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Ranao – Ranao, Ligao City

Physical Science

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Write the letter of your choice that best completes the statement or
answers the question.

1. A phenomenon that occurs when light moves away from an observer, wherein light
waves appear to be stretched into longer wavelengths, is called
A. Blue shift C. Red shift
B. Cosmic expansion D. Big Bang expansion

2. What did Edwin Hubble conclude when he observed that the red shift of galaxies was
directly proportional to the distance of the galaxy from earth?
A. The universe is expanding
B. Galaxies are in rapid rotation
C. Galaxies are moving closer to one another
D. The early universe was consist predominantly of red giant stars

3. Which of the following is NOT an evidence that supports the big bang theory?
A. Primordial argon C. Abundance of light elements
B. Red shifted galaxies D. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

4. This happens in the center of stars and is where the elements helium through iron are
A. Supernova Nucleosynthesis C. Stellar Nucleosysnthesis
B. Big Bang Nucleogenesis D. Primordial Nucleogenesis

5. Three elements made in the fusion of helium are

A. Carbon, Nitrogen & Oxygen C. Hydrogen, Iron & Cobalt
B. Carbon, Hydrogen & Water D. Nitrogen, Carbon & Iron

6. The heaviest element that can be created by fusion in the core of a star is
A. Nitrogen B. Oxygen C. Silver D. Iron

7. Choose the letter of the answer that will balance the following nuclear equations:
612C + 24He → ______

A. 816O B. 1016Ne C. 1216Mg D. 1416Si

8. The triple alpha process involves the fusion of three helium-4 atoms. What isotope will
complete the reaction?
24He + 24He
→ 48Be
48Be + 24He → ___ + γ ______

A. 612C B. 613C C. 812O D. 813O

9. What is the original source of all elements heavier than iron?
A. Big Bang C. Stellar evolution
B. Supernovae D. Radioactive decay

10. The following elements are formed during supernova explosions EXCEPT
A. Cobalt B. Nickel C. Copper D. Einsteinium

11. The word atom comes from a Greek word "atomos" that means
A. Origin B. Invisible C. Uncuttable D. Smallest

12. The following are Democritus’ idea of matter EXCEPT

A. Matter is made up of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms.
B. Atoms are homogeneous and have no internal structure.
C. Some atoms are large enough to see with your eyes.
D. Atoms come in different sizes and shapes.

13. Experiment with cathode rays led to the discovery of the

A. Proton B. Nucleus C. Electron D. Neutron

14. Which one of the following is NOT part of Dalton's atomic theory?
A. Matter is composed of atoms
B. Atoms of different elements have different properties
C. Atoms change into other atoms in chemical reactions
D. Atoms of the same element have the same chemical properties

15. In the gold foil experiment, most of the alpha particles fired at the foil passed through
the foil. Which of the following explains this observation?
B. An atom is mostly empty space
C. An atom carries a negative charge
C. Electrons make up the center of an atom
D. An atom carries a small, dense, positively charged central region

16. Ernest Rutherford discovered which part of the atom through the use of gold foil?
A. Nucleus B. Neutron C. Electron D. Orbitals

17. Niels Bohr suggested that electrons

A. Are positively charged C. Are scattered throughout the atom
B. Are found in specific energy levels D. Move randomly around the nucleus

18. Joseph John Thomson provided evidence that an atom

A. Has an overall positive charge
B. Is the smallest particle of matter
C. Is composed of negatively charged electrons/
D. Contains negatively and positively charged particles

19. Which of the following was proposed by Erwin Schrodinger?

A. Solar system model of the atom
B. Billiard ball model of the atom
C. Plum pudding model of the atom
D. Electron cloud model of the atom
20. He was an English physicist who demonstrated that the atomic number determines
most of the properties of an element, and thus, arranged the elements in the periodic
table according to increasing atomic number.
A. Glenn Seaborg C. Dmitri Mendeleev
B. Henry Mosely D. Ernest Rutherford

21. The nucleus of most atoms is composed of

A. Tightly packed protons C. Tightly packed protons and neutrons
B. Tightly packed neutrons D. Loosely connected electrons and protons

22. The nuclear model of the atom held that

A. Electrons were randomly spread through “a sphere of uniform positive
B. Matter was made of electrically charged particles that smaller than the atom
C. The atom had a dense, positively charged nucleus
D. Matter was made of tiny, indivisible particles

23. The ancient Greeks believed that matter was composed of four basic materials.
Which one of the following was NOT one of the four?
A. Fire B. Gold C. Earth D. Water

24. When the elements were arranged according to their atomic numbers, there were
four gaps in the table, which corresponded to four missing elements. How did the
scientists resolve this problem?
A. They looked for the missing elements in nature
B. They discovered that the missing elements disintegrated after the big bang
C. They theorized that the missing elements are yet to be formed in a supernova
D. They synthesized the elements in the laboratory through nuclear transmutation

25. Choose the nuclei/particle that will balance the equation:

93238Np → 94238Pu + ____

A. 24He B. −10β C. 10β D. -11H

26. In the reaction represented as 100256Fm → 54140Xe + 46112Pd + 401n, Fermium-256

undergoes what process?
A. Alpha decay C. Neutron capture
B. Beta decay D. Spontaneous fission

27. Which of the following is an example of a nonpolar covalent bond?

A. C-O B. O-O C. Na-Cl D. H-F

28. A polar covalent bond is formed when

A. Electrons are unequally shared between two atoms
B. Each atom has no partial charge associated with it
C. Electrons are transferred from one atom to another
D. Two atoms equally share electrons with each other

29. Choose the list that contains all non-polar molecules.

A. CO2, CO, CH4, CH3F C. O2, NH3, CCl4, BH3
B. H2O, CH3F, HCN, BH3 D. CO2, CH4, BH3, CCl4
30. Why does sucrose dissolve in water, while octane does not?
A. Sucrose is a nonpolar molecule, while octane is a polar molecule.
B. Sucrose does not dissolve in water.
C. Sucrose is a polar molecule, while octane is a nonpolar molecule.
D. Sucrose is covalent, like water is.

