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# Final Assignment

## Probability & Statistics

Due Date: 31st July 2018
Question 1

## 1) The mean of the given set of data 7, 5, 9, 7, 8, and 7 is

a) 5 c) 8
b) 7 d) None of the above
2) The median of given set of data 7, 5, 9, 7, 8, and 7 is
a) 7 c) 9
b) 8 d) None of the above
3) The range of given set of data 7, 5, 9, 7, 8, and 7 is
a) 5 c) 8
b) 7 d) None of the above
4) The midrange of given set of data 7, 5, 9, 7, 8, and 7 is
a) 5 c) 8
b) 7 d) None of the above
5) The variance of sample 12, 15, 17, 20 is
a) 11.333 c) 3.366
b) 8.5 d) None of the above
6) Chebyshev‟s Theorem states that at least ________ of the measurements of any data set lie within k
standard deviations of the mean:
a) c)
d) None of the above
b)
For Questions 8-10, refer to the data given below:

1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2
3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8
3.9 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.7
7)
a) 3.1 c) 3.8
b) 3.75 d) None of the above
8)
a) 3.4 c) 3.8
b) 3.75 d) None of the above
9) =
a) 3.1 c) 3.8
b) 3.75 d) None of the above
10) In how many ways can 4 boys and 5 girls sit in a row if the boys and girls must sit alternate?
a) 20 c) 2880
b) 280 d) None of the above

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11) How many distinct permutations can be made from the letters of the word „COLUMNS‟?
a) 7 c) 5040
b) 49 d) None of the above
12) In how many ways can 5 different trees be planted in a circle?
a) 120 c) 24
b) 64 d) None of the above
13) In how many ways can a true false test consisting of 9 questions be answered?
a) 9 c) 512
b) 81 d) None of the above
14) If A, B, C are mutually exclusive events and P(A)=0.2, P(B)=0.3 and P(C)=0.2. Then P(AUBUC):
a) 0.5 c) 1
b) 0.7 d) None of the above
15) When the number of trials (n) is relatively small to N, then the Hyper geometric distribution can be
approximated to:
a) Binomial Distribution c) Poisson Distribution
b) Negative Binomial Distribution d) None of the above
16) In negative binomial, the number of ___________ are fixed:
a) Trials c) Trials and successes
b) Successes d) None of the above
17) When n is large and p is small, we can approximate Binomial distribution to:
a) Hyper geometric Distribution c) Poisson Distribution
b) Negative Binomial d) None of the above
18) In z-distribution, the curve is symmetric about the:
a) Mean c) Variance
b) Horizontal axis d) None of the above
19) The probability of union of two events A and B is equal to sum of their individual probability i.e.
P(AUB) = P(A) + P(B) if the two events are
a) Mutually exclusive c) Dependent
b) Non mutually exclusive d) None of the above
20) The probability of union of two events A and B is equal to sum of their individual probability i.e.
P(AUB) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A B) if the two events are
a) Mutually exclusive c) Dependent
b) Non mutually exclusive d) None of the above
21) A batch of parts contains 100 parts from a local supplier of tubing and 200 parts from a supplier of
tubing in the next state. If four parts are selected randomly and without replacement, what is the
probability they are all from the local supplier?
a) 0.0119 c) 0.8041
b) 0.4080 d) 0.1955
22) If P(A) = 0.2 and P(B) = 0.3 and they are mutually exclusive, P(neither A nor B) will be equal to
a) 0.44 c) 0.56
b) 0.50 d) None of the above
23) For each new employee, a company gives a five-digit identification card. Each digit can be 0, 1, 2, or
3. If repetitions are allowed, how many different cards are possible.
a) 625 b) 768

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c) 1024 d) None of the above
24) Let P(X) = CX for X=1, 2, 3, 4. Determine the value of constant “C” so that the function P(X) is a
probability mass function:.
a) 10 c) 0.1
b) 5 d) None of the above
25) The binomial distribution is a distribution of __________
a) Number of successes c) Number of trials
b) Number of failures d) None of the above

