundaries based
on time or duration of the event. However, there is one thing that timing does not take into account and
that is the energy released during such an event, energy usually being measured in Joules. Although watt-
seconds (Ws) is relative to Joules (J), watts require that you know both the voltage and the current, the
latter not always being available. To simplify matters the Computer and Business Equipment
Manufacturers Association came up with a curve wherein the voltage deviation from the norm is the only
factor taken into account. It is felt that equipment fitted with a filter should be able to withstand greater
deviations the shorter the timing of the deviation. CBEMA Curve is one of the most frequently employed
power acceptability curve. It was developed by the Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers
Association in the 1970s, as a guideline for the organization's members in designing their power supplies.
Eventually, it became a standard design target for sensitive equipment to be applied on the power system
and a common format for reporting power quality variation data.

ITIC Curve:
The ITIC curve has been applied to general power quality evaluation, even though it was primarily
developed for 120 V computer equipment just like the CBEMA curve. Also, it is used as a reference to
define the withstand capability of various loads and devices for protection from power quality problems.
This is because the curve is generally applicable to other equipment containing solid-state devices aside
from being specifically applicable to computer-type equipment. However, one should be careful and
should keep in mind that the ITIC curve is not intended to reflect the performance of ALL electronic-
based equipment. There are too many variables - power loading, nominal operating voltage level, and
process complexity, to try to apply a one-size-fits-all ITIC curve. ITIC Curve is a modified version of the
CBEMA power acceptability curve, but the concept remains the same. It was developed by a working
group of the CBEMA, which later changed its name to the Information Technology Industry Council
(ITI) in 1994.

Q 4 (b) List various voltage sag mitigation techniques and explain any one. [5]

Ans Various mitigation Techniques are as follows

UPS stands for Uninterruptible Power Supply. It is an instrument connected between the electric grid and
the consumer, comprising of electric hardware and rechargeable batteries. The aim of the instrument is to
supply continuous undisturbed and conditioned power to the critical load. The energy for powering the
load comes from the utility, or from the battery upon mains outage. Figure below describes main UPS
building blocks. The Output is fed either from the incoming power line, called Bypass from batteries via
the DC to AC Inverter. The Transfer Switch makes the selection. The Rectifier charges the batteries
when utility power is present.

DVR Dynamic voltage restorers (DVR) can provide the most commercial solution to mitigation voltage
sag by injecting voltage as well as power into the system. The mitigation capability of these devices is
mainly influenced by the maximum load; power factor and maximum voltage dip to be compensated.
Maximum load on a feeder is an important task for DVR system operation and appropriate desired
voltage sag compensation.

SMES (Superconducting magnetic energy storage) An SMES device can be used to alleviate voltage
sags and brief interruptions. The energy storage in an SMES-based system is provided by the electric
energy stored in the current flowing in a superconducting magnet. Since the coil is lossless, the energy
can be released almost instantaneously. Through voltage regulator and inverter banks, this energy can be
injected into the protected electrical system in less than 1 cycle to compensate for the missing voltage
during a voltage sag event.
CVT: Ferroresonant transformers, also called constant-voltage transformers (CVTs), can handle most
voltage sag conditions. CVTs are especially attractive for constant, low-power loads. Variable loads,
especially with high inrush currents, present more of a problem for CVTs because of the tuned circuit on
the output. Ferroresonant transformers are basically 1:1 transformers which are excited high on their
saturation curves, thereby providing an output voltage which is not significantly affected by input voltage
variations.

