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Fundamentals

of Technical
Graphics
Fundamentals
of Technical
Graphics
Volume II

Edward E. Osakue

MOMENTUM PRESS, LLC, NEW YORK


Fundamentals of Technical Graphics, Volume II

Copyright © Momentum Press®, LLC, 2018.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored


in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—­
electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other—except for
brief quotations, not to exceed 400 words, without the prior permission
of the publisher.

First published by Momentum Press®, LLC


222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017
www.momentumpress.net

ISBN-13: 978-1-94708-358-5 (print)


ISBN-13: 978-1-94708-359-2 (e-book)

Momentum Press General Engineering and K-12 Engineering Education


Collection

Cover and interior design by Exeter Premedia Services Private Ltd.,


Chennai, India

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of America


Abstract

Fundamentals of Technical Graphics concentrates on the main concepts


and principles of technical graphics and provides users with the informa-
tion they need most in an easy and straight forward manner. The book is
divided into two volumes: Volume I contains Chapters 1 to 5, w ­ here as
Volume II comprises of Chapters 6 to 10. The chapters and topics are orga-
nized in a sequence that makes learning a gradual transition from one level
to another. However, each chapter is presented in a self-­contained manner
and may be studied separately. In each chapter, techniques are ­presented
for implementing the topics treated. Chapter 1 gives the basic informa-
tion a beginner needs to get started with drafting. ­Chapter 2 focuses on
basic sketching tools and techniques. Chapter 3 ­discusses computer design
drafting (CDD) systems and provides relevant information to make the
student an informed user of the systems. Chapter 4 covers shape con-
struction, the foundation of creating drawing views. Chapter 5 presents
the principles and techniques for creating standard multiview drawings.
Chapter 6 discusses auxiliary view creation, whereas Chapter 7 focuses
on section view creation. Basic dimensioning is covered in ­Chapter 8.
Isometric pictorials are presented in Chapter 9. Working drawings are
covered in Chapter 10, the heart of drafting, and practical information
is provided for creating them. The Appendixes provide ­introductory dis-
cussions about screw fasteners, general and geometric tolerancing, and
surface quality and symbols.

Keywords

auxiliary views, computer design and drafting (CDD), design, ­dimensioning,


graphics, isometric views, multiview drawings, orthographic projection,
section views, shape construction, technical, working drawings
Contents

List of Figures xi
List of Tables xvii
6   Auxiliary Drawing Views 1
6.1  Introduction 1
6.2   Understanding Auxiliary Views 1
6.3   Visualizing Auxiliary Views 4
6.4   Constructing Auxiliary Views 5
6.5  Generating Auxiliary Views from Solid Models 13
6.6  Combined Standard and Partial Auxiliary Views 17
6.7   Chapter Review Questions 18
6.8   Chapter Exercises 19
7   Section Drawing Views 23
7.1  Introduction 23
7.2   Concept of Sections 23
7.3   Cutting Plane Line Styles 25
7.4   Hatch Patterns 25
7.5  Section View Representation and Placement 27
7.6   Section View Types 28
7.7   Conventional Breaks 37
7.8   Constructing Section Views 37
7.9   Generating Section Views from Solids 39
7.10  Chapter Review Questions 40
7.11  Chapter Exercises 41
8   Basic Dimensioning 45
8.1  Introduction 45
8.2  Engineering Drawing and Size Descriptions 46
8.3   Dimension Elements and Symbols 47
8.4   Dimension Types and Line Spacing 48
viii  •  Contents

8.5  Placing Dimensions on Object Features 50


8.6   Dimensioning Methods 58
8.7   Dimension Style 60
8.8   Manual Dimensioning 61
8.9   CDD Automatic Dimension Placement 64
8.10  Chapter Review Questions 67
8.11  Chapter Exercises 67
  9  Isometric Drawings 73
9.1  Introduction 73
9.2   Isometric Projection and Scale 73
9.3   Types of Isometric Drawings 75
9.4  Constructing Isometric Arcs and Circles 76
9.5  Construction Techniques for Isometric Drawing 79
9.6   Isometric Annotations 85
9.7   Applications of Isometric Views 86
9.8   Dimetric and Trimetric Projections 89
9.9   Chapter Review Questions 90
9.10  Chapter Exercises 90
10  Working Drawings 95
10.1   Introduction 95
10.2   Elements of Working Drawings 96
10.3   Component Detail Drawings 100
10.4   Standard Parts 102
10.5   Assembly Working Drawings 102
10.6   Checking Drawings 106
10.7    Specification Documents 109
10.8   Working Drawing Set 110
10.9   Chapter Review Questions 115
10.10  Chapter Exercises 115
Appendix I: Screw Fasteners 123
A1.1   Screw Features 123
A1.2   Standard Threads and Thread Profiles 123
A1.3   Thread Series 124
A1.4   Thread Classes 124
A1.5    Thread Specification 125
Appendix II: General Tolerancing and Dimensioning 127
A2.1    Symbolic Specification 128
A2.2    Value Specification 128
A2.3   Hole-Basis or Shaft-Basis Fit Systems 129
Contents   •   ix

Appendix III: Geometric Tolerancing and Dimensioning 133


Appendix IV: Surface Texture 137
A4.1  Surface Texture Specification 137
A4.2  Surface Roughness Production 139
Bibliography 141
About the Author 143
Index 145
List of Figures

Figure 6.1.  Inclined and oblique faces. (a) Inclined face.


