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Chapter 7 – Steady Flow in Open Channels (Part II)

Lecturer: Engr. Kimjay Lamar


Steady, Uniform Flow
 Channel Design
 Selection of suitable sectional dimensions to
convey maximum discharge within the section
 Equations used: Darcy or Chezy or Manning
 Types of channels
 Rigid-boundary (non-erodible) canals
 Mobile-boundary (erodible) canals
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
 Design consideration: stability
 Two Methods
 Tractive Force Method
 Maximum Permissible Velocity Method
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
 Tractive Force Method
 Tractive force – the force exerted by the
water on the wetted area of a channel
 Average unit tractive force – average shear
stress
𝜏𝑜ҧ = 𝜌𝑔𝑅𝑆𝑜
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
 Tractive Force Method
 Boundary shear stress – not uniformly
distributed
 At bed:
𝜏𝑏,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜌𝑔𝑦𝑆𝑜
 At sides:
𝜏𝑠,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.76𝜌𝑔𝑦𝑆𝑜
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
 Tractive Force Method
 Boundary shear stress –also depends on
the aspect ratio (b/y)
Aspect ratio 𝜌𝑔𝒚𝑆𝑜
𝜏𝑏,𝑚𝑎𝑥 / 𝜌𝑔𝒚𝑆𝑜
𝜏𝑠,𝑚𝑎𝑥 /

2 0.890 0.735
4 0.970 0.750
>8 0.985 0.780
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
 Tractive Force Method
 The channel will be stable if shear stresses <
stresses causing channel to move
 Critical tractive force of a material – the unit
tractive force which will not cause erosion of
the material on a horizontal surface
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
 Tractive Force Method
 Relationship between critical tractive force
(τcb) and critical shear stress on the sides (τcs)
sin2 𝜃
𝜏𝑐𝑠 = 𝜏𝑐𝑏 1− 2
sin φ
where: θ – side slope angle
Φ – angle of repose of the soil
Steady Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
 Tractive Force Method
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Example 7.7. A trapezoidal irrigation
channel excavated in silty sand having a
critical tractive force on the horizontal of
2.4 N/m2 and angle of friction 30o is to be
designed to convey a discharge of 10 m3/s
on a bed slope of 1:10 000. The side slopes
will be 1 (vertical): 2 (horizontal). n=0.02.
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Design of Erodible Canals
 Maximum Permissible Velocity Method
 The channel will be stable if:

Actual velocity < Maximum Permissible


Velocity
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Example 7.8. A trapezoidal irrigation channel
excavated in silty sand is to be designed to
convey a discharge of 10 m3/s on a bed slope
of 1:10 000 such that the mean velocity does
not exceed 0.6 m/s. The side slopes will be 1
(vertical): 2 (horizontal). n=0.02.
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Uniform flow in part-full circular pipes
 Application: underground storm sewers and
wastewater sewers
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Uniform flow in part-full circular pipes
 Channel Geometry
𝐷
𝑧= −𝑦
2
−1
2𝑧
𝜃 = cos 𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝐷
P = 𝐷𝜃
𝐷2 𝐴
𝐴= 2𝜃 − sin 2𝜃 𝑅=
8 𝑃
Steady, Uniform Flow
 Uniform flow in part-full circular pipes
 Design

𝑘 1.255ν
𝑉 = − 32𝑔𝑅𝑆𝑜 log +
14.8𝑅 𝑅 32𝑔𝑅𝑆𝑜

𝑘 1.255ν
𝑄 = −𝐴 32𝑔𝑅𝑆𝑜 log +
14.8𝑅 𝑅 32𝑔𝑅𝑆𝑜