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Particle packing theories and their application in concrete mixture proportioning - A review

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Particle packing theories

and their application in

concrete mixture

proportioning: A review

The mixture proportioning for various types of concrete proportions for concrete depend not only on the grading

requires thorough understanding of the material characteristics curve of aggregate but also on the packing characteristics of

of its ingredients and its behaviour in the fresh and hardened the fine components such as cement, fly ash and micro silica.

states. The performance of concrete is greatly affected by the Using well-established empirical rules for estimating water

type and degree of packing of its constituents. Thus, a demand and reference grading curves for mixture

knowledge of the concept of particle packing and its influence proportioning impose severe restrictions on developing new

on concrete performance is required to enable a mixture designer applications or extending the present range of application in

2

to select from a wide range of cement replacement materials. concrete technology . These limitations may be overcome

The task of selecting the right combination of materials that by re-examining the concept of particle packing and its

will enhance the performance of the concrete becomes tedious application to concrete technology.

when adopting trials involving adhoc replacement of materials, Proportioning of concrete mixtures outside the normal

and unexpected behaviour is often encountered in the resultant range, such as DSP (densified with small particle concrete

concrete. A more suitable method is to design the concrete with compressive strength of 150 to 200 MPa) and RPC

mixtures based on optimal packing of the granular particles, (reactive powder concrete, with compressive strength upto

and improved flow properties of the cement paste using a 800 MPa) is invariably based on particle packing models 3.

superplasticiser. This article reviews the research studies of Furthermore, evaluation of the effects of packing density of

various particle packing investigations carried out across the mixtures on workability suggests that the maximum

world, with a particular emphasis to concrete. One of the particle workability without bleed water is achieved when the

porosity of the packed powder is just filled with water.

packing model, namely Andreassen model, has been validated

Similarly, in hardened concretes, chloride permeability

for concrete application. The use of a software based on one of measurements showed a strong correlation with reduced

Andreassen model to design various concrete mixtures has charge flow with increased packing densities 4.

also been described.

As the properties of concrete are influenced by particle

Control of particle packing has been applied in many branches packing, there has been a revival of interest in this topic. This

of industry (for example, fluidised beds, ceramics, concrete, paper initially reviews the concept and theories of particle

asphalt and powder technology). Achievement of optimal packing and then a few examples of the application of particle

packing is of interest to the study of materials such as concrete, packing to special types of concrete mixture proportioning

asphalt, and ceramics1. Concrete mixture proportioning is a are given.

volumetric-packing problem. All existing methods of mixture

proportioning incorporate in some way an indirect measure Significance

of particle packing by approximating the aggregate The renewed interest in particle packing models, mentioned

proportions to an ideal gradation curve 2. However, the ideal above, is signified by several recent technical publications.

Packing density (φ) φ1 < φ2 < φ3

Porosity (ε) ε1 > ε2 > ε3

where,

φ = solid volume/total volume

ε = 1φ

have voids as shown in Fig 1(a), which in turn can be filled

with smaller particles, Fig 1(b), thereby reducing the voids or

increasing the packing density. This packing density in turn

can be further improved by introducing a third component

of still smaller size as shown in Fig 1(c) and so on. This concept

has been developed along different lines, giving rise to various

Fig 1 The concept of particle packing (after Johansen 1)

theories, which are classified next.

The Strategic Highway Research Programme (SHRP)

documentation includes two articles, which examine this topic The particle packing models may be categorised as: (a) discrete

in depth 5,6. models and (b) continuous models, as shown in Fig 2. These

models and the corresponding theoretical consideration are

The green concrete movement in Denmark has set a goal described in the following section.

on reducing the clinker content in concrete to 50 percent of

the consumption level prevailing in 1990 by the year 2012. In Discrete models

accordance with this declared intention, the ready mixed These refer to packing of systems containing two or more

concrete industry in Denmark is already supplying structural discrete size classes of particles. In this approach, the coarsest

grade concrete with ordinary portland cement (OPC) content particles form the base skeleton and its voids are filled by

as low as 140 kg/m3. The design of such concrete mixtures smaller particles and these in turn by finer particles and so

with low cement contents that are fit for structural purposes on, in the order of decreasing particle size. The fundamental

7

is based on optimal particle packing . Thus, the packing assumption of the discrete approach is that each class of

concept gives the concrete mixture designer an alternative particles will pack to its maximum density in the volume

tool. When these models are incorporated in user-friendly available9. The discrete models may be classified as

software, experimentation with trial mixtures can be reduced

to a minimum. (i) binary

(ii) ternary, and

Similar trends can be noticed in France, where work on

role of particle packing with respect to concrete properties (iii) multimodal mixture models, and are described in the

has been underway for the last two decades 8. following section.