(b) Oblique face. 2
Figure 6.2.  Identifying or creating a TL line. (a) Inclined face.
(b) Oblique face. 3
Figure 6.3.  An auxiliary image box and layout. (a) Image box.
(b) Layout. 4
Figure 6.4.  Types of auxiliary views. (a) Full. (b) Partial. 5
Figure 6.5.  Two principal views. 6
Figure 6.6.  Projection lines for auxiliary view. 6
Figure 6.7.  Draw outline of face. 7
Figure 6.8.  Draw the feature. 8
Figure 6.9.  Principal views. 9
Figure 6.10. TL line and projection lines. 10
Figure 6.11. Reference line and edge view. 10
Figure 6.12. Projection from edge view. 11
Figure 6.13. Draw outline of an oblique face. 12
Figure 6.14. Draw feature(s) on an oblique face. 12
Figure 6.15. Principal views. 14
Figure 6.16. Full auxiliary view. 14
Figure 6.17. Standard view. 15
Figure 6.18. Edge view from base view. 16
Figure 6.19. Full auxiliary view for an oblique face. 17
Figure 6.20. Partial auxiliary and standard views. 18
Figure 7.1.  Concept of sections. (a) Standard views.
(b) Mixed views. 24
xii  •   List of Figures

Figure 7.2.  Cutting plane line styles. (a) Thick centerline.


(b) Thick phantom line. (c) Broken visible line. 25
Figure 7.3.  Hatch pattern layout. 26
Figure 7.4.  Assembly hatch patterns. 26
Figure 7.5.  (a) Material type hatch patterns. (b) Material
type hatch patterns. 27
Figure 7.6.  Section view representation. (a) Right. (b) Wrong. 28
Figure 7.7.  Placement of section views. (a) Top section view.
(b) Front section view. (c) Right section view. 28
Figure 7.8.  Straight section view.  29
Figure 7.9.  Offset section view.  30
Figure 7.10. Removed section views. 30
Figure 7.11. Revolved section views. 31
Figure 7.12. Aligned section views. (a) Component with arms.
(b) Component without arms. 31
Figure 7.13. Half section. 32
Figure 7.14. Broken section. 33
Figure 7.15. Detail section view. 34
Figure 7.16. Auxiliary section view. 34
Figure 7.17. Assembly section view. 35
Figure 7.18. Un-sectioned features. 36
Figure 7.19. Hatching un-sectioned features. 36
Figure 7.20. Un-sectioned parts. 36
Figure 7.21. Break lines for different shapes and materials. 37
Figure 7.22. Constructing a regular section. 38
Figure 7.23. Constructing an aligned section. 39
Figure 7.24. Generating a section from solid model (Section A-A). 40
Figure 8.1.  Dimensional elements and terminators. (a) Elements
of a dimension. (b) Dimension line terminators. 47
Figure 8.2.  Dimensioned component. 49
Figure 8.3.  Types of dimensions.  49
Figure 8.4.  Spacing of dimensions. 50
Figure 8.5.  Arc dimensions.  51
Figure 8.6.  Circle dimensions. 52
List of Figures   •   xiii

Figure 8.7.  Dimensioning diameters. (a) Diameter on profile view.


(b) Section view showing diameter. (c) Multiple
diameters on profile view. 52
Figure 8.8.  Angular dimensions. 53
Figure 8.9.  Hole dimensions. 53
Figure 8.10. Dimensioning slots. (a) Full length. (b) Length
between centers. (c) Slot width. 54
Figure 8.11. Fillets and rounds. 54
Figure 8.12. Fillets and rounds on a component. 54
Figure 8.13. Chamfers. (a) External. (b) Internal. 55
Figure 8.14. Dimensioning counterbore, countersink, and
spotface.56
Figure 8.15. Keyseat and keyway. 56
Figure 8.16. (a) Regular keyseat. (b) Woodruff keyseat.
(c) Sledge runner k­ eyseat. 57
Figure 8.17. Rectangular neck. (a) Depth specified.
(b) Diameter specified. 58
Figure 8.18. Circular neck. (a) Depth specified. (b) Diameter
specified. 58
Figure 8.19. Truncated conical neck. (a) Depth specified.
(b) Diameter ­specified. 58
Figure 8.20. Repeated features. (a) Linear array.
(b) Polar array 58
Figure 8.21. Datum dimensioning. 59
Figure 8.22. Chain method. 59
Figure 8.23. Tabular method. 60
Figure 8.24. Engineering diagram of a component.  62
Figure 8.25. Adding horizontal dimensions to diagram. 62
Figure 8.26. Adding vertical dimensions to diagram.  63
Figure 8.27. Adding circle dimensions to diagram. 64
Figure 8.28. Generated views of a component. 65
Figure 8.29. Add centerlines to generated multiviews. 65
Figure 8.30. Adding dimensions to multiview drawing.  66
Figure 8.31. Dimensioned multiview drawing. 67
xiv  •   List of Figures

Figure 9.1.  Isometric projection. (a) Isometric rotations.


(b) Isometric axes in image plane. 74
Figure 9.2.  (a) Types of isometric lines. (b) Isometric scale. 75
Figure 9.3.  Types of isometric drawings. (a) Regular. (b) Reverse.
(c) Long-axis. 76
Figure 9.4.  Isometric arcs. 77
Figure 9.5.  (a) Constructing top isocircle. (b) Constructing top
isocircles ­continued. 77
Figure 9.6.  Constructing a left isocircle. 78
Figure 9.7.  Constructing a right isocircle. 78
Figure 9.8.  Constructing top isocircle. 79
Figure 9.9.  (a) Box method for normal faces. (b) Box method
for normal faces continued. 80
Figure 9.10. (a) Box method for inclined face. (b) Box method
for inclined face continued. 81
Figure 9.11. Box method for oblique face. 81
Figure 9.12. Box method for angles. 82
Figure 9.13. Box method for ellipse on inclined face. 83
Figure 9.14. Box method for irregular curve. 83
Figure 9.15. Centerline method for isometric drawing.
(a) Multiview sketch. (b) Layout construction.
(c) Create centers for features. (d) Finish sketch. 84
Figure 9.16. Isometric annotations. (a) Aligned dimension
placement. (b) Horizontal dimension placement. 86
Figure 9.17. Iso-detail drawings. 87
Figure 9.18. Isometric section views. (a) Straight section.
(b) Half section. (c) Broken section. (d) Offset section. 88
Figure 9.19. Assembly isometric views. (a) Outline. (b) Exploded. 88
Figure 9.20. Examples of isoplanes in other axonometric
projections. (a) Dimetric. (b) Trimetric. 89
Figure 10.1. An iso-insert in an ortho-detail drawing. 97
Figure 10.2. Standard projection symbols. (a) First angle.
(b) Third angle. 100
Figure 10.3. Standard orthographic projections. (a) Isometric.
(b) First angle projection layout. (c) Third angle
projection layout. 100
List of Figures   •   xv