31. What is the CMBR?

A. Red shifted galaxies C. The first primordial elements
B. The shape of the universe D. Leftover heat from the Big Bang

32. Which of the following reactions is not a part of the alpha ladder?
A. 24Mg + 4He → 28Si C. 36Ar + 4He → 40Ca
B. P + He →
31 4 35Cl D. 44Ti + 4He → 48Cr

33. Arrange the following steps in sequence to show the proton-proton chain process
occurring in stars.
I. The proton and neutron pairs, forming an isotope of hydrogen called deuterium.
II. Two helium-3 nuclei collide, and a helium-4 is created with the release of two protons.
III. Another proton collides with a deuterium forming a helium-3 nucleus and a gamma
IV. Two protons fuse. When the fused proton breaks, one proton is transmuted into a
A. I, II, III & IV B. II, I ,IV & III C. IV, I, III & II D. III, IV, I & II

34. The Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle is a cycle of gamma emission and beta
decay to convert hydrogen into helium. What is the role of carbon-12 in this process?
A. It provides fuel or energy for the reaction to start
B. It provides the temperature required for the fusion to begin
C. It acts as a catalyst for the reaction to continue until the production of iron
D. It acts as a catalyst that is used in the initial reaction and is regenerated in the
final one

35. Which of the following processes is likely to generate the heaviest elements?
A. CNO cycle C. r-process
B. triple alpha process D. alpha ladder

36. Why did Democritus’ ideas about the atom recede into the background for almost
2000 years?
A. Democritus was not able to provide evidence for his ideas
B. Aristotle proposed a different idea that matter is composed of 5 elements
C. The idea of atomism was equated to “godlessness”
D. All of these

37. Although all parts of Dalton's atomic theory are important, which one of the
postulates is crucial to explain the observations summarized by the Law of Definite
A. Atoms are very small
B. Matter is composed of atoms
C. Atoms of the same elements have the same properties
D. Atoms chemically combine with other atoms in fixed, whole-number ratios
38. Which scientist’s experiments led to the nuclear model of the atom?
A. Robert Millikan’s oil drop experiments
B. Ernest Rutherford’s gold foil experiments
C. JJ Thomson’s cathose ray tube experiments
D. William Crooke’s experiments passing a current through a vacuum tube

39. Which of these was NOT observed by JJ Thomson while performing experiments with
cathode ray tubes?
A. Cathode rays carry a negative charge
B. Cathode rays traveled in straight lines
C. Cathode rays are independent of origin
D. Most of the cathode rays went out of the tube

40. What was the main problem in Rutherford's nuclear model of the atom?
A. It did not predict that there is a missing particle which is responsible for the
atom’s overall charge
B. It failed to explain how the electrons remained in their orbit without falling into
the nucleus
C. It did not emphasize the exact location of the protons and the nucleus
D. All of these

41. Aristotle described each element using the qualities hot, cold, wet, or dry. Which
qualities describe the element fire?
A. dry and cold B. hot and dry C. cold and wet D. hot and wet

42. When plutonium-242 undergoes alpha decay, the reaction produces a daughter
nucleus with an atomic number less than two and a mass number reduced by four
compared to the parent nucleus, 94234Pu. The balanced equation is represented as
A. 94242Pu → 93238Np + −10β C. 94242Pu → 93238Np + 10β
B. 94242Pu → 92238U + 24He D. 94242Pu → 92238U + 14H

For 43 & 44, refer to the diagram at the right.

43. Which diagrams represent molecules that

are polar?
A. 1 & 3 only
B. 1, 3 & 4
C. 2, 4, 5 & 6
D. All of them

44. What makes molecule # 3 polar?

A. This molecule is nonpolar
B. The lone pairs on the fluorine atoms
C. The shared pairs on the central atom
D. The one lone pair on the sulfur atom
45. What is the molecular polarity of H2O and why?
A. Polar, its charges are distributed asymmetrically and its geometric shape is
B. Nonpolar, its charges are distributed symmetrically and its geometric shape is
C. Polar, its charges are distributed symmetrically and its geometric shape is
D. Nonpolar, its charges are distributed asymmetrically and its geometric shape is

46. In big bang nucleosynthesis, protons and neutrons were converted quickly into ____,
and then they collided to make helium-4 directly in just the first few minutes.
A. Hydrogen B. Deuterium C. Tritium D. Helium-3

47. Why does nuclear fusion in the stars stop when iron is already formed?
A. Iron is so explosive that the star blows up before it can fuse into heavier element
B. Iron is so tightly bound that no energy can be extracted by fusion
C. The fusion of iron requires very low core temperature
D. Iron cannot be fused with lighter elements

48. What idea led James Chadwick to the discovery of neutrons?

A. Atomic mass of elements when measured is greater than the expected mass
B. Another particle was thought to control the behavior of electrons
C. Atom’s electrical charge depends on the charge of the neutron
D. All of these

49. Bohr’s theory helped explain why

A. electrons have negative charge
B. atoms combine to form molecules
C. most of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus
D. excited hydrogen gas gives off certain colors of light

50. How would you describe the molecular polarity and the charge distribution of CF4?
A. Nonpolar molecule, asymmetrical distribution of charge
B. Nonpolar molecule, symmetrical distribution of charge
C. Polar molecule, asymmetrical distribution of charge
D. Polar molecule, symmetrical distribution of charge