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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

[Metric Edition of ANSI/AGMA 6013--A06]


Reaffirmed April 2011

American National Standard

Standard for Industrial


Enclosed Gear Drives
(Metric Edition)
ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06
Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition)
American ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06
National Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the require-
Standard ments for due process, consensus, and other criteria for approval have been met by the
standards developer.
Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review,
substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests.
Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily una-
nimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a
concerted effort be made toward their resolution.
The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not
in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not, from
manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not
conforming to the standards.
The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no
circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no
person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National
Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpre-
tation of this standard should be addressed to the American Gear Manufacturers
Association.
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision, or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the As-
sociation on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See
ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition),
published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street,
Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]
Approved April 26, 2006
ABSTRACT
This standard includes design, rating, lubrication, testing and selection information for enclosed gear drives,
including foot mounted, shaft mounted, screw conveyor drives and gearmotors. These drives may include spur,
helical, herringbone, double helical, or bevel gearing in single or multistage arrangements and wormgearing in
multistage drives, as either parallel, concentric or right angle configurations.
Published by
American Gear Manufacturers Association
500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright  2006 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN: 1--55589--823--8

ii
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Contents
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3 Symbols and terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4 Application and design considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
5 Unit rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
6 Gear rating criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
7 Thermal power rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8 Component design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9 Service factors and application classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
10 Overhung load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11 Lubrication and lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
12 Sound and vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
13 Assembly and shaft rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
14 Ratios and output speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
15 Sizes, designations and ratios for AGMA standard size shaft mounted gear
drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
16 Screw conveyor drive dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
17 Marking and identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
18 Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
19 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Annexes
A Service factors and application classification numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
B Keys and keyways for shaft extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
C Test and inspection procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
D Owner responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
E Screw conveyor drive dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
F Illustrative examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
G Recommended bore sizes for AGMA standard size shaft mounted drives . . 55
H Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Figures
1 Shaft rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2 Parallel shaft spur, helical and herringbone gear drives, single or multiple
stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3 Horizontal bevel gear drives, single stage; horizontal bevel -- helical
drives, multiple stage; horizontal worm -- helical drives, multiple stage . . . . . 21
4 Vertical bevel gear drives, single stage; vertical bevel -- helical drives,
multiple stage; vertical worm -- helical drives, multiple stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5 Standard designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Tables
1 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Shaft diameter tolerances for metric shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3 Shaft diameter tolerances for inch shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4 Service factor, KSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5 Overhung load factor, Koh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6 Viscosity grade requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7 Viscosity grade guidelines for enclosed helical, herringbone, straight bevel,
spiral bevel, and spur gear drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8 Viscosity grade guidelines for enclosed cylindrical wormgear drives . . . . . . . 17
9 Viscosity grade guidelines for enclosed double enveloping wormgear
drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10 Output speeds for preferred ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
11 Standard sizes and maximum bores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
12 Nominal ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Standard
6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]
This standard revises, combines and supersedes two previous independent standards,
ANSI/AGMA 6009--A00, Standard for Gearmotors, Shaft Mounted and Screw Conveyor
Drives, and ANSI/AGMA 6010--F97, Standard for Spur, Helical, Herringbone and Bevel
Enclosed Drives. The history of these standards have their roots in:
-- AGMA 420.04, Practice for Enclosed Speed Reducers or Increasers Using Spur,
Helical, Herringbone and Spiral Bevel Gears
-- AGMA 460.05, Practice for Gearmotors Using Spur, Helical, Herringbone and
Spiral Bevel Gears
-- AGMA 480.06, Practice for Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear Shaft--Mounted
Speed Reducers
ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 presents general guidelines and practices for design, rating and
lubrication of parallel, concentric and right angle shaft drives. It includes foot mounted, shaft
mounted, screw conveyor drives and gearmotors. It includes the available data, gear
technology, and operational experience.
The comprehensive thermal rating procedure has been removed but is included by
reference to AGMA ISO 14179--1.
This standard reflects the consolidation of “Enclosed Drives”, to include gearmotors, shaft
mounted and screw conveyor drives, into a single document.
The allowable stress numbers used in this standard are derived from ANSI/AGMA
2101--D04, Fundamental Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and
Helical Gear Teeth, and, along with other rating factors, provide a rating basis for enclosed
gear reducers and increasers. The rating formulas are based on many years of experience
in the design and application of enclosed gear drives for industrial use. Provisions are
included in this standard for using stress cycle factors other than 1.0 to adjust the rating for
extended or reduced life. Using a stress cycle adjustment factor does not guarantee a
certain number of life hours or stress cycles, but is a method of approximating gear life under
different load and speed conditions.
The competence to design enclosed gear drives, especially the knowledge and judgment
required to properly evaluate the various rating factors, comes primarily from years of
experience in designing, testing, manufacturing and operating similar gear drives. The
proper application of the general rating formulas for enclosed gear drives is best
accomplished by those experienced in the field.
The first draft of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 was made in November, 2000. It was approved by
the AGMA membership in March, 2006. It was approved as an American National Standard
on April 25, 2006.
Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved v


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Enclosed Drives for Industrial Applications Committee


Chairman: Richard W. Holzman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Innovative Gearing Solutions, LLC
Vice Chairman: Gary A. DeLange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hansen Transmissions

ACTIVE MEMBERS

S.E. Bond, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ace Engineering, Inc.


C. Burriss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amarillo Gear Company
R.L. Cragg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steward Machine Company
M. Konruff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Falk Corporation
P. Patel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rockwell Automation/Dodge
T. Praneis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cotta Transmission Company, LLC
M. Shows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lufkin Industries, Inc.
T. Youngblood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brevini USA, Inc.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

American National Standard -- 2 Normative references

The following documents contain provisions which,


Standard for Industrial through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
this standard. At the time of publication, the editions
Enclosed Gear Drives were valid. All publications are subject to revision,
and the users of this standard are encouraged to
(Metric Edition) investigate the possibility of applying the most recent
editions of the publications listed.
AGMA 908--B89, Geometry Factors for Determin-
ing the Pitting Resistance and Bending Strength of
Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear Teeth
AGMA ISO 14179--1, Gear Reducers -- Thermal
1 Scope Capacity Based on ISO/TR 14179--1
ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95, Appearance of Gear Teeth
-- Terminology of Wear and Failure
This standard is applicable to enclosed gear drives
ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05, Gear Nomenclature,
including configurations of parallel, concentric and
Definitions of Terms with Symbols
right angle shafts. It includes foot mounted, shaft
mounted, screw conveyor drives and gearmotors. ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04, Fundamental Rating
These enclosed drives utilize spur, helical, herring- Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur
and Helical Gear Teeth
bone, double helical, or bevel gearing in single or
multistage, and may include wormgearing in multi- ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, Rating the Pitting
stage drives. Bevel gear drives may include shaft Resistance and Bending Strength of Generated
angles other than 90 degrees. Straight Bevel, Zerol Bevel, and Spiral Bevel Gear
Teeth
1.1 Limitations ANSI/AGMA 6000--B96, Specification for
Measurement of Linear Vibration on Gear Units
This standard is applicable to gear drives having
single or multiple stage gearing with pitch line ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97, Design and Selection of
velocities not exceeding 35 m/s for spur, helical, and Components for Enclosed Gear Drives
spiral bevel gearing and 30 m/s for straight bevel, ANSI/AGMA 6025--D98, Sound for Enclosed
spiral bevel and wormgearing, and component Helical, Herringbone, and Spiral Bevel Gear Drives
speeds not exceeding 4500 rpm for helical, spur, ANSI/AGMA 6034--B92, Practice for Enclosed
straight bevel and spiral bevel gearing and 3600 rpm Cylindrical Wormgear Speed Reducers and Gear-
for wormgearing. Wormgearing operating at sliding motors
velocities greater than 10 m/s may require special
ANSI/AGMA 6135--A02, Design, Rating and Ap-
lubricants, pressurized systems or both.
plication of Industrial Globoidal Wormgearing (Met-
1.2 Exceptions ric Edition)
ANSI/AGMA 9002--A86, Bores and Keyways for
This standard does not cover epicyclic or crossed-- Flexible Couplings (Inch Series)
helical gear drives. This standard does not cover the
ANSI/AGMA 9005--E02, Industrial Gear Lubrication
rating of spur, helical or bevel gears due to wear or
scuffing. The design and rating of the electric motor ANSI B17.1 -- 1967, Keys and Keyseats
is beyond the scope of this standard. This standard ISO R773:1969, Rectangular or Square Parallel
does not apply to gear drives that are covered by Keys and their Corresponding Keyways
other specific AGMA application standards. (Dimensions in Millimeters)

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ISO/TR 10495:1997, Cylindrical gears -- Calcula- 3.2.1 Gearmotors


tion of service life under variable loads -- Conditions
for cylindrical gears according to ISO 6336
A gearmotor is defined as an enclosed gear drive in
combination with an electric motor of 0.1 kW or
3 Symbols and terms larger, the frame of one supporting the other, with the
motor shaft common or directly coupled to the input
shaft and parallel, concentric, or at a right angle to
3.1 Symbols
the output shaft. The output shaft may be either solid
The symbols used in this standard are shown in or hollow.
table 1.
NOTE: The symbols and terms contained in this docu- 3.2.2 Shaft mounted drives
ment may vary from those used in other AGMA
standards. Users of this standard should assure them-
selves that they are using these symbols and terms in A shaft mounted drive is defined as an enclosed gear
the manner indicated herein.
drive that is supported by the driven shaft and a
3.2 Terms torque reaction member. A specific type of hollow
The terms used, wherever applicable, conform to shaft mount drive is further defined in clause 15.
ANSI/AGMA 1012--G05, Gear Nomenclature, Other shaft mounted drives exist and are also
Definitions of Terms with Symbols. covered by this standard.
Table 1 -- Symbols
Where
Symbol Term Units first used
dp Pitch diameter of element on shaft mm Eq 2
KA Overload factor, bevel gears -- -- 6.1.2
KH Load distribution factor -- -- 6.1.1.2
KHma Mesh alignment factor -- -- 6.1.1.2
Ko Overload factor, spur and helical gears -- -- 6.1.1
Koh Overhung load factor -- -- Eq 2
KSF Service factor -- -- Table 4
Kv Dynamic factor -- -- 6.1.1.1
Kθ Temperature factor, bevel gears -- -- 6.1.2
PA Application power kW Eq 1
Pay Allowable transmitted power for bending strength kW 6.2
Paz Allowable transmitted power for pitting resistance kW 6.1
Pmc Minimum component power rating kW Eq 1
PT Thermal power rating kW 5.3
Qv Transmission accuracy level number -- -- 6.1.1.1
SF Safety factor for bending strength -- -- 6.2.1
SH Safety factor for pitting resistance -- -- 6.1.1
T Transmitted shaft torque Nm Eq 2
Woc Effective overhung load N Eq 2
YN Stress cycle factor for bending strength, spur and helical gears -- -- 6.1.1.3
YNT Stress cycle factor for bending strength, bevel gears -- -- 6.2.2.1
YZ Reliability factor -- -- 6.1.1
Yθ Temperature factor, spur and helical gears -- -- 6.1.1
ZN Stress cycle factor for pitting, spur and helical gears -- -- 6.1.1.3
ZNT Stress cycle factor for pitting, bevel gears -- -- 6.1.2.1
ZR Surface condition factor -- -- 6.1.1
ZZ Reliability factor, bevel gears -- -- 6.1.2
σs Allowable yield stress number N/mm2 5.4

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

3.2.3 Screw conveyor drives WARNING: For momentary torques in excess of


200%, stall conditions, and low number of stress cycles
A screw conveyor drive is defined as a gear drive the gear drive should be evaluated to assure the user of
with specific mounting and drive shaft dimensions in this standard that these conditions do not exceed the
accordance with this standard. yield strength of any component.

3.2.4 Foot mounted drives Some applications may require selecting a gear
drive with increased unit rating in order to accommo-
A foot mounted drive is defined as an enclosed drive date adverse effects of environmental conditions,
supported by mounting feet or lugs incorporated into thermal capacity of the unit, external loading, or any
the gearcase. Flange mounted and face mounted combination of these factors such as overhung,
drives are considered variations of foot mounted transverse and thrust loads.
drives.
4.2 Rating factors

The allowable stress numbers for gear tooth ratings


4 Application and design considerations and the allowable stresses for component ratings
are maximum allowable values. Less conservative
values for these and other rating factors shall not be
The knowledge and judgement required to evaluate
used unless expressly permitted in this standard.
the various rating factors comes from years of
Material properties, manufacturing considerations
accumulated experience in designing, manufactur-
or experience may indicate that more conservative
ing and operating gear units. Empirical factors given
rating factors be used.
in this standard are general in nature. This standard
is intended for use by the experienced gear designer, 4.3 System analysis
capable of selecting reasonable values for the
factors. It is not intended for use by the engineering This standard assumes that within the operating
public at large. speed range, the system of connected rotating parts
is compatible and free from critical speeds and
Unit rating is based on the mechanical rating of all torsional or other types of vibration, no matter how
gear drive components determined with a unity induced. The gear drive designer or manufacturer is
service factor. In some applications, it may be not responsible for the system analysis.
necessary to select or design the drive to account for
unusual application requirements which may 4.4 Metallurgical considerations for cold
include: temperature operation

-- reduced or increased reliability; If units are to be operated below --30 C, care must
be given to select materials which have adequate
-- extended or shortened life;
impact properties at the operating temperature.
-- intermittent operation; Consideration should be given to:
-- increased thermal capacity; -- low temperature impact strength;
-- increased external load capacity. -- fracture appearance transition or nil ductility tem-
4.1 Momentary load perature specification for impact testing;

Gear drives designed and selected in accordance -- reducing carbon content to less than 0.4 percent;
with this standard permit the following peak load -- use of higher nickel alloy steels.
conditions:
4.5 Inertia effects
-- each peak shall not exceed 200 percent of the
unit rating (service factor or application classifi- Normally, in designing a gear drive which may be
cation, KSF = 1.0); used in a variety of applications, a manufacturer
cannot anticipate what magnitude of inertias will be
-- a limited number of peak stress cycles, typically incorporated into the final system application. When
less than 104.
sizing a gear drive for an application, the effects of
For applications exceeding these conditions an system inertia should be considered to ensure
appropriate service factor should be selected. adequate performance of the gear drive.

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

The service factors and class numbers in annex A for 5 Unit rating
normal applications take some of these inertia
effects into account in their values. Throughout this standard the term “unit rating” is
The prime mover, gear drive, and driven equipment defined as the maximum power that can be trans-
inertias must be considered when performing an mitted without exceeding the lowest individual rating
analysis and should be considered during accelera- of the following:
tion and deceleration. -- gearing;

4.5.1 Large motor inertia -- small driven inertia -- housing;


-- shafting;
In starting, most of the torque generated by the
motor is used to accelerate the motor rotor which -- keys;
results in relatively low loads on the gear drive. -- bearings;

Sudden stops of the driven inertia result in high -- threaded fasteners;


shock loads on the gear drive due to the rapid -- motor connection for gearmotors;
deceleration of the large motor inertia. -- any other component of the basic gear drive and
4.5.2 Small motor inertia -- large driven inertia auxiliary systems.
The effects of both torque and external loads at the
In starting, most of the torque generated by a motor peak load conditions shall be considered. Pitting
with high starting torque characteristics passes resistance, bending strength and wormgear durabili-
through the gear drive to accelerate the driven ty ratings for all gearing are to be in accordance with
equipment, resulting in high loads on the gear drive. the appropriate reference standard.
Sudden stops result in high loads on the driven 5.1 External loading
equipment. There is a lesser effect passed through
External loads shall be considered as acting in
the gear drive due to the relatively low motor inertia.
directions and rotations producing the most unfavor-
4.5.3 Other inertia considerations able conditions of stress and life, unless more
specific information is available. The allowable
The gear drive contributes significantly to the external loads, overhung load and thrust load shall
dynamics of the system and should be taken into be based upon the weakest of shafts, bearings,
account when designing the system. The inertial housings, bearing retainers, bolts or other related
effects referred across the gear drive are a function components. These components shall allow for
of the square of the ratio. momentary peak loads of 200 percent of the unit
When designing a system, if these effects are rating. The manufacturer should be consulted when
considered in the early stages, it may be possible to overhung and thrust loads occur simultaneously.
design the system to accommodate likely operating The allowable overhung load values shall be accom-
conditions. For example, if a system is to be started panied by stipulation of the load center location at
frequently, it may be possible to select a motor with which the value is applicable. The load center is
high inertia, or if a system is expected to encounter usually designated as one shaft diameter measured
frequent jams, a small motor inertia may be pre- outward from the face of the housing or housing
ferred. Other considerations may be to include a component, or at the center of the shaft keyway.
flywheel in the system, increase the service factor, or
5.2 Efficiency
torsionally soften the system.
Gear drive efficiency is dependent upon such things
4.6 Additional application and design as:
considerations
-- operating speed;
For additional application and design consider- -- oil viscosity, level and type;
ations, such as metallurgy, residual stress and
manufacturing tolerances, refer to ANSI/AGMA -- pitch line velocity;
2101--D04. -- bearing type;

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

-- applied loads; lesser of Paz or Pay, as defined in this standard,


-- gear design; becomes Pmc in equation 1 (see 6.1 and 6.2).

-- internal space constraints; 5.4 Momentary overloads

-- oil seal style and quantity; When the enclosed drive is subjected to infrequent
momentary overloads, stall conditions and low--
-- number of gear meshes;
cycle fatigue (less than 100 cycles), the conditions
-- shaft driven accessories, such as fans and should be evaluated to assure that the yield strength
pumps. of any component is not exceeded (see 9.4.1).
Specific values for gear drive efficiency should be With respect to the gear bending strength for
obtained from the gear drive manufacturer. momentary overloads, the maximum allowable
Efficiency estimates can be determined by using the stress is determined by the allowable yield proper-
method in AGMA ISO 14179--1. ties rather than the bending fatigue strength of the
material. This stress for spur and helical gearing is
5.2.1 Electric motor designated as σs; its determination is shown in
Electric motor efficiency is dependent upon such ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04. Shaft, bearing and housing
things as: deflections have a significant effect on gear mesh
alignment during momentary overloads. The en-
-- voltage variation; closed drive must be evaluated to assure that the
-- power factor; reactions to momentary overloads do not result in
-- motor design; excessive misalignment causing localized high
stress concentrations, or permanent deformation, or
-- motor material electrical characteristics; both. In addition, the effects of external loads such
-- percentage of full load torque; as overhung, transverse and thrust loads must be
evaluated.
-- other electrical and mechanical parameters.
Specific values for electric motor efficiency should
be obtained from the electric motor manufacturer.
6 Gear rating criteria
The total efficiency of a gearmotor is the product of
the individual efficiencies of the electric motor and The pitting resistance or wormgear durability power
the gear drive. rating and the bending strength power rating for each
5.3 Application power mesh in the gear drive must be calculated.

The application of the enclosed drive requires that its The lowest value obtained shall be used as the
capacity as defined by its unit rating; i.e., its minimum power rating of the gear set. It is permissible to use
rated component power, Pmc, and its thermal rating, more conservative values.
PT, be related to the actual service conditions. 6.1 Pitting resistance power rating, Paz
P mc The pitting resistance of gear teeth is considered to
PA ≤ and P A ≤ P T (1)
K SF be a Hertzian contact fatigue phenomenon. Initial
where pitting and destructive pitting are illustrated and
discussed in ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95, Appearance
PA is the application power of enclosed drive,
kW; of Gear Teeth -- Terminology of Wear and Failure.