Figure 10.4.  Mixed views detail drawing. 101


Figure 10.5.  Isometric assembly drawings. (a) Outline isometric.
(b) Exploded isometric. (c) Half section isometric. 104
Figure 10.6.  Exploded isometric assembly with BOM. 105
Figure 10.7.  Section assembly drawings. (a) Outline ortho-view
of assembly. (b) Front ortho-view section. 106
Figure 10.8.  Exploded assembly drawing. 111
Figure 10.9.  Shaft detail drawing. 111
Figure 10.10. Flange detail drawing. 112
Figure 10.11. Pulley detail drawing. 112
Figure 10.12. Gear detail drawing. 113
Figure 10.13. Retainer detail drawing. 113
Figure 10.14. Sleeve detail drawing. 114
Figure 10.15. Schedule of purchase parts. 114
Figure P10.1. Component drawings of Figure P10.1. 117
Figure P10.2. Component drawings for Figure P10.2a. 119
Figure P10.3.  Component drawings for Figure P10.3a. 121
Figure A1.1.  Thread nomenclature. (a) External thread.
(b) Internal thread. 124
Figure A1.2.  Metric thread specifications. 125
Figure A1.3.  English thread specifications. 126
Figure A2.1.  Unilateral tolerance specification. 129
Figure A2.2.  Bilateral tolerance specification. 129
Figure A2.3.  Limits specification. 129
Figure A3.1.  Examples of GD&T. 135
Figure A4.1.  Elements of surface texture. 138
Figure A4.2.  Full specification of surface texture. 138
Figure A4.3.  Basic specification of surface texture symbol. 138
Figure A4.4.  Application example. 139
List of Tables

Table 8.1.  Common dimensioning symbols 48


Table 8.2.  Values of dimensions 59
Table 8.3.  Some dimension style attributes (AutoCAD application) 60
Table A1.1. Metric thread classes 124
Table A1.2. English thread classes 125
Table A1.3. Interpreting metric thread specification 125
Table A1.4. Interpreting English thread specification 126
Table A2.1. Preferred fits (ANSI B4.2) 130
Table A3.1. GD&T symbols 134
Table A4.1. Typical surface roughness height for some
manufacturing processes 140
CHAPTER 6

Auxiliary Drawing Views

6.1 Introduction

An auxiliary view is an orthographic view that is created for a feature


on an inclined or oblique face of an object. It is created from at least
two principal views with the aim of showing the true shape and size of
the feature. Conceptually, it is a normal view obtained by looking at a
plane in a direction perpendicular to it because the direction of a plane
is defined by an axis perpendicular to it. Though there is no limit to the
number of auxiliary views that can be generated from principal views,
practical considerations restrict views to preferred directions of inclined
and oblique faces on objects. Consequently, a limited number of auxiliary
views are normally needed in technical graphics. A primary auxiliary view
is the first auxiliary view that is obtained from two principal views of an
object. A secondary auxiliary view is generated from a primary auxiliary
view and one principal view. Third, fourth, and so auxiliary views may
be drawn; however, most technical graphic problems can be solved with
one or two auxiliary views. Successive auxiliary views are views obtained
from one principal view and a primary auxiliary view or from two other
auxiliary views. Usually, one auxiliary view can substitute for one of the
standard or principal views in a multiview drawing, and thus reduce the
total ­number of views necessary for complete description of a compo-
nent. Hidden lines appearing behind auxiliary view features are usually
not shown for clarity purposes.

6.2 Understanding Auxiliary Views

Auxiliary views are needed when a feature is foreshortened in one or more


principal views. Features are foreshortened when they appear on inclined
2  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

and or oblique faces. Foreshortened images are distorted, so there is


always a necessity to clarify such images in technical graphics. Auxiliary
view techniques allow us to look directly (perpendicularly) at a face on an
object, and hence see the features on it in true shape and size. Therefore
the techniques of generating auxiliary views help us correct the distortion
of foreshortened images on principal views, though they are often tedious
to create manually. However, auxiliary views can be generated easily with
Computer Design Drafting (CDD) packages.
In creating auxiliary views, some concepts need to be properly under-
stood. These include the true length (TL) line, edge view of a plane,
inclined and oblique planes. A TL line is one whose true size is repre-
sented on a view. The edge view of a plane is a line. This is the view of a
plane when the view direction is parallel to the plane. Inclined and oblique
planes can be recognized by inspecting two adjacent principal views.
Figure 6.1a shows the case of an inclined face where the edge view
of the face is shown in one principal (front) view. The face is shown fore-
shortened in the other two principal views. In Figure 6.1a, two adjacent
views are sufficient to identify the face as inclined (front and right or front
and top). In a problem with an inclined face, only one primary auxiliary
view will be needed to create the true shape and size of a feature on it.
Hence, for Figure 6.1a, an auxiliary is required to reveal the true shape
of the inclined face. Figure 6.1b shows the case of an oblique face where
no edge view of the face is shown in a principal view. That is, the face is
shown foreshortened in the three principal views. In Figure 6.1b, a com-
bination of the front and top views or the front and right views is enough
to identify the face as oblique because the plane appears foreshortened in
either pair. In this case, both primary and secondary auxiliary views would
be needed to create the true shape and size of the feature on such a face.
As the form of components gets more complicated, inclined and oblique
faces may become part of the features. To create the necessary auxiliary

Oblique face

Inclined face

(a) (b)

Figure 6.1.  Inclined and oblique faces. (a) Inclined face.