Furnas model:

Studies on particle packing involve selection of appropriate 1

sizes and proportions of particulate materials to get suitable Furnas , considered the ideal packing of a mixture of two

combination for optimal packing, that is, materials:

(i) to understand how the given combination of particles (i) fine fraction of diameter d1 and volume fraction y1

pack in a system, with packing density φl and

calculating packing densities

and porosities of various

systems, and

(iii) their effect on the properties

of concrete9.

Concept of particle packing

Particle packing models seek to

select proper sizes and proportions

of small particles to fill larger voids.

The small particles in turn contain

smaller voids, that are filled with

smaller particles and so on, Fig 1.

Fig 2 Classification of particle packing models

(ii) coarse fraction of diameter d2 and volume fraction y2 smaller particles (diameter ratios > 0.22) will actually be too

with packing density φ2 . large to be situated within the interstices between the larger

particles. The result is a packing of the matrix that may be

Depending upon the volume fraction of fine and coarse

considered as (i) a mixture of packed areas mainly consisting

component, two cases may be considered:

of larger particles and (ii) packed areas that may mainly consist

(i) the volume fraction of small particles is large of smaller particles with larger particles distributed discretely

(y1 > > y2): This case is called Fine grain dominant throughout the matrix of smaller particles.

(ii) the volume fraction of coarse particles is large For a multi-component system, it is assumed that any

(y2 > > y1): This case is called Coarse grain dominant two components form binary mixtures. Then the packing

density for the total multi-component mixture is calculated

In this description, the diameters of the particles differed

by summation of the contribution from all the binary

and the smaller particles could be accommodated in the voids

mixtures.

between the larger particles. The model by Furnas is valid

only in the case of d 1<<d 2 (d 1 and d 2 being the particle Johansen et al and D.M. Roy et al used Toufar model in

diameters). If this condition is not fulfilled, the packing density their studies on particle packing with a few variations in the

of the binary mixtures will also depend on the diameter ratio procedure for determining the parameters of the model .

5,6

d1/d2 1.

Modified Toufar model

When the diameter d1≈d2, the interaction effects occur

Goltermann et al11 proposed a modification in Toufar model.

between the particles. These effects could be classified as

They also termed the packing degree factor of the individual

(a) wall effect and (b) loosening effect and are described below.

components (φ1 and φ2) as "eigen packing", which is calculated

Wall effect: When an isolated coarse particle is in the matrix according to the procedure mentioned in their work.

of fine aggregate, it disturbs the packing density of fine

Goltermann et al also compared the packing values

aggregate. There exist increased voids near the region of

suggested by Aim model, Toufar model and Modified Toufar

direct contact between the particles, Fig 3. This is termed

model to the experimental packing degree of the binary

as wall effect.

mixtures. They found that Toufar model, especially the

Loosening effect: When a fine particle is in the matrix of modified Toufar model, corresponded very well to the

coarse particles and the small particle is too large to fit measured packing degrees. Aim model did not fit the test

into the interstices of the coarse aggregate (d1≈d2), it results well. Ternary packing of particles was also studied,

disturbs the packing density of coarse particles. This will and a theoretical packing diagram was developed based on

increase the void ratio of the mixture and is termed as modified Toufar model to create the packing density contours.

loosening effect as shown in Fig 4.

Multi-component mixture models (De Larrard

Powers model: models)

10

Powers in his studies on particle packing took account of Linear packing density model (LPDM)

the above mentioned effect. He proposed an expression to Stovall et al proposed the Linear Packing Density Model

8

get the minimum void ratio of the binary mixture. (LPDM) . They claimed that LPDM showed good

performances in predicting optimal proportions of

Aim and Goff model: superplasticised cementitious materials 12.

Aim and Goff 1 proposed a simple geometrical model to

account for the excess porosity observed

experimentally in the first layer of

spherical grains in contact with a plane

and smooth wall, Fig 3. The work of Aim

and Goff addressed the wall effect and

suggested a correction factor when

calculating the packing density of binary

mixtures.