Pmc is the minimum component power rating, The intent of the AGMA pitting resistance rating
kW; formula is to determine the power level which can be
transmitted for the design life of the teeth without
PT is the thermal power rating, kW;
causing destructive pitting. The ratings for pitting
KSF is the service factor (or application resistance are based on the formulas developed by
classification). Refer to clause 9. Hertz for contact pressure between two surfaces,
For cases where the gear mesh has been deter- modified for the effect of load sharing between
mined to be the minimum rated component, the adjacent teeth.

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

6.1.1 Pitting resistance for spur and helical The number of cycles corresponding to 10,000 hours
gearing should be used to determine the stress cycle factor
for all enclosed drives except gearmotors and AGMA
The pitting resistance power rating for involute spur
standard sized shaft mounted, screw conveyor, and
and helical teeth shall be determined by the rating
flange mounted drives, which should use 5,000
methods and procedures of ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04
hours.
using specific values or procedures for the following
factors: Two curves are presented in figures 17 and 18 of
ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04 for stress cycle factors
Yθ = 1.0, temperature factor; above 107 cycles for pitting and 3 × 106 cycles for
ZR = 1.0, surface condition factor; bending. The upper curve should be used for
YZ = 1.0, reliability factor; general design.

SH = 1.0, safety factor; Where specific experience and satisfactory perfor-


mance has been demonstrated by successful use of
Ko = 1.0, overload factor; service factors, values ZNT and YNT of 1.0 may be
Kv is dynamic factor (see 6.1.1.1); appropriate.
KH is load distribution factor (see 6.1.1.2); 6.1.2 Pitting resistance for bevel gears
ZN is stress cycle factor (see 6.1.1.3). The pitting resistance power rating for bevel gears
shall be determined by the rating procedures and
6.1.1.1 Dynamic factor, Kv
formulas of ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, using specific
The dynamic factor shall be determined from ANSI/ values or procedures for the following factors:
AGMA 2101--D04, clause 8, with the exception that
KA = 1.0, overload factor;
values of Kv shall not be based on a transmission
SH = 1.0, safety factor;
accuracy number less than Av=6.
Kθ = 1.0, temperature factor;
Transmission accuracy number (Av) shall be based
ZZ = 1.0, reliability factor;
upon the quality level of the gearing produced. In the
absence of a known specific quality level, the curve ZNT is stress cycle factor (see 6.1.2.1);
for Av = 11 shall be used. Kv is dynamic factor (see 6.1.2.2).
6.1.2.1 Stress cycle factor, ZNT
Figure 1 of ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04 limits values for
the dynamic factor as a function of pitch line velocity. This factor adjusts the rating of individual gear
These curves shall not be extrapolated to obtain elements based on the relative number of load
values beyond the limits given. cycles. The number of cycles corresponding to
10,000 hours should be used to determine the stress
6.1.1.2 Load distribution factor, KH cycle factor for all enclosed drives except gearmo-
To calculate the load distribution factor, the empirical tors and AGMA standard sized shaft mounted, screw
method of ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04 shall be used. conveyor, and flange mounted drives, which should
use 5,000 hours. See figure 5 in ANSI/AGMA
In the absence of specific knowledge, curve 2 for 2003--B97.
mesh alignment factor, KHma, shall be used for
general design and manufacturing practice. When Where specific experience and satisfactory perfor-
justified by a detailed analysis of design and mance has been demonstrated by successful use of
manufacturing along with proper installation, curve 3 service factors, a value of ZNT of 1.0 may be
for KHma may be used. Curve 4 shall not be used. appropriate.
6.1.2.2 Dynamic factor, Kv
6.1.1.3 Stress cycle factor, ZN and YN
This factor is to be determined by clause 10 in
This factor adjusts the rating of individual gear ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97. In the absence of a known
elements based on the relative number of subjected quality level, the curve for Qv = 6 shall be used.
stress cycles. However, use of this factor does not in
any way imply a fixed life. It adjusts each gear 6.2 Bending strength power rating, Pay
element rating based on the relative number of The bending strength of gear teeth is a measure of
cycles. the resistance to fatigue cracking at the tooth root

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

fillet. Typical cracks and fractures are illustrated in use 5,000 hours. See figure 6 in ANSI/AGMA
ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95. 2003--B97.
The intent of the AGMA bending strength rating Two curves are presented for load cycles above 3 ×
formula is to determine the power which can be 106 cycles. The upper curve should be chosen for
transmitted for the design life of the teeth without general design.
causing root fillet cracking or failure.
Where specific experience and satisfactory perfor-
Occasionally manufacturing tool marks, wear, sur- mance has been demonstrated by successful use of
face fatigue, or plastic flow may limit bending service factors, a value of YNT of 1.0 may be
strength due to stress concentration around large appropriate.
sharp cornered pits, or wear steps on the tooth 6.3 Allowable stress numbers for pitting
surface. resistance and bending strength
6.2.1 Bending strength for spur and helical As defined in ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04 and ANSI/
gearing AGMA 2003--B97, the allowable stress numbers for
The bending strength power rating for involute spur gear materials vary with composition, cleanliness,
and helical gear teeth shall be determined by the quality, heat treatment and processing practices. It is
rating methods and procedures of ANSI/AGMA recommended that only material Grades 1 and 2 be
2101--D04 using specific values or procedures for used to determine stress numbers for industrial gear
the following factors: drives.

Yθ = 1.0, temperature factor; 6.4 Wormgear ratings


YZ = 1.0, reliability factor; For gear drives using wormgears, the tooth ratings
SF = 1.0, safety factor; shall be in accordance with the methods and
procedures of ANSI/AGMA 6135--A02 for double
Ko = 1.0, overload factor; enveloping wormgears and ANSI/AGMA 6034--B92
Kv is dynamic factor (see 6.1.1.1); for cylindrical wormgears.
KH is load distribution factor (see 6.1.1.2); 6.5 Load spectrum analysis
YN is stress cycle factor (see 6.1.1.3). To determine the effects of variable loading on gear
6.2.2 Bending strength for bevel gears life, it is recommended that the cumulative fatigue
damage analysis criteria proposed by Miner (Miner’s
The bending strength rating for bevel gears shall be
Rule) be used. Refer to ISO/TR 10495 for informa-
determined by the rating methods and procedures of
tion on the use of Miner’s Rule in conducting a load
ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97 using specific values or
spectrum analysis.
procedures for the following factors:
Since the accuracy of the results is determined by
KA = 1.0, overload factor;
the quality of the analysis, when an accurate life is
Kθ = 1.0, temperature factor; required a thorough analysis is necessary. This
YZ = 1.0, reliability factor; more detailed analysis would include:
SF = 1.0, safety factor; -- a load spectrum broken into a significant number
Kv is dynamic factor (see 6.1.2.2); of increments;

YNT is stress cycle factor (see 6.2.2.1). -- a detailed S--N curve for the specific material and
load levels.
6.2.2.1 Stress cycle factor, YNT
This factor adjusts the rating of individual gear
elements based on the relative number of load 7 Thermal power rating
cycles. The number of cycles corresponding to
10,000 hours should be used to determine the stress Maintaining an acceptable temperature in the oil
cycle factor for all enclosed drives except gearmo- sump of a gear drive is critical to its life. Therefore,
tors and AGMA standard sized shaft mounted, screw the selection of a gear drive must consider not only
conveyor, and flange mounted drives, which should the mechanical rating but also the thermal rating.

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Thermal rating is defined as the maximum power 8.1 Housing


that can be continuously transmitted through a gear Refer to clause 7 of ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97, Design
drive without exceeding a specified oil sump temper- and Selection of Components for Enclosed Gear
ature. The thermal rating must equal or exceed the Drives, for design guidance.
actual service transmitted power. Service factors
8.2 Threaded fasteners
are not used when determining thermal require-
ments. The magnitude of the thermal rating depends Refer to clause 8 of ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97.
upon the specifics of the drive, operating conditions 8.3 Bearings
and the maximum allowable sump temperature, as
Shafts should be mounted in bearings, of a size, type
well as the type of cooling employed.
and capacity to carry the maximum operating radial
The primary thermal rating criterion is the maximum and thrust loads. For additional information, consult
allowable oil sump temperature. Unacceptably high clause 6 of ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97.
oil sump temperatures influence gear drive opera- 8.3.1 Sleeve bearings
tion by increasing the oxidation rate of the oil and
decreasing its viscosity. Reduced viscosity trans- Sleeve bearings shall be designed for maximum
bearing pressures of 5.2 N/mm2 on projected area.
lates into reduced oil film thickness on the gear teeth
and bearing contacting surfaces, which may result in Journal velocities shall not exceed the values given
reducing the life of these elements. To achieve the below:
required life and performance of a gear drive, the -- 7.62 m/s with lubricant supplied not under
operating oil sump temperatures shall be evaluated pressure;
and limited. -- 36.6 m/s with lubricant supplied under gravity
with the oil inlet fully flooded.
Thermal ratings of gear drives rated by this standard
are limited to a maximum allowable oil sump 8.3.2 Roller and ball bearings
temperature of 95C. However, based on the gear Roller and ball bearings shall be selected to provide
manufacturer’s experience or application require- a minimum L10 life of 5000 hours based on unit rating
ments, selection can be made for oil sump as calculated by the methods of the bearing
temperatures above or below 95C. manufacturers with considerations given to lubrica-
tion, temperature, load zone, alignment and bearing
Thermal rating may be determined by the methods
material.
and procedures of AGMA ISO 14179--1.
8.4 Shafting
Shafting should be designed in accordance with
8 Component design ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97.
8.5 Balancing
The components of a gear drive shall be designed The purpose of balancing is to minimize or eliminate
with consideration for all loads encountered during vibration in a rotating element due to unbalance. The
operation. These include the loads imposed on the importance of proper balancing increases directly in
components through the gearing and the external proportion to the pitch line velocity of the rotating
loads such as overhung loads, external thrust loads part. Excessive unbalance can result in premature
and dynamic loads. Components shall also be bearing, gear or other component failure.
designed to withstand any assembly forces which It is the responsibility of the manufacturer of the drive
might exceed the operating loads. During the design components to determine the need for balancing and
process, the operating loads shall be considered to assure that it is done without affecting the structural
occur in the worst possible direction and loading integrity of the rotating mass.
combinations.
8.6 Keys
All components shall allow for momentary peak
Refer to clause 5 of ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97.
loads of 200 percent of the unit rating considering
both internal and external loads. User requirements 8.6.1 External keyways
or specifications dictating different design criteria Keyways in external shaft extensions on the gear
shall be by contractual agreement. drive should conform to ANSI B17.1--1967,

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

commercial class, or ISO R773, normal fit. See The following items, concerning the shaft, shall also
annex B. be addressed:
8.6.2 Interference fit -- surface hardness;
Refer to clause 5 of ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97. -- case depth;

8.7 Backstops -- taper in the cam contact area;


-- concentricity with the backstop outer race.
Backstops prevent reverse rotation of driven equip-
ment that is intended for unidirectional rotation only. The shaft that the backstop engages shall be
They allow free, unimpeded rotation in one direction supported by bearings. The backstop is not intended
while preventing rotation in the opposite direction. to withstand reaction loads imposed by gears or
other sources.
8.7.1 Backstop types
8.7.3.2 Initial installation
Backstops are a type of clutch. This discussion is
limited to cam or “sprag” type clutches. However, Some manufacturers choose to ship gear drives with
other types may be used. Cam clutches are backstops internal to the gear drive while others
generally used for three distinct operational modes: make them external. In either case, special care
overrunning, indexing and backstopping. This shall be taken to verify the proper direction of
discussion is further limited to the backstopping rotation. Manufacturers usually identify the back-
mode of operation. stop housing with a marking to indicate the
appropriate shaft rotation to prevent damage to the
8.7.2 Selection and application backstop. Before the drive is connected and
Backstops are designed to prevent reverse rotation energized, the added precaution of ensuring the
up to a specified torque limit and rotational speed. proper rotation of all components is advised.
These limits will vary depending on the backstop size 8.7.4 Lubrication
and manufacturer.
The backstop, much like other elements of the gear
Backstop selection is based upon the number of drive, shall have proper lubrication free of contami-
backstopping cycles, the applied torque and the nants. The lubricant shall be drained, flushed, and
maximum operating speed. changed on a regular maintenance schedule as
The maximum allowable overrunning backstop recommended by the gear drive manufacturer.
speed shall be equal to or greater than the maximum The backstop may be lubricated by grease or oil that
shaft speed attainable in all conditions. is appropriately selected for the application
Backstopping torque will pass through all compo- considering the environment in which it will operate.
nents between the load and the backstop. This may WARNING: Do not use extreme pressure lubricants or
render the backstop function ineffective in instances lubricants with formulations including sulphur, chlorine,
of component failure between the backstop and the lead, and phosphorous derivatives, as well as graphite
driven load. and molybdenum disulfide in gear drives equipped with
an internal backstop unless approved by the gear drive
8.7.3 Installation manufacturer or the backstop manufacturer.

A backstop is installed with the outer race of the WARNING: Some synthetic gear lubricants adversely
affect the operation of internal backstops. Special au-
backstop anchored to a stationary member while the
thorization is required from the gear drive manufacturer
inner member can overrun freely in one direction of before using a synthetic lubricant in a gear drive
rotation. A backstop with a separate inner race must equipped with an internal backstop.
have that race secured to the rotating shaft.
8.8 Shrink discs
8.7.3.1 Installation of built in types
Shrink discs are one option to connect a hollow shaft
A backstop can be built into the gear drive and the gear drive to the drive shaft. One type of shrink disc
inner race eliminated by having the cams engaging is an external locking device installed over a hollow
directly on the shaft. In this case, the inner race shaft projection. By tightening the locking screws,
surface must be capable of sustaining a Hertzian the locking collars exert radial forces on the tapered
contact stress as required by the backstop design. inner ring and the hub. After bridging the fit

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

clearances, radial clamping pressure is generated -- sleeves with threaded collars or sleeves with in-
between the drive shaft and the hollow shaft tegral flanges;
establishing a solid, frictional connection. -- keyed or frictional grip.
During the selection process, the following items Single tapered bushings have a taper that usually
should be considered: protrudes at least 50% of the gear drive width or is
-- hollow shaft and drive shaft yield point of supported on the opposite end by a stabilizing
material; bushing. Twin tapered bushings have shorter tapers
and are installed in each end of the gear drive output
-- diameter changes when the shrink disc is shaft.
applied;
Tapered bushings can be drawn tight against the
-- coefficient of friction between the hollow shaft
driven shaft in one of two ways: using fasteners that
and the drive shaft;
extend through the flanged end of the bushing, or
-- tolerances and fits of the mating surfaces; using a threaded collar with a thread on the outside
-- surface finishes of the hollow shaft and drive diameter of the extended end of the bushing.
shaft; Usually straight sleeve and tapered sleeve bushings
-- axial forces applied to the assembly; contain a key which transmits the torque from the
gear drive output shaft to the drive shaft.
-- starting and peak loads transmitted through the
drive system. 8.9.2 Design considerations
The shrink disc should be selected and applied In selecting an appropriate bushing, some elements
according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. of the design such as materials, fits and keys should
8.9 Bushings be considered.
8.9.2.1 Materials
Bushings are commonly used to adapt standard
gear drives with hollow output shafts to various sizes The material selection depends upon the stress level
of driven shafts. Used in this sense, bushings the bushing will experience, the flexibility or ductility
provide an economical means of designing around required to function properly, the probability that
standard products. fretting corrosion will exist, and the bushing’s ability
to withstand this criteria as well as other applicable
8.9.1 Bushing types
environmental considerations. The use of dissimilar
The two most common types of bushings are straight metals in corrosive environments can lead to
sleeve and tapered sleeve. galvanic corrosion.
Straight sleeve bushings fit between the driven shaft 8.9.2.2 Fits
and the gear drive and contact the driven shaft over
Any bushing, whether straight or tapered, should
the entire bushing length. Set screws are generally
have a close fit avoiding excessive gaps that collect
used to maintain axial position of the gear drive and
moisture and foreign materials resulting in crevice
bushing assembly to the driven shaft.
corrosion. Rust or other unfavorable conditions can
Tapered bushings mate with gear drive hollow shafts make the removal of the bushing more difficult.
that have tapered bores. The wedging action
Another condition resulting from excessive gap and
secures the gear drive to the driven shaft. During
poor fit is fretting corrosion. Surfaces working
removal, the gear drive must move a short distance
against each other can generate heat, oxidize and
along the taper to disconnect the gear drive from the
lead to local welding of one part to another.
driven shaft. This type of bushing system generally
lends itself to easier removal of the gear drive from Special consideration should be given to the type of
the driven shaft than straight bushings. bushing fit for vertical applications or those applica-
tions where axial loading is applied to the gear drive.
Tapered bushings come in many varieties. Some of
The contact pressure shall be sufficient to resist the
these are:
axial forces generated by the gear drive and
-- single taper or twin taper; equipment weight unless otherwise supported.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

8.9.2.3 Bushing keys characteristics. For more detailed information, see


NEMA Standard Publication MG1--1998 [1] or IEC
Most bushings are torsionally connected to the gear 60072--1 (1991--03) [2].
drive output shaft and driven shaft by a key. With thin
wall bushings, a single key (square, rectangular or Table 2 -- Shaft diameter tolerances for metric
stepped) is usually all that is necessary. Frequently shafts
with thick wall bushings, two keys are required, one
that connects the bushing to the gear drive output Shaft diameter, mm Maximum undersize
variation, mm1) 2)
shaft and a second one to connect the bushing to the
driven shaft. The key arrangement is generally To 30 0.084
specified by the gear drive manufacturer. See Over 30 to 50 0.10
ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97 for key design and Over 50 to 80 0.12
selection. Over 80 to 120 0.14
Over 120 to 165 0.16
8.9.3 Installation criteria NOTES:
1) Keys and keyways in the supporting shaft should be
When installing a gear drive on a driven shaft using a in accordance with ISO R773:1969 for size and depth.
bushing, the distance between the bearing support 2) These tolerances are consistent with ISO R286, h10

and the gear drive should be minimized. As a fit.


guideline, the gear drive should be no more than one
shaft diameter away from the bearing support. With
some bushing types, there must be clearance to
Table 3 -- Shaft diameter tolerances for inch
access the bushing flange from the bearing support
shafts
side.
Shaft Maximum undersize
Manufacturers usually include tightening proce- diameter, in variation, in1)
dures with their installation, maintenance and lu- To 1.50 0.004
brication instructions. With single taper bushings, Over 1.50 to 2.50 0.005
the procedure is fairly simple. For twin taper
Over 2.50 to 4.00 0.006
bushings, care must be taken to assure each
Over 4.00 to 6.00 0.007
bushing is tightened properly. The installer must
Over 6.00 to 6.50 0.008
alternate bolt tightening from side to side. In all
NOTE:
cases, the manufacturer’s instructions should be 1) Keys and keyways in supporting shaft should be in ac-
followed. cordance with ANSI B17.1 for size, depth, offset, lead
and parallelism.
8.9.4 Supporting shaft

The responsibility for the design and construction of


8.10.1 Motor types
the supporting shaft is beyond the scope of this
standard. However, the shaft shall be adequate to Both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC)
withstand normal operating loads and peak loads motors can be used on gearmotors. The AC motor is
without damage to itself or any of the system the most common type.
components, and to maintain alignment of the
8.10.1.1 Alternating current motors
components under such loads.
Standard gearmotors typically use an induction type,
Shaft diameters should be within commercial toler- asynchronous AC motor of a NEMA Design B or IEC
ance for cold drawn or turned and polished round Design N torque characteristic and Class B insula-
bars as shown in tables 2 and 3. tion. The design of the motor determines the locked
8.10 Electric motors rotor current and subsequent starting torque charac-
teristics. NEMA Design Types C and D or IEC
This section provides guidance about the effect of Design H may be used with Class II and Class III
electric motor selection on gearmotor performance selections where high starting torques are required.
and describes typical motors used. It is not intended However, they should be coordinated with the
to define electric motor ratings or specific motor overload capability of the gear drive.