(b) Oblique face.
Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  3

view for the true shape and size of faces and features on them, first identify
or create an edge view of the face; then, project the face in a direction per-
pendicular to the edge view plane. Figure 6.2a shows two adjacent views of
a line with endpoints 1 and 2. Point 1 in the front view is indicated by F1
and H1 in the top view. In the front view, the line is horizontal and parallel to
the fold line, a reference line between the two views. On the top (horizontal)
view, the line is inclined and shows the true length of the line. Hence, a view
showing the true length of an inclined line is adjacent to a view that shows
the inclined line parallel to a fold line. Fold lines are not always shown in
standard orthographic view. They may be safely assumed to be midway in
the gap between the adjacent views. Figure 6.2b shows an oblique face with
no TL line. To create a TL line, the line F2-F4 is drawn horizontal, parallel
to the fold line, and is projected to the top view as H2-H4. The line H2-H4 is
the TL line of line F2-F4. The edge view of the oblique face is developed in
a primary auxiliary plane with a view direction parallel to line H2-H4. The
principle to take note of is that the edge view must be created with a view
direction parallel to a TL on the oblique face. In many drawings, TL line can
be identified where two faces on an object intersect.
In the case of an inclined face, the TL line is the edge view of the face
itself as in Figure 6.2a. Hence, the primary auxiliary view derived from
the edge view gives the true shape and size for the face and the features on
it. If a TL line cannot be identified on an oblique face, one can be created
as shown in Figure 6.2b. Once a TL line is available, the edge view of
the oblique can be created in a primary auxiliary view with the projection
lines parallel to the TL line. The true shape and size of the oblique face and
the features on it can then be created in a secondary auxiliary view with
the projection lines perpendicular to the edge view line.

tion
H3 direc
View dge view
for e
H2 H2
H4
H1
H1
Fold line
Fold line

F1
F4 F2
F1 F2

(a) F3 (b)

Figure 6.2.  Identifying or creating a TL line. (a) Inclined face. (b) Oblique face.
4  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

6.3  Visualizing Auxiliary Views

6.3.1  Auxiliary View Image Box

An image box can be constructed with an auxiliary plane included in the


principal image box. The auxiliary plane must be made parallel to the
inclined or oblique face in the image box. Figure 6.3a illustrates this con-
cept for an inclined face. The layout of the views in the image box is
shown in Figure 6.3b. Note that the right view is omitted in the layout. It
is important to maintain the same amount of distance for the nearest point
on an image from all the fold lines (edges of the image box) in the layout.
Auxiliary views must be aligned with the auxiliary face in layout. Also,
all projection lines must be perpendicular to the auxiliary plane. The view
direction is always parallel to the projection lines.

6.3.2  Full and Partial Auxiliary Views

Auxiliary views may be created as full or partial views. In a full auxil-


iary view, all features in the view direction on the object are represented.
This means images of both foreshortened and nonforeshortened features
on principal views are shown. In many cases, the inclined and oblique
faces are portions of a larger component, with some features appearing
true shape and size in some standard views. Therefore, the real need is to
represent only the foreshortened features on auxiliary views. Hence, par-
tial auxiliary views are most often needed to supplement standard views.

Auxiliary
plane

(a) (b)

Figure 6.3.  An auxiliary image box and layout. (a) Image box. (b) Layout.
Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  5

Partial auxiliary view

Full auxiliary view

(a) (b)

Figure 6.4.  Types of auxiliary views. (a) Full. (b) Partial.

In a partial auxiliary view, only the features on an inclined or oblique


face are represented on the auxiliary view.This usually leads to a clearer
presentation, as additional noninclined or oblique features might actually
confuse the view.
For instance, consider Figure 6.4a that shows a full auxiliary view.
It is obvious that the extra details in the auxiliary view of Figure 6.5a are
better revealed in the principal views of Figure 6.4a where they appear in
true size and shape. Therefore, the partial auxiliary view of Figure 6.4b is
preferred. Note that, in the partial auxiliary view of Figure 6.4b, hidden
lines have been omitted. This normally enhances clarity of views as can be
verified by comparing the partial view of Figure 6.4b with the appropriate
portion in the full view in Figure 6.4a. Feature views appearing in true
shape and size in principal views are not necessary in auxiliary views, they
just complicate drawings.

6.4  Constructing Auxiliary Views

This section discusses techniques for constructing auxiliary views for


features on inclined faces and oblique faces. The true size and shape of
features on an inclined plane need one auxiliary plane, a primary auxiliary
plane for development. However, the true size and shape of features on an
oblique plane can the developed with a minimum of two auxiliary planes,
namely, a primary auxiliary plane and a secondary auxiliary plane.
6  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

6.4.1  Constructing Features on Inclined Faces

When a feature is on an inclined plane, the edge view of the plane will be
revealed in one of the principal views. This view should be chosen as the
base view for developing the auxiliary view that will show the true shape
of the feature. As the auxiliary view is created from a principal view, it is a
primary auxiliary view. The steps to employ in constructing the auxiliary
view are outlined as follows.

6.4.1.1 Step 1: Create Two Principal Adjacent Views

Create two adjacent principal or standard views. All the features on the
two views need not be completed in order to proceed to the auxiliary view.
One of the standard views should show the edge view (line) of the inclined
face as in Figure 6.5. Identify this view as the base view (front view in
Figure 6.5) for auxiliary view creation.

6.4.1.2 Step 2: Draw Projection Lines for Auxiliary View

Identity the vertices of the face and use them to draw projection lines. In
Figure 6.6, the vertices of the face are the two endpoints of the inclined
line or edge view of the face. Key points on features on the face may
be used also in drawing projection lines. The key points on the circular

Front view
Figure 6.5.  Two principal views.