Toufar model

1

Toufar, Klose and Born extended the

binary mixture model to calculate the

packing density of ternary mixtures as

the weighted average of the total

number of binary mixtures for diameter

Fig 3 The wall effect at the interface Fig 4 The loosening effect caused

ratios 0.22 < d1/d2 <1.0. The fundamental

of the aggregate fractions (after by the fine grain particle (after De

concept of the Toufar model is that the Johansen 1 ) Larrard 2 )

Modified LPDM where,

Another extended application of LPDM has been by Glavind n = degree of an ideal curve equation

13

et al . They used the concept of Eigen packing to calculate Tn = is a coefficient, dependent on maximum size

the packing density. of aggregate and the exponent n.

Solid suspension model (SSM) Andreassen model

12

De Larrard and Sedran proposed the solid suspension model Andreassen worked on the size distribution for particle

(SSM) with some modification in LPDM. They concluded that packing with a continuous approach and proposed the

SSM is a valuable tool to optimise high packing density Andreassen equation for ideal packing. Although the

cementitious materials. The essential innovation is the approach is more theoretical, it partly represents an emprical

distinction between the actual packing density, φ, and virtual 15

theory of particle packing .

packing density, β the maximum packing density

achievable with a given mixture, by keeping each particle in Andreassen assumed that the smallest particles would be

its original shape and placed one by one of a mixture. It was infinitesimally small. Dinger and Funk recognised that the

also anticipated that the model would be suitable for finest particles in real materials are finite in size and modified

predicting the plastic viscosity of concentrated suspensions12. the Andreassen equation considering the minimum particle

size in the distribution. A modified model linking the

Compressible packing model (CPM) Andreassen and Furnas distributions was later developed

2

De Larrard presumed that the packing density of the mixtures and termed as AFDZ (Andreassen, Funk, Dinger and Zheng)

depends also on the process of the building of the packing, equation for dense packing 16.

such as compaction effort, and proposed the compressible

According to the Andreassen model,

packing model (CPM). This model was derived from the linear

packing model proposed by Lee and is independent of other d

q

models (that is, LPDM and SSM). He introduced the index K, CPFT = 100 (3)

D

to calculate actual packing density, φ, from virtual packing

density, β. According to the Modified Andreassen model,

In this model, the hypotheses that led to the definitions of (d − d0 )

q

the virtual packing density values are preserved. However, CPFT = 100 (4)

(D − d0 )

the empirical expressions to predict the values of the

interaction coefficients, namely, the wall effect coefficient

and loosening effect coefficient have been modified. He where,

also defined the two new concepts, that is, filling diagram CPFT = the cumulative (volume) percent finer than,

and segregation potential to characterise the mixtures.

d = the particle size,

Continuous models do = the minimum particle size of the distribution,

Continuous approach assumes that all possible sizes are D = the maximum particle size, and

present in the particle distribution system, that is, discrete q = the distribution coefficient or exponent.

approach having adjacent size classes ratios that approach

1:1 and no gaps exist between size classes. The exponent, q, in the Andreassen equation could be

varied form 0.21 to 0.37, depending upon the various

Fuller Thomson model workability requirements. If the exponent increases, it means

In 1907 Fuller and Thomson proposed the gradation curves an increase of the coarse materials, and if it decreases, the

for maximum density, which is well known as Fullers ideal 15

amount of the fine materials is increased . The exponent

curve. It is described by a simple equation: value, q, gives the indication of the finer fraction that could

be accommodated in the mixture. As the water demand and

n

d water holding capacity of the mixture is controlled by the

CPFT = 100 (1) volume of fines, this exponent gives a reasonable basis for

D

choosing the amount of water and rheology modifying agents

where,

like superplasticiser to be added to the mixture.

CPFT = cumulative (volume) percent finer than,

n = 0.5; the value of n was later revised to 0.45; The exponent value q = 0.25 to 0.3 may be taken for high

these curves find application in highway performance concrete and conventional concretes depending

pavement mixture design. upon the slump range. For highly flowable mixes like self-

compacting concretes, q < 0.23 may be taken, and for roller

The above expression was recently modified by compacted concrete, q > 0.32 may be taken.

14

Shakhmenko and Birsh for concrete mixture proportioning

as follows: Rosin-Rammler Model

The characteristic diameters of the particle size distributions

CPFT = Tn (di-d0)n (2) for the components of concrete were shown to be adequately

Table 1: Consolidated view of the particle packing studies Summary of particle packing

SNo Year Models Packing system Effect on packing studies

Binary Ternary Multi- Wall Loosening Compaction

modal effect effect effect There has been increased interest towards the

Discrete approach use of particle packing models for scientific

1 1929 Furnas • mixture proportioning of concrete. Table 1

2 1967 Aim and Goff •

3 1969 Powers • •

summarises the similarities and differences

4 1977 Toufar, Klose & Born • • • between the various particle packing models.

