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WHAT SORT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLICATIONS ARE IN

USE IN MEDICINE
Ömer Faruk Kara
From the Department of Electrical and Electronics, School of Engineering, Izmir University Of Economics, Izmir, Balcova

Introduction: Artificial intelligence is a relevant subject in computer science that has the capability
to assess complex data of any kind. It derives its power from parallel data processing and logical
thinking. Engineers who work in medical fields have explored what artificial intelligence can do
in finding the relevant relationships between patients and diseases. That helps us find a diagnosis
and treatment and to predict the outcome.
Methods: Medline and internet searches played a significant role in this research, using the
keywords ‘artificial intelligence’ and ‘machine learning’. More references were acquired from
other relevant articles. Such techniques using artificial intelligence are covered in this research
paper.
Results: There are many different AI applications that can be applied in almost every field of
medicine. Neural network assessments on recognition are commonly used as a verification of
diagnosis, even while there are some other techniques, such as fuzzy expert systems and hybrid
intelligent systems.
Discussion: The potential of articial intelligence is very high and should be extremely valuable
when applied to the field of medicine.

Key Words: machine learning, artificial intellegence, neural networks

A rtificial intelligence is identified as a field of


science which works hand in hand with
and artificial intelligence. He created a test which
evaluates the capability of intelligent behavior in
engineering concepts and computational both code lines and logical processing to accomplish
understanding of intelligent behavior.1 Artificial human-level performance in complex tasks. This
intelligence is an excellent example of mimicry and test, later on, became famous as the ‘Turing test.’2
capable of analyzing complex medical data. Finding Researchers have understood that artificial
a relevant relationship between databases, which intelligent techniques have enormous potential in
includes a variety of elements such as engineering, every field of medicine.3,4 The first application of AI
medicine, and aerospace, are very useful for technology in the field of surgery was discovered by
treatments, predicting future outcomes, and Gunn in 1976; he explored the potential for
diagnosis. The British mathematician Alan Turing diagnosing acute abdominal pain with AI analysis.5
was one of the founders of the modern computer field Modern medicine has struggled with acquiring and
analyzing the vast amount of databases to solve
complex clinical problems. AI applications are
intended to help doctors in the formulation of a
diagnosis, the making of critical decisions, and the
predicting of possible outcome. They are created to
help healthcare workers such as doctors, interns and

clinicians in their daily routine. Also, it helps with


tasks that need to be assessed and applied with
significant amounts of knowledge. Such medical
systems carry artificial neural networks (ANNs),
fuzzy expert systems, and hybrid intelligent systems.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS (ANNs)

Artificial neural networks or connectionist systems carries “experience” between the layers and each link
processdata that is related to input inspired by the has a numerical indicator which is defined as a real
animal brain.6 Many systems can learn complex number. Transmitted signals between layers produce
tasks if the task is introduced beforehand. For such output, which are calculated by using a
example, a neural network can recognise an apple by mathematical function known as non-linear. As you
analysing example images that are given previously. can see in Fig. 1, there are layers between each
The results, the ability to distinguish an apple from process. Different layers can perform different sorts
other images, comes from experience and machine of evolving processes. Signals travel from each layer
learning. Before knowledge of an apple is given to in regards to what the work is. Usage of ANNs
the system, networks do not know anything about the covers a vass amount of tasks, such as machine
characteristics of apples. Through the learning translation, speech recognition, and medical
process, they develop their “consciousness” of what diagnosis. The strong side of using an ANNs is
an apple is and what features it possesses. This pattern recognition. That leads to faster and accurate
process is made through connected units or nodes (a results. In this sense, the more patient information
simple version of the human brain) and with the given to neural networks, the faster you can get result
connections between them in cross layers. The signal
FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEMS

Fuzzy logic is designed to approximate the way that like genetic algorithms, you can get away with not
people think when approaching a problem like ‘what knowing much of anything about the system. The
colour is this shirt?’. Similar problems exist system also doesn't need to be reduced or idealised to
everywhere in engineering, which is making various develop a working fuzzy logic controller. The
attempts to imitate human heuristics and fuzzy logic potential of the fuzzy system is limitless and it is
thinking. Fuzzy logic controllers do not require us to usable in a variety of fields. On the medical side,
know much detailed knowledge of the system, and these systems are generally used for image
what the controller should do is determined by processing. Further examples can include car control
linguistic rules. That is very easy to do for humans systems, aerospace vehicle control systems,
who understand what the controller should do in decision-making, and route planning. Fig. 2
certain situations, and if optimisation tools are used diagrams the process for deciding the diagnosis.
example, the neural network learning process is
burdensomely slow and there is no evidence that the
results are precise. But the application of hybrid
intelligent systems has been discovered to be
effective in many critical scenarios in the field of
medicine.

HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS

The hybrid intelligent system contains an application


that is made by combining the methods (Fig. 3) and
techniques from other intellectual systems such as
fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. In other
words, hybrid systems are basically made up of two
or more artificial intelligence systems such as fuzzy
expert systems, neural networks, and evolutionary
computation. Each system has its own problem that
can result in less efficiency or productivity. For
CONCLUSION

There are many systems available for use that can be applied in any field. These methods and systems
help people become more productive and work more precisely in what they do and what they will do. However,
none of them are completed yet, but have been developing through the work of engineers using the learning
process.

REFERENCES

1. Shapiro SC. Artificial intelligence. In: Shapiro SC. (ed) Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, vol. 1, 2nd
edn. New York: Wiley, 1992.
2. Turing AM. Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind1950; 59: 433–60.
3. Lusted LB. Medical progress – medical electronics. N Engl J Med1955; 252: 580–5.
4. Ledley RS, Lusted LB. Reasoning foundations of medical diagnosis. Science 1959; 130: 9–21.
5. Gunn AA. The diagnosis of acute abdominal pain with computer analysis. J R Coll Surg Edinb1976; 21:
170–2.
6. "Artificial Neural Networks as Models of Neuroal Information Processing | Frontiers Research Topic" .
Retrieved 2018-02-20.