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

CAUTION: Occasionally a motor manufacturer may -- expansion chambers, 9.5 (see note below);
apply a NEMA Design B nameplate to a design type C
or D motor.
-- oil level indicators, 9.6;

Under normal conditions, full motor starting torque is -- bearing retainers, 9.7;
developed each time the motor is started. Applied -- grease retainers, 9.8;
motor torque shall be greater than required applica- -- dowels and pins, 9.9;
tion torque from start to full speed; however, excess
-- spacers, 9.10;
motor torque results in unnecessarily rapid accelera-
tion. This acceleration causes peak loads in the -- seal retainers, 9.11;
driven system which can exceed design peak loads. -- locking devices for fasteners, 9.12;
8.10.1.2 Direct current motors -- tolerance and fits of mating surfaces.
DC motors are typically used where applications NOTE: It is recognized that gear drives applied in
require speed variation. These motors are capable certain industries and under certain atmospheric condi-
tions should be equipped with special seals and breath-
of delivering constant torque or constant power over
ers designed for those conditions. Examples are units
a given speed range. installed in the dusty or corrosive atmospheres of
Because these motors are capable of developing chemical plants, cement mills and taconite processing
plants. It is also recommended that units which are to be
starting torques over three times their nameplate
exposed to severe moisture and vapor laden
rating and stall torques over five times their name- atmospheres be equipped with moisture barrier seals
plate rating, these motors should be selected upon and breathers. Some applications in wet locations sub-
agreement with the gearmotor manufacturer. ject to direct or indirect wash down may preclude the
use of breathers, such as in the paper and food indus-
8.10.2 Selection criteria tries. In these cases, expansion chambers may be
When selecting an electric motor for a gearmotor used.
application, some, but not all, of the items for
consideration are:
9 Service factors and application
-- normal running load;
classification
-- starting characteristics;
-- current type AC, DC; 9.1 Selection of service factors
-- phase, voltage and frequency; Before an enclosed gear drive can be selected for an
-- motor service factor; application, an equivalent power rating shall be
determined. This is done by multiplying the specified
-- motor efficiency; transmitted power by the service factor. Since
-- speed and speed variation; service factors represent the normal relationship
-- ambient temperature and insulation class; between unit rating and the maximum potential
transmitted power, it is suggested that the service
-- environmental protection and method of cooling; factor be applied to the nameplate rating of the
-- duty cycle. driven machine or prime mover, as applicable.
Special motor features or different motor types may Manufacturer and user shall agree upon which
affect the motor frame size. power, prime mover rating or driven machine re-
quirements, should dictate the selection of the gear
8.11 Other components
drive. It is necessary that the gear drive selected
See clause 9 of ANSI/AGMA 6001--D97 for brief have a unit rating equal to or in excess of this
discussions on the following components: equivalent power rating.
-- shims, 9.1; Service factor has been used to include the
-- gaskets, 9.2; combined effects of stress cycle, reliability and
overload factors in an empirically determined single
-- oil seals, 9.3 (see note below); factor. The mathematical contribution of each of
-- breathers, 9.4 (see note below); these factors has not been established. See

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04, clause 10. In the absence 9.4.1 Operational characteristics


of more specific load data, a service factor, KSF,
Some of the operational characteristics that could
shown in table A.2 of annex A, may be used.
affect an increase or decrease in service factors are:
9.2 Application classification for gearmotors
-- Type of prime mover. Different types of prime
and shaft mounts
movers are electric motors, hydraulic motors,
Before a gear drive is selected, an application class steam or gas turbines, and internal combustion
number shall be determined. Since application engines having single or multiple cylinders.
classification represents the normal relationship -- Starting conditions. Starting conditions where
between unit rating and the maximum potential momentary peak loads exceed those defined in
transmitted power, it is suggested that the applica- 4.1.
tion class number be applied to the nameplate rating
When a soft start coupling is used between the
of the electric motor.
prime mover and the gear drive, the selection of
The application class numbers are I, II, and III. Their service factors can be based on the gear drive
relationship to service factor is shown in table 4. manufacturer’s analysis for the application.
-- Overloads. Loads which are in excess of the unit
Table 4 -- Service factor, KSF
rating divided by service factor should be consid-
Class Numbers KSF ered overloads. Overloads can be of momentary
I 1.0 duration, periodic, quasi--steady state, or vibra-
tory in nature. The magnitude and the number of
II 1.4
stress cycles require special analysis to prevent
III 2.0 low cycle fatigue or yield stress failure.
Applications such as high torque motors, ex-
The application class number and related service treme repetitive shock, or where high energy
factor includes the combined effects of varying duty loads must be absorbed, as when stalling,
cycles, reliability, expected performance, plus mag- require special consideration.
nitude and frequency of peak load occurrences in an -- Overspeeds. Overspeeds contributing to
empirically determined single factor. The individual external transmitted loads and dynamic loads
numerical value of each of these effects has not require special analysis.
been established.
-- Brake equipped applications. When a gear drive
9.3 Selection of recommended factors is equipped with a “working” brake that is used to
The tables of annex A for service factor and decelerate the motion of the system, select the
application classification number have been devel- drive based on the brake rating or the transmitted
oped from the experience of manufacturers and power, whichever is greater. If the brake is used
users of gear drives for use in common applications for holding only, and is applied after the motion of
the system has come to rest, the brake rating
and have been found to be generally satisfactory for
should be less than 200 percent of the unit rating.
the listed industries when gears are rated using
If the brake rating is greater than 200 percent of
AGMA standards. It is suggested that selection of
the unit rating, or the brake is located on the out-
factors for special applications be agreed upon by put shaft of the gear drive, special analysis is
the user and the gear manufacturer when variations required.
of the tabulated value may be necessary.
-- Reliability and life requirement. Applications
This standard is based on the premise that the user requiring a high degree of dependability or un-
is defining a catalog rating. usually long life should be given careful consid-
eration by the user and the gear manufacturer
9.4 Determining service factor or application
before assigning a service factor.
class number
9.4.2 System conditions
Service factors and application class numbers may
be selected from annex A or may be determined Analysis of the dynamic response of a system to
analytically. Listed below are some of the factors to excitation forces is an essential phase in the design
be considered. of rotating machinery.

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

9.4.2.1 Vibration analysis -- Reversing applications;

Vibration analysis shall consider the complete -- High risk applications involving human safety.
system including prime mover, gear drive, driven
equipment, couplings and foundations. The dy-
namic loads imposed upon a gear drive are the result
of the dynamic behavior of the total system and not of
10 Overhung load
the gear drive alone.

9.4.2.2 Dynamic response The allowable overhung load discussed in 5.1 is


based on the weakest component at 200 percent
The dynamic response of a system results in peak load. The effective overhung load is calculated
additional loads imposed on the system and relative using equation 2 considering the transmitted force
motion between adjacent elements. The vibratory tangent to the pitch circle of the mounted member.
loads are superimposed on the mean running load in This force is modified by the overhung load factor,
the system and, depending upon the dynamic Koh, which accounts for belt tension or separating
behavior, could lead to failure of system force of a pinion and by the numerical service factor,
components. KSF.
9.4.2.3 System induced failure 2000 T K oh K SF
W oc = (2)
dp
In a gear drive, system induced failures could occur
as tooth breakage or severe surface deterioration of where
the gear elements, shaft breakage, bearing failure,
Woc is effective overhung load at shaft, N. The
or failure of other component parts.
effective overhung load shall not exceed the
9.4.2.4 Special system considerations allowable overhung load;

Synchronous motors, certain types of high torque T is transmitted shaft torque, Nm;
induction motors and generator drives require spe- Koh is overhung load factor (see 5.1 and table 5);
cial analysis.
dp is pitch diameter of the element causing the
Synchronous motors have high transient torques overhung load (i.e., gear, pulley or
during starting and restarting after they trip out sprocket), mm;
momentarily. KSF is service factor (see 4.1 and clause 9).
Induction motors of special high slip design can Overhung load can also be created by other than
produce extremely high starting torques. High torsional loads. Such forces as weights of the
torque loads are produced when the motor trips out components should be considered if they significant-
for a very short time and then the trip recloses. ly contribute to the total amount of the overhung load.
Generators have extremely high loads when they
are out of phase with the main system and when
there are across--the--line short circuits. Table 5 -- Overhung load factor, Koh

9.4.3 Special considerations Drive type1) Koh


Single or multiple chain 1.00
Adjustments to the gear drive selection may be Cut pinion run with cut gear 1.25
necessary when one or more of the following
Synchronous belt2) 1.30
conditions exist:
Single or multiple V--belt 1.50
-- Ambient conditions. Extremes of temperature V--ribbed belt 1.70
and environment; Flat belt 2.50
-- Lubrication. Any lubricant not in accordance with NOTES:
1) For other drive types not listed, consult the gear
manufacturer’s recommendations;
drive manufacturer.
-- Misalignment and distortions due to inadequate 2) Synchronous belts are toothed timing belts that

foundations; may have various trade names and tooth profiles.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

11 Lubrication and lubricants 11.1.3 Oil sump temperature


The maximum oil sump temperature for petroleum
based oils is limited to 95C. The maximum oil sump
temperature for synthetic oils is limited to 105C.
The use of the proper lubricants and the practice of
These sump temperatures are considered maxi-
proper lubricant maintenance is necessary for the
mum because many lubricants are unstable above
successful operation for the design life of a gear
the stated maximum temperatures.
drive. Gear drives should always be protected to
exclude contaminants from the lubricant and to CAUTION: Sump temperatures in excess of 95C may
prevent damage to the lubricating system. The require special materials for non--metallic components
such as oil seals or shims. Consult gear drive manufac-
specific recommendations provided by the gear
turer for recommended temperature limits.
drive manufacturer should always be followed.
11.1.4 Food and drug
11.1 Lubrication These lubrication recommendations exclude appli-
cations such as those gear drives installed in the
The recommendations for lubrication offered in this food and drug industry where a possibility exists for
section apply only to those gear drives which are incidental contact between the lubricant and the
designed and rated in accordance with this standard product being processed.
and are installed in general power transmission NOTE: The user shall assume the responsibility for
applications as described in clause 1. They are not selecting the proper lubricant for all food and drug
intended to replace specific recommendations pro- industry applications.
vided by the gear drive manufacturer. Additional 11.1.5 Mounting position
information pertaining to enclosed gear drive lubri-
cation can be obtained from ANSI/AGMA 9005--E02. These lubrication specifications are based on the
gear drive operating in mounting positions as
The lubricant should be selected to provide ade- specified or approved by the manufacturer.
quate film thickness at all operating conditions. This 11.1.6 Corrosion
may require seasonal change of lubricant, oil
The potential for corrosion in a gear drive comes
heaters for cold starting conditions, or oil cooler for
from infrequent operation or use in a chemical
high ambient temperatures. Oil film thickness is
environment. The use of incompatible materials, or
critical to limit wear of gears and bearings.
materials incompatible to the environment, or opera-
tion in an electrically charged field can also cause
11.1.1 Ambient temperature
corrosion.

The ambient temperature range is --40 to 55C, Corrosion of the gear tooth surface can have a
defined as the dry bulb air temperature in the significant detrimental effect on the bending strength
immediate vicinity of the installed unit. Gear drives and pitting resistance of the teeth. Quantification of
operating outside of this temperature range shall be the effect of corrosion on gear teeth is beyond the
given special consideration. scope of this standard.
11.2 Lubricant viscosity
11.1.2 Other considerations
Lubricant viscosity recommendations are specified
as ISO viscosity grades. Refer to table 6 for viscosity
Environmental conditions, including exposure to
grade requirements.
direct sunlight, high humidity, and dust or chemicals
suspended in air, require special considerations. 11.3 Lubricant recommendation
Gear drives exposed to the direct rays of the sun will The recommended lubricant for gear drives at
run hotter than a gear drive in an identical application various bulk oil temperatures is given in tables 7
which is sheltered. Gear drives exposed to these or through 9. The designation suffix “S” after a specific
other adverse conditions should be referred to the viscosity grade indicates a synthetic base oil. The
gear drive manufacturer for specific evaluation and designation suffix “CP” after a specific viscosity
recommendation. grade indicates a compounded oil.

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

11.3.1 External cooling 11.3.2 Gearing considerations


When there is a large difference in pitch line velocity
If the drive lubrication system is equipped with a between the high and low speed gear stages, the
cooler which limits the oil supply temperature, the oil use of a lower viscosity lubricant may be more
viscosity grade recommendation may be based on a desirable than that recommended in tables 7 though
lower actual ambient temperature range than in 9. Also, a lower viscosity lubricant may be desirable
tables 7 through 9. Consult the gear drive manufac- when there is a combination of sleeve and roller
turer for a recommendation. element bearings.

Table 6 -- Viscosity grade requirements

Mid--point viscosity Kinematic viscosity limits at 40C1)


ISO viscosity at 40C1) mm2/s Former AGMA grade
grade mm2/s min max equivalent
ISO VG 32 32 28.8 35.2 0
ISO VG 46 46 41.4 50.6 1
ISO VG 68 68 61.2 74.8 2
ISO VG 100 100 90.0 110 3
ISO VG 150 150 135 165 4
ISO VG 220 220 198 242 5
ISO VG 320 320 288 352 6
ISO VG 460 460 414 506 7
ISO VG 680 680 612 748 8
ISO VG 1000 1000 900 1100 8A
NOTE:
1) The preferred unit for kinematic viscosity is mm2/s, commonly referred to as centistokes (cSt)

Table 7 -- Viscosity grade guidelines for enclosed helical, herringbone, straight bevel, spiral bevel,
and spur gear drives1)

Temperature2) Pitch line velocity of final stage3), 4), 5) m/s


Ambient Bulk/
(approx.), C sump, C <5.0 5--10 10--15 15--20 20--25 25--30 30--35
--40 to --20 <15 68S 68S 46S 46S 46S 32S 32S
--20 to --10 15 to 32 100S 100S 68S 68S 46S 32S 32S
--10 to +5 32 to 65 150 150 150 68 68 68 46
5 to 30 65 to 90 320 220 220 150 100 100 100
30--50 90 to 100 460 460 320 320 220 150 100
>50 >100 CONSULT MANUFACTURER/SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS/SYNTHETIC ONLY
NOTES:
1) Viscosity grades listed above refer to R&O and synthetic gear oil. EP or synthetic gear lubricants in the corre-
sponding viscosity grades may be substituted where deemed acceptable by the gear drive manufacturer.
2) For ambient or bulk temperatures outside the ranges shown, consult the gear drive manufacturer.
3) Variations in operating conditions such as surface roughness, temperature rise, loading, speed, etc., may neces-
sitate use of a lubricant of one grade higher or lower. Contact the gear drive manufacturer for specific recommenda-
tions.
4) Drives incorporating wet clutches or overrunning clutches as backstopping devices should be referred to the
gear manufacturer as certain types of lubricants may adversely affect clutch performance.
5) At the extreme upper and lower pitch line velocity ranges, special consideration should be given to all drive com-
ponents, including bearings and seals, to ensure their proper performance.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

11.4 Cold temperature conditions expected ambient temperature, and a viscosity


which is low enough to allow the oil to flow freely at
Lubrication shall be given special attention if the gear
the start--up temperature, but high enough to carry
drive is to be started or operated at temperatures
the load at the operating temperature.
below which the oil can be effectively splashed or
pumped. Preheating the oil may be necessary under For synthetic lubricant recommendations, refer to
these low ambient temperature conditions. The table 7 through 9.
gear drive manufacturer shall be informed when
gear drives are to operate outside the individual 11.4.2 Sump heaters
temperature ranges specified in tables 7 through 9.
When the lubricant selected does not provide proper
11.4.1 Cold temperature gear oils lubrication for the expected ambient temperature
range, the gear drive shall be equipped with a sump
Gear drives operating in cold areas shall be provided heater to bring the oil up to a temperature at which it
with an oil that circulates freely and does not cause will circulate freely for starting. The heater watt--
high starting torques. An acceptable low tempera- density shall be selected to avoid excessive local-
ture gear oil, in addition to meeting AGMA specifica- ized heating which could result in rapid degradation
tions, shall have a pour point 5C below the minimum of the lubricant.

Table 8 -- Viscosity grade guidelines for enclosed cylindrical wormgear drives1)


Temperature Pitch line velocity of final stage2) m/s
Ambient (approx.), C Bulk/sump, C <2.25 >2.25
--40 to --20 <15 220S 220S
--20 to --10 15 to 32 220S 220S
--10 to +5 32 to 65 460CP 460CP
5 to 30 65 to 90 680CP 460CP
30 to 50 90 to 100 680S 460S
>50 >100 CONSULT MANUFACTURER/SPECIAL
REQUIREMENTS/SYNTHETIC ONLY
NOTES
1) Viscosity grades listed above refer to compounded R&O and synthetic gear oil. Wormgear drives may also oper-
ate satisfactorily using other types of oils. Such oils should be used, however, only with the approval of the gear drive
manufacturer.
2) Wormgear applications involving temperatures outside the limits shown above, or speeds exceeding 2400 rpm or
10 m/s sliding velocity, should be referred to the manufacturer. In general, for higher speeds a pressurized lubrication
system is required, along with adjustments in recommended viscosity grade.

Table 9 -- Viscosity grade guidelines for enclosed double enveloping wormgear drives1)
Temperature Center distance of final reduction stage2), mm
<150 150 to 300 300 to 450 > 450
Ambient Bulk/sump, Worm speed of final reduction, rpm
(approx.), C C < 700 > 700 < 450 > 450 < 300 > 300 < 200 > 200
--40 to --20 <15 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S
--20 to --10 15 to 32 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S
--10 to +5 32 to 65 680CP 680CP 680CP 680CP 680CP 680CP 680CP 680CP
5 to 30 65 to 90 1000CP 680CP 1000CP 680CP 1000CP 680CP 1000CP 680CP
30 to 50 90 to 100 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S 460S
>50 >100 CONSULT MANUFACTURER/SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS/SYNTHETIC ONLY
NOTES:
1) Viscosity grades listed above refer to compounded R&O and synthetic gear oil. EP oils with sulphur--phospho-
rous additives are not recommended for use without the gear drive manufacturer’s approval. Wormgear drives may
also operate satisfactorily using other types of oils. Such oils should be used, however, only with the approval of the
gear drive manufacturer.
2) Wormgear applications involving temperatures outside the limits shown above, or speeds exceeding 2400 rpm or
10 m/s sliding velocity, should be referred to the manufacturer. In general, for higher speeds a pressurized lubrication
system is required, along with adjustments in recommended viscosity grade.