26) What is the probability of random variable „X‟, if X representing number of trials until 3 rd success, if
3rd success occurs on 5th trial with success rate = 0.3.
a) 0.02917 c) 0.09529
b) 0.07938 d) None of the above
27) Calculate b(x<2; n=5, p=0.1)
a) 0.0814 c) 0.9185
b) 0.0729 d) None of the above
28) The probability of any event is ranges between,
a) -1 and 1 c) -∞ and ∞
b) 0 and 1 d) None of the above
29) Let the random variable X is uniformly distributed with the random values -4, -2, 0, 2, and 4. What is
the expected value of X?
a) Zero c) 4
b) 2 d) None of the above
30) Let an unfair coin is tossed 9 times. What is the expected number of heads occurs if Probability of a
head occurs is twice of tail occurring?
a) 3 c) 6
b) 4.5 d) None of the above
31) What is variance of age of five friends? If all are of same age=20.
a) Zero c) 20
b) 5 d) None of the above
32) The range of variance is:
a) – infinity to +infinity c) Zero to infinity
b) -1 to +1 d) None of the above
33) Let E(X) = 4. What is the expected value of discrete random variable Y=2X+4?
a) 8 c) 20
b) 16 d) None of the above

## 34) The random experiment tossing of two coins is an example of

a) Uniform distribution c) Hyper geometric Distribution
b) Binomial distribution d) None of the above
35) A worn machine tool produces 1% defective parts. Let X = number of defective parts in the next 25
parts produced. Identify the process.
a) Bernoulli Process c) Geometric Process
b) Binomial Process d) Negative Binomial Process

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36) If 5 cards are dealt from a standard deck of 52 playing cards, what is the probability that 3 will be
hearts?
a) 0.0815 c) 0.815
b) 0.2742 d) None of the above
37) Suppose that the number of flaws on a thin copper wire follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of
2.3 flaws per millimeter. Determine the probability of exactly 2 flaws in 2 millimeter of wire.
a) 0.265 c) 0.106
b) 0.113 d) None of the above
38) The number of errors in a text book follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of 0.01 errors per
page. What is the probability that there are three or less errors in 100 pages?
a) 0.0189
b) 0.3678
c) 0.9810
d) None of the above
39) The 98% confidence interval for population mean is estimated from a sample of size 40 is
. Find the standard deviation.
a) 19.235 c) 2.325
b) 370 d) None of the above
40) The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it was false is a
a) Type I error c) Correct Decision
b) Type II error d) None of the above
41) How large a sample will be needed to be 95% confident that the sample mean will be within 15
seconds of the true mean? Assume the population standard deviation to be 40 seconds.
a) 6 c) 28
b) 20 d) None of the above
Question 2
a) In a binomial experiment if p(x=0) =0.0041 and p(x=1) =0.041 are the result of 5 trials then find
the value of p and q.
b) Write any three properties of binomial distribution.
c) Three cards are chosen at random from a deck of 52 playing cards without replacement. What is the
probability of getting a jack, a ten and a nine in order?
d) A city survey found that 45% of teenagers have a part time job. The same survey found that 78% plan
to attend college. If a teenager is chosen at random, what is the probability that the teenager has a part
time job given that he plans to attend college?
e) Each of 10 computers of Intel Company has been returned to the distributor because of poor quality
of screen performance when it is running. Suppose that 6 of these have serious screen defective. What
is the probability that randomly selected 3 computers have at least 2 serious screen defectives?

Question 3
The following are the paired information of management aptitude score and grade point average observed
from 10 students

Management aptitude score 400 675 475 350 425 600 550

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Grade point average 1.8 3.8 2.8 1.7 2.8 3.1 2.6

a) Plot a scatter diagram between aptitude score and grade point average.
b) Estimate grade point average when management aptitude score is 750

Question 4
The number of messages sent per hour over a computer network has the following distribution.

## f(x) 0.05 0.25 0.5 0.2

X= no. of messages 9 10 11 12

## a) Find the cumulative distribution.

b) Find .
Question 5
a) How many distinct permutations can be made from the letter of the word “infinity”?
b) How many bridge hands are possible containing 4 spades, 6 diamonds, 1 club, and 2 hearts?
c) A coin is tossed 5 times in succession. What is the probability that at least 1 head occurs?
d) If a letter is chosen at random from the English alphabet, what is the probability that the letter is a
vowel?
e) Two cards are drawn in succession from a deck without replacement. What is the probability that both
cards are greater than 2 and less than 7?
f) A continuous random variable X that can assume values between x=1 and x=4 has a density function
given by f(x) = 1/3. Show that the area under the curve is equal to 1.
g) A 3-wheeler vehicle has a capacity of 4 passengers per trip. The average number of passengers travel
per trip is 3. What is the probability that vehicle will be overloaded on a trip?
h) A roulette wheel is divided into 25 sectors of equal area numbered from 1 to 25. Find a formula for
the probability distribution of X, the number that occurs when the wheel is spun.
Question 6
Given a Normal distribution with mean = 40 and standard deviation = 6, find
a) The area below 32;
b) The area above 27;
c) The area between 42 and 51;
d) The x value that has 45% of the area below it;
e) The x value that has 13% of the area above it.
Question 7
A consumer survey indicates that the average household spends µ = \$155 on groceries each week. The
spending amount is approximately normally distributed with σ = \$25.

