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Title
Wastewater Math

Description
Formula Flash cards

Total Cards
30

Subject
Mathematics

Level
Professional

Created
02/21/2013

Cards

Term

Velocity, in ft/sec =

Velocity is distance traveled over time.

Deﬁnition

distance,  in feet  ÷  time, in seconds

Example

What is the velocity in feet /sec. if a stick travles a 240 foot channel in 120 seconds?

Term

ft3/ sec.  =

Deﬁnition

(Velocity, ft/sec.)  (area, ft2)

Example

(2 ft/sec.)  (3 ft2) = 6 ft3 (cubic feet)/second

Term

Change
Cubic feet per second
(ft3/sec )
to
gallons per minute
(gpm)
Deﬁnition

Example

1346 gal/min or 1346 gpm

Term

Detention Time =

This is the time, it theoretically takes a drop of water to travel from the inlet to the outlet of a tank
or treatment or piping system.

Deﬁnition

Volume, in gallons ÷ Flow, gallons per minute

Example

10000 gallon tank ÷ 500 gal/min =

20 min of detention time

Note * The detention time can be in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. Your ﬂow units must be the same as the unit of
time your are using for your detention time. So if you are looking for hours then your ﬂow should be in gal/hr.

Term

Pounds Formula

This formula is used to ﬁnd the pounds of chemical needed to maintain a partticular parts per million or miilgram per
liter of a chemical of 100% purity at a ﬁxed ﬂow in million gallons per day or to ﬁnd the pounds of solids in an areation
basin, or the pounds being wasted in a WAS ﬂow in MGD with a known WASss

lbs/day  or lbs

Deﬁnition

(Flow, in MGD or MG) (8.34 lbs/gal) (Concentration, in mg/L or ppm)

Example

A plant has an Inﬂuent ﬂow of .500MGD and an inﬂuent TSS of 200 mg/L. How many pounds of TSS come
into the plant daily?

Term

Weir overﬂow rate, gal/day/foot of weir =

[image]

Deﬁnition
Total Flow, gal./day ÷ length of weir , in feet

Example

Your plant has an Inﬂunet ﬂow of 0.250MGD and a RAS ﬂow of 50% of inﬂuent ﬂow. The clariﬁer is 50 feet in diameter with a weir around the

250000 gpd  ÷ (3.14)  (50 ft)

250000gpd ÷ 157 ft

250000 gpd ÷ 157 ft

1592.4 gal./day/ft of weir

Term

This refers to the amount of Solids being sent from the Aeration basin to the Clariﬁer in the
activated sludge process.

Deﬁnition

Solids applied, in lbs./day ÷ Surface area, in ft2

EXAMPLE:

What is the solids loading of a 50 ft. diameter clariﬁer if your MLSS is 2600 mg/L and you Inf. ﬂow is
.500MGD and you RAS ﬂow is .250MGD ?

Q    +    R

(.500MGD + .250MGD) ( 8.34 lbs/gal)  (2600 mg/L)

(3.14(∏))  (25 ft)  (25 ft) (radius2) )

16263 lbs./day

1962.5 ft2

8.3 lbs./day/ft2

Term

This refers to the amount of ﬂow goin into the Clariﬁer from the Aeration basin.

Deﬁnition

Surface area, in ft2

EXAMPLE

What is the hydraulic loading of a 50 ft. diameter clariﬁer if your  Inf. ﬂow is .500MGD and you RAS ﬂow is
.250MGD ?

Q     +    R

(3.14(∏))  (25 ft)  (25 ft) (radius2) )

750,000 ÷ 1962.5 =

382 gpd/ft2

Term

in
lbs. CBOD5 /day/1000 ft3 of Media

Deﬁnition

Volume of media, in 1000 ft3 units

EXAMPLE

What is the Organic loading on a trickling ﬁlter 50 ft. in diameter and 8 feet deep, with a P.E. CBOD5 of 125
mg/L, and a ﬂow of .350MGD ?

(3.14) X 25 ft. X 25 ft. X 8 ft.) ÷ 1000 ft3

365 lbs./day

16 /1000 ft3

23 lbs./day/1000 ft3

Term

Soluble CBOD5, in mg/l =

*Soluble CBOD5 is the amount of CBOD5 that is dissolved in the water and available for food for the
microorganisms.

Deﬁnition

* (K is a constant that is 0.5 to 0.7 for most domestic wastewaters)

EXAMPLE

What is the soluble CBOD5 of a P.E. with the following make up, CBOD5 of 125 mg/L , a TSS of 150 mg/L and
a K factor of  0.6 ?