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 17


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

11.5 Lubricant types some characteristics may be disadvantageous un-


less proper accommodations are made. Such things
Oils for use in gear drives shall not be corrosive; shall
as compatibility with other gear drive and lube
be neutral in reaction; shall be free from grit and
system components, behavior in the presence of
abrasives; and shall have good defoaming proper-
moisture, lubricating qualities, overall economics,
ties. Since oil in the gear housing may reach
and compatibility with internal coatings should be
temperatures in excess of 95C during operation, it
carefully analyzed for each type of synthetic lubri-
shall have good resistance to oxidation.
cant under consideration. In the absence of field
11.5.1 Rust and oxidation inhibited gear experience in similar applications, use of a synthetic
lubricants lubricant should be carefully coordinated between
the user, gear drive manufacturer and lubricant
These lubricants are commonly referred to as R&O supplier. Synthetic lubricants shall meet the perfor-
gear lubricants. They are petroleum base lubricants mance requirements listed in tables 1 and 2 of
which have been formulated to include chemical ANSI/AGMA 9005--E02, except they should have a
additives which provide improved resistance to rust minimum viscosity index of 130.
and oxidation. Lubricants shall meet the minimum
WARNING: Some synthetic gear lubricants adversely
performance requirements shown in ANSI/AGMA
affect the operation of internal backstops (non--revers-
9005--E02. ing clutches). Special authorization is required from the
11.5.2 Anti--scuff lubricants gear drive manufacturer prior to using a synthetic lubri-
cant in a gear drive equipped with an internal backstop.
These lubricants are petroleum base liquids with
11.5.4 Synthetic lubricant selection
chemical additives which produce a protective film to
withstand extremely high pressures. Anti--scuff The recommendations for synthetic lubricants in
(extreme pressure) lubricants shall meet the mini- tables 7 through 9 are based on gear drive manufac-
mum performance requirements shown in ANSI/ turers’ experience with synthetic hydrocarbons of
AGMA 9005--E02. the polyalphaolefin type. Other types of synthetic
lubricants may be used only if recommended by the
The extreme pressure lubricants recommended for enclosed gear drive manufacturer. The viscosity
industrial gear drives are those containing sulfur, recommendations in table 6 may be used as a guide
phosphorous and similar type additives. These for selecting a synthetic lubricant along with the
additives resist scuffing or scoring in helical or spur considerations in 11.1.2.
gearing operating under severe conditions, but may
11.6 Lubricant maintenance
react with the bronze in wormgearing. This type of
lubricant should not be used unless specified or Proper lubricant maintenance is vital to gear drive
approved by the gear drive manufacturer. performance throughout its design life.
Some synthetic lubricants may have extreme pres- 11.6.1 Initial lubricant maintenance
sure additives and should not be used without the After a period of 500 hours or four weeks of
approval of the gear drive manufacturer. operation, whichever occurs first, the gear drive
WARNING: Do not use extreme pressure lubricants or should be thoroughly drained, flushed and refilled
lubricants with formulations including sulphur, chlorine, with the proper lubricant. Because of the higher cost
lead, and phosphorous derivatives, as well as graphite of synthetic lubricants, it may be more practical to
and molybdenum disulfide in gear drives equipped with reuse the original oil after it has been filtered.
an internal backstop (non--reversing clutch), unless ap- Minimum filtering requirement is 30 microns.
proved by the gear drive or backstop manufacturer.
NOTE: Lubricants should not be filtered through Full-
These lubricants may produce coatings which ad-
ers earth or other types of filter which could remove the
versely affect the operation of the backstop.
additives of the original oil.
11.5.3 Synthetic gear lubricants 11.6.2 Subsequent lubricant maintenance
Synthetic hydrocarbons (polyalphaolefins), diesters Under normal operating conditions, R&O gear
and polyglycols have been used in enclosed gear lubricants and extreme pressure lubricants should
drives for special operating conditions. Synthetic be changed every 2500 hours or six months,
lubricants can be advantageous over mineral oils in whichever occurs first. These change frequencies
that they generally are more stable, have a longer can be extended if analysis of oil samples indicate
life, and operate over a wider temperature range. degradation or contamination are within acceptable
Their characteristics vary from type to type, and limits.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Change intervals for synthetic lubricants may be should be completely removed from the system to
extended up to 10,000 operating hours providing avoid contaminating the new charge.
ambient temperature conditions permit. With this 11.6.5 Cleaning with solvents
extended change period, lubricant contamination
rather than degradation may dictate the change The use of a solvent should be avoided unless the
interval. gear drive contains deposits of oxide or
contaminated lubricant which cannot be removed by
11.6.3 Abnormal operating conditions flushing. When persistent deposits necessitate the
A rise and fall in temperature may produce internal use of a solvent, all traces of solvent should be
condensation. Dust, dirt, chemical particles or completely removed from the system to avoid
chemical fumes may also react with the lubricant contaminating the new charge.
resulting in the formation of sludge. Sustained sump 11.6.6 Inspection
temperatures in excess of 95C may result in
accelerated degradation of the lubricant. When The interior surfaces should be inspected where
operating under these conditions, the lubricant possible, and all traces of foreign material removed.
should be analyzed more frequently and changed The new charge of lubricant should be added and
when required. circulated to coat all internal parts.

Extending the change period recommended may be 11.6.7 Lubricant disposal


preferred based on type of lubricant, amount of Consult lubricant supplier for product safety data,
lubricant, system down time, or environmental proper handling, storage and disposal procedures
impact of used oil. This can be done through proper for compliance with federal, state or local environ-
implementation of a comprehensive lubricant testing mental regulations.
program. As a minimum, the program should include
testing for:
-- changes in appearance and odor; 12 Sound and vibration
-- lubricant viscosity (oxidation);
The sound and vibration levels are affected by the
-- water concentration; individual characteristics of the prime mover, gear
-- contaminant concentration; drive, driven equipment, and their combined effects
as an integral system in a particular acoustical
-- sediment and sludge;
environment.
-- additive concentration and condition.
For further information on sound measurement
In the absence of more specific limits, the guidelines practices, refer to ANSI/AGMA 6025--D98, Sound
listed as follows may be used to indicate when to for Enclosed Helical, Herringbone, and Spiral Bevel
change oil: Gear Drives.
-- water content greater than 0.05% (500 ppm); For further information on vibration measurement
-- iron content exceeds 150 ppm; practices, refer to ANSI/AGMA 6000--B96, Specifi-
cation for Measurement of Linear Vibration on Gear
-- silicon (dust/dirt) exceeds 25 ppm; Units.
-- viscosity changes more than 15%.
Tests should be performed on the initial charge of the
gear unit to establish a base line for comparison. 13 Assembly and shaft rotation
Subsequent test intervals should be established
based on the unit manufacturer’s and lubricant Shaft rotation may be either clockwise (CW) or
supplier’s recommendations. counterclockwise (CCW) unless the gear drive is
designated for a specific direction of rotation by the
11.6.4 Cleaning and flushing
manufacturer. Relative shaft rotation is dependent
The lubricant should be drained while the gear drive upon the number of gear meshes and the type of
is at operating temperature. The gear drive should gearing. Direction of shaft rotation is determined by
be cleaned and flushed based on the gear drive viewing a specified shaft from a specified free end
manufacturer’s recommendations. Used fluids position. Designation of shaft rotation on drawings

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 19


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

or in tables may be shown by letter abbreviations or direction of rotation and designation of the shaft end
circular arrows as shown in figure 1. being viewed.

For gear drives using only parallel axis gearing, the Standard assembly designations are shown in
direction of shaft rotation reverses with each gear figures 2, 3 and 4.
mesh.

For gear drives using bevel gears alone or in


Clockwise
conjunction with parallel axis gearing, the relative rotation
shaft rotation is dependent upon both the number of
gear meshes and the position of the bevel gear with
respect to the bevel pinion.

For gear drives using wormgears in conjunction with


parallel axis gearing, the relative shaft rotation is Counter-
dependent upon the number of gear meshes, the clockwise
rotation
hand of the worm, and the position of the worm with
respect to the wormgear.
Side End
views views
When a specific direction of rotation is required, such
as when a backstop is used, it shall be defined by Figure 1 -- Shaft rotation

L--R L--L R--R R--L

L--LR LR--L LR--R R--LR

Plan views LR--LR Plan views

NOTES:
1. Code: L = Left; R = Right
2. Arrows indicate line of sight to determine direction of shaft extensions.
3. Letters preceding the hyphen refer to number and direction of high speed shaft extensions.
4. Letters following the hyphen refer to number and direction of low speed shaft extensions.

Figure 2 -- Parallel shaft spur, helical and herringbone gear drives, single or multiple stage

20  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

1--L 1--R

Plan views

2--L 2--R
1--U 2--U

1--D 2--D

1--LR 2--LR

1--UD 2--UD

Front views
Plan views
NOTES:
NOTES:
1. Code: U = Up position--low speed shaft;
1. Code: L = Left; R = Right D = Down position--low speed shaft.
2. Arrows indicate line of sight to determine 2. Arrows indicate line of sight to determine
direction of shaft extensions. direction of shaft extensions.
3. Numerals preceding the hyphen refer to number 3. Numerals preceding the hyphen refer to
of high speed shaft extensions. number of high speed shaft extensions.
4. Letters following the hyphen refer to number 4. Letters following the hyphen refer to number
and direction of low speed shaft extensions. and direction of low speed shaft extensions.

Figure 3 -- Horizontal bevel gear drives, single Figure 4 -- Vertical bevel gear drives, single
stage; horizontal bevel -- helical drives, stage; vertical bevel -- helical drives, multiple
multiple stage; horizontal worm -- helical stage; vertical worm -- helical drives, multiple
drives, multiple stage stage

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

14 Ratios and output speeds These nominal output speeds are based on
preferred gear ratios selected from a geometric
progression with a ratio of 1.5. Other ratio
progressions may be used, such as ISO 3, preferred
Nominal output speeds for concentric, parallel shaft numbers with r = 20. Actual speeds may vary
or right angle gear drives incorporating electric depending upon motor speed variation and
motors are listed in table 10. preferred actual ratio.
Table 10 -- Output speeds for preferred ratios

Nominal output speeds, rpm1)


Preferred Synchronous motor speeds, rpm2)
ratio 3600 3000 1800 1500 1200 1000 900 750
1.225 2939 2449 1470 1225 980 816 735 612
1.500 2400 2000 1200 1000 800 667 600 500
1.837 1960 1633 980 816 653 544 490 408
2.250 1600 1333 800 667 533 444 400 333
2.756 1306 1089 653 544 435 363 327 272
3.375 1067 889 533 444 356 296 267 222
4.134 871 726 435 363 290 242 218 181
5.063 711 593 356 296 237 198 178 148
6.200 581 484 290 242 194 161 145 121
7.594 474 395 237 198 158 132 119 98.8
9.300 387 323 194 161 129 108 96.8 80.6
11.39 316 263 158 132 105 87.8 79.0 65.8
13.95 258 215 129 108 86.0 71.7 64.5 53.8
17.09 211 176 105 87.8 70.2 58.5 52.7 43.9
20.93 172 143 86.0 71.7 57.3 47.8 43.0 35.8
25.63 140 117 70.2 58.5 46.8 39.0 35.1 29.3
31.39 115 95.6 57.3 47.8 38.2 31.9 28.7 23.9
38.44 93.6 78.0 46.8 39.0 31.2 26.0 23.4 19.5
47.08 76.5 63.7 38.2 31.9 25.5 21.2 19.1 15.9
57.67 62.4 52.0 31.2 26.0 20.8 17.3 15.6 13.0
70.62 51.0 42.5 25.5 21.2 17.0 14.2 12.7 10.6
86.50 41.6 34.7 20.8 17.3 13.9 11.6 10.4 8.67
105.9 34.0 28.3 17.0 14.2 11.3 9.44 8.50 7.08
129.7 27.7 23.1 13.9 11.6 9.25 7.71 6.94 5.78
158.9 22.7 18.9 11.3 9.44 7.55 6.29 5.66 4.72
194.6 18.5 15.4 9.25 7.71 6.17 5.14 4.62 3.85
238.4 15.1 12.6 7.55 6.29 5.03 4.20 3.78 3.15
291.9 12.3 10.3 6.17 5.14 4.11 3.43 3.08 2.57
357.5 10.1 8.39 5.03 4.20 3.36 2.80 2.52 2.10
437.9 8.22 6.85 4.11 3.43 2.74 2.28 2.06 1.71
536.3 6.71 5.59 3.36 2.80 2.24 1.86 1.68 1.40
656.8 5.48 4.57 2.74 2.28 1.83 1.52 1.37 1.14
804.5 4.48 3.73 2.24 1.86 1.49 1.24 1.12 0.93
985.3 3.65 3.04 1.83 1.52 1.22 1.01 0.91 0.76
1207 2.98 2.49 1.49 1.24 0.99 0.83 0.75 0.62
1478 2.44 2.03 1.22 1.01 0.81 0.68 0.61 0.51
1810 1.99 1.66 0.99 0.83 0.66 0.55 0.50 0.41
2217 1.62 1.35 0.81 0.68 0.54 0.45 0.41 0.34
2715 1.33 1.10 0.66 0.55 0.44 0.37 0.33 0.28
3325 1.08 0.90 0.54 0.45 0.36 0.30 0.27 0.23
NOTES:
1) Output speeds will vary depending upon the slip of the motor from synchronous speed.
2) Motor speeds listed are 60 Hz and 50 Hz synchronous speeds.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

15 Sizes, designations and ratios for Group 2 contains three positions which designate
AGMA standard size shaft mounted gear standard AGMA sizes. The first of these three
positions represents the whole inch increment of the
drives
maximum bore size. The second and third positions
of this section represent the fractional increment in
This section describes the standard gear drive sizes, sixteenths of an inch.
designations and nominal ratios for shaft mounted
drives. Group 3 contains up to three positions which may be
used by the manufacturer, at his option, for such
15.1 AGMA standard sizes
things as number of reductions, product type and
The eleven sizes in table 11 have been adopted as model.
standard. The table also provides the maximum
Group 4 contains one or more positions which
bore for various sizes. Additional bore sizes are
designate the nominal ratio of the gear drive.
shown in annex G. Other sizes not covered by table
11 may be used. Other designations may be selected at the option of
the manufacturer.
Table 11 -- Standard sizes and maximum bores
15.3 Ratios
AGMA Maximum bore Maximum bore
standard for inch shafts for metric Standard unit ratios have not been established for
size (in) shafts (mm) shaft mounted reducers. However, table 12 lists
107 1--7/16 35 nominal values which are generally available.
115 1--15/16 50 Additional ratios may be available from some
203 2--3/16 55 manufacturers.
207 2--7/16 60
215 2--15/16 75 Table 12 -- Nominal ratios
307 3--7/16 85 Reductions Nominal ratios
315 3--15/16 100 Single 5
407 4--7/16 110 Double 15 and 25
415 4--15/16 125
507 5--7/16 140
608 6--1/2 165
16 Screw conveyor drive dimensions

15.2 Standard designations


Dimensions for the drive shaft that engages the
The format for the standard designation is shown in coupling end of the screw conveyor and the mount-
figure 5. ing dimensions for standard trough ends are in
Group 1 contains one position which may be used by agreement with Conveyor Equipment Manufactur-
the manufacturer, at his option, for designations ers Association Standard ANSI/CEMA 300--1999
such as model or series. [3]. They are presented in annex E for reference.
Group 1 2 3 4
Position 1 234 567 89
Example A 203 BCD 25
Manufacturer’s
Option

AGMA Size
Manufacturer’s
Option
Nominal
Ratio
Figure 5 -- Standard designations

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 23


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

17 Marking and identification External and, if possible, internal inspection of the


gear drive should be made monthly. Any moisture
observed should be removed from the gear drive at
A suitable nameplate shall be attached to the gear
this time and surfaces re--coated as necessary. The
drive and should include the following information:
input shaft should also be rotated a few turns to
-- size; change the bearing, seal and gear tooth contact
surfaces.
-- ratio;
Before placing the gear drive in operation, remove
-- service rating;
any moisture condensate and fill to the proper level
-- high speed shaft rpm; with the correct lubricant.
-- class number or service factor; 18.2 Adverse conditions or long term storage
-- lubrication specification. During periods of extended storage or storage in
environments subject to high humidity, extreme
In accordance with the bylaws, the use of the AGMA temperature change, or exposure to an oxidation
insignia on the nameplate is restricted to AGMA enhancing atmosphere, gear drives should be
members. completely filled to overflowing with a high quality oil
base rust inhibiting lubricant. In cases where it is
impractical to fill the gear drive to overflowing, the
18 Storage lubricant should be circulated to coat all internal
components and the gear drive sealed to help
prevent condensation. Care shall be taken to ensure
These general storage recommendations should be
that all enclosed areas are properly vented to
used when specific manufacturer’s instructions are
prevent the entrapment of moist air.
not available. They apply to gear designs in which
the rotating elements are contained in a suitable All external machined surfaces should be coated
enclosed housing. For owner responsibility, see with a solvent based rust inhibiting undercoating and
annex D. top coated with an asphalt base rust preventative.
Under such adverse or long term storage conditions,
Proper protection, storage and inspection of gear
inspection of the gear drive should be performed on
drives is considered to be the responsibility of the
a weekly basis. The sump drain should be opened
owner. It is recommended that gear drives be stored
and a small amount of oil removed along with any
in a dry, temperature controlled environment. Within
condensate which might be present. The drive
this environment the range of ambient temperature
should be refilled to overflowing and resealed.
change should not be allowed to pass through the
Outside surfaces should be recoated as necessary.
dew point, since this would cause moisture conden-
sation on gear drive surfaces. CAUTION: Some gear drives contain features where
overfill with lubricant is not feasible or practical. These
All surfaces of the gear drive, both internal and features include such items as drywells on vertical shaft
external, should be protected against corrosion. units and labyrinth seals on shaft extensions. For these
drives, add the appropriate type and amount of vapor
18.1 Normal storage phase rust inhibitor and seal any openings. Inspect the
During manufacture and for intervals of storage up to gear drive on a weekly basis and add the required
amount of lubricant. Drives fitted with labyrinth seals
four months, internal components of gear drives
cannot be filled with oil or have a vapor phase rust
should be coated with a suitable oil based rust inhibitor installed as both will leak from the unit.
preventative. This rust preventative should contain
water displacement and fingerprint suppressant
additives. External machined surfaces should be 19 Installation
coated with a similar rust preventative during
manufacture. A suitable petroleum base rust To ensure long service and dependable perfor-
preventative should be applied to external surfaces mance, the gear drive shall be properly supported
before the drives are placed in storage. Such coating and accurately aligned. Annex H describes some of
should be self--healing and contain water displace- the general precautions required to accomplish this
ment and fingerprint suppressant additives suitable end. The gear drive manufacturer’s installation
for protecting the surfaces against rust for a period of manual shall be followed, as it may include more
up to 12 months. detailed procedures than appear in this standard.

24  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Annex A
(informative)
Service factors and application classification numbers
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]

A.1 Purpose 1.50 for a multi--cylinder engine and 1.75 for a single
cylinder engine.
This annex provides a detailed guide for determining
service factors and application classification num- A.4 Selection of service factors
bers for enclosed gear drives. Before an enclosed speed reducer or increaser can
be selected for any application, an equivalent power
A.2 Table selection
rating shall be determined. This is done by
Service factors have served industry well when the multiplying the specified power by the service factor.
application has been identified by knowledgeable Since the service factor represents the normal
and experienced gear design engineers. The tables relationship between the unit rating and the required
are provided for information purposes only and application power, it is suggested that the service
should be used only after taking into account all of factor be applied to the nameplate rating of the prime
the external influences which may affect the mover or driven machine rating, as applicable.
operation of the enclosed gear drive. Manufacturer and user shall agree upon which
The tables have been developed from the experi- power, prime mover rating or driven machine re-
ence of manufacturers and users of gear drives for quirements, should dictate the selection of the gear
use in common applications. It is suggested that drive. It is necessary that the gear drive selected
selection of factors for special applications be have a unit rating equal to or in excess of this
agreed upon by the user and the gear manufacturer equivalent power rating.
when variations of the values in the table may be All service factors listed are 1.0 or greater. Service
required. factors less than 1.0 can be used in some applica-
tions when specified by the user and agreed to by the
For general enclosed gear drives, a service factor
manufacturer.
from tables A.1 and A.2 is normally used. For
selection of specific types of enclosed drives, Table A.2 should be used with caution, since much
including gearmotors, shaft mounted and screw higher values have occurred in some applications.
conveyor drives, an application classification num- Values as high as ten have been used. On some
ber from table A.3 is normally used. applications up to six times nominal torque can
occur, such as: Turbine/Generator drives, Heavy
In addition to the tables, an analytical approach may Plate and Billet rolling mills.
be used to determine the selection factor. See 9.4 for
the important factors to be considered. CAUTION: Any user of enclosed gear drives should
make sure he has the latest available data on the
A.3 Driver influence factors affecting the selection of a gear drive. When
better load intensity information is available on the
Factors shown in tables A.2 and A.3 are for gear driving or driven equipment, this should be considered
when a service factor is selected.
drives driven by motors (electric or hydraulic) and
turbines (steam or gas). A.5 Application classification and class number

When the driver is a single cylinder or multi--cylinder The table of application class numbers has been
engine, the selection factors from tables A.2 and A.3 developed from the experience of manufacturers
shall be converted to the values from table A.1 for the and users of gear drives for use in common
appropriate type of prime mover. applications and has been found to be generally
satisfactory for the listed industries when gears are
As an example, if the application is a centrifugal rated using AGMA standards. It is recommended
blower, the service factor from table A.2 is 1.25 for a that class numbers for special applications be
motor or turbine. Table A.1 converts this value to agreed upon by the user and the gear manufacturer

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 25


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

when variations of the table may be required. See gears. By creating a single table to cover all gear
clause 9 of the standard for some of the operational types represented in this standard, consideration
characteristics that affect selection of proper class has been given to:
numbers.
-- overload;
When wormgears are used in a gear drive covered
-- design life;
by this standard, it is recognized that the class
numbers and their resulting service factors may be -- gear performance characteristics;
different from the corresponding service factors
-- service factor consolidation.
listed in ANSI/AGMA 6034--B92 or ANSI/AGMA
6035--A02 In these cases the class number selected Service factors are not to be applied to thermal
results in a conservative service factor for worm- power rating. See clause 7 of the standard.

