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TYPES OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS

• DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS
• DIFFERENCE QUESTIONS
• RELATIONSHIP QUESTIONS
DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS

Purpose:
To describe phenomena or characteristics of a particular
group of subjects being studied
• Survey research
• Qualitative research
DIFFERENCE QUESTIONS
Purpose:
To make comparisons between or within groups.
Is there a difference?
• Experimental research
• Treatment vs. Control
• Pre- vs. Post-test comparisons
• Nonexperimental research
• Compare one group to another based on existing characteristics
RELATIONSHIP QUESTIONS
Purpose:
To investigate the degree to which two or more variables
covary or are associated with each other
• Rather than analyzing the differences between groups,
researchers characterize the relationships among them.
• Extent to which variables are related
• Not to establish cause-and-effect
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
• Refers to the statement of purpose for which the
investigation is to be conducted.
TYPES OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

General Objective

Specific Objective
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
GENERAL OBJECTIVE
• A broad statement of purpose which uses abstract and non-measureable
concepts
• More often than not, the general objective is the rephrase of the research title
• Use infinitive verb
To determine To produce
To find out To invent
Specific Objective

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE
• Statement of purpose which uses well-defined and
measureable concepts
• The formulation of which should be based on and
logically flow from the general objective.
Guidelines in Writing Research Objectives
1.The statement of specific objectives maybe stated in
declarative or interrogative form; the choice depends
mainly on the chosen style of the researcher.
2.The statement of objectives should include the
independent and dependent variables.
3.Follow a logical flow when stating the objectives of the
study; descriptive objectives should be stated first,
followed by comparative then relational.
The main objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of
squash (C. Moschata) seeds on the growth of broiler chicken.

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:


1. What is the effect of squash seeds as feed additive on the weight
gain of broiler chicken?
2. Is there a significant difference among the varying ratio of squash
seeds and commercial feeds on weight gain of broiler chicken?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the amount of
squash seeds and the weight gain of broiler chicken?
THEORY VS. HYPOTHESIS
HYPOTHESIS
• A belief or prediction of the eventual outcome of the research
• A concrete, specific statement about the relationships between
phenomena
• Based on deductive reasoning

THEORY
• A belief or assumption about how things relate to each other
• A theory establishes a cause-and-effect relationship between
variables with a purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena
• Based on inductive reasoning
Hypotheses

In an ideal
world…
Theories

Laws
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
• Tentative answer to a research problem prior to
experimentation

• A statement about expected relationships between two


or more variables which permit empirical testing.
GUIDELINES IN WRITING HYPOTHESIS
• Its formulation is based on the study objectives,
particularly the specific ones
• The number of hypotheses depends on the number
of research objectives which are comparative and
relational in nature. Descriptive objectives do not
require hypothesis.
TYPES OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Null Hypothesis

Alternative Hypothesis
HYPOTHESIS
• Null hypothesis - a statement of denial of
relationship, difference or an effect. As such, it is
expressed in the negative form of a statement.

• Alternative hypothesis – formal affirmative


statement predicting a single research outcome. It is
the very opposite of what the null hypothesis predicts.
The main objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of
squash (C. Moschata) seeds on the growth of broiler chicken.

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:


1. What is the effect of squash seeds as feed additive on the weight
gain of broiler chicken?
2. Is there a significant difference among the varying ratio of
squash seeds and commercial feeds on weight gain of broiler
chicken?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the amount of
squash seeds and the weight gain of broiler chicken?
In view of specific objectives, the following hypotheses are
advanced:

1.There is no significant difference among the varying ratio of


squash seeds and commercial feeds on the weight gain of
broiler chicken.
2.There is no significant relationship between the amount of
squash seeds and the weight gain of broiler chicken.
RESEARCH PLAN
A.Question/ Problem being addressed.
B.Goals/ Expected Outcomes/ Hypotheses
C.Procedure
D.Bibliography