5 1986 LPDM • • • Out of these theories some find application for

6 1994 SSM • •

7 1997 Modified Toufar • • •

concrete mixture proportioning in the form of

8 1999 CPM • • • • software tools. These are listed in Table 2.

9 2000 Modified LPDM • • • •

Continuous approach Simulations to assess the packing

1 1907 Fuller and Thomson • characteristics has been developed based on

2 1930 Andreassen •

3 1997 Modified Andreassen • static simulation system by Bentz et al and some

system based on dynamic simulation system

such as SPACE (software package for the

described by the D from the Rosin-Rammler equation 6 which assessment of compositional evaluation) by Stroeven et al17.

is written as:

When the number of monosize fractions incorporated in

n

a mixture is gradually increased, the over all granulometry

−D seems to tend towards a continuous distribution.

R (D) = exp (5)

D'

Example of the mixture design approach

where,

using particle packing model

R(D) = the residue fraction (percentage passing)

To demonstrate the application of the particle packing models

D = diameter to the mixture design of various concretes, the software

20

D = characteristic diameter LISA based on Andreassen model is considered because

of its relevance, simplicity and availability. A detailed

n = constant, ranging from 1.04 - 4, usually

between 1 and 2.

Johansen et al5, D M Roy et al6, and Goltermann et al11 have

used this equation for finding out the characteristic diameter

of the distribution for calculating the packing density of the

mixtures in their discrete approach.

Software Name Theory / Model Source

EUROPACK Modified Toufar model www.gmic.dk 18

19

RENE-LCPC De Larrard models Ciks.cbt.nist.gov

13

4 C packing Modified LPDM www.danishtechnology.dk

LISA Andreassen models www.silicafume.net 20

validation of model

3

Ingredients, kg/m Mix A Mix B

Standard sand (G-1) 541 341

Standard sand (G-2) 541 341

Standard sand (G-3) 541 341

Crushed sand (correction) - 341

Cement, (OPC) 541 541

Quartz powder (inert filler) - 150

Micro silica - 60

Water 216 216

SP (PCE) 2 4

w/c 0.40 0.40

w/p 0.40 0.29 Fig 5 Ideal grading curve for q = 0.27 and actual overall

Flow spread, percent 60 60 particle size distribution for the (a) mix A and (b) mix B

Table 4: Proportions of various particulate ingredients Mix B. The mixture design details are given in Table 3.

3

Ingredients, kg/m HSC HPC SCC

The flow table spread diameter value at 25 blows was

Coarse aggregate (< 20 mm) 565 520 -

kept constant at 60 percent by adding polycarboxylic ether

Coarse aggregate (< 10 mm) 545 530 748 (PCE) based admixture.

Fine aggregate (< 4.75 mm) 900 868 870

Cement (OPC 53 grade) 270 360 320 The appearance of the ideal gradation curve against the

actual overall gradation curve for Mix A and Mix B is shown

Inert filler (quartz) 55 - -

in Fig 5. It can be seen in Fig 5 that the reference gradation

Fly ash - - 220 curve (smooth curve) is the modified Andreassen curve and

Micro silica 30 42 - the actual overall particle size distribution curve is the irregular

Water 120 144 180 curve. This is adjusted to fit the reference curve to the closest

extent possible by altering the inputs by trial and error.

Superplasticiser- PCE, l 5 8.25(SNF) 2.12

Viscosity modifier, l - - 0.375 The results of compressive strength of the two mortar

Exponent (q) 0.26 0.27 0.22 mixture are shown in Fig 7. The value shown is the average

Workability - slump, mm 100 100 690 (Flow) strength of three 7 cm cube specimens.

Test results

It may be noted that from Table 3, the w/c of 0.4 is kept

Compressive strength, MPa constant for both Mix A and Mix B; only the gradation of Mix

3-day 42 47 14 B is adjusted to fit the Andreassen curve. It is observed from

7-day 63 63 21 Fig 6 that a strength increase of about 28-30 percent could be

achieved at all ages for Mix B. A comparison of Figs 5 (a) and

28-day 83 78 41

(b) and the examination of the increase in compressive

RCPT, coulombs - 350 1296 strengths, Fig 6, due to the altered proportions of the mortar,

HSC: High strength concrete; HPC: High performance concrete; SCC: Self compacting by filling the missing fractions showed that the model by

concrete; RCPT: Rapid chloride permeability test.