Magnetic synthesizers: Magnetic synthesizers use a similar operating principle to CVTs except they are
threephase devices and take advantage of the three-phase magnetic to provide improved voltage sag
support and regulation for three-phase loads. They are applicable over a size range from about 15 to 200
kVA and are typically applied for process loads of larger computer systems where voltage sags or steady-
state voltage variations are important issues.
Active series Compensators: Advances in power electronic technologies and new topologies for these
devices have resulted in new options for providing voltage sag ridethrough support to critical loads. One
of the important new options is a device that can boost the voltage by injecting a voltage in series with
the remaining voltage during a voltage sag condition. These are referred to as active series compensation
devices. They are available in size ranges from small single-phase devices (1 to 5 kVA) to very large
devices that can be applied on the medium-voltage systems (2 MVA and larger).
Motor-generator (M-G) sets: Motor-generator (M-G) sets come in a wide variety of sizes and
configurations. This is a mature technology that is still useful for isolating critical loads from sags and
interruptions on the power system. The concept is very simple, as illustrated in Fig.2.24. A motor
powered by the line drives a generator that powers the load. Flywheels on the same shaft provide greater
inertia to increase ride-through time. When the line suffers a disturbance, the inertia of the machines and
the flywheels maintains the power supply for several seconds. This arrangement may also be used to
separate sensitive loads from other classes of disturbances such as harmonic distortion and switching
transients. While simple in concept, M-G sets have disadvantages for some types of loads:

Flywheel energy storage systems: Motor-generator sets are only one means to exploit the energy stored
in flywheels. A modern flywheel energy system uses high-speed flywheels and power electronics to
achieve sag and interruption ride-through from 10 s to 2 min. While M-G sets typically operate in the
open and are subject to aerodynamic friction losses, these flywheels operate in a vacuum and employ
magnetic bearings to substantially reduce standby losses. Designs with steel rotors may spin at
approximately 10,000 rpm, while those with composite rotors may spin at much higher speeds. Since the
amount of energy stored is proportional to the square of the speed, a great amount of energy can be stored
in a small space. The rotor serves as a one-piece storage device, motor, and generator. To store energy,
the rotor is spun up to speed as a motor. When energy is needed, the rotor and armature act as a
generator. As the rotor slows when energy is extracted, the control system automatically increases the
field to compensate for the decreased voltage.
Static transfer switches and fast transfer switches There are a number of alternatives for protection of
an entire facility that may be sensitive to voltage sags. These include dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs)
and UPS systems that use technology similar to the systems described previously but applied at the
medium voltage level another alternative that can be applied at either the low-voltage level or the
medium-voltage level is the automatic transfer switch. Automatic transfer switches can be of various
technologies, ranging from conventional breakers to static switches.

Q 5(a) Define: Flicker, Voltage fluctuations, Voltage interruptions, Transients. [5]

Ans. Flicker: Voltage fluctuations in power systems can cause a number of harmful technical effects,
resulting in disruption to production processes and substantial costs. But flicker, with its negative
physiological results, can affect worker safety as well as productivity. Humans can be sensitive to light
flicker caused by voltage fluctuations. Generally speaking, flicker can significantly impair our vision and
cause general discomfort and fatigue. In general terms, flicker affects our vision process and brain
reaction, almost always producing discomfort and deterioration in work quality.
Voltage fluctuations Voltage fluctuations are systematic variations of the voltage envelope or a series of
random voltage changes, the magnitude of which does not normally exceed the voltage ranges specified
by ANSI C84.1 of 0.9 to 1.1 pu. IEC 61000-2-1 defines various types of voltage fluctuations.
Voltage interruptions When the supply voltage has been zero for a period of time in excess of 1 min,
the long-duration voltage variation is considered a sustained interruption. Voltage interruptions longer
than 1 min are often permanent and require human intervention to repair the system for restoration.
Transients The term transients has long been used in the analysis of power system variations to denote
an event that is undesirable and momentary in nature. The notion of a damped oscillatory transient due to
an RLC network is probably what most power engineers think of when they hear the word transient.
Other definitions in common use are broad in scope and simply state that a transient is “that part of the
change in a variable that disappears during transition from one steady state operating condition to
another.”8 Unfortunately, this definition could be used to describe just about anything unusual that
happens on the power system.

