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INTRODUCTION

‘Alarm For Monotonous Work’ project is basically used for power saving.
This circuit alerts the person doing monotonous work after a fixed interval of
time by sounding an alarm and keeps him awake.

A provision for resetting the alarm is also provided which restarts the
timer again. If the person is not present at the place or he is asleep then the
circuit will not be interrupted by the manual reset and thus the load (lights)
connected to the circuit will be turned OFF automatically.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Fig. 1

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WORKING AND ANALYSIS
1. CLOCK GENERATOR

Fig. 2

Point A: 5.8 V clock voltage

24 mA clock current

Fig. 2 shows clock generator circuit made by using two NAND gates of IC
CD4093 with two RC networks. Here, the variable resistors VR1 and VR2
provide variable output clock frequency range at pin no.4 of IC CD4093 through
diode D2. Diode D2 avoids the flow of reverse current.

Time Period (T) = 1.38 × R × C

Where, R = R1 + VR1

Thus, T = 1.38 × (R1 + VR1) × C


1
Frequency (f) =
𝑇

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2. COUNTER CIRCUIT

Fig. 3

Voltage before 30 After 30 min.


Pin no. Current
min. delay delay

9 11.64 V 6.5 V 1.5 to 7.8 mA


5 11.64 V 6.5 V 1.5 to 7.8 mA
3 11.64 V 6.5 V 1.5 to 7.8 mA
13 11.64 V 6.5 V 1.5 to 7.8 mA

IC CD4020 is 14 stage ripple counter IC which works on the clock signal


coming from IC CD4093. Here clock is given to pin no. 10. In this IC each flip-
flop divides the clock frequency by 2𝑛 , where n is the nth no. of flipflop in the
counter. The fig. 4 shows the output waveform of each flip-flop.

Diode D3 is the feedback diode which provides constant voltage to the


clock input of counter when counter is not reseted. Thus the counting stops.

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Output waveforms of IC CD4020

Fig. 4

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The table 1 as below shows the frequency and time delay of each flip-flop
output.

Calculation
Pin No. 𝒇𝒊𝒏 Frequency Time
fout = 𝟐𝒏

4.55
Q1 4.55 Hz 0.2 sec
20
4.55
Q2 2.275 Hz 0.44 sec
21
4.55
Q3 1.1375 Hz 0.87 sec
22
4.55
Q4 0.57 Hz 1.76 sec
23
4.55
Q5 0.28 Hz 3.52 sec
24
4.55
Q6 0.14 Hz 7.03 sec
25
4.55
Q7 0.07 Hz 14.06 sec
26
4.55
Q8 0.035 Hz 28.13 sec
27
4.55
Q9 0.017 Hz 56.26 sec
28
4.55
Q10 8.88 mHz 1.52 min
29
4.55
Q11 4.44 mHz 3.45 min
210
4.55
Q12 2.22 mHz 7.30 min
211
4.55
Q13 1.11 mHz 15 min
212
4.55
Q14 0.555 mHz 30 min
213
Table 1

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3. INDICATOR CIRCUIT

Fig. 5

Point A: 0.67 V, 2.3 to 7.8 mA

Point B: 0.67 V, 2.3 to 7.8 mA

Point C: 0.67 V, 2.3 to 7.8 mA

Here three transistor circuit is used for avoiding annoying sound of buzzer
and it provides beeping action. In this circuit, firstly T1 turns on, then T2 and
lastly T3 after certain respective time delay as shown in table 1. When all three
transistors turn ON, then the buzzer will be grounded and starts beeping.

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4. RESET CIRCUIT

Fig. 6

Point A: Reset voltage = 11.3 V

Reset circuit is connected to pin no.11 of IC CD4020. When switch S1 is


pressed the capacitor C1 discharges through it and pin no. 11 gets high pulse
thus the counter is reseted. Capacitor C4 holds negative charge on pin no.11
which helps to avoid unwanted resetting of counter.

Diode D1 avoids reverse flow of current.

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5. SWITCHING CIRCUIT

Fig. 7

Point A: 11.08 V

Point B: 0.76 V

Point C: 27.8 mA

After 1min. delay transistor T4 turns ON and relay gets activated and
then switching action is performed. Diode D4 is freewheeling diode. Initially load
is connected to the NC of relay and switching action of relay turns OFF the load.

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ADVANTAGES
• This circuit helps in energy conservation.
• For safety such as in cars.
• Can be used as an alarm which will give alert after a particular interval of
time while doing monotonous work.

APPLICATIONS
• This alarm can be used by the students during night studies.

• This alarm helps to keep drivers awake those travels during night.

• It can be also used by security guards.

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Conclusion

This circuit alerts the person performing monotonous work by sounding an


alarm after a fixed interval of time. If the circuit is not interrupted it switches
OFF the load and thus saves electricity.

The time interval can be changed as per our requirement by changing the
values of variable resistors in the clock generator circuit.

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COMPONENT LIST
 IC
CD4020, CD4093
 Relay
12V 1A
 Resistors
4.7Ω, 22KΩ, 10KΩ, 22KΩ Pot
 Diodes
1N4148, 1N4001
 Transistors
BC 547
 Capacitors
0.1µF, 1000µF 35V, 10µF 25V
 Push to ON switch
 Piezo-electric Buzzer

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PROJECT ESTIMATE

Sr. No. Component Quantity Cost(Rs.)

1. IC CD4020 1 12

2. IC CD4093 1 10

3. Relay 12V,1A 1 15

4. Diode 1N4001 2 2

5. Diode 1N4148 2 2

6. Transistor BC547 4 8

7. Potentiometer 22K 2 20
Resistor
 4.7K 2
8. 7
 22K 3
 10K 2
Capacitor
 1000uF, 25V 1
9. 15
 0.1uF 1
 10uF, 25V 2
10. Push to ON switch 1 3

11. Buzzer 1 20
IC base
12.  16 pin 1 7
 14 pin 1
13. PCB 1 40

14. Connecting Wires 1 40

Total 30 201

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PCB LAYOUT

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DATASHEETS
1. IC CD4020

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2. IC CD4093

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3. Transistor BC547

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REFERENCES
 http://www.electronicsforu.com/electronicsforu/circuitarchives/view_article
.asp?sno=62&article_type=1&id=463&tt=unhot
 http://pdf.datasheetcatalog.com/datasheets/90/109006_DS.pdf
 http://pdf.datasheetcatalog.com/datasheets/90/109357_DS.pdf
 http://pdf.datasheetcatalog.com/datasheet/MicroElectronics/mXuwzwr.pdf

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Project Group Members and
Guide

_____________________________________________
“ALARM FOR MONOTONOUS WORK"

Breadboard Final Assembled Structure

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