35 mg/L of Soluble CBOD5

Term

in lbs. CBOD5 /day/ 1000 ft2 =

Deﬁnition

Surface Area of Media, in 1000 ft2 units

EXAMPLE

An RBC has three units in parallel, each measures 10 feet in diameter and 15 feet long. The INF. Flow is
0.350 MGD and the INF. soluble CBOD5 is 45 mg/L.

{(3.14) (10 ft) (15 ft) (3)}÷ 1000 ft2

131.4 lbs. ÷ 1.413 1000 ft2

93.0 lbs/1000 ft2

Term

SVI, in mL/gm=
SLUDGE VOLUME INDEX
THIS IS A CALCULATION THAT REPRESENTS THE TENDANCY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE SOLIDS (AERATED SOLIDS)
TO THICKEN AND BECOME CONCENTRATED DURING THE SEDIMENTATION PROCESS.

Deﬁnition

(Settled Sludge Volume / Sample Volume(Settleometer result), mL/L ÷ MLSS concentration in mg/L) X
(1000mg ÷  gram)

EXAMPLE

What is the SVI if the MLSS is 3500 mg/L and the Settleometer is 450 mL/L?

(0.129 mL/mg ) (1000 mg/gm)

129 mL/gm

Term

SDI =
*Sludge Density Index - used to calculate the settlability of Activated Sludge in a
Secondary Clariﬁer. Similar to the SVI.

Deﬁnition

100
SVI
EXAMPLE
The SDI of a sludge going to a secondary clariﬁer with a SVI of 129 mL/gm is?
100 ÷ 129
.78 SDI

Term

Solids inventory, lbs.

* used to calulate the ponud of TSS in an aeration tank, or in a clariﬁer, or a combination of both.

Deﬁnition

Tank volume, in Million Gallons MG  X 8.34 lbs./gal. X MLSS mg/L, (for aeration), or TSS mg/L (for other
tanks)

EXAMPLE

What is the solids inventory of an aeration basin that is  0.750 MG with a MLSS of 4500 mg/L?

28147.5 lbs

Term

wasting.

Deﬁnition

Solidis under aeration, lbs.

EXAMPLE

What is the sludge age in days of an activated sludge plant with the following data, aeration tank volume
of 0.500MG and an MLSS of 3200 mg/L, an inﬂuent ﬂow of 0.350MGD and an inﬂuent TSS of 165 mg/L ?

27.7 days

Term

FOOD / MICROORGANISM RATIO =

* used to calculate the ration between the incomming food (CBOD5) and the microorganisms in the aeration
basin (MLVSS).

**MLVSS is the organincs in the aeration basin and is a measure of the microorganism mass. It is sometimes
expressed as a percentage of the MLSS

Deﬁnition

(Aeration Tank Volume, in MG) ( 8.34 lbs/gal) (MLVSS, mg/L)

EXAMPLE

Given an Ilﬂuent Flow of 0.450MGD, an Iﬂuent CBOD5 of 225 mg/L,an Aeration Tank with a volume of 0.350MG, and a
MLVSS of 1975 mg/L.

What is the F/M ratio?

(0.450MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal) (225 mg/L)

Term

Mean Cell Retention Time (MCRT) =

*The amount of time a microorganism is in the system working on breaking down the organic matter. This is
controled by wasting.

**It uses a solids inventory that may or may not take into account the level and concentration of the clariﬁer
blanket.

Deﬁnition

EXAMPLE

41700 lbs. ÷ (4.5 lbs. + 2606.25 lbs.)

41700 ÷ 2610.75
15.9 or 16 days

Term

WAS, lbs./day =

*used to ﬁgure out the amount of solids (in pounds) that need to be wasted to maintain the MCRT

Deﬁnition

{(Solids inventory, lbs.) ÷ MCRT, days} - (Solids lost in Efﬂuent, lbs./day)

EXAMPLE

A plant with a 0.500MG aeration tank and an MLSS of 4500 mg/L , an INF. Flow of 0.350MGD and an EFF. TSS
of 1.2 mg/L, and a MCRT of 8 days. How many pounds need to be wasted per day?

{( 0.500MG X 8.34 lbs./gal. X 4500 mg/L)÷ (8 days)} - ( 0.350MGD X 8.34 lbs./gal. X 1.2 mg/L)

Term

Change in WAS ﬂow rate, MGD =

*Calculates the amount the WAS ﬂow need to be adjusted in MGD, a positive number means an increase if the
ﬂow, a negative number indicates a decrease in the ﬂow rate is required.

