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MONASH UNIVERSITY ENG1001 LIGHTER, FASTER, STRONGER

WORKSHEET 2–EQUILIBRIUM & REACTIONS Name:

Student ID:

Team No.:
You need to watch the videos for Week 2 before completing the following tasks
To gain FULL marks for Worksheets ALL workings MUST be shown.

1. State the three idealised support types for a structural member.

2. State the three conditions of equilibrium in a 2-dimensional (x-y plane) frame system. How many
unknowns can we solve for using only these equations?

3. Three forces are applied to a brick wall sitting on a concrete strip footing as shown below. Using the
sign convention of anticlockwise moment being positive, calculate the resultant moment of these
forces,

10kN
20kN
C

Note: The three applied forces,


3m and the resulting moments, will
be resisted by the concrete
footing supporting the wall, so
overall ∑ 𝑀𝑧 = 0

A B

4m
30kN
a) About A (Ans: -204kNm)
b) about B

c) About C
4. A beam supports a point load and a UDL as shown. Ignore the self-weight of the beam. Calculate
the reactions at A and B. (Ans: 38.33kN & 21.67kN)

3m 5m 4m
y
20 kN 10 kN/m
z x
A B

Step 1: Draw the unknown reactions at A and B above, thereby creating a free body diagram (FBD).
Step 2: Draw a point load equivalent to the UDL at a point (where?) representing the resultant
magnitude of the point load = kN

Step 3: Use ∑Fx = 0 and solve for the horizontal reaction at A

Horizontal reaction at A = kN

Step 3: Take moments about A to calculate the vertical reaction at B (∑Mz @A=0):

Vertical reaction at B = kN

Step 4: Now use ∑Fy = 0 to calculate the vertical reaction at A:

Vertical reaction at A = kN

Alternatively take moments about B now to calculate the vertical reaction at A (∑M z @B=0):
5. A cantilever beam is ‘fixed’ to a wall at ‘A’ and is subjected to two loads applied at Point C as shown.
Calculate the reactions at A. (Ans: -10kN, 20kN & 250kNm)
20 kN

10kN C y
C
5m
5m z x
A B B

10m

Step 1: Draw the reactions at A. (Note: draw your unknown reactions positive to the sign convention)

Step 2: Use ∑Fx = 0 and solve for the horizontal reaction at A

(Horizontal) reaction at A = kN

Step 3: Use ∑Fy = 0 and solve for the vertical reaction at A

(Vertical) reaction at A = kN

Step 4: Take moments ∑Mz = 0 to solve for the moments reaction at A.

Note: Moment = vertical force * horizontal distance and/or horizontal force * vertical distance

You need to decide about what point you will take moments. You can take moments about any point
(even the= vertical
moment moon!),orce
but the simplest point to take moments in this case is about point Why?

Moment reaction at A = units


6. A moment of 25kNm is now applied to the loading at point C.
Recalculate all the reactions at A.
(Ans: MA = 275kNm) 20 kN

C
2010kN
kN 25kNm

5m
5m

BB y
A
10m
z x

Step 1: ∑Fx = 0

(Horizontal) reaction at A = kN

Step 2: ∑Fy = 0

(Vertical) reaction at A = kN

Step 3: ∑Mz@A = 0 to solve for the moments reaction at A.

(Moment) reaction at A = kNm

Q: Did adding the moment effect the vertical and horizontal reactions calculate in Q5? Y / N
Q: If the 25kNm moment was moved to point B would the reactions change? Y/N

Q: If the vertical 20kN force was moved to point B would the reactions change? Y/N

Q: If the horizontal 10kN force was moved to point B would the reactions change? Y/N

In relation to the latter two questions above, The Principle of Transmissibility states that a force can be
applied at any point on its line of action without a change to its external effects.
Systems with Internal pins
When there are internal pins in a beam system, more than three reactions are necessary to achieve
equilibrium. To solve for these reactions it is necessary to consider at least two different free body
diagrams (FBD), i.e. the entire beam system, a free body diagram to the right or left of the internal pin.

7. A beam with three supports having an internal pin at D shown in the following figure is subject to a
vertical force of 300 kN at B and a UDL of 30 kN/m along DF.
Determine the reactions at A, C and E and the internal forces acting at pin D. (Ans: Ay = 110kN, Cy =
270kN, Ey = 160kN)

300 kN Internal pin


30 kN/m
A C
F
B E
y D
4m 4m 4m 6m 2m

z x

Step 1: Create a FBD of the entire beam by drawing all the support reactions on the diagram above.
Note: There are more than three unknown reactions in this structure.

Step 2: Consider the FBD of the entire structure and solve for the horizontal reaction using ∑Fx = 0.

Step 3: Consider a FBD of the entire structure and derive the equations ∑Fy = 0 and ∑Mz@A.

Q: Can you solve directly for all the reactions using these equations? Y / N
Q: Would taking moments about another support point in this FBD help to solve for the reactions? Y / N
Try it if you’re not sure.
Step 4: Add all forces to the following diagram to create FDBs either side of the internal pin.
Note: It doesn’t matter what direction you draw the unknown forces in at the internal pin as long as
they are equal and opposite on both sides.
Considering the FBD right of the internal pin at D calculate the internal member forces at D and the
reaction force at E using equilibrium.
300 kN
30 kN/m
A 4m 4m C 4m
D F
B 6m 2m
E

Dy = Ey= Dx =

Step 5: Calculate the two remaining reactions at A and C:


a) using the equations derived in Step 3.

Ay = Cy =

b) alternatively by considering the FBD left of the pin in Step 4 above and applying the known
values of the forces found at D.
8. Referring again to the Figure in Q7, a point load of 200 kN is now applied directly to the pin at D in
addition to the original loading. Position the 200kN load on the diagram below as well as all other
forces to create two FBDs. Using the diagram calculate the reactions at E & C (A: 160kN, 570 kN)

NOTE: If a point load or moment is applied at an internal pin, when creating a FBD either side of the
pin, ALWAYS position the force/moment on the FB that does not rely on this force/moment for its
stability.
300 kN

30 kN/m
A 4m 4m 4m
C
D F
B 6m 2m
E

Ey = Cy =

Note: Alternatively, once force Ey is known consider a FBD of the entire system to find Ay and Cy.

9. The system with two pin supports, and having an internal pin at C, is subject to two horizontal
forces as shown. Determine the reactions at A and B. (Ans: -3.33kN; 3.33kN; 17.5kN; -27.5kN)

40 kN 2m
4m
2m
50 kN B

y
4m

z x
A

6m 3m
Step 1: Draw all the support reactions on the diagram of the structure. Note: It does not really matter
which direction you draw these reactions on the diagram but it is suggested they be drawn positive to
the sign convention.

Step 2: Consider the structure as a whole and take moments about A. This will result in an equation in
terms of the two unknown reactions at B.

Step 3: Draw below a free body diagram (FBD) right of the internal pin at C. Take moments at C,
∑Mz@C = 0. This will result in an equation in terms of the two unknown reactions at B. Solve this
equation and the one found in Step 2, for the reaction at B.

Bx = By =

Step 4: Use the answers from Step 3 and apply ∑Fx = 0 and ∑Fy = 0 to the entire beam system and solve
for the reactions at A.

Ax = Ay =

Note: Instead of considering a FBD of the whole structure in Step 4 you could solve for the values of the
internal forces at the pin at C and then consider a FBD left of point C. Try doing this in your own time.