a) What proportion of the population spends more than \$150 per week on groceries?
b) What is the probability of randomly selecting a family that spends less than \$110 per week?
c) How much money do you need to spend each week to be in the top 10% of spenders for groceries?
Question 8
The lifespan of two different light bulbs are exponentially distributed. Given that one light bulb has an
average rating of 750 hours and the other has an average rating of 1500 hours, what is the probability that
the one with 1500 hours will last a less amount of time than the one with the 750 hour rating?

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Question 9
In the November 1990 issue of Chemical Engineering Progress, a study discussed the percent purity of
oxygen from a certain supplier. Assume that the mean was 99.61 with a standard deviation of 0.08.
Assume that the distribution of percent purity was approximately normal.

(a) What percentage of the purity values would you expect to be between 99.5 and 99.7?

(b) What purity value would you expect to exceed exactly 5% of the population?

Question 10
The weights of a large number of miniature poodles are approximately normally distributed with a mean
of 8 kilograms and a standard deviation of 0.9 kilogram. If measurements are recorded to the nearest tenth
of a kilogram, find the fraction of these poodles with weights
(a) over 9.5 kilograms;
(b) of at most 8.6 kilograms;
(c) between 7.3 and 9.1 kilograms inclusive.
Question 11
The tensile strength of a certain metal component is normally distributed with a mean of 10,000
kilograms per square centimeter and a standard deviation of 100 kilograms per square centimeter.
Measurements are recorded to the nearest 50 kilograms per square centimeter.
(a) What proportion of these components exceed 10,150 kilograms per square centimeter in tensile
strength?
(b) If specifications require that all components have tensile strength between 9800 and 10,200 kilograms
per square centimeter inclusive, what proportion of pieces would we expect to scrap?
Question 12
Statistics released by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Safety
Council show that on an average weekend night, 1 out of every 10 drivers on the road is drunk. If 400
drivers are randomly checked next Saturday night, what is the probability that the number of drunk
drivers will be
(a) less than 32?
(b) more than 49?
(c) at least 35 but less than 47?
Question 13
Researchers at George Washington University and the National Institutes of Health claim that
approximately 75% of people believe “tranquilizers work very well to make a person more calm and
relaxed.” Of the next 80 people interviewed, what is the probability that
(a) at least 50 are of this opinion?
(b) at most 56 are of this opinion?
Question 14
A common practice of airline companies is to sell more tickets for a particular flight than there are seats
on the plane, because customers who buy tickets do not always show up for the flight. Suppose that the
percentage of no-shows at flight time is 2%. For a particular flight with 197 seats, a total of 200 tickets
were sold. What is the probability that the airline overbooked this flight?
Question 15

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A telemarketing company has a special letteropening machine that opens and removes the contents of an
envelope. If the envelope is fed improperly into the machine, the contents of the envelope may not be
removed or may be damaged. In this case, the machine is said to have “failed.”

(a) If the machine has a probability of failure of 0.01, what is the probability of more than 1 failure
occurring in a batch of 20 envelopes?

(b) If the probability of failure of the machine is 0.01 and a batch of 500 envelopes is to be opened, what
is the probability that more than 8 failures will occur?

Question 16
The exponential distribution is frequently applied to the waiting times between successes in a Poisson
process. If the number of calls received per hour by a telephone answering service is a Poisson random
variable with parameter λ = 6, we know that the time, in hours, between successive calls has an
exponential distribution with parameter β =1/6. What is the probability of waiting more than 15 minutes
between any two successive calls?