Right view
Figure 6.6.  Projection lines for auxiliary view.
Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  7

f­ eature are the edges and the centerline of the hole. Draw projection lines
from the identified vertices and key points perpendicular to the face as
shown in Figure 6.6. A fold line may be drawn and used as a reference line
for the transfer of dimensions between adjacent views. A fold line must
be parallel to the edge view of the inclined face at a convenient distance.
A fold line is not shown in Figure 6.6.

6.4.1.3 Step 3: Draw the Outline of the Inclined Face

Establish the distance of each vertex on the auxiliary view from the
adjacent principal view (right view in Figure 6.6) to the base view.
Transfer the distance of each vertex to the auxiliary view, and draw the
outline of the inclined face. Figure 6.7 shows the construction of the
inclined face outline.

6.4.1.4 Step 4: Draw the Feature on the Inclined Face

Establish the distance of key points of the feature on the inclined face
(K2, K2, and K3 in the right view of Figure 6.8) from the adjacent prin-
cipal view to the base view. In this example, these are two horizontal
quadrants on the ellipse on the right view and the centerline of the hole.
Transfer the distance of each key point to the auxiliary view and draw
the feature. Figure 6.8 shows the construction of the circle feature on
the auxiliary view. It is very important that the principle of size transfer
be properly understood: transfer size from the second view prior to the
current auxiliary view.
pth
De

Depth

Figure 6.7.  Draw outline of face.


8  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

5
27.
20

5
12.
40

20

K1 K2 K3

12.5
27.5

Figure 6.8.  Draw the feature.

6.4.2  Constructing Features on Oblique Faces

Sometimes, a feature may lie on an oblique face. In this case, both a


­primary and a secondary auxiliary view will be needed to establish the
true shape and size of the face and the features on it. The primary auxil-
iary view is used to develop the edge view of the face, and the secondary
auxiliary view shows the true shape and size of the face and feature(s).
The steps to solve this problem are:

6.4.2.1 Step 1: Create Two Principal Views

In Figure 6.9, two adjacent principal or standard views are created.


Again, the full views need not be created in order to construct the auxil-
iary views. It may, in fact, be necessary to criss-cross between the princi-
pal and auxiliary views during the development. Remember that none of
these principal views will show the edge view of the oblique face. Some
judgment is needed in selecting elements that can reduce time and effort
in the construction process. This comes with practice and experience.

6.4.2.2 Step 2: Identify a Line Element of TL on the Oblique


Face in the Base View

If no line can be identified as of a TL on the oblique face on any view, then


create a horizontal line on the oblique face in one principal view, draw
Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  9

57.15
31.75
Faces inclined
at 120 deg.
15.78

124.46

62.76
37.75

Hex. Hole
38 mm AF

84.86

19.05

165.1

Figure 6.9.  Principal views.

the TL of this line in the adjacent principal view; Figure 6.2 gives more
information on creating a TL line. Choose the view with the TL line as a
base view. In Figure 6.9, we can identify a TL line on the oblique face in
the top view as indicated in Figure 6.10. This is the front edge between
the top face and the oblique face. Hence, the base view for auxiliary views
creation is the top view in Figure 6.9.

6.4.2.3 Step 3: Draw Projection Lines for Primary Auxiliary View

Identify the vertices of the oblique face and use them to draw the pro-
jection lines. In Figure 6.9, the vertices of the face are the endpoints of
the base line (points K1 and K2 in Figure 6.10) and the top line on the
front end of the oblique face (points K3 and K4 in Figure 6.10). The key
points K5 and K6 are identified for the projection of object thickness.
Draw projection lines from the identified vertices parallel to the TL line
element, see Figure 6.10. Note that all projection lines must be parallel
to each other.
10  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

Faces inclined K6
at 120 deg. K5 K4
K3

K2

Project line parallel to true


length element

True length element

84.86

19.05

Figure 6.10.  TL line and projection lines.

6.4.2.4 Step 4: Draw the Edge View

A reference or fold line may be drawn and used for the transfer of
dimensions between adjacent views. A fold line must be perpendicular
to projection lines, see Figure 6.11. Once the reference line is drawn,
the edge can then be created by transferring dimensions of key points

15.75
Edge view of face
Line is perpendicular
to projection lines

120º
19.05
84.86

Reference line

84.86

19.05

Figure 6.11.  Reference line and edge view.


Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  11

or vertices from two views behind as explained earlier. It is sufficient to


draw only the lines of the edge views without adding thickness sizes. In
Figure 6.11, the material thicknesses of the two faces have been added.
These dimensions could have been omitted without loss of accuracy.
This view is the primary auxiliary view that shows the edge view of the
oblique face.

6.4.2.5 Step 5: Draw Projection Lines for Secondary Auxiliary


View

From the vertices and key points on the edge view, draw projection lines
for the secondary auxiliary view. These projection lines must be perpen-
dicular to the edge view line. This step is shown in Figure 6.12.

6.4.2.6 Step 6: Draw the Outline of the Oblique Face

Establish the distance of each vertex on the oblique face from the base
view in Figure 6.9. Transfer the distance of each vertex to the auxiliary
view and draw the outline of the oblique face as shown in Figure. 6.13.

15.75

120º
19.05
84.86

84.86

19.05

Figure 6.12.  Projection from edge view.


12  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

15.75

57.15

19.05
84.86
124.46

57.15

124.46

84.86

19.05

Figure 6.13.  Draw outline of an oblique face.

6.4.2.7 Step 7: Draw the Feature(s) on an Oblique Face

Establish the distance of each key point on feature(s) on the oblique face
from the baseview in Figure 6.9. Transfer the distance of each key point to
the secondary auxiliary view and draw the feature(s) as shown in Figure 6.14.

15.75

57.15
31.75

19.05
84.86
124.46

57.15
31.75

124.46

84.86

19.05

Figure 6.14.  Draw feature(s) on an oblique face.


Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  13

6.5 Generating Auxiliary Views from


Solid Models

Creating auxiliary views is less cumbersome with solid models using


CDD packages. The shapes of inclined and oblique faces and the fea-
tures on them present little difficulty with solid models. Most modern
CDD packages with solid modeling capability include routines that can
be used to create auxiliary views easily from solid models. The details
in the process of creating auxiliary views vary with each CDD product.
In most cases, creating an auxiliary view for an inclined face is a one-
or two-step process, while creating an auxiliary view for an oblique
face is a two- or three-step process after the base views are created
or identified.
The concept of planes and faces should be properly understood
when dealing with solids. A plane is a flat surface of infinite length
and width. A face is a surface on an object and may be flat or curved.
A cylindrical face on a pipe is curved surface, for example. A flat face
is a portion of an imaginary flat plane. Auxiliary views are generated
from flat planes by CDD packages. The user must specify a plane when
creating an auxiliary view. CDD software creates full auxiliary and par-
tial views depending on the length of the cutting plane defined. Some
dressing of the auxiliary view may be needed. The view direction is
assumed to be perpendicular to the plane that is selected when generat-
ing the auxiliary view.

6.5.1 Generating Auxiliary Views for an Inclined


Face

As an illustration, we will revisit Figure 6.5 in discussing the technique


for generating an auxiliary view for an inclined face. Care is needed when
selecting the auxiliary plane; it must be perpendicular to the view direc-
tion. Solid Edge package was used in this example.

6.5.1.1 Step 1: Create Two Standard Views

First, generate two adjacent principal views from the solid model as shown
in Figure 6.15. Identify the base view as the principal view showing the
edge view of the face. In this example, the front view is the base view,
while the left view is the adjacent principal view.
14  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

Figure 6.15.  Principal views.

Inclined plane
Full auxiliary view

A View direction

Figure 6.16.  Full auxiliary view.

6.5.1.2 Step 2: Select the Auxiliary View Button

In some CDD packages, a command might be needed to invoke the aux-


iliary view routine. In many cases, a button is available in the paper space
environment that can be selected to invoke the auxiliary view routine.
Once this routine is active, it will request the user to select the plane for
the desired auxiliary view. In Figure 6.16, the plane of interest is indicated.
The line segment of the face was selected as a line feature on the plane.

6.5.1.3 Step 3: Place the Auxiliary View

With the plane selected, the routine requests the user to select a position
for the auxiliary view. Drag the cursor to a convenient position and click to
place the view. In Figure 6.16, the view direction is indicated, but this was
generated by the software. The full auxiliary view created by the s­ oftware
is shown. The inclined face will show on the view. Likewise, all the fea-
tures on the face will show.
Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  15

6.5.2 Generating Auxiliary Views for an


Oblique Face

As an illustration, we will revisit Figure 6.9 in discussing the technique for


generating an auxiliary view for an oblique face.

6.5.2.1 Step 1: Create Two Standard Views

As in the inclined face problem, generate two adjacent principal views


from the solid model as shown in Figure 6.17. Identify the base view as
the principal view showing a TL element. If no TL element is found on a
principal view, one must be created. In this example, the top view is the
base view, while the front view is the adjacent principal view.

6.5.2.2  Step 2: Define Primary Auxiliary Plane

Once a TL is identified, see Figure 6.18, the primary auxiliary plane can
be defined. This plane must be perpendicular to the TL element. If no such
line exists on the base view, then one must be created. In Figure 6.18, the
primary auxiliary plane is indicated in the top (base) view.

Top view

Front view

Figure 6.17.  Standard view.


16  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

A
Edge view as
primary auxiliary view
90º

View A

Plane

TL element
Top view

Front view

Figure 6.18.  Edge view from base view.

6.5.2.3 Step 3: Create the Primary Auxiliary View.

Invoke the auxiliary view routine either with a command or by selecting a


button. The routine will request the user to select the plane for the desired
auxiliary view, so select the plane accordingly. With the plane selected, the
routine requests the user to select a position for the auxiliary view. Drag
the cursor to a convenient position and click to place the view as shown in
Figure 6.18. A full auxiliary edge view should be created by the software.

6.5.2.4  Step 4: Define the Secondary Auxiliary Plane.

With the edge view line as a TL element, use the same procedure as
explained in Step 2 to define the secondary auxiliary plane. Figure 6.19
illustrates this step.

6.5.2.5 Step 5: Create the Secondary Auxiliary View.

Invoke the auxiliary view routine either with a command or by selecting a


button. Then, select the secondary auxiliary plane. Next, place the view in
Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  17

A B

Primary auxiliary view

Top view

Front view Secondary auxiliary view


Figure 6.19.  Full auxiliary view for an oblique face.

position by dragging the cursor to a convenient position and click. A full


secondary auxiliary view should be created by the software as shown in
Figure 6.19. The oblique face will show on the view. Likewise, all the
features on the face will show. As can be noticed, centerlines and ­center
marks are not automatically added to auxiliary views generated from
solid models by some packages. These must be added as desired in stan-
dard drafting practice. These features were added in the two examples
(­Figure 6.16 and Figure 6.19).

6.6 Combined Standard and Partial


Auxiliary Views

When constructing views for a drawing, time and effort can be saved by use
of partial standard and auxiliary views. For example, consider F ­ igure 6.20
in which two standard views (top and right) are shown as partial views.
Also, the auxiliary view is shown as a partial view. Thus, three partial
orthographic views and one full standard (front) view can adequately con-
vey the necessary shape and dimensional information about the compo-
nent. If a solid model is not available, so that the views are drawn from a
sketch or isometric drawing, a lot of time and effort will be saved drawing
the partial views instead of the full views for the four necessary views.
The isometric insert is added in Figure 6.20 to aid v­ isualization. The use
18  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

Figure 6.20.  Partial auxiliary and standard views.

of partial views should be kept in mind by design drafters, as productivity


is an important concern for supervisors and employers. If views are gen-
erated from solid models, the standard views obtained will always be full
views. These standard views may be converted to partial views by modify-
ing then manually. However, some CDD packages allow partial auxiliary
views to be created from solid models by defining an edge view length that
spans only the portion of interest.