Andreassen may lead to optimal mixture proportions.

description of the method of mix design using this software Application in concrete

is given in the user manual of LISA. For this study, the

The mixture designs for high strength, high performance

modified Andreassen model was chosen.

and self compacting concrete are illustrated below.

Application in mortar

High strength concrete (HSC)

To demonstrate the modified Andreassen model for concrete

High strength concrete could be designed at low cement

application, a pilot trial on cement mortar was conducted.

content with proper selection of the ingredients. A typical

The proportions used for the testing of compressive strength

mixture proportion of high strength concrete is given in

of cement mortar as per IS 4031 : 1996 21 were used to design

column 2 of Table 4. The modified Andreassen ideal gradation

the reference mix and denoted as Mix A. Then the missing

curve for q = 0.26 and the actual overall gradation is shown in

zones of particles in the particle gradation were adjusted using

Fig 7(a).

crushed sand, quartz powder and micro silica and denoted as

High performance concrete (HPC)

High performance concrete requires the usage of

supplementary cementitious materials. A typical mixture

proportioning using micro silica with the aid of modified

Andreassen model with exponent q = 0.27 and the combined

gradation that could be managed with given materials are

shown in Fig 7(b). The details of the mixture proportions are

given in column 3 of Table 4.

Self-compacting concrete is highly flowable and is very

sensitive to overall gradation and the water content. A typical

mixture proportion of SCC is given in column 4 of Table 4.

The ideal gradation for q = 0.22 and the combined grading

obtained with available material are shown in Fig 7(c).

Test results

The results of compressive strength, conducted as per IS 516

Fig 6 Comparison of strength between Mix A and Mix B

: 1959 22 and rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT), as per

Summary

The following can be summarised from the above review.

general and their application to proportioning of

concrete mixtures has been considered in particular.

These models can be classified as discrete models and

continuous models.

takes into account of both wall effect and loosening

effect. Several modifications and extensions of Toufar

model are available mainly to account for the observed

results

researchers, especially De Larrard. The latest models

from them have moved away from conventional

packing density to virtual packing density

curve in terms of particle diameter 'd' and quotient 'q'

as in Andreassen model

and a software LISA based on Andreassen model

to four different cases of concrete mixture

proportioning were presented

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Mr S. Subramanian, formerly joint

general manager, R&D and Dr B. Sivarama Sarma, assistant

general manager, R&D of Larsen and Toubro Limited - ECC,

Chennai for their valuable contributions.

References

1. ANDERSEN, P .J. and JOHANSEN, V. Particle packing and concrete properties,

Material Science of Concrete: II, 1991, Skalny J and Mindess S (Edited), The

American Ceramic Society, Inc., Westerville, Ohio. pp. 111 -147.

E & FN Spon, London.

4. ROY, D.M., SCHEETZ, B.E. and SILSBEE, M.R. Processing of optimised cements and

Fig 7 Ideal grading curve and actual overall particle size concretes via particle packing, MRS Bulletin, March 1993, pp 45-49.

distribution for (a) high strength concrete (b) high

performance concrete (c) self compacting concrete 5. ANDERSEN, P.J. and JOHANSEN, V. A guide to determining the optimal gradation

of concrete aggregates, SHRP- C- 334, Strategic Highway Research Program,

Washington, 1993.

ASTM C1202-97 23 are presented in Table 3. From Table 3, it is

observed that a high strength concrete of compressive 6. ROY, D.M., SCHEETZ, B.E., MALEK R.I.A. and SHI, D. Concrete components packing

strength 83 MPa at 28 days could be produced with a low handbook, SHRP-C-624, Strategic Highway Research Program, Washington,

cement content of 270 kg/m3. It is also possible to produce a 1993.

high performance concrete with compressive strength of 78

MPa and RCPT values of 350 coulombs at 28 days. Also, self- 7. GLAVIND, M. and MUNCH-PETERSEN, C. Green concrete in Denmark, Structural

Concrete, March 2000, Vol 1, No 1, pp 19-25.

compacting concrete of 69 cm flow could be produced. Thus

use of particle packing model appears to give a reasonable 8. STOVALL, T., DE LARRARD, F. and BUIL, M. Linear packing density model of grain

basis for selecting mixture proportions for special concretes, mixtures, Powder Technology, September 1986, Vol 48, No 1, pp 1-12.

namely, high strength/high performance and self-compacting

concrete. 9. DINGER, D.R. and FUNK, J.E. Particle-packing phenomenon and their application in

materials processing, MRS Bulletin, December 1997, pp 19-23.