Question 17
Consider the following data.
X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Y = 6, 4, 3, 5, 4, 2
a. Find the equation of the regression line
b. Graph the line on a scatter diagram.
Question 18
Computer response time is an important application of the gamma and exponential distributions.
Suppose that a study of a certain computer system reveals that the response time, in seconds, has an
exponential distribution with a mean of 3 seconds.
(a) What is the probability that response time exceeds 5 seconds?
(b) What is the probability that response time exceeds 10 seconds?
Question 19
The number of automobiles that arrive at a certain intersection per minute has a Poisson distribution with
a mean of 5. Interest centers around the time that elapses before 10 automobiles appear at the intersection.
(a) What is the probability that more than 10 automobiles appear at the intersection during any given
minute of time?
(b) What is the probability that more than 2 minutes elapse before 10 cars arrive?
(c) What is the probability that more than 1 minute elapses between arrivals?
(d) What is the mean number of minutes that elapse between arrivals?
Question 20
Compute and interpret the correlation for the following data
X = 4, 5, 6, 14, 18, 22
Y = 16, 22, 11, 16, 7, 3
Question 21
Atiq and Company manufactures light bulbs that have a length of life that is approximately normally
distributed with a mean of 900 hours and a standard deviation of 30hours. Test the hypothesis that =

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900 hours against the alternative hours if a random sample of 25 bulbs has an average life of
850 hours. Use a 0.04 level of significance.
Question 22
A random sample of 12 female student in certain dormitory showed an average weekly expenditure of
Rs.80 for snake foods with a standard deviation of Rs.17.5. Construct a 90% confidence interval for the
average amount spend each week on snake foods by female student living in this dormitory. Assume the
expenditure to be approximately normally distributed.
Question 23
The 99% confidence interval of 10 similar containers of commercial soap mean is .
Find the following
a. Sample mean
b. Estimation error
c. Standard error
Question 24
A consumer survey indicates that the average household spends µ = \$155 on groceries each week. The
spending amount is approximately normally distributed with σ = \$25.

a) What proportion of the population spends more than \$150 per week on groceries?
b) What is the probability of randomly selecting a family that spends less than \$110 per week?
c) How much money do you need to spend each week to be in the top 10% of spenders for groceries?
Question 25

## a) What is the difference between Standard Deviation and Standard Error?

b) Differentiate Type I and Type II errors, why is the consequence of a Type-I error considered serious?
c) What factor determines whether you should use a z-score or a t-statistics for a hypothesis test?
d) What is the relationship between the Level of Significance and P-value (or Sig. value)?
Question 26
A high-tech hardware mechanized company claims that the batteries used in their laptop machines will
last an average of 20 hours. To maintain this average, 15 batteries are tested each month. If the computed
t value falls between – t0.025 and t0.025, the company satisfied with its claim. What conclusion should the
company draw from a sample that has a mean x =17.5 hours and a standard deviation s = 4 hours?
Assume the distribution of battery lives to be approximately normal.

Question 27
Consider a finite population 3, 5 and 7.

## a) Find the parameters µ and σ2.

b) Setup a sampling distribution for x when samples of size 2 are selected at random, with replacement.
c) Show that sample mean is an unbiased estimator of population mean.
2
d) Verify that  x 
2

n
Question 28
The contents of 10 similar containers of a commercial soap are 10.2, 9.6, 10.6, 10.1, 10.3, 9.8, 9.5, 10.2,
10.4, and 9.8 liters.

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a) Find a 99% confidence interval for the mean-soap content of all such containers, assuming an
approximate normal distribution.
b) How large a sample is required if we want to be 99% confident that our estimate of µ is not off by
more than 0.10?
Question 29
Calculate and interpret the regression slope and y-intercept for the following drug reaction problem.

## Y = reaction time (seconds) 1 1 2 2 4

Question 30
Calculate and interpret the coefficient of determination ( r 2 ), for the following summary statistics.

12 12 12 12 12

 xi  725,
i 1
 xi2  44,475 ,
i 1
 yi  1011,
i 1
 yi2  85,905 ,
i 1
x y
i 1
i i  61,685

The heights of a random sample of 50 college students showed a mean of 174.5 centimeters and a
standard deviation of 6.9 centimeters.
a) Construct a 98% confidence interval for the mean height of all college students.
b) What can we assert with 98% confidence about the possible error (e); if we estimate the mean height
of all college students to be 174.5?
c) How large a sample (n); is needed if we wish to be 98% confident that our sample mean will be
within 2 centimeters of the true mean?
Question 31
A study was made by a retail merchant to determine the relation between weekly advertising expenditures
and sales. The following data were recorded:
Advertising Cost (\$) Weekly Sales (\$)

40 385

20 300

25 395

20 365

30 475

50 440

a) Find the equation of the regression line to predict weekly sales from advertising expenditures.
b) Estimate the weekly sales when advertising costs are \$60.
c) Graph the regression line on a scatter diagram.
d) Interpret regression slope and y-intercept.
e) Compute and interpret the linear correlation (ρ) between advertising cost and weekly sale.

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