6.7  Chapter Review Questions

1. What is an auxiliary view?


2. Why are auxiliary views sometimes necessary?
3. Define incline plane and oblique planes.
4. What is the minimum auxiliary view(s) for an object with an
inclined face?
5. What is the minimum auxiliary view(s) for an object with an
oblique face?
6. Define the following:
(a) TL of a line.
(b) Edge view of a plane.
(c) Primary auxiliary view.
(d) Successive auxiliary view.
7. What are full and partial auxiliary views?
8. When is a partial auxiliary view helpful?
Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  19

6.8  Chapter Exercises

Create standard and auxiliary views for each of the following figures. All
the figures, except the last, will need at least one auxiliary view. The last
figure needs more than one auxiliary view.

R50 10
0

Ø4
0
100

Ø50

106
.1
50

250 37
.5

75

Figure P6.1.  Problem 1.

50
Ø30
R5
0

R20
75

62
65.

50
50

200
0
10
40

Figure P6.2.  Problem 2.


20  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

38

25
Ø76

Ø57

127

38

76

64
127
127

Figure P6.3.  Problem 3.

4
Ø1 ×Ø1
00 0
.13 50
25
Ø2
5

32

85

15
30

45

130
82

Figure P6.4.  Problem 4.


Auxiliary Drawing Views   •  21

Ø57

76
Ø76

11
4

25
º
48

25
51 51 102
76

Figure P6.5.  Problem 5.


R2
0
Ø2

20
0
40

15
27
.9

R7
.5
10 15 65
0
Assume 5 mm for
unspecified rounds 2×
and fillets 2× Ø1
R1 0
2.5

Figure P6.6.  Problem 6.


22  •  Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

Figure P6.7.  Problem 7.


Index

A auxiliary drawing view, 1


actual size, 46 construction of (see construction
aligned dimension placement, of auxiliary view)
85–86 foreshortened images, 1–2
aligned section view, 31 full and partial, 4–5
construction of, 38–39 generation (see generation of
generation of, 39–40 auxiliary view)
American National Standards image box, 4
Institute (ANSI), 99 inclined and oblique faces, 2–3
American Society for Mechanical partial standard and, 17–18
Engineers (ASME), 99 TL line, 3
angle, 46 auxiliary section view, 33–34
dimensioning, 52 axonometric drawings, 73
angled faces, isometric drawing,
81–82 B
angular dimensions, 53 basic specification, surface texture,
angular tolerance, 127 139
annotations, isometric, 85–86 bilateral tolerance specification,
ANSI/ASME standard, 97, 103 128, 129
ANSI/ASME Y14.5M standard, 45 bill of materials (BOM), 96, 103
arcs box technique, 79–80
dimensioning, 51–52 broken section view, 32–33
isometric drawing, 76–79 broken visible line, 25
assembly drawing checklist, 107
assembly hatch patterns, 25–27 C
assembly isometric view, 88–89 centerline technique, 84–85
assembly section view, 35 chain method dimensioning, 59
assembly working drawing, chamfer dimensions, 54–55
102–103 checking, working drawing,
BOM, 103 106–109
isometric, 104–105 circle
ortho-assembly, 105–106 dimensioning, 51–52
types, 104 isometric drawings, 76–79
146  •   Index

circular neck, 58 definition, 46–47


coarse pitch series, 124 diameters, 52
computer design and drafting elements and symbols, 47–48
(CDD) engineering drawing and size, 46
auxiliary views from, 13 fillets and rounds, 53–54
dimensioning, 45, 64–67 guidelines, 50–51
construction of auxiliary view holes, 52–53
inclined face keyseats and keyways, 55–57
principal adjacent views, 6 manual, 61–64
projection lines, 6–7 methods of, 58–60
outline of, 7 necks and undercuts, 57, 58
feature on, 7–8 repeated features, 57–58
oblique face slots, 53, 54
principal view, 8 style, 60–61
TL line, 8–9, 10 symbols, 48
projection lines for primary, types and line spacing, 48–50
9–10 working drawing, 98
edge view, 10–11 dimension line, 48
projection lines for secondary, dimension line terminator, 47, 48
11 dimension value, 48
outline of, 11–12 dimetric drawing, 73
feature on, 12 dimetric projection, 89–90
conventional break lines, 37 drawing views, 96–97. See also
coordinate technique. See box specific drawings
technique
counterbore, dimensioning, 55, 56 E
countersink, dimensioning, 55, 56 edge view of a plane, 2
cutting plane line style, 24, 25 ellipse on inclined faces, isometric
drawing, 82–83
D engineering diagram, 45
datum dimensioning, 58–59 engineering drawing, 45, 46
design size, 46 English thread, 123, 124
detail drawing, 100–102 classes, 125
checklist, 108–109 specifications, 126
detail section view, 33, 34 exploded assembly drawing, 111
diameters, dimensioning, 52 exploded isometric drawing,
dimensioning, 45 104–105
angles, 52 exploded isometric view, 87–88,
arcs and circles, 51–52 88–89
CDD software, 64–67 extension line, 48
chamfers, 54–55 exterior orthographic drawing, 105
component, 49 external chamfer dimension,
counterbores, countersinks and 54–55
spotfaces, 55, 56 external thread, 124
Index   •   147