Table A.1 -- Conversion table for single or multi--cylinder engines to find equivalent single or
multi--cylinder service factor
Steam and gas turbines,
hydraulic or electric motor Single cylinder engines Multi--cylinder engines
1.00 1.50 1.25
1.25 1.75 1.50
1.50 2.00 1.75
1.75 2.25 2.00
2.00 2.50 2.25
2.25 2.75 2.50
2.50 3.00 2.75
2.75 3.25 3.00
3.00 3.50 3.25

Table A.2 -- Service factors for enclosed gear drives driven by motors (hydraulic or electric) or
turbines (steam or gas)
Load duration
Application Up to 3 hours 3 to 10 hours Over 10 hours
per day per day per day
Agitators (mixers)
Pure liquids 1.00 1.00 1.25
Liquids and solids 1.00 1.25 1.50
Liquids -- variable density 1.00 1.25 1.50
Blowers
Centrifugal 1.00 1.00 1.25
Lobe 1.00 1.25 1.50
Vane 1.00 1.25 1.50
Brewing and distilling
Bottling machinery 1.00 1.00 1.25
Brew kettles -- continuous duty 1.25 1.25 1.25
Cookers -- continuous duty 1.25 1.25 1.25
Mash tubs -- continuous duty 1.25 1.25 1.25
Scale hopper -- frequent starts 1.25 1.25 1.50
Can filling machines 1.00 1.00 1.25
Car dumpers 1.50 1.75 2.00
Car pullers 1.00 1.25 1.50
Clarifiers 1.00 1.00 1.25
Classifiers 1.00 1.25 1.50
(continued)

26  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Table A.2 (continued)

Load duration
Application Up to 3 hours 3 to 10 hours Over 10 hours
per day per day per day
Clay working machinery
Brick press 1.50 1.75 2.00
Briquette machine 1.50 1.75 2.00
Pug mill 1.00 1.25 1.50
Compactors 2.00 2.00 2.00
Compressors
Centrifugal 1.00 1.00 1.25
Lobe 1.00 1.25 1.50
Reciprocating, multi--cylinder 1.50 1.50 1.75
Reciprocating, single--cylinder 1.75 1.75 2.00
Conveyors -- General Purpose
Includes Apron, Assembly, Belt, Bucket, Chain,
Flight, Oven and Screw
Uniformly Loaded or Fed 1.00 1.00 1.25
Heavy Duty -- Not Uniformly Fed 1.00 1.25 1.50
Severe Duty -- Reciprocating or Shaker 1.50 1.75 2.00
Cranes1)
Dry dock
Main hoist 2.50 2.50 2.50
Auxiliary hoist 2.50 2.50 3.00
Boom hoist 2.50 2.50 3.00
Slewing drive 2.50 2.50 3.00
Traction drive 3.00 3.00 3.00
Container
Main hoist 3.00 3.00 3.00
Boom hoist 2.00 2.00 2.00
Trolley drive
Gantry drive 3.00 3.00 3.00
Traction drive 2.00 2.00 2.00
Mill duty
Main hoist 3.50 3.50 3.50
Auxiliary 3.50 3.50 3.50
Bridge 2.50 3.00 3.00
Trolley travel 2.50 3.00 3.00
Industrial duty
Main 2.50 2.50 3.00
Auxiliary 2.50 2.50 3.00
Bridge 2.50 3.00 3.00
Trolley travel 2.50 3.00 3.00
Crusher
Stone or ore 1.75 1.75 2.00
Dredges
Cable reels 1.25 1.25 1.50
Conveyors 1.25 1.25 1.50
Cutter head drives 2.00 2.00 2.00
Pumps 2.00 2.00 2.00
Screen drives 1.75 1.75 2.00
Stackers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Winches 1.25 1.25 1.50
(continued)

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 27


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table A.2 (continued)


Load duration
Application Up to 3 hours 3 to 10 hours Over 10 hours
per day per day per day
Elevators
Bucket 1.00 1.25 1.50
Centrifugal discharge 1.00 1.00 1.25
Escalators 1.00 1.00 1.25
Freight 1.00 1.25 1.50
Gravity discharge 1.00 1.00 1.25
Extruders
General 1.50 1.50 1.50
Plastics
Variable speed drive 1.50 1.50 1.50
Fixed speed drive 1.75 1.75 1.75
Rubber
Continuous screw operation 1.75 1.75 1.75
Intermittent screw operation 1.75 1.75 1.75
Fans
Centrifugal 1.00 1.00 1.25
Cooling towers 2.00 2.00 2.00
Forced draft 1.25 1.25 1.25
Induced draft 1.50 1.50 1.50
Industrial & mine 1.50 1.50 1.50
Feeders
Apron 1.00 1.25 1.50
Belt 1.00 1.25 1.50
Disc 1.00 1.00 1.25
Reciprocating 1.50 1.75 2.00
Screw 1.00 1.25 1.50
Food industry
Cereal cooker 1.00 1.00 1.25
Dough mixer 1.25 1.25 1.50
Meat grinders 1.25 1.25 1.50
Slicers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Generators and exciters 1.00 1.00 1.25
Hammer mills 1.75 1.75 2.00
Hoists
Heavy duty 1.75 1.75 2.00
Medium duty 1.25 1.25 1.50
Skip hoist 1.25 1.25 1.50
Laundry
Tumblers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Washers 1.50 1.50 2.00
(continued)

28  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Table A.2 (continued)


Load duration
Application Up to 3 hours 3 to 10 hours Over 10 hours
per day per day per day
Lumber industry
Barkers -- spindle feed 1.25 1.25 1.50
Main drive 1.75 1.75 1.75
Conveyors -- burner 1.25 1.25 1.50
Main or heavy duty 1.50 1.50 1.50
Main log 1.75 1.75 2.00
Re--saw, merry--go--round 1.25 1.25 1.50
Conveyors
Slab 1.75 1.75 2.00
Transfer 1.25 1.25 1.50
Chains
Floor 1.50 1.50 1.50
Green 1.50 1.50 1.75
Cut--off saws
Chain 1.50 1.50 1.75
Drag 1.50 1.50 1.75
Debarking drums 1.75 1.75 2.00
Feeds
Edger 1.25 1.25 1.50
Gang 1.75 1.75 1.75
Trimmer 1.25 1.25 1.50
Log deck 1.75 1.75 1.75
Log hauls -- incline -- well type 1.75 1.75 1.75
Log turning devices 1.75 1.75 1.75
Planer feed 1.25 1.25 1.50
Planer tilting hoists 1.50 1.50 1.50
Rolls -- live--off bearing -- roll cases 1.75 1.75 1.75
Sorting table 1.25 1.25 1.50
Tipple hoist 1.25 1.25 1.50
Transfers
Chain 1.50 1.50 1.75
Craneway 1.50 1.50 1.75
Tray drives 1.25 1.25 1.50
Veneer lathe drives 1.25 1.25 1.50
Metal mills
Draw bench carriage and main drive 1.25 1.25 1.50
Runout table
Non--reversing
Group drives 1.50 1.50 1.50
Individual drives 2.00 2.00 2.00
Reversing 2.00 2.00 2.00
Slab pushers 1.50 1.50 1.50
Shears 2.00 2.00 2.00
Wire drawing 1.25 1.25 1.50
Wire winding machine 1.25 1.50 1.50
(continued)

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 29


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table A.2 (continued)

Load duration
Application Up to 3 hours 3 to 10 hours Over 10 hours
per day per day per day
Metal strip processing machinery
Bridles 1.25 1.25 1.50
Coilers & uncoilers 1.00 1.00 1.25
Edge trimmers 1.00 1.25 1.50
Flatteners 1.25 1.25 1.50
Loopers (accumulators) 1.00 1.00 1.25
Pinch rolls 1.25 1.25 1.50
Scrap choppers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Shears 2.00 2.00 2.00
Slitters 1.00 1.25 1.50
Mills, rotary type
Ball & rod
Spur ring gear 2.00 2.00 2.00
Helical ring gear 1.50 1.50 1.50
Direct connected 2.00 2.00 2.00
Cement kilns 1.50 1.50 1.50
Dryers & coolers 1.50 1.50 1.50
Mixers
Concrete 1.25 1.25 1.50
Paper mills2)
Agitator (mixer) 1.50 1.50 1.50
Agitator for pure liquors 1.25 1.25 1.25
Barking drums 2.00 2.00 2.00
Barkers -- mechanical 2.00 2.00 2.00
Beater 1.50 1.50 1.50
Breaker stack 1.25 1.25 1.25
Calender3) 1.25 1.25 1.25
Chipper 2.00 2.00 2.00
Chip feeder 1.50 1.50 1.50
Coating rolls 1.25 1.25 1.25
Conveyors
Chip, bark, chemical 1.25 1.25 1.25
Log (including slab) 2.00 2.00 2.00
Couch rolls 1.25 1.25 1.25
Cutter 2.00 2.00 2.00
Cylinder molds 1.25 1.25 1.25
Dryers3)
Paper machine 1.25 1.25 1.25
Conveyor type 1.25 1.25 1.25
Embosser 1.25 1.25 1.25
Extruder 1.50 1.50 1.50
Fourdrinier rolls (includes lump breaker, dandy 1.25 1.25 1.25
roll, wire turning, and return rolls)
Jordan 1.50 1.50 1.50
Kiln drive 1.50 1.50 1.50
Mt. Hope roll 1.25 1.25 1.25
Paper rolls 1.25 1.25 1.25
Platter 1.50 1.50 1.50
Presses -- felt & suction 1.25 1.25 1.25
(continued)

30  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Table A.2 (continued)

Load duration
Application Up to 3 hours 3 to 10 hours Over 10 hours
per day per day per day

Paper mills2) (continued)


Pulper 2.00 2.00 2.00
Pumps -- vacuum 1.50 1.50 1.50
Reel (surface type) 1.25 1.25 1.25
Screens
Chip 1.50 1.50 1.50
Rotary 1.50 1.50 1.50
Vibrating 2.00 2.00 2.00
Size press 1.25 1.25 1.25
Super calender4) 1.25 1.25 1.25
Thickener (AC motor) 1.50 1.50 1.50
(DC motor) 1.25 1.25 1.25
Washer (AC motor) 1.50 1.50 1.50
(DC motor) 1.25 1.25 1.25
Wind and unwind stand 1.00 1.00 1.00
Winders (surface type) 1.25 1.25 1.25
Yankee dryers3) 1.25 1.25 1.25

Plastics industry
Primary processing
Intensive internal mixers
Batch mixers 1.75 1.75 1.75
Continuous mixers 1.50 1.50 1.50
Batch drop mill -- 2 smooth rolls 1.25 1.25 1.25
Continuous feed, holding & blend mill 1.25 1.25 1.25
Compounding mill 1.25 1.25 1.25
Calenders 1.50 1.50 1.50
Secondary processing
Blow molders 1.50 1.50 1.50
Coating 1.25 1.25 1.25
Film 1.25 1.25 1.25
Pipe 1.25 1.25 1.25
Pre--plasticizers 1.50 1.50 1.50
Rods 1.25 1.25 1.25
Sheet 1.25 1.25 1.25
Tubing 1.25 1.25 1.50
Pullers -- barge haul 1.25 1.25 1.50
Pumps
Centrifugal 1.00 1.00 1.25
Proportioning 1.25 1.25 1.50
Reciprocating
Single acting, 3 or more cylinders 1.25 1.25 1.50
Double acting, 2 or more cylinders 1.25 1.25 1.50
Rotary
Gear type 1.00 1.00 1.25
Lobe 1.00 1.00 1.25
Vane 1.00 1.00 1.25

(continued)

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 31


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table A.2 (continued)


Load duration
Application Up to 3 hours 3 to 10 hours Over 10 hours
per day per day per day
Rubber industry
Intensive internal mixers
Batch mixers 1.75 1.75 1.75
Continuous mixers 1.50 1.50 1.50
Mixing mill -- 2 smooth rolls (if corrugated rolls 1.50 1.50 1.50
are used, then use the same service factors
that are used for a cracker warmer)
Batch drop mill -- 2 smooth rolls 1.50 1.50 1.50
Cracker warmer -- 2 rolls; 1 corrugated roll 1.75 1.75 1.75
Cracker -- 2 corrugated rolls 2.00 2.00 2.00
Holding, feed & blend mill -- 2 rolls 1.25 1.25 1.25
Refiner -- 2 rolls 1.50 1.50 1.50
Calenders 1.50 1.50 1.50
Sand muller 1.25 1.25 1.50
Sewage disposal equipment
Bar screens 1.25 1.25 1.25
Chemical feeders 1.25 1.25 1.25
Dewatering screens 1.50 1.50 1.50
Scum breakers 1.50 1.50 1.50
Slow or rapid mixers 1.50 1.50 1.50
Sludge collectors 1.25 1.25 1.25
Thickeners 1.50 1.50 1.50
Vacuum filters 1.50 1.50 1.50
Screens
Air washing 1.00 1.00 1.25
Rotary -- stone or gravel 1.25 1.25 1.50
Traveling water intake 1.00 1.00 1.25
Sugar industry
Beet slicer 2.00 2.00 2.00
Cane knives 1.50 1.50 1.50
Crushers 1.50 1.50 1.50
Mills (low speed end) 1.75 1.75 1.75
Textile industry
Batchers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Calenders 1.25 1.25 1.50
Cards 1.25 1.25 1.50
Dry cans 1.25 1.25 1.50
Dryers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Dyeing machinery 1.25 1.25 1.50
Looms 1.25 1.25 1.50
Mangles 1.25 1.25 1.50
Nappers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Pads 1.25 1.25 1.50
Slashers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Soapers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Spinners 1.25 1.25 1.50
Tenter frames 1.25 1.25 1.50
Washers 1.25 1.25 1.50
Winders 1.25 1.25 1.50
(continued)

32  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Table A.2 (concluded)


NOTES:
1) Crane drives are to be selected based upon the gear tooth bending strength using the numeric service factors,
KSF, shown in the table or by analysis such as Miner’s Rule. In all cases, the pitting resistance service factor shall be
a minimum of 1.0. Contact gear manufacturer for ratings.
2) Service factors for paper mill applications are applied to the nameplate rating of the electric drive motor at the
motor rated based speed.
3) Anti--friction bearings only. Use 1.5 for sleeve bearings.
4) A service factor of 1.00 may be applied at base speed of a super calender operating over--speed range of part
range constant power, part range constant torque where the constant power speed range is greater than 1.5 to 1. A
service factor of 1.25 is applicable to super calenders operating over the entire speed range at constant torque or
where the constant power speed range is less than 1.5 to 1.

Table A.3 -- Application classification


Class numbers
Up to 3 hrs 3--10 hrs Over 10 hrs
Application per day per day per day
Agitators (mixers)
Pure Liquids I I II
Liquids and Solids I II II
Liquids -- Variable Density I II II
Blowers
Centrifugal I I II
Lobe I II II
Vane I II II
Brewing and Distilling
Bottling Machinery I I II
Brew Kettles -- Continuous Duty II II II
Cookers -- Continuous Duty II II II
Mash Tubs -- Continuous Duty II II II
Scale Hopper -- Frequent Starts II II II
Can Filling Machines I I II
Car Dumpers II III III
Car Pullers I II II
Clarifiers I I II
Classifiers I II II
Clay Working Machinery
Brick Press II III III
Briquette Machine II III III
Pug Mill I II II
Compactors III III III
Compressors
Centrifugal I I II
Lobe I II II
Reciprocating, Multi--Cylinder II II III
Reciprocating, Single--Cylinder III III III
Conveyors -- General Purpose
Includes Apron, Assembly, Belt, Bucket,
Chain, Flight, Oven and Screw
Uniformly Loaded or Fed I I II
Heavy Duty -- Not Uniformly Fed I II II
Severe Duty -- Reciprocating or Shaker II III III
(continued)

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 33


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table A.3 (continued)

Class numbers
Up to 3 hrs 3--10 hrs Over 10 hrs
Application per day per day per day
Cranes1)
Dry Dock
Main Hoist 2.50 2.50 2.50
Auxiliary Hoist 2.50 2.50 3.00
Boom Hoist 2.50 2.50 3.00
Slewing Drive 2.50 2.50 3.00
Traction Drive 3.00 3.00 3.00
Container
Main Hoist 3.00 3.00 3.00
Boom Hoist 2.00 2.00 2.00
Trolley Drive
Gantry Drive 3.00 3.00 3.00
Traction Drive 2.00 2.00 2.00
Mill Duty
Main Hoist 3.50 3.50 3.50
Auxiliary 3.50 3.50 3.50
Bridge Travel 2.50 3.00 3.00
Trolley Travel 2.50 3.00 3.00
Industrial Duty
Main 2.50 2.50 3.00
Auxiliary 2.50 2.50 3.00
Bridge Travel 2.50 3.00 3.00
Trolley Travel 2.50 3.00 3.00
Crusher
Stone or Ore III III III
Dredges
Cable Reels II II II
Conveyors II II II
Cutter Head Dives III III III
Pumps III III III
Screen Drives III III III
Stackers II II II
Winches II II II
Elevators
Bucket I II II
Centrifugal Discharge I I II
Escalators I I II
Freight I II II
Gravity Discharge I I II
Extruders
General II II II
Plastics
Variable Speed Drive III III III
Fixed Speed Drive III III III
Rubber
Continuous Screw Operation III III III
Intermittent Screw Operation III III III
Fans
Centrifugal I I II
Cooling Towers III III III
Forced Draft II II II
Induced Draft II II II
Industrial & Mine II II II
(continued)

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Table A.3 (continued)


Class numbers
Up to 3 hrs 3--10 hrs Over 10 hrs
Application per day per day per day
Feeders
Apron I II II
Belt I II II
Disc I I II
Reciprocating II III III
Screw I II II
Food Industry
Cereal Cooker I I II
Dough Mixer II II II
Meat Grinders II II II
Slicers I II II
Generators and Exciters II II II
Hammer Mills III III III
Hoists
Heavy Duty III III III
Medium Duty II II II
Skip Hoist II II II
Laundry Tumblers II II II
Laundry Washers II II III
Lumber Industry
Barkers
Spindle Feed II II II
Main Drive III III III
Conveyors
Burner II II II
Main or Heavy Duty II II II
Main Log III III III
Re--saw, Merry--Go--Round II II II
Slab III III III
Transfer II II II
Chains
Floor II II II
Green II II III
Cut--Off Saws
Chain II II III
Drag II II III
Debarking Drums III III III
Feeds
Edger II II II
Gang II III III
Trimmer II II II
Log Deck III III III
Log Hauls -- Incline -- Well Type III III III
Log Turning Devices III III III
Planer Feed II II II
Planer Tilting Hoists II II II
Rolls -- Live--off brg. -- Roll Cases III III III
Sorting Table II II II
Tipple Hoist II II II
Transfers
Chain II II III
Craneway II II III
Tray Drives II II II
Veneer Lathe Drives II II II
(continued)