Deﬁnition

WAS, mg/L X 8.34 lbs./gal.

EXAMPLE
A plant has a 0.750MG aeration basin and an MLSS of 4500 mg/L, and a WAS TSS of 11500 mg/L. How much would the WAS ﬂow need to be changed to

11500 mg/L X 8.34 lbs./gal.

(28147.5-25020)÷ 95910

3127.5 ÷ 95910

Term

Return Sludge Rate, MGD=

*used to calculate the ﬂow rate of RAS based on the results from the Settlometer in mL/L and
to maintain that rate of settling.

Deﬁnition

(1000 mL) - (Settleable solids, mL)

Example

Your plant has an inﬂuent ﬂow of 1.500 MGD and you settleometer result is 400 mL/L. What should your RAS
ﬂow rate be ?

600 ÷ 600

1.000 MGD

Term

Deﬁnition

Population Served, persons ÷ Pond Area, acres

Example

A town of 2500 has wastewater pond 1000 feet long and 2000 feet wide, what is the population loading on
this pond?

2500 ÷ [( 1000 ft. X 2000 ft.)÷ 43560 ft2/acre]

2500 ÷ 45.9

54.5 or 55 persons/acre

Term

Pond Volume, acre feet, ac-ft =

*This is the volume in acre feet and not to be confused with volume in gallons.

Deﬁnition

(Pond area ,in acres) X (Depth, in feet)

Example

What is the volume in acre feet (ac-ft) of a pond 250 ft. long and 300 ft. wide and 6 ft. deep?

10.2 ac-ft
Term

Pond Volume, gal

* This formula will calculate pond volume in gallons given the ac-ft of the pond.

Deﬁnition

Example

46 ac-ft X 43560 ft2/acre x 7.48 gal./ ft3.

14,988,124 gallons

Term

Deﬁnition

Example

What is the ﬂow in ac-ft /day if the Infﬂuent ﬂow is 2.000MGD ?

2.000MGD X 1000000 =

61.4 ac-ft/day

Term

Deﬁnition

Volume, ac-ft ÷ Flow, ac-ft / day

Example

What is the detention time in days of a pond that is 300 feet long 400 feet wide and 8 feet deep and gets a
ﬂow of 2.500 MGD?

[(300 ft X 400 ft X 8 ft) ÷ 43560 ft2/ acre] ÷ [(2.500 MGD X 1000000) ÷ (7.48 gal./ft2 X 43560 ft2/acre)]

2.9 days

Term

Deﬁnition

(Inﬂuent CBOD5 , lbs./day ) ÷ (Pond Area , acres )

Example

What is the organic loading of a 40 acre pond with a iﬂuent ﬂow of 0.750 MGD and an inﬂuent CBOD5 of 250
mg/L ?

1563.75 lbs/day ÷ 40 acres

39.1 lbs./day/acre

Term

POND

Deﬁnition

[(Flow, ac-ft/day) ÷ (Pond Area, acres)] X 12 in./ ft

Example

What is the hydraulic loading in inches/day for a 55 acre pond with ﬂow of 10 ac-ft/day?

Term

Deﬁnition

[(Sludge volume, gal) (Sludge solids conc. % )  (8.34 lbs/gal)] ÷ 100 %

EXAMPLE
What is the weight  in pounds of 0.025MGD of a 16% solids sludge?

3336000 ÷ 100

= 160,000 mg/L

Term

Deﬁnition

Total Flow, gal. / day ÷ surface area, ft2

Example:

Your palnt has an Inﬂuent ﬂow of 0.300MGD and a RAS ﬂow of 50% of the inﬂuent ﬂow, the clariﬁer has a
diameter of 100 feet. What is the Surface Loading of this clariﬁer?

(3.14) (50 ft) (50 ft)

450000gpd

7850 ft2

57.3 gal./day/ft2
Term

Efﬁcency, %  =

Deﬁnition

{(IN)- (OUT) ÷ (IN)} X 100%

EXAMPLE

What is the efﬁcency of removal for CBOD5 for a plant with an Inﬂuent CBOD5 of 250 mg/L and
an Efﬂuent CBOD5 of 3.5 mg/L?

{(250 mg/L - 3.5 mg/L ) ÷ 250 mg/L} X 100%

0.986 X 100%

98.6% Efﬁcency

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