F hatch patterns, 25–27


fillets and rounds, dimensioning, hole-basis system, 129–131
53–54 holes, dimensioning, 52–53
fine pitch series, 124 horizontal dimension placement,
flange detail drawing, 112 85–86
foreshortened images, 1–2
four-center ellipse, 76 I
front ortho-view section, 105–106 image box, 4
front section view, 28 inclined face, 2–3
full auxiliary view, 4–5 construction of (see construction
full section view, 28 of auxiliary view)
full specification, surface texture, generation (see generation of
138 auxiliary view)
isometric drawing, 80–81
G TL line, 3
gear detail drawing, 113 internal chamfer dimension, 54–55
general specification, surface internal thread, 124
texture, 139 International Organization for
general tolerance, 127 Standardization (ISO) thread
generation of auxiliary view standard, 123
inclined face International Tolerance (IT) Grade,
two standard view, 13–14 127
auxiliary view button, irregular curves, isometric
selecting, 14 drawing, 83
placing auxiliary view, 14 isocircles, 76–79
oblique face iso-detail drawing, 86–87
two standard view, 15 isometric arcs, 76–78
primary auxiliary plane, isometric assembly drawing,
15–16 104–105
primary auxiliary view, 16 isometric detail drawing, 86
secondary auxiliary plane, 16 isometric drawings, 73
secondary auxiliary view, angled faces, 81–82
16–17 annotations, 85–86
geometric dimensioning and arcs and circles, 76–79
tolerancing (GD&T), 133–135 box technique for, 79–80
geometric tolerance, 127 centerline technique for, 84–85
types, 133 ellipse on inclined faces, 82–83
graphic feature, 48 inclined faces, 80–81
irregular curves, 83
H normal faces, 80
half section isometric drawing, oblique faces, 81
104–105 types of, 75–76
half section view, 32 isometric insert view, 86
hatching, 24 isometric projection, 73–75
148  •   Index

dimetric and trimetric, 89–90 isometric drawing, 81


isometric scale, 74–75 TL line, 3
isometric section, 87–88 offset section view, 29–30
isometric views, 86 ortho-assembly drawing, 100,
assembly view, 88–89 105–106
iso-Detail Drawings, 86–87 ortho-detail drawing, 100
section and exploded, 87–88 orthographic assembly drawing,
104
K orthographic projection, 23, 99,
keyseats and keyways, 100
dimensioning, 55–57 outline isometric drawing,
104–105
L outline isometric view, 88–89
limits tolerance specification, 128, outline ortho-view of assembly,
129 105–106
linear tolerance, 127
long-axis isometric drawing, P
75–76 partial auxiliary view, 4–5
partial section view, 32
M partial standard and auxiliary view,
manual dimensioning, 61–64 17–18
material type hatch patterns, 27 pictorial drawings, 73. See also
methods of dimensioning, 58–60 isometric drawings
metric thread, 123, 124 pictorial view assembly drawing,
classes, 124 104
specifications, 125 plot/print size, 46
Military (MIL), 99 power screws, 123
mixed section view, 23–24 primary auxiliary view, 1
mixed views detail drawing, product data management software
101–102 (PDMS), 103
multiview drawing, 29, 80–83 projection, isometric. See isometric
projection
N projection standard, 99–100
necks and undercuts, pulley detail drawing, 112
dimensioning, 57, 58 purchase parts, schedule of, 114
nonstandard parts, 95
normal faces, isometric drawing, R
80 rectangular neck, 58
regular isometric drawing, 75–76
O regular keyseat, 57
oblique face, 2–3 removed portion, 24
construction of (see construction removed section view, 30
of auxiliary view) repeated features, dimensioning,
generation (see generation of 57–58
auxiliary view) retained portion, 24
Index   •   149

retainer detail drawing, 113 section, isometric, 87–88


reverse isometric drawing, 75–76 set, working drawing, 110–114
revision block, 100 shaft-basis system, 130–131
revolved section view, 30–31 shaft detail drawing, 111
right section view, 28 size range specification, 128
roughness production, surface sledge runner keyseat, 57
texture, 139–140 sleeve detail drawing, 114
slots, dimensioning, 53, 54
S spacing of dimension, 50
scale factor (SF), 47, 98 special section view, 33
screw specification, 95, 109–110
fasteners, 123 surface texture, 137–139
features, 123 spotface, dimensioning, 55, 56
thread class, 124–125 standardization, 129
threads and thread profiles, standard parts, 95, 102
123–124 standard section view, 23–24
thread series, 124 straight section view, 29
thread specification, 125–126 construction of, 38
secondary auxiliary view, 1 style, dimensioning, 60–61
section caption/label, 24 successive auxiliary views, 1
section drawing view, 23 surface quality, 98–99
construction of, 37–39 surface roughness, 137, 139–140
conventional break lines, 37 surface texture, 137
cutting plane line styles, 25 roughness production, 139–140
generation, 39–40 specification, 137–139
hatch patterns, 25–27
placement of, 27–28 T
representation of, 27–28 tabular dimensioning, 59–60
standard and mixed view, texture. See surface texture
23–24 thick centerline, 25
types thick phantom line, 25
aligned section, 31 thread, screw
assembly section, 35 class, 124–125
auxiliary section, 33–35 profiles, 123–124
broken section, 32–33 series, 124
detail section, 33 specification, 125–126
full section, 28 threads per inch (TPI), 124
half section, 32 title block, 97
offset section, 29–30 tolerance, 46, 47
partial section, 32 hole-basis/shaft-basis fit system,
removed section, 30 129–131
revolved section, 30–31 symbolic specification of, 128
special section, 33 types of, 127
straight section, 29 value specification, 128–129
un-sectioned features, 35–36 working drawing, 98
150  •   Index

top section view, 28 working drawing, 95–96


trimetric drawing, 73 assembly (see assembly working
trimetric projection, 89–90 drawing)
true length (TL) line, 2 checking, 106–109
inclined and oblique faces, 2–3 detail drawing, 100–102
truncated conical neck, 58 dimensions, 98
drawing views, 96–97
U projection standard, 99–100
Unified National (UN) thread, 123 revision block, 100
unilateral tolerance specification, scale factor, 98
128, 129 set, 110–114
un-sectioned features, section specifications, 109–110
view, 35, 36 standard parts, 102
surface quality, 98–99
V title block, 97
view direction, 24 tolerances, 98
visible gap, 48 zoning, 99

W Z
woodruff keyseat, 57 zoning technique, 99