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 35


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table A.3 (continued)


Class numbers
Up to 3 hrs 3--10 hrs Over 10 hrs
Application per day per day per day
Metal Mills
Draw Bench Carriage and Main Drive II II II
Runout Table
Non--reversing
Group Drives II II II
Individual Drives III III III
Reversing III III III
Slab Pushers II II II
Shears III III III
Wire Drawing II II II
Wire Winding Machine II II II
Metal Strip Processing Machinery
Bridles II II II
Coilers & Uncoilers I I II
Edge Trimmers I II II
Flatteners II II II
Loopers (Accumulators) I I I
Pinch Rolls II II II
Scrap Choppers II II II
Shears III III III
Slitters I II II
Mills, Rotary Type
Ball & Rod
Spur Ring Gear III III III
Helical Ring Gear II II II
Direct Connected III III III
Cement Kilns II II II
Dryers & Coolers II II II
Paper Mills2)
Agitator (Mixer) II II II
Agitator for Pure Liquors II II II
Barking Drums III III III
Barkers -- Mechanical III III III
Beater II II II
Breaker Stack II II II
Calendar3) II II II
Chipper III III III
Chip Feeder II II II
Coating Rolls II II II
Conveyors
Chip, Bark, Chemical II II II
Log (including Slab) III III III
Couch Rolls II II II
Cutter III III III
Cylinder Molds II II II
Dryers3)
Paper Machine II II II
Conveyor Type II II II
Embosser II II II
Extruder II II II
(continued)

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Table A.3 (continued)

Class numbers
Up to 3 hrs 3--10 hrs Over 10 hrs
Application per day per day per day
Paper Mills2) (continued)
Fourdrinier Rolls (includes Lump Breaker,
Dandy Roll, Wire Turning, and Return Rolls) II II II
Jordan II II II
Kiln Drive II II II
Mt. Hope Roll II II II
Paper Rolls II II II
Platter II II II
Presses -- Felt & Suction II II II
Pulper III III III
Pumps -- Vacuum II II II
Reel (Surface Type) II II II
Screens
Chip II II II
Rotary II II II
Vibrating III III III
Size Press II II II
Supercalendar4) II II II
Thickener (AC Motor) II II II
Thickener (DC Motor) II II II
Washer (AC Motor) II II II
Washer (DC Motor) II II II
Wind and Unwind Stand I I I
Winders (Surface Type) II II II
Yankee Dryers3) II II II
Plastics Industry -- Primary Processing
Intensive Internal Mixers
Batch Mixers III III III
Continuous Mixers II II II
Batch Drop Mill -- 2 smooth rolls II II II
Continuous Feed, Holding & Blend Mill II II II
Calendars II II II
Plastics Industry -- Secondary Processing
Blow Molders II II II
Coating II II II
Film II II II
Pipe II II II
Pre--Plasticizers II II II
Rods II II II
Sheet II II II
Tubing II II II
Pullers -- Barge Haul II II II
Pumps
Centrifugal I I II
Proportioning II II II
Reciprocating
Single Acting, 3 or more cylinders II II II
Double Acting, 2 or more cylinders II II II
Rotary
Gear Type I I II
Lobe I I II
Vane I I II
(continued)

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table A.3 (continued)

Class numbers
Up to 3 hrs 3--10 hrs Over 10 hrs
Application per day per day per day
Rubber Industry
Intensive Internal Mixers
Batch Mixers III III III
Continuous Mixers II II II
Mixing Mill
2 smooth rolls II II II
1 or 2 corrugated rolls III III III
Batch Drop Mill -- 2 smooth rolls II II II
Cracker Warmer -- 2 roll, 1 corrugated roll III III III
Cracker -- 2 corrugated rolls III III III
Holding, Feed & Blend Mill -- 2 rolls II II II
Refiner -- 2 rolls II II II
Calendars II II II
Sand Muller II II II
Sewage Disposal Equipment
Bar Screens II II II
Chemical Feeders II II II
Dewatering Screens II II II
Scum Breakers II II II
Slow or Rapid Mixers II II II
Sludge Collectors II II II
Thickener II II II
Vacuum Filters II II II
Screens
Air Washing I I II
Rotary -- Stone or Gravel II II II
Traveling Water Intake I I I
Screw Conveyors
Uniformly Loaded or Fed I I II
Heavy Duty I II II
Sugar Industry
Beet Slicer III III III
Cane Knives II II II
Crushers II II II
Mills (low speed end) III III III
Textile Industry
Batchers II II II
Calendars II II II
Cards II II II
Dry Cans II II II
Dyeing Machinery II II II
Looms II II II
Mangles II II II
Nappers II II II
Pads II II II
Slashers II II II
Soapers II II II
Spinners II II II
Tenter Frames II II II
Washers II II II
Winders II II II
(continued)

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Table A.3 (concluded)


NOTES:
1) Because crane drive selections may require a service factor, K , greater than 2.0, Class Numbers are not
SF
applicable. Crane drives are to be selected based upon the gear tooth bending strength using the numeric service
factors, KSF, shown in the table or by analysis such as Miner’s Rule. In all cases, the pitting resistance service factor
shall be a minimum of 1.0. Contact gear manufacturer for ratings.
2) The class numbers listed in table A.3 for paper mill applications are consistent with those shown in TAPPI
(Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry) Technical Information Sheet 0406--18 1967, Service Factors
for Gears on Major Equipment in the Paper and Pulp Industry.
3) Anti--friction bearings only.
4) A Class Number of I may be applied at base speed of a supercalendar operating over a speed range of
part--range constant power and part--range constant torque where the constant power speed range is greater than
1.5 to 1. A Class Number of II is applicable to supercalendars operating over the entire speed range at constant
torque or where the constant power speed range is less than 1.5 to 1.

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 39


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Annex B
(informative)
Keys and keyways for shaft extensions
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]

B.1 Purpose shown in figure B.3. For shaft diameters over 6.5
inches, rectangular keys are the preferred shape.
The purpose of this annex is to present recom-
mended standard dimensions and tolerances of For tapered shafts, the largest tapered diameter
keys and keyways to be used on shaft extensions of determines the key size.
industrial enclosed gear drives. This annex is in
conformance with ISO R773:1969 and ANSI B.4 Keyway dimensions and tolerances
B17.1--1967.
B.4.1 Keyway size dimensions and tolerances
The intent of the recommended standardization is to
simplify the accommodation of power transmission Keyway sizes should be selected to result in a
accessories on these gear drives. These accesso- normal fit (metric) or commercial fit (inch) with the
ries typically include shaft couplings, sheaves and key. A normal fit will result in a transitional fit with the
sprockets. sides of the key. A commercial fit will result in a
clearance fit with the sides of the key.
While it is recognized that there are occasional
reasons to deviate from these recommendations, Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to
general conformance will eliminate confusion and provide a radius in the keyway.
misinterpretation between vendor or supplier and
user, as well as ensure compatibility. The recommendations for metric keyways, keyway
radii and key chamfers are shown in table B.2. The
B.2 Definitions corresponding diagrams for metric keyways are
shown in figure B.2.
B.2.1 Key
The recommendations for inch keyways, keyway
A demountable machinery part which, when as-
radii and key chamfers are shown in Table B.4. The
sembled into keyways, provides a positive means for
corresponding diagrams for inch keyways are
transmitting torque between the shaft and hub.
shown in Figure B.4.
B.2.2 Keyway
B.4.2 Keyway alignment tolerances
An axially located rectangular groove in a shaft or
hub. This may also be written as shaft keyway or hub Although it is beyond the scope of this annex to
keyway when describing the exact application. The provide specific alignment tolerances for keyways,
shaft keyway has been sometimes referred to as a the user should recognize the possible effects of the
keyseat. following alignment conditions:

B.3 Key dimensions and tolerances -- centerline of the keyway offset to the center-
line of the shaft or hub;
Recommended metric key sizes are shown in table
-- centerline of the keyway positioned at an
B.1. The corresponding diagrams for metric keys
angle to the centerline of the shaft or hub;
are shown in figure B.1. For shaft diameters over 22
millimeters, rectangular keys are the preferred -- depth of the keyway varying along the length
shape. of the keyway;

Recommended inch key sizes are shown in table -- sides of the keyway not perpendicular to the
B.3. The corresponding diagrams for inch keys are bottom of the keyway.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Figure B.1 -- Diagrams for metric keys

Table B.1 -- Metric dimensions and tolerances of keys


dimensions in millimeters

Width Thickness Chamfer Range of lengths


b h s (X 45) l **
Tolerance
Nominal h9 Nominal Tolerance * Min Max From To
2 +0.0000 2 +0.0000 0.16 0.25 6 20
3 --0.0250 3 --0.0250 0.16 0.25 6 36
4 4 0.16 0.25 8 45
5 +0.0000 5 +0.0000 0.25 0.40 10 56
6 --0.0300 6 --0.0300 0.25 0.40 14 70
8 +0.0000 7 0.25 0.40 18 90
10 --0.0360 8 0.40 0.60 22 110
12 8 +0.0000 0.40 0.60 28 140
14 +0.0000 9 --0.0900 0.40 0.60 36 160
16 --0.0430 10 0.40 0.60 45 180
18 11 0.40 0.60 50 200
20 12 0.60 0.80 56 220
22 +0.0000 14 +0.0000 0.60 0.80 63 250
25 --0.0520 14 --0.1100 0.60 0.80 70 280
28 16 0.60 0.80 80 320
32 18 0.60 0.80 90 360
36 +0.0000 20 1.00 1.20 100 400
40 --0.0620 22 +0.0000 1.00 1.20 -- --
45 25 --0.1300 1.00 1.20 -- --
50 28 1.00 1.20 -- --
56 32 1.60 2.00 -- --
63 +0.0000 32 1.60 2.00 -- --
70 --0.0740 36 +0.0000 1.60 2.00 -- --
80 40 --0.1600 2.50 3.00 -- --
90 +0.0000 45 2.50 3.00 -- --
100 --0.0870 50 2.50 3.00 -- --
NOTES:
* Tolerance on thickness h of key is h9 for square section or h11 for rectangular section.
** Preferred lengths of keys: 6 -- 8 -- 10 -- 12 -- 14 -- 16 -- 18 -- 20 -- 22 -- 25 -- 28 -- 32 -- 36 -- 40 -- 45 --
50 -- 56 -- 63 -- 70 -- 80 -- 90 -- 100 -- 110 -- 125 -- 140 -- 160 -- 180 -- 200 -- 220 -- 250 -- 280 -- 320 -- 360
-- 400.

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 41


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

X Section X--X
b

t2
h

t1
Detail of keyway

d+t2
d and key

d--t1
X
Figure B.2 -- Diagrams for metric keyways
Table B.2 -- Metric dimensions and tolerances of keyways
dimensions in millimeters
Shaft Key * Keyway
diameter, d section Width, b Depth ** Radius, r
bXh
Tolerance
normal keys Shaft, t1 Hub, t2
Toler- Toler-
over to Nominal Shaft N9 Hub Js9 Nominal ance Nominal ance Max Min
6 8 2X2 2 --0.0040 +0.0125 1.2 1.0 0.2 0.1
8 10 3X3 3 --0.0290 --0.0125 1.8 1.4 0.2 0.1
10 12 4X4 4 2.5 1.8 0.2 0.1
12 17 5X5 5 +0.0000 +0.0150 3.0 +0.1 2.3 +0.1 0.3 0.2
17 22 6X6 6 --0.0300 --0.0150 3.5 +0.0 2.8 +0.0 0.3 0.2
22 30 8X7 8 +0.0000 +0.0180 4.0 3.3 0.3 0.2
30 38 10 X 8 10 --0.0360 --0.0180 5.0 3.3 0.4 0.3
38 44 12 X 8 12 5.0 3.3 0.4 0.3
44 50 14 X 9 14 +0.0000 +0.0215 5.5 3.8 0.4 0.3
50 58 16 X 10 16 --0.0430 --0.0215 6.0 4.3 0.4 0.3
58 65 18 X 11 18 7.0 +0.2 4.4 +0.2 0.4 0.3
65 75 20 X 12 20 7.5 +0.0 4.9 +0.0 0.6 0.4
75 85 22 X 14 22 +0.0000 +0.0260 9.0 5.4 0.6 0.4
85 95 25 X 14 25 --0.0520 --0.0260 9.0 5.4 0.6 0.4
95 110 28 X 16 28 10.0 6.4 0.6 0.4
110 130 32 X 18 32 11.0 7.4 0.6 0.4
130 150 36 X 20 36 12.0 8.4 1.0 0.7
150 170 40 X 22 40 +0.0000 +0.0310 13.0 9.4 1.0 0.7
170 200 45 X 25 45 --0.0620 --0.0310 15.0 10.4 1.0 0.7
200 230 50 X 28 50 17.0 11.4 1.0 0.7
230 260 56 X32 56 20.0 +0.3 12.4 +0.3 1.6 1.2
260 290 63 X 32 63 +0.0000 +0.0370 20.0 +0.0 12.4 +0.0 1.6 1.2
290 330 70 X 36 70 --0.0740 --0.0370 22.0 14.4 1.6 1.2
330 380 80 X 40 80 25.0 15.4 2.5 2.0
380 440 90 X 45 90 +0.0000 +0.0435 28.0 17.4 2.5 2.0
440 500 100 X 50 100 --0.0870 --0.0435 31.0 19.5 2.5 2.0
NOTES:
* The relation between the diameter of shaft and the section of key applies to normal use. A smaller section of key
may be used if adequate for the torque to be transmitted. In that case, the depths t1 and t2 should be recalculated to
maintain the relation h/2. A larger section of key should not be used.
** The depth of keyways in shafts and hubs should be obtained by direct measurement or by measuring the
dimensions (d--t1) and (d+t2). The tolerances applicable to t1 and t2 apply to the two composite dimensions (d-- t1) and
(d-- t2), but the sign for the tolerance given in the table for t1 has to be reversed. Keyway depths should not be
measured from the side corner.
The tolerance on t1 and t2 is approximately equal to the tolerance k12 which would be obtained by adopting the
thickness h of the key as the nominal size.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Figure B.3 -- Diagrams for inch keys with fillet radius and key chamfer

Table B.3 -- Inch dimensions and tolerances of keys


dimensions in inches
Suggested
Width, W Height, H
chamfer
Nominal Nominal Nominal Nominal
Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Tolerance Square Rect.
square rect. square rect.
0.0937 0.0937 0.0937
0.1250 0.1250 0.1250 0.0937
0.1875 0.1875 0.1875 0.1250
0.2500 0.2500 0.2500 0.1875
+0.000 +0.000 +0.000
0.3125 0.3125 0.3125 0.2500
--0.002 --0.002 --0.002 +0.000 0.0468
0.3750 0.3750 0.3750 0.2500
--0.003
0.5000 0.5000 0.5000 0.3750 0.0468
0.6250 0.6250 0.6250 0.4375
0.7500 0.7500 0.7500 0.5000
0.0781
0.8750 0.8750 0.8750 0.6250
1 +0.000 1 +0.000 1 +0.000 0.7500
0.0781
1.2500 --0.003 1.2500 --0.004 1.2500 --0.003 0.8750
1.5000 1.5000 1.5000 1 +0.000 0.1562
1.7500 1.7500 1.7500 1.5000a) --0.004
+0.000 +0.000
2 2 +0.000 2 1.5000 0.1562
--0.004 --0.004 0.2187
2.5000 2.5000 --0.005 2.5000 1.7500 +0.000
3 +0.000 3 3 +0.000 2 --0.005
0.2812 0.2187
3.5000 --0.006 3.5000 +0.000 --0.006 2.5000 +0.000
3.5000
4 4 --0.006 3 --0.006
0.2812
5 5 +0.000 3.5000 +0.000
6 6 --0.008 4 --0.008
+0.000/ +0.000/ 0.4062
7 7 5
--0.013 --0.013
NOTE 1 Tolerances shown are commercial class (Class 1).
NOTE 2 Tolerances agree with ANSI B17.1--1967, Reaffirmed 1989.
NOTE 3 Shaded areas: Square keys are preferred through 6.5000 inch diameter shafts. Sizes and dimensions in
unshaded areas are preferred.
a) Some key standards show 1.2500 in. Preferred size is 1.5000 in.

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 43


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table B.4 -- Inch dimensions and tolerances of keyways


dimensions in inches
Shaft Key Keyway
Nominal key size Nomi- Width, W Depth
Nominal shaft Nominal keyway Suggested fillet
diameter nal Tolerance Class 1 depth, H/2 Tolerance Class radius, r
Height, H
Width, keyway fit 1 fit
To W width, Shaft, Hub,
Over Square Rect W Shaft Hub Square Rect Square Rect
(Incl) Ls Lt
0.3125 0.4375 0.0937 0.0937 0.0937 0.0468
0.4375 0.5625 0.1250 0.1250 0.0937 0.1250 0.0625 0.0468
0.5625 0.8750 0.1875 0.1875 0.1250 0.1875 0.0937 0.0625
+0.002 +0.002
0.8750 1.2500 0.2500 0.2500 0.1875 0.2500 0.1250 0.0937
+0.000 +0.000
1.2500 1.3750 0.3125 0.3125 0.2500 0.3125 0.1562 0.1250
0.0312
1.3750 1.7500 0.3750 0.3750 0.2500 0.3750 0.1875 0.1250
1.7500 2.2500 0.5000 0.5000 0.3750 0.5000 0.2500 0.1875
0.0312
2.2500 2.7500 0.6250 0.6250 0.4375 0.6250 0.3125 0.2187
2.7500 3.2500 0.7500 0.7500 0.5000 0.7500 +0.003 +0.003 0.3750 0.2500
0.0625
3.2500 3.7500 0.8750 0.8750 0.6250 0.8750 +0.000 +0.000 0.4375 0.3125
3.7500 4.5000 1 1 0.7500 1 0.5000 0.3750 +0.000 +0.010
0.0625
4.5000 5.5000 1.2500 1.2500 0.8750 1.2500 0.6250 0.4375 --0.015 --0.000
5.5000 6.5000 1.5000 1.5000 1 1.5000 0.7500 0.5000 0.1250
6.5000 7.5000 1.7500 1.7500 1.5000a) 1.7500 0.8750 0.7500
7.5000 9 2 2 1.5000 2 1 0.7500 0.1250
0.1875
9 11 2.5000 1.7500 2.5000 1.2500 0.8750
2.5000 +0.004 +0.004
11 13 3 2 3 1.5000 1
3 +0.000 +0.000 0.2500 0.1875
13 15 3.5000 2.5000 3.5000 1.7500 1.2500
3.5000
15 18 4 3 4 1.5000
0.2500
18 22 5 3.5000 5 1.7500
22 26 6 4 6 2
0.3750
26 30 7 5 7 2.5000
NOTE 1 Tolerances shown are commercial class (Class 1).
NOTE 2 Tolerances agree with ANSI B17.1--1967, Reaffirmed 1989.
NOTE 3) Shaded areas: Square keys are preferred through 6.5000 inch diameter shafts. Sizes and dimensions in
unshaded areas are preferred.
a) Some key standards show 1.2500 in. Preferred size is 1.5000 in.