Q5. (b) Explain various solutions to control impulsive transients. [5]

Ans Methods for controlling impulsive transients are:


Surge arresters and transient voltage surge suppressors Arresters and TVSS devices protect
equipment from transient overvoltages by limiting the maximum voltage, and the terms are sometimes
used interchangeably. However, TVSSs are generally associated with devices used at the load equipment.
Isolation transformers The chief characteristic of isolation transformers for electrically isolating the
load from the system for transients is their leakage inductance. Therefore, high-frequency noise and
transients are kept from reaching the load, and any load generated noise and transients are kept from
reaching the rest of the power system. Voltage notching due to power electronic switching is one
example of a problem that can be limited to the load side by an isolation transformer.
Low-pass filters Low-pass filters use the pi-circuit principle to achieve even better protection for high
frequency transients. For general usage in electric circuits, low-pass filters are composed of series
inductors and parallel capacitors. This LC combination provides a low impedance path to ground for
selected resonant frequencies. In surge protection usage, voltage clamping devices are added in parallel
to the capacitors. In some designs, there are no capacitors.
Low-Impedance Power Conditioners Low-impedance power conditioners (LIPCs) are used primarily
to interface with the switch-mode power supplies found in electronic equipment. LIPCs differ from
isolation transformers in that these conditioners have much lower impedance and have a filter as part of
their design. The filter is on the output side and protects against high-frequency, source-side,
commonmode, and normal-mode disturbances (i.e., noise and impulses). Note the new neutral-to-ground
connection that can be made on the load side because of the existence of an isolation transformer.

Utility surge arresters Most arresters manufactured today use a MOV as the main voltage-limiting
element. The chief ingredient of a MOV is zinc oxide (ZnO), which is combined with several proprietary
ingredients to achieve the necessary characteristics and durability. Older-technology arresters, of which
there are still many installed on the power system, used silicon carbide (SiC) as the energy-dissipating
nonlinear resistive element. The relative discharge voltages for each of these three technologies.
Originally, arresters were little more than spark gaps, which would result in a fault each time the gap
sparked over. Also, the sparkover transient injected a very steep fronted voltage wave into the apparatus
being protected, which was blamed for many insulation failures. The addition of an SiC nonlinear
resistance in series with a spark gap corrected some of these difficulties.

Q 6 (a) Define impulsive and oscillatory transients? [5]

Ans An impulsive transient is a sudden, non–power frequency change in the steady-state condition of
voltage, current, or both that is unidirectional in polarity (primarily either positive or negative). Impulsive
transients are normally characterized by their rise and decay times, which can also be revealed by their
spectral content. The most common cause of impulsive transients is lightning.
Oscillatory transients: An oscillatory transient is a sudden, non–power frequency change in the steady-
state condition of voltage, current, or both, that includes both positive and negative polarity values. An
oscillatory transient consists of a voltage or current whose instantaneous value changes polarity rapidly.
It is described by its spectral content (predominate frequency), duration, and magnitude. The frequency
ranges for these classifications are chosen to coincide with common types of power system oscillatory
transient phenomena. Oscillatory transients with a primary frequency component greater than 500 kHz
and a typical duration measured in microseconds (or several cycles of the principal frequency) are
considered high-frequency transients. These transients are often the result of a local system response to
an impulsive transient. A transient with a primary frequency component between 5 and 500 kHz with
duration measured in the tens of microseconds (or several cycles of the principal frequency) is termed a
medium-frequency transient. A transient with a primary frequency component less than 5 kHz, and a
duration from 0.3 to 50 ms, is considered a low-frequency transient.

Q. 6 (b) Explain the magnification of transients due to capacitor switching. [5]


Ans Magnification of capacitor-switching transients
A potential side effect of adding power factor correction capacitors at the customer location is that they
may increase the impact of utility capacitor-switching transients on end-use equipment. a brief voltage
transient of at least 1.3 to 1.4 pu when capacitor banks are switched. The transient is generally no higher
than 2.0 pu on the primary distribution system, although ungrounded capacitor banks may yield
somewhat higher values. Loadside capacitors can magnify this transient overvoltage at the end-user bus
for certain low-voltage capacitor and step-down transformer sizes. Transient overvoltages on the end-user
side may reach as high as 3.0 to 4.0 pu on the low-voltage bus under these conditions, with potentially
damaging consequences for all types of customer equipment. One solution is to control the transient
overvoltage at the utility capacitor. This is sometimes possible using synchronous closing breakers or
switches with preinsertion resistors.