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Solution:

Let

matrix of order 3,

we have

Hence,

Question : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

matrix of order 3,

We have,

Hence,

Question : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

matrix of order 3,

We have:-

Hence,

Question : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

matrix of order 3,

We have,

Hence,

Question : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

matrix of order 3,

we have,

Hence,

Example : Reduce the following matrices into its normal form and hence find the Rank.

Solution:

Let

Question : Reduce the following matrices into its normal form and hence find the Rank.

Solution: ,

Let

, ,

Question : Reduce the following matrices into its normal form and hence find the Rank.

Solution:

Let

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have

.

For

……………… i

……………… ii)

……………… iii

From equation(i) and (ii)

For

……………… i

……………… ii

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 8

……………… iii

From equation(i) and (ii)

For

……………… i

……………… ii

……………… iii

From equation(i) and (ii)

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have

.

For

……………… i

……………… ii

……………… iii

From equation(i) and (ii)

For

……………… i

……………… ii

……………… iii

From equation(i) and (ii)

Thus the Eigen vector is

For

……………… i

……………… ii

……………… iii

From equation(i) and (ii)

Thus the Eigen vector is

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 10

.

For

……………… i

……………… ii

……………… iii

From equation(i) and (ii)

For

i.e., and the no. of unknown is 3, i.e.,

From above matrix we have,

the matrix is having 2 linerly independed solution so we will take the two values of x and y.

For

Then

Then the Eigen vector is

For

Then

Than the Eigen vector is

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have

.

For

……………… i

……………… ii

……………… iii

From the above, we have equation (i) and (ii).

For

i.e., and the no. of unknown is 3, i.e.,

From above matrix we have,

the matrix is having 2 linerly independed solution so we will take the two values of x and y.

For

Then Then the Eigen vector is

For

Then Then the Eigen vector is

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have

.

For

……………… i

……………… ii

……………… iii

From equation (i) and (ii), we have

For

……………… i

……………… ii)

……………… iii

From equation (i) and (ii), we have

Thus the Eigen vector is

For

……………… i

……………… ii

……………… iii

From equation (i) and (ii), we have

Question Find the characteristics of the matrix A. verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix A and find

its inverse

Solution: Given

…………………………………………

By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1), So that we have,

…………………………………………………

Taking

L.H.S. =

R.H.S.

Now, find

Multiplying the equation (2) by , we get

Question Find the characteristics of the matrix A. verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix A and

Solution: Given

…………………………………………

By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1)

So, that we have .

…………………………………………………

Taking

L.H.S.

0 = R.H.S.

Now, find

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 15

Multiplying the equation (2) by

Question Find the characteristics of the matrix A. verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix A and

Solution: Let

…………………

By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1)

So, that we have .

…………………………………………………

Taking

L.H.S.

R.H.S.

Now, find

Multiplying the equation (2) by

Example : Find the characteristics equation of the matrix and find its .

Solution: Let

……………………

By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1)

So, that we have .

…………………………………………………

Taking

L.H.S.

R.H.S.

Now, find

Multiplying the equation (2) by

Example : Find the characteristic equation of matrix and hence find also find matrix

represented by

Solution: Let

…………………………………………

By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1)

So, that we have .

…………………………………………………

Taking

L.H.S.

R.H.S.

Now, find

Multiplying the equation (2) by

2nd part

Example : Verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix and find its inverse also.

Express as a linear polynomial in A.

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

……………………………… )

By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1), So that we have

………………………………… )

Now, find

Multiplying the equation (2) by

2nd part

Solution: Given

Now,

Operate

Case-I, If ,

Then

Since all the three columns are identical, this implies that & every minor of order 2 is also Zero.

This shows that Rank of

Case-II, If ,

Then

This implies that

This shows that rank < 3

Now, the minor of order 2 is

Since from above, we get one minor of order 2 not equal to zero.

Rank of

Similarly we can discuss for cases

If

Then

i.e., a minor of order 3 is non-zero and there is no minor of order .

Rank of

Example : For the matrix find non-singular matrix P and Q such that PAQ is in the normal

Solution: We write A = I A I

Hence,

Therefore the rank is given by , i.e.,

Question : Find the non-singular matrix P and Q. such that PAQ is in the normal form for the matrices.

Solution:

We write

Hence,

Therefore the rank is given by , i.e.,

CONSISTENCY

Question : Test for consistency and solve it , , .

Solution: Given equation are

In matrix form,

And be the rank of augmented matrix.

And be the number of unknowns.

From the above matrix, it is clear that

and

There are infinite no. of solutions.

From the above matrix we have,

…………………

………………

From equation (2),

Put the value of equation(1), we get

Question : For what value of k the equations , , and have a

solution, and solve them for each case.

Solution: Given equation are,

Writing the equation in matrix form,

And be the rank of augmented matrix.

And be the number of unknowns.

Since we known that system of eqn will have solution if they are consistent that is if .

From the above matrix it is clear that .

And for consistent we require .

Only if

Case I: For

……………

……………

From equation(2), we get

Where is parameter.

Case II: For

……………

……………

From equation(4), we get

Where is parameter.

Question : Investigate for what value of and the simultaneous eqn have a solution ,

, .

Solution: The given equation are,

And be the rank of augmented matrix.

And be the number of unknowns.

No solution.

If and

Then we have and

Given equation are not consistent so it has no solution.

Unique solution.

If and any value

Then we have , , and .

Infinite solution.

If , and

Then we have , and .

Solution: Given equation are,

In matrix form,

And be the rank of augmented matrix.

And be the number of unknowns.

From the above matrix, it is clear that

Here,

So, there is no solution because equations are inconsistent.

Let be the rank of coefficient matrix.

And be the rank of augmented matrix.

And be the number of unknowns.

From the above matrix, it is clear that

.

.

.

So, the given equations are consistent and there is a unique solution.

From above matrix, we have

…………………… i

………………… ii

……………… iii

Put the value of in equation(i), we get

Ans : , , .

Solution: Given equation are,

Let r be the rank of coefficient matrix.

& be the rank of augmented matrix.

& n be the number of unknowns.

From the above matrix,

Here,

So, the equations are inconsistent and there is no solution.

are consistent. When will these equations have a unique solutions?

Solution: Given equations are

In matrix form,

By

By

By

And be the rank of augmented matrix.

And be the number of unknowns.

If

i.e. If

, & here

If

i.e. If

,

If

, & here

have a unique solution. If , show that the equations are constituent. Determine the solutions in

each case.

Solution: Given equation are

In matrix form,

By

By

By

By

And be the rank of augmented matrix.

And be the number of unknowns.

If

, & here

if

…………………… )

……………………… )

………………………

From equation , we get

If

, & here

if

…………………… )

……………………… )

From equation , we get

Where z is a parameter.

Then from equation , we get

Where z is a parameter.

Question : Show that the equations , , do not have a

solution unless .

Solution: Given equations are

In matrix form,

By

Operate 3

We know that, system of equations will have solution only if rank of coefficient matrix is equal to the rank of

augmented matrix.

From above matrix it is clear that: rank of coefficient matrix is 2

Above system will have solution if rank of augmented matrix is 2

…………………………… Proved.

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