Lt
Ls

Depth of shaft keyseat


Depth of hub keyseat
Figure B.4 -- Diagrams for inch keyways

44  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Annex C
(informative)
Test and inspection procedures
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]

C.1 Purpose -- For bevel gears: ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03,


Design Manual for Bevel Gears [5];
This annex covers the testing and inspection proce-
dures for assembled gear drives. Individual compo- -- For cylindrical wormgears: ANSI/AGMA
nent inspection and process control are beyond the 6022--C93, Design Manual for Cylindrical Worm-
scope of this annex. gears [6].
When testing of the gear drive is required, the drive The percentage of tooth contact will vary depending
should be properly mounted for running the test in upon the loading of the gears, but the pattern
the intended operating position to ensure that all obtained even under a no load condition will provide
facets of the assembly are correct. Under normal test the manufacturer with important information.
conditions the gear drive is connected by coupling or
belt drive to an electric motor that is available for the C.2.2 Backlash
purpose at the manufacturer’s test facility. The
Backlash in gears is the clearance or play between
following applies to only those gear drives which are
mating tooth surfaces. The backlash will be a
lubricated in accordance with manufacturer’s rec-
ommendations and tested in a system of connected function of the tolerances on tooth thickness, runout,
rotating parts. During testing, the system should be lead, profile, center distance, and by the temperature
free from critical speeds, torsional vibrations and differences between the housing and the gears.
overloads as tested at the gear drive manufacturer’s Functional backlash is the backlash at the tightest
facility. point of mesh on the pitch circle in a direction normal
to the tooth surfaces when the gears are mounted in
C.2 Inspection of the assembled gear drive
their assembled positions.
The correct mating of a gear set depends not only on
Backlash is typically measured with feeler gauges or
the accuracy of the gear teeth, but also on the
position and the alignment of the gear axes relative dial indicators normal to the gear tooth for a given
to each other. The components, having been fully mesh.
approved prior to assembly, are assembled, and Circumferential backlash of the assembled unit with
proper tooth contact, backlash and bearing settings gears other than spur gears should take into account
are verified.
the axial float of the shafts involved.
C.2.1 Tooth contact inspection
C.2.3 Rolling element bearings
Checking the tooth contact pattern (tooth bearing
area) is frequently an important test of the gear drive, When rolling element bearings are used, the manu-
and is of special value when gears have been facturer, based on his experience, the application,
mounted in a housing, because the test will indicate if and the recommendations of his bearing supplier,
the helix and pressure angles and the resultant base will determine the type of bearings and their settings.
pitch of the mating gears meet the specified require- Assembly procedures normally require a tolerance
ments and achieve optimal gear performance. The to be established for the desired setting. An
pinion profiles are generally coated with a marking incorrectly set bearing can be a source of damage to
compound and then rotated in mesh with the mating the gear drive. Bearing end play may be set one
gear, and the resulting tooth pattern can be docu- shaft at a time and finally checked when both end
mented. See the following documents for additional cover plates are bolted in place with the required
information on contact pattern checking: shims. End play should be checked to ensure
-- For spur and helical gears: ISO/TR 10064--4, compliance with the specification. Full end play is
Cylindrical gears -- Code of inspection practice -- typically measured with the shaft moved all the way
Part 4: Recommendations relative to surface tex- in one direction and then moved fully in the other
ture and tooth contact pattern checking [4]; direction. Total movement is the end play.

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 45


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

C.3 Testing procedure Features such as oil tightness, noise level, tempera-
ture rise, axial and radial play of input and output
For the purpose of a running test the following
shafts, contact pattern of the gear meshes, and
conditions would apply.
lubrication system may be checked and recorded at
C.3.1 Speed this time.
A gear drive intended for service at a single speed C.3.4 Lubrication system performance
shall be tested at that speed unless otherwise
agreed upon between gear manufacturer and The lube system must be checked for adequacy at
purchaser. The test speeds of a gear unit intended certified speed or at both ends of speed range if the
for service over a range of operating speeds shall speed is variable:
span the range of operating speeds, unless other- -- On splash systems, the oil level must be high
wise negotiated between the manufacturer and the enough to lubricate all components. It must not be
purchaser. The direction of rotation during the test unnecessarily high because sound and heat will
shall be the same as that intended in service, if be generated;
known.
-- On pressure lube systems, oil lines, troughs,
C.3.2 Loading gauges, pumps, filters, etc., must be checked for
performance and any leakage. Flow, pressure,
Gear drives may be operated with or without load at
and temperature are to be recorded at regular
the gear manufacturer’s discretion unless specific
intervals.
test loads are agreed upon and included as a part of
the purchase contract. In individual cases, especially C.3.5 General
where unusually high speeds or power are involved, -- Any deviations from any applicable specifica-
alternate operating conditions may be negotiated. tions on the certified print will be noted on the test
CAUTION: It is recommended that gear drives not be report;
tested with loads in excess of unit rating, since such
-- All deficiencies such as oil leaks, excessive
practice will reduce the design life of the unit.
sound level, vibration, abnormal temperature
C.3.3 Test requirements rise, and insufficient tooth contact must be
The duration of the running test will be decided by the corrected before the gear drive is shipped;
drive manufacturer unless a specific time has been -- The ratio should be verified along with the as-
contractually agreed upon between manufacturer sembly, shaft extension details, and direction of
and purchaser. rotation.

46  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Annex D
(informative)
Owner responsibilities
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A064, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]

D.1 Purpose -- Furnish and install adequate machinery


guards as needed to protect operating personnel
This annex lists which applicable items must be
and as required by the applicable standards of the
considered and properly provided for by the owner.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Many different types of units for widely varying (OSHA), and by other applicable safety
applications are covered by this standard. This regulations;
section, which is arranged as a checklist, is intended -- Ensure that driving equipment is running in
to act as a guide. Specific items should be applied as the correct direction before coupling to gear drive
appropriate for the particular unit for the specific designed to operate in a specific direction.
application.
D.5 Start--up
D.2 Specifications
-- Ensure that switches, alarms, heaters, cool-
Owner has the responsibility to specify to the ers and other safety and protection devices are
manufacturer such items as the required loads and installed and operational for their intended
the operating environment. purposes;

D.3 Storage and handling -- On a unit equipped with a separately driven


lubrication pump, run the pump and check out the
-- Proper storage of unit until installed; lubrication system prior to starting the unit;
-- Proper preservation of the unit until it is -- Fill the unit or sump to proper level with
placed into service; correct lubricant before starting drive. Refill as
-- Proper handling of the unit: necessary immediately after starting the unit;
-- safety of personnel comes first; -- Ensure that all grease points have received
-- lift only at adequate lifting points; the proper amount of grease.

-- protect the mounting surface from D.6 Operation and maintenance


damage. -- Operate the equipment as it was intended to
D.4 Installation be operated:
-- Proper installation of unit on an adequate -- do not overload;
foundation: -- run at correct speed.
-- adequately supported; -- Maintain lubricant in good condition and at
-- securely bolted into place; proper level;
-- properly leveled so as not to distort the -- Dispose of used lubricant in accordance with
gear case. applicable laws and regulations;
-- Properly install couplings suitable for the -- Apply proper amount of grease to specified
application and connected equipment; locations at prescribed intervals;
-- Ensure accurate alignment with other -- Perform periodic maintenance of the gear
equipment; drive as recommended by the manufacturer.

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 47


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Annex E
(informative)
Screw conveyor drive dimensions
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]

E.1 Purpose E.2 Drive shaft dimensions

This annex defines the dimensions for the drive shaft The dimensions for the drive shaft are shown in
that engages the coupling end of the screw conveyor figure E.1 and table E.2. These dimensions are in
and the mounting dimensions for standard trough accordance with ANSI/CEMA 300--017.
ends.
E.3 Mounting dimensions
These dimensions are in agreement with Conveyor
The reducer mounting dimensions for standard
Equipment Manufacturers Association Standard
trough ends are shown in figure E.2 and table E.2.
ANSI/CEMA 300--1999. [3]
These dimensions are in accordance with ANSI/
NOTE: CEMA has not established hard metric sizes. CEMA 300--013.

Drive shaft Trough end

Trough end
E hole dia. adapter
Screw conveyor
coupling

C D M F
B

Figure E.1 -- Drive shaft dimensions

Table E.1 -- Screw conveyor drive shaft dimensions, inches


A B C D E F M
1 1/2 6 7/8 3 17/32 1 1/4 7/8
2 6 7/8 3 21/32 1 1/4 7/8
2 7/16 6 11/16 15/16 3 21/32 1 13/16 15/16
3 6 7/8 1 3 25/32 1 7/8 1
3 7/16 9 1/8 1 1/4 4 29/32 2 3/8 1 1/2

48  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

K -- Bolt diameter

J H

B
Countersunk
J holes for
fasteners
A

Figure E.2 -- Screw conveyor drive mounting dimensions

Table E.2 -- Screw conveyor drive mounting dimensions, inches


Screw Shaft A
B H J K
diameter diameter minimum
6 1 1/2 1 5/8 4 1/2 3/16 4 1/2
1 1/2 1 5/8 4 1/2
9 6 1/8 1/4
2 2 1/8 5 1/8 5/8
2 2 1/8 5 1/8 5/8
12 2 7/16 2 9/16 7 3/4 1/4 5 5/8 5/8
3 3 1/8 6 3/4
2 7/16 2 9/16 5 5/8 5/8
14 9 1/4 5/16
3 3 1/8 6 3/4
16 3 3 1/8 10 5/8 5/16 6 3/4
3 3 1/8 6
18 12 1/8 3/8 3/4
3 7/16 3 9/16 6 3/4
3 3 1/8 6
20 13 1/2 3/8 3/4
3 7/16 3 9/16 6 3/4
24 3 7/16 3 9/16 16 1/2 3/8 6 3/4 3/4

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 49


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Annex F
(informative)
Illustrative examples
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]

F.1 Purpose ω1 = 870 rpm


The following examples are offered to assist in the b = 50.8 mm
use of clause 6 of this standard. These examples are ZI = 0.192 (see AGMA 908--B89)
based on the assumption that the gear set is the 2(203.328)
minimum rated component. In practice all compo- d w1 = = 101.664 mm
3+1
nent ratings must be calculated to determine the Kv = 1.25 (see 2101, Eq. 21; vt = 4.6 m/sec and
lowest rated component. The tables, figures and Av = 9)
equations referenced in F.2 through F.4 refer to
KH = 1.30 (see 2101, Eq. 37)
ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04, in F.5 to ANSI/AGMA
2003--B97, and in F.6 to ANSI/AGMA 6034--B92. ZE = 190 [N/mm2]0.5
σHP = 1240 N/mm2 (see 2101, table 3)
F.2 Uniform loading
nL = 870 cycles/min (60 min/hr) (5000 hr)
Calculate the application power rating for the gears = 2.61 ¢ 108 cycles
of a single reduction helical speed reducer used to ZN = 1.4488 (2.61 ¢ 108) --0.023
drive a uniformly loaded conveyor belt 24 hours/day. = 0.9277 (see 2101, figure 17)
The input shaft and pinion are driven by an 870 rpm
ZW = 1.0 since gears are surface hardened
motor. The gear set is represented by the following
data: 50.8 (870) 0.192
P azu =
1.91 × 10 7 (1.25) (1.30)
2

Number of teeth
Pinion
31
Gear
93 × 
101.664 (1240) (0.9277) (1.0)
190

Normal module 3.175
= 104 kW
Pressure angle, normal 20
Bending allowable power, Payu, at unity service
Helix angle 15
factor for the pinion is calculated as follows:
Face width (mm) 50.8
ω 1 d w1 mt
Material Grade 1 P ayu = b Y J σ FP Y N
Carburized Steel 1.91 × 10 7 Kv KH
(see clause 5 and 2101, Eq. 29)
Hardness 60 HRC
Kv = 1.25
Center distance (mm) 203.328
KH = 1.30
Both gear and pinion are standard addendum, cut YJ1 = 0.5226 (see AGMA 908--B89)
with standard pre--shave hobs, and shaved. Heat
mt = 3.175/cos 15 = 3.287
treat distortion is controlled to produce both gears as
AGMA Quality Level 9. σFP = 380 N/mm2 (see 2101, table 4)
YN = 1.3558 (2.61 ¢ 108) --0.0178
The allowable power rating of the gearing will be
= 0.9602 (see 2101, figure 18)
determined for both surface pitting failure, Pazu, and
root bending failure, Payu. The allowable transmitted 870 (101.664) 3.287
P ayu =
power, Pa, of the gear set will be the lesser of these 1.91 × 10 7 (1.25) (1.30)
allowable powers divided by the service factor. × 50.8 (0.5226) (380) (0.9602) = 91 kW
Surface pitting allowable power, Pazu, at unity Bending allowable power at unity service factor for
service factor is calculated as follows: the gear is calculated as follows:
2 YJ2 = 0.5664 (see AGMA 908--B89)
P azu =
b ω1
7
ZI
1.91 × 10 K v K H
d w1 σ HP Z N Z W
ZE
 nL =2.61 × 10 8 cycles 1  8 1
u = 2.61 × 10 3 
(see clause 5 and 2101, Eq. 28) = 8.7 × 10 7 cycles

50  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

−0.0178 Pinion Gear


YN = 1.35588.7 × 10 7 = 0.9792
Number of teeth 15 66
870 (101.664) Normal module 3.175
Payu = 3.287
1.91 × 10 7 (1.25) (1.30) Pressure angle, normal 20
× 50.8 (0.5664) (380) (0.9792) Helix angle 20
Outside diameter (mm) 59.690 232.029
= 100 kW
Face width (mm) 44.45
The service factor is applied to the minimum Material Grade 2
allowable power condition, pinion root bending in this Carburized Steel
example. Hardness 60 HRC
Center distance (mm) 139.738
KSF = 1.4 (see table 4 and annex A, table A.3)
Both gears are AGMA Quality Level 9.
P a = 100 = 71.4 kW
1.40 This gearset must be analyzed for both surface
F.3 Variable loading, helical gears pitting failure and bending failure. The pitting failure
will be checked first by calculating the contact stress
It is desired to use a gearset of existing design in a value for each of the three duty cycle parts.
new application which requires a life of 2000 hours. Referring to figure 17 of ANSI/AGMA 2101--D04, the
life cycles for each of the three stress levels can be
For an approximation of expected life, the following found. These life cycles must be combined using
procedure utilizing Miner’s Rule may be used. Miner’s Rule to determine the total life hours of the
However, when a more accurate life is required, a pinion and gear for pitting resistance.
thorough analysis is necessary. This more detailed
analysis would include: σH = ZE  Ft Ko Kv Ks
K H Z R (see 2101,
d w1 b Z I Eq. 1)

-- A load spectrum broken into a significantly ZE = 190 [N/mm2]0.5


greater number of increments; Ko = 1.0
Kv = 1.14 (Av = 9 and vt = 1.9 m/sec)
-- A detailed S--N curve for the specific material
and load levels. Ks = 1.0
KH = 1.25
This gear set will be used in an installation which has
ZR = 1.0
an overload factor of 1.0 by agreement between the
user and the manufacturer. The gear set will be dw1 = 2(139.738) 15 15
+ 66
 = 51.765
subjected to the multi--load cycle of:
ZI = 0.1995 (see AGMA 908--B89)
Percent 1.91 × 10 7 P
Ft =
time used Input ω d w1
Condition divided by power, Pinion 1.91 × 10 7 (13.6)
number 100, xi P speed, ω1 F t1 = = 7048 N
712 (51.765)
1 0.90 13.6 kW 712 rpm = 1.91 × 10 7 (28.9)
42 720 rph F t2 = = 14 977 N
712 (51.765)
2 0.05 28.9 kW 712 rpm = 1.91 × 10 7 40.3
F t3 = = 20 885 N
42 720 rph 712 51.765
3 0.05 40.3 kW 712 rpm =
42 720 rph
σ H1 = 190  7048 (1.14) (1.25)
(51.765) (44.45) (0.1995)
= 889 N∕mm 2

Since this is an existing gearset, the following gear


σ H2 = 190  14 977 (1.14) (1.25)
(51.765) (44.45) (0.1995)
data is given: = 1296 N∕mm 2

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 51


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

σ H3 = 190  20 885 (1.14) (1.25)


(51.765) (44.45) (0.1995)
Kv
mt
= 1.14
= 3.175/cos 20 = 3.3788
= 1530 N∕mm 2 Ks = 1.0
KH = 1.25
As this is grade 2 carburized steel, σHP = 1550
N/mm2 (see 2101, table 3). YJ1 = 0.4182 (see AGMA 908--B89)
YJ2 = 0.4360 (see AGMA 908--B89)
Z N1 = 889 = 0.5735 KB = 1.0
1550
Z N2 = 1296 = 0.8361 The stresses and total number of bending strength
1550 life hours for the pinion is:
Z N3 = 1530 = 0.9871
1550 7048 1.14 1.25
σ F1 = = 160 N∕mm 2
Solving the equation ZN = 1.4488 nL --0.023 for nL; 44.45 3.3788 0.4182
14 977 1.14 1.25
43.5 σ F2 = = 340 N∕mm 2

n L1 = 1.4488
0.5735
 = 3.22 × 10 17 cycles 44.45 3.3788 0.4182
20 885 1.14 1.25
43.5 σ F3 = = 474 N∕mm 2

n L2 = 1.4488
0.8361
 = 2.43 × 10 10 cycles
44.45 3.3788 0.4182
As this is grade 2 carburized steel, σFP = 450 N/mm2
43.5

n L3 = 1.4488
0.9871

= 1.77 × 10 7 cycles (see 2101, table 4).