10. POWERS, T.C., The Properties of Concrete, Wiley & Sons, New York, 1968. 21. ______Methods of physical test for hydraulic cement, IS 4031 : 1996, Bureau of

Indian Standards, New Delhi.

11. GOLTERMANN P., JOHANSEN, V., and PALBOL, L. Packing of aggregates: an

alternative tool to determine the optimal aggregate mix, ACI Material Journal, 22. ______Methods of tests for strength of concrete, IS 516 : 1959, Bureau of Indian

September-October 1997, Vol 94, No 5, pp 435-443. Standards, New Delhi.

12. DE LARRARD, F and SEDRAN, T, Optimization of ultra-high performance 23. ______Standard test method for electrical indication of concretes ability to resist

concrete by the use of a packing model, Cement and Concrete Research, 1994, chloride ion penetration, ASTM C 1202 - 97, American Society for Testing

Vol 24, pp 997-1009. Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 2002.

Mr Senthil Kumar V obtained his post-graduate

14. SHAKHMENKO, G. and BIRSH, J. Concrete mix design and optimization, Second degree from Indian Institute of Technology Madras,

International symposium in civil engineering, Budapest, 1998, pp 1-8. Chennai. Presently, he is working as an engineer in

15. BANERJEE, S. Monolithic Refractories A Comprehensive Handbook,1998, The

the R&D department with Larsen & Toubro Limited

American Ceramic Society, Ohio, USA. ECC division, Chennai.

16. REED, J. S. Principles of Ceramics Processing (Second edition), John Wiley & Sons

Inc, New York, 1995. Dr Manu Santhanam is an assistant professor in

the building technology and construction

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management division in department of civil

at interfaces by SPACE system, Image Anal Stereol, Vol 19, 2000 pp 85-90.

engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras,

18. ______www.gmic.dk, G. M. Idorn Consultants. Chennai. He obtained his doctorate from Purdue

University, USA. He has more than two years of

19. ______Ciks.cbt.nist.gov, National Institute of Standards and Technology. industrial experience in R&D (chemical admixtures) for Sika

20. ______www.silicafume.net, Elkem AS.

Corporation, USA. His areas of interest are high performance

cement-based materials and durability of concrete.

Lab Incharge Bhageeratha Engg. Ltd Mr Subimal Sengupta

Atlanta Infrastructure Ltd N H 6, WB III Project Dy Manager Technical Services

C/o Raj Kumar Mourya Kolaghat Post, Flat No.A1004

E-2/168, Vinay Khand 2 Midnapore Dist 721 134 Maruti Paradise Co Op Hsg Soc

Post Gomti nagar Sector 15, CBD Belapur

Lucknow 226 010 Navi Mumbai 400 614

Mr H K Sengupta

General Manager

Mr S Mahadevan/Mr B N Reddy Development Consultants Mr Punumalli Srinivasa Rao

Grasim Industries Ltd 3rd Floor, Sahyog Sr Site Engr

RMC Division 58, Nehru Place 23-158, NEC Ltd

102, 2A, 2B, Harlur Village New Delhi 110 019 Maruthi Nagar-IV th Line

Vartur, Hobali, Koramangala Post Narasannapet Post

Bangalore South Srikakulam Dist 532 421

VSL India Pvt Ltd Andhra Pradesh

1st Floor, Unit A

The Area Manager Rajah Annamalai Bldg Annexe Er A Vasan

Fosroc Chemicals (I) Ltd 18/3, Rukmini Lakshmipathi Road Chit Sabha Builders

5A/2, Classic Moon Egmore, Chennai 600 008 5/36, Bharathiyar Street

2nd Floor, Old palasia Karur 639 001

Indore 452 001

Mr H K Pranbhakar Mr Dilip Kumar

Mr Shailendra Kolhe BMS Businees Centre C/o S Paul Choudhury Contractor

Manas, 20B, New Swastik Nagar 10, Plaza Cinema Bldg & Engineers Concern

Badnera Road, Amravati 444 605 Connaught Place Church Road, Silchar 788 004

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