The total number of hours pitting resistance life for Y N1 = 160 = 0.3556
450
the pinion is: Y N2 = 340 = 0.7556
450
Y N3 = 474 = 1.0533
−1
x ω
 x ω x ω
Life (hours) = n1 1 + n2 2 + n3 3
L1 L2 L3
 450
Solving the equation YN = 1.3558 nL --0.0178 for nL;
56.2

Life =  0.90 42 720


3.22 × 10 17
  +
0.05 42 720
2.43 × 10 10
 
n L1 = 1.3558
0.3556

56.2
= 4.63 × 10 32 cycles


n L2 = 1.3558 

−1
= 1.86 × 10 14 cycles
+  0.05 42 720
1.77 × 10 7
= 8303 hours
0.7566
As YN3 > 1.0, solve the equation YN =6.1514 nL--0.1192
for nL;
The total number of hours pitting resistance life for 8.39
the gear is: 
n L3 = 6.1514
1.0533
 = 2.69 × 10 6 cycles

Life =  0.90 (9709)


3.22 × 10 17
+  
0.05 (9709)
2.43 × 10 10
 Life =  0.90 42 720
4.63 × 10 32
 +
0.05 42 720
1.86 × 10 14


−1 −1

+ 
0.05 (9709)
1.77 × 10 7
 = 36 461 hours +  0.05 42 720
2.69 × 10 6
= 1261 hours

Both gears will exceed the required 2000 hours life in As can be seen, this gear set will not reach the 2000
pitting resistance. They must next be checked for hours life requirement, as the pinion teeth will
bending strength by calculating the bending stress theoretically fracture at 1261 hours.
for each of the three duty cycle parts. The life cycles F.4 Overload conditions, helical gears
for each of the three stress levels can be found.
These life cycles must be combined using Miner’s A pinion stand drive of the characteristics shown is
Rule to determine the total life hours of the pinion and expected to be subjected to infrequent (less than
gear for root bending strength. 100) momentary overloads. Determine the maxi-
mum peak momentary overload to which the gear
KH KB (see 2101, set may be subjected without yielding the teeth.
σF = Ft Ko Kv Ks 1
b mt YJ Eq. 10) F max K Hs (see 2101,
σs Ky ≥
Ko = 1.0 b mt YJ Kf Eq. 46)

52  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Gear set data n1 b ZI


P az =
Kf = 1.6 1.91 × 10 7 K v K Hβ K A Z x Z xc
2
mt
b
= 8.4667 mm
= 228.6 mm
×  σH lim d e1 Z NT Z W
SH ZE Kθ ZZ
 (see 2003,
Eq. 4M)

n1 = 870 rpm
dw1 = 238.125 mm
vet = 9.84 m/s
YJ1 = 0.517 ZI = 0.132 (see 2003, annex D)
Material: Steel, 340 BHN, therefore: K A = Z W = S H = K θ = Z Z = 1.0

 
−B
σs = 904 N/mm2 (see 2101, figure 16) A (see 2003,
Kv = Eq. 13M)
Ky = 0.75 (industrial practice) A + 200 v et
KHs = 0.000 567(228.6) + 1.07 = 1.1996 A = 50 + 56 (1.0 − B) (see 2003, Eq. 14)
(see 2101, Eq. 47) 0.667 (see 2003, Eq. 15)
B = 0.25(12 − Q v)
1.1996 −0.630
(904)(0.75) ≥ F max

904 874 ≥ F max


(228.6)(8.4667)(0.517)(1.6) Kv =  
70.7
70.7 + 200 × 9.84
= 1.359 
The maximum momentary peak overload allowable A = 50 + 56 (1.0 − 0.630) = 70.7
0.667
is 904 874 N. Converting this load to torque yields: B = 0.25 (12 − 8) = 0.630
(see 2003, 2
F d 904 874 (238.125) K Hβ = K mb + 5.6 × 10 −6( b )
Eq. 20M)
T = t w1 =
2 2(1000) Kmb = 1.10 for one member straddle mounted
= 107 737 Nm 2
K Hβ = 1.10 + 5.6 × 10 −6(95) = 1.151
F.5 Uniform loading, bevel gears (see 2003,
Z x = 0.00492 b + 0.4375
Eq. 18M)
Calculate the application power for a spiral bevel
Z x = (0.00492)(95) + 0.4375 = 0.905
gear set, with the following data, used in a single
Z xc = 1.5 (see 2003, clause 13)
reduction right angle reducer used to drive a uniform 2
load at 870 rpm input: σ H lim = 1380 N∕mm (see 2003, table 3)
d e1 = 216 mm
Item Pinion Gear Number of cycles
Number of teeth 18 59
n L = (870) (60) 10 000 = 5.22 × 10 8
Module 12 −0.0602
Pitch diameter (mm) 216 708 Z NT = (3.4822) 5.22 × 10 8 = 1.040
Face width (mm) 95 (see 2003, figure 5)
0.5
Pressure angle 20 Z E = 190 N∕mm 2 (see 2003, clause 20)
Spiral angle 35 87095
P az = 0.132
Mean cone distance (mm) 322.6
1.91 × 10 7 1.3591.1511.00.9051.5
Cutter radius (inch) 9.0 2
Tooth taper Standard × 
13802161.0401.0
1.01901.01.0
 = 716 kW
Tool edge radius 12 m
Bending allowable power at unity service factor for
Hardness (C&H) min. 55 HRC 55 HRC
the pinion is calculated as follows:
Design life 10 000 hrs
n1 b YJ Yβ σF lim d e1 m et
P ay =
The application is considered to be “general com- 1.91 × 10 7 Y x K Hβ K A K v 1
mercial”. The gearset is manufactured to AGMA Y NT
× (see 2003, Eq. 8M)
quality 8 tolerances and is lapped. The gears are Kθ Yz SF
crowned. One member is straddle mounted. Y J = 0.282 (see 2003, annex D)
q
The surface pitting allowable power at unity service
factor is calculated as follows:
Y β = 0.211 Rr  c0
m
+ 0.789
(see 2003,
Eq. 21M)

 AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved 53


ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

0.279 Cm is the ratio correction factor (see table 2)


q= (see 2003, Eq. 23M)
log 10 (sin β m) = 0.825 for 30:1 ratio
−1.156 Cv is the velocity factor (see table 4)

Y β = 0.211 9 × 25.4
322.6
 + 0.789 = 1.103 = 0.312 for 3.51 m/s
q= 0.279 = − 1.156 m is the coefficient of friction (see table 6)
log 10 (sin 35) = 0.0257 for 3.51 m/s
Y x = 0.4867 + 0.008399 m et (see 2003,
Cs is the materials factor (see figure 1)
Eq. 19M)
= 1000 for Dm = 127.0 mm, chill cast
Y x = 0.4867 + (0.008399)(12) = 0.587
Tangential tooth load, Wt
σ F lim = 205 N∕mm 2 (see 2003, table 5)
C s D 0.8
m Fe Cm Cv
Y NT = 1.683 n −0.0323 (see 2003, figure 6) Wt = (see Eq. 5M)
L 75.948
−0.0323 0.8
Y NT = (1.683) 5.22 × 10 8 = 0.880 (1000) (127.0) (25.4) (0.825) (0.312)
=
Y Z = 1.0 (see 2003, table 2) 75.948
= 4149 N
S F = 1.0 (see 2003, clause 8)
where
(870) (95) (0.282) (1.103)
P ay = Fe is effective face width of gear (actual face
1.91 × 10 0.587 (1.151) (1.0) (1.359)
7 ( )
width, except not to exceed 0.67 dm).
(205) (216) (12) 0.880
× Friction force, Wf
1 (1.0) (1.0) (1.0)
= 685 kW m Wt
Wf = (see Eq. 6)
cos λ cos φ n
F.6 Cylindrical wormgears
0.0257 (4149)
= = 114.171 N
Calculate the input power rating, output torque and cos(6.34) cos(20)
efficiency for a single reduction wormgear unit drive Torque capacity at wormgear, TG
at 1750 rpm input. The gearset is represented by the Wt Dm (4149) (127.0)
following data: TG = = = 263.46 Nm
2000 2000
(see Eq. 8M)
Worm Gear
Input power, Pi
Mean diameter (mm) 38.1 127.0
n Wt Dm v Wf
Worm starts 1 Pi = + + PN
Gear teeth 30 1.91 × 10 7 m G 1000
Face width (mm) 25.4 (1750)(4149) (127.0) (3.51)(114.171)
= +
Material 8620 steel C92700 1.91 × 10 7 (30) 1000
58 HRC chill cast + 0.067 = 2.077 kW (see Eq. 4M)
ground
where
Lead angle 6.340
Normal pressure angle 20 PN is non--load dependent losses, established
by test.
Sliding velocity, v
Efficiency, η
n dm
v= Po n Wt Dm
19 098 cos λ η= (100) = (100)
(1750) (38.1) Pi 1.91 × 10 7 m G P i
= = 3.51 m∕s
19 098 cos(6.34) (1750) (4149) (127.0) (100)
= = 77.5%
Select empirical values and use equations from 1.91 × 10 7(30) (2.077)
ANSI/AGMA 6034--B92. (see Eq. 10M)

54  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

Annex G
(informative)
Recommended bore sizes for AGMA standard size shaft mounted drives
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]

G.1 Purpose and millimeters) for each size of shaft mounted drive
are listed in tables G.1 and G.2.
The purpose of this annex is to present recom-
mended bore sizes for shaft mounted drives. Because material properties vary with the type and
heat treatment, the driven shaft and shaft keys must
G.2 Recommended output bore diameters
be evaluated to verify they are in compliance with
The recommended output bore diameters (in inches allowable stress criteria.

Table G.1 -- Recommended output bore diameters for inch shafts


AGMA
standard size Bore size, in
107 1 1--1/8 1--3/16 1--1/4 1--7/16
115 1--1/4 1--7/16 1--1/2 1--11/16 1--15/16
203 1--7/16 1--1/2 1--11/16 1--15/16 2--3/16
207 1--11/16 1--15/16 2 2--3/16 2--7/16
215 1--15/16 2 2--3/16 2--7/16 2--15/16
307 2--3/16 2--7/16 2--15/16 3--7/16
315 2--15/16 3--7/16 3--15/16
407 3--7/16 3--15/16 4--3/16 4--7/16
415 3--15/16 4--7/16 4--15/16
507 4--7/16 4--15/16 5--7/16
608 5--7/16 5--15/16 6 6--1/2

Table G.2 -- Recommended output bore diameters for metric shafts


AGMA
standard size Bore size, mm
107 20 25 30 35
115 30 35 40 45 50
203 35 40 45 50 55
207 40 45 50 55 60
215 50 55 60 65 70 75
307 60 65 70 75 80 85
315 70 75 80 85 90 100
407 80 85 90 100 110
415 100 110 115 120 125
507 120 125 130 140
608 125 130 140 150 165

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Annex H
(informative)
Installation
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Industrial Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition).]

H.1 Purpose The responsibility for the design and construction of


the supporting shaft is beyond the scope of this
The purpose of this annex is to present
standard. However, the shaft must be adequate to
recommendations for gear drive installation.
withstand normal operating loads and peak loads
H.2 Gear drive support without damage to itself or any of the system
components, and maintain alignment of the compo-
Three common methods for supporting gear drives nents under such loads. Additionally, the shaft must
are included in this standard. Although other be able to withstand the loads due to gravity with an
methods are not specifically addressed, all mounting acceptable deflection when the gear drive and
methods must provide a solid, stable support under related components are mounted.
normal operating loads and peak loads.
Design of the shaft and surrounding structure should
H.2.1 Foundation for foot mounted drives consider the clearances required for filling, checking
the oil level, draining the gear drive, and locating the
Foot mounted drives refer to any gear drive or
torque arm.
gearmotor that is mounted with feet to a solid
foundation and is supported by that foundation. The Shafts diameters shall be within commercial toler-
foundation may be oriented in any angle as long as ances for cold drawn or turned and polished round
that surface is flat. Some foot mounted drives may bars as shown in tables 2 and 3
have hollow output shafts, but are supported by the
H.2.3 Supporting plate or structure for screw
mounting feet.
conveyor, flange mount and face mount drives
The responsibility for the design and construction of
These drives are supported by a screw conveyor
the foundation is beyond the scope of this standard.
trough end plate or other similar structure, and
However, the foundation must be adequate to
mounted with a trough end adapter, flanged adapter,
withstand normal operating loads and peak loads
or directly to the gear drive housing.
without damage to itself or any of the system
components, and maintain alignment of the compo- H.2.3.1 Screw conveyor drives
nents under such loads.
The trough end adapter acts as the mounting
Design of the foundation and surrounding structure foundation to the trough end plate. It is usually
should consider the clearances required for normal furnished by the gear drive manufacturer and
maintenance including filling, checking the oil level, permits adaptation of individual manufacturer’s
draining the gear drive, and bearing lubrication. designs to trough end mounting bolt patterns. This
adapter, in addition to containing a sealing device,
If a structural steel foundation is used (i.e., wide acts as the torque reaction member. It must be
flange beams or channels), a base plate or sole plate adequate to withstand normal operating loads and
of suitable thickness should be used and should peak loads due to torque reaction, as well as any
extend under the entire unit. operating screw conveyor thrust.
If a concrete foundation is used, steel mounting pads The responsibility for the design and construction of
and bolts of sufficient size to distribute the stress into the structure supporting the screw conveyor is
the concrete should be grouted into the concrete. beyond the scope of this standard. However, the
structure must be adequate to support the weight of
H.2.2 Supporting shaft for shaft mounted drives
the drive components, withstand normal operating
Shaft mounted drives refer to any gear drive that is loads and peak loads without damage to itself or any
mounted to a supporting shaft and restrained against of the system components, and maintain alignment
rotation of the housing by a torque reaction member. of the components under such loads.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

H.2.3.2 Flange mount drives H.3.2 Shaft mounted drives


Flange mounted drives refer to any gear drive or The unit must slide freely onto the driven shaft. Do
gearmotor that is mounted with lugs to a solid not hammer or force the unit into place.
foundation and is supported by that foundation. The Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for axial
foundation may be oriented in any angle as long as retention of the unit on the driven shaft.
that surface is flat. Some flange mounted drives may
have hollow output shafts, but are supported by the The distance between the bearing support and the
mounting lugs. gear drive should be minimized. As a guideline, the
gear drive should be no more than one shaft
The responsibility for the design and construction of diameter away from the bearing support. With some
the foundation is beyond the scope of this standard. bushing types, there must be clearance to access
However, the foundation must be adequate to the bushing flange from the bearing support side.
withstand normal operating loads and peak loads
without damage to itself or any of the system H.3.2.1 Set screws
components, and maintain alignment of the compo- For straight--bored shaft mounted drives, set screws
nents under such loads. are commonly used for axial retention. Once the
H.2.3.3 Face mount drives drive is positioned on the supporting shaft, the set
screws should be tightened evenly. Flats may be
Face mounted drives refer to any gear drive or filed on the driven shaft and a thread locking
gearmotor that mounts the gear drive housing adhesive used for more positive retention.
directly to a solid foundation and is supported by that
foundation. The foundation may be oriented in any H.3.2.2 Tapered bushings
angle as long as that surface is flat. Some face Tapered bushings mate with gear drive hollow shafts
mounted drives may have hollow output shafts, but that have tapered bores. Refer to 8.9 for more
are supported by the foundation. extensive discussion on bushings.
The responsibility for the design and construction of Manufacturers usually include tightening proce-
the foundation is beyond the scope of this standard. dures with their installation, maintenance and lu-
However, the foundation must be adequate to brication instructions. The manufacturer’s
withstand normal operating loads and peak loads instructions should be followed.
without damage to itself or any of the system
H.3.2.3 Shrink disc
components, and maintain alignment of the compo-
nents under such loads. If a shrink disc is used to secure the hollow shaft to
the driven shaft, follow the shrink disc manufactur-
H.3 Mounting
er’s assembly procedure. If the shrink disc manufac-
Gear drives must be mounted and operated in a turer’s procedures are not available, the following
position consistent with their design to insure proper may be used:
operation of the lubrication system. a) Any protective spacers between the locking
H.3.1 Foot mounted drives collars should be removed;

Use shims under the feet of the unit to align the b) Clean output shaft hollow bore and driven
shaft of any lubricant;
output shaft to the driven equipment. Make sure that
all feet are supported so that the housing will not c) Slide the shrink disc over the hollow shaft.
distort when it is bolted down. Improper shimming Tighten slightly any three equally spaced locking
will reduce the life of the unit and may cause failure. bolts until the inner ring can just be rotated. Over-
Install dowel pins as instructed by the manufactur- tightening at this time can damage the inner ring.
er’s installation manual to prevent misalignment and Measure the gap between the locking collars at
ensure proper realignment if removed for service. several points around the circumference to en-
sure they are parallel. Tighten the bolts in gradual
Align the prime mover to the unit input shaft using increments following a circumferential pattern un-
shims under the feet. Make sure that the feet are til all bolts are tightened to the specified torque.
supported. It is recommended to dowel the prime Check the gap between the locking collars to be
mover to its foundation. sure they are parallel.

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

H.3.3 Screw conveyor drives date any anticipated thermal or mechanical axial
movement.
Screw conveyor drives are normally mounted to the
conveyor end plate using fasteners as specified in To check angular alignment, a spacer equal to the
ANSI/CEMA 300--013. Fasteners should be of a required coupling gap should be inserted between
proper strength to safely support the gear drive and the coupling hub faces and the clearance measured
other components. The trough end plate should be using feeler gauges. This procedure should be
flat. repeated at the same depth at 90 intervals. The
difference in these readings can be converted to
H.3.4 Flange mount and face mount drives angular misalignment.
Make sure that the mounting surface is flat or To check parallel alignment, a dial indicator should
shimmed so that all gear drive mounting surfaces are be mounted to one coupling hub. This hub is rotated,
supported and the adaptor or housing will not distort sweeping the outside diameter of the other hub. The
when it is bolted down. Improper shimming will parallel misalignment is equal to one--half of the total
reduce the life of the unit and may cause failure. indicator reading. Parallel misalignment may also be
checked by resting a straight edge squarely on the
H.4 Shaft connections outside diameter of the hubs at 90 intervals and by
Shafts may be connected to the drive system by measuring any gaps with feeler gauges. The
various means. maximum gap measurement is the parallel misalign-
ment.
H.4.1 Fits
After both angular and parallel alignment are within
Clearance or interference fits for coupling hubs specified limits, all foundation bolts should be
should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s tightened securely and the above procedure re-
recommendations or with ANSI/AGMA 9002--A86. peated to check final alignment. If any of the
Outboard pinion and sprocket fits should be as specified limits for alignment are exceeded, the
recommended by the pinion or sprocket manufactur- shafts should be realigned.
er. Coupling hubs, pinions and sprockets with CAUTION: Shaft mounted drive housings move during
interference fits should be heated according to the operation. If the input shaft of a shaft mounted drive is
manufacturer’s recommendations, generally 120C directly coupled to an electric motor, the shaft mount
to 150C, before assembling to the shaft. housing should support the motor frame.
H.4.3.2 Sprockets or sheaves
H.4.2 Location
To check parallel alignment of sprockets or sheaves,
Coupling hubs should be mounted flush with the a straight edge should be placed across their faces.
shaft ends, unless otherwise indicated by the Alignment of bushed sheaves and sprockets should
coupling or gear drive manufacturer. Pinions, be checked after bushings have been tightened.
sprockets and sheaves should be mounted as close Horizontal shaft alignment is checked by placing a
as possible to the gear drive housing to minimize level vertically against the face of the sheave or
bearing loads and shaft deflection. sprocket. Belt or chain tension shall be adjusted in
CAUTION: Do not hammer on shaft connecting ele- accordance with the manufacturer’s recommenda-
ments when mounting. tion.
H.4.3 Shaft alignment NOTE: Over--tensioning of belt or chain drives or the
use of excessive numbers of belts may result in prema-
Couplings, sprockets, sheaves or pinions should be ture failure of the gear drive.
installed according to the manufacturer’s recom- H.4.3.3 Outboard pinion
mendations for alignment.
The pinion should be aligned in accordance with the
H.4.3.1 Couplings manufacturer’s recommendations for tooth contact
and backlash.
The gap between shaft ends should be the same as
the specified coupling gap unless overhung mount- H.4.4 Alignment recheck
ing of the coupling hub is specified. The coupling After a period of operation, the alignment should be
gap and shaft gap must be sufficient to accommo- rechecked and adjusted as required.

58  AGMA 2006 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06

H.5 Torque reaction member for shaft mounted Locate the foundation end of the tie rod in an axial
drives location that does not impose a bending moment on
the unit; i.e., at a right angle to the shaft axis. Design
Shaft mounted drives are restrained against rotation
of the joint connection between the torque arm and
of the housing by a torque reaction member.
the foundation is the user’s responsibility.
The preferred location for the reaction member (tie
rod) is perpendicular to a line through the output H.6 Rotation direction
shaft of the gear drive and the point of attachment of Confirm the motor direction prior to energizing the
the tie rod to the gear drive. The resulting loading in system. For gear drives with a backstop, disconnect
the tie rod should be in tension. Angular deviation or the motor from the gear drive and confirm the
compressive loading should be in agreement with direction of rotation for the backstop by hand.
the manufacturer’s recommendations.
CAUTION: Energizing the motor without confirming the
The foundation for the tie rod shall be adequate to direction of rotation may destroy a gear drive with a
withstand normal running loads and peak loads. backstop installed.

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ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of ANSI/AGMA 6113--A06, Standard for Indusrial
Enclosed Gear Drives (Metric Edition), or indicated for additional information.

1. NEMA Standard Publication MG1--1998 4. ISO/TR 10064--4, Cylindrical gears -- Code of


(Revision 2), Motors and Generators. inspection practice -- Part 4: Recommendations
relative to surface texture and tooth contact pattern
2. IEC 60072--1 (1991--03), Dimensions and Out- checking
put Series for Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 1 --
Frame Numbers 56 to 400 and Flange Numbers 55 5. ANSI/AGMA 2005--D03, Design Manual for
to 1080. Bevel Gears

3. ANSI/CEMA 300, 1999, Screw Conveyor 6. ANSI/AGMA 6022--C93, Design Manual for
Dimensional Standards. Cylindrical Wormgears

60
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