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Example : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

writing the same matrix side by side with the unit


matrix of order 3,
we have

Hence,

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 1


Question : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

writing the same matrix side by side with the unit


matrix of order 3,
We have,

Hence,

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 2


Question : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

Writing the same matrix side by side with the unit


matrix of order 3,
We have:-

Hence,

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 3


Question : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

Writing the same matrix side by side with the unit


matrix of order 3,
We have,

Hence,

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 4


Question : Using the Gauss Jordan method find the inverse of the matrix:

Solution:

Let

Writing the same matrix side by side with the unit


matrix of order 3,
we have,

Hence,

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 5


Example : Reduce the following matrices into its normal form and hence find the Rank.
Solution:

Let

Hence Rank of given matrix

Question : Reduce the following matrices into its normal form and hence find the Rank.
Solution: ,

Let

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, ,

Hence the rank of given matrix = 3

Question : Reduce the following matrices into its normal form and hence find the Rank.
Solution:

Let

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Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

Thus the Eigen values are 15 , 3 , 0 .


If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have
.

For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii)
……………… iii
From equation(i) and (ii)

Thus the Eigen vector is .


For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii
MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 8
……………… iii
From equation(i) and (ii)

Thus the Eigen vector is .


For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii
……………… iii
From equation(i) and (ii)

Thus the Eigen vector is

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

Thus, the Eigen values are 1, 2, 3.


If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have
.

For

From above, we have


……………… i

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 9


……………… ii
……………… iii
From equation(i) and (ii)

Thus the Eigen vector is .

For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii
……………… iii
From equation(i) and (ii)
Thus the Eigen vector is
For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii
……………… iii
From equation(i) and (ii)
Thus the Eigen vector is

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

Thus, the Eigen value are


If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have
MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 10
.

For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii
……………… iii
From equation(i) and (ii)

Thus the Eigen vector is


For

From above we have, rank of coefficient matrix is 1.


i.e., and the no. of unknown is 3, i.e.,

We have linearly independent solution.


From above matrix we have,

the matrix is having 2 linerly independed solution so we will take the two values of x and y.
For
Then
Then the Eigen vector is

For
Then
Than the Eigen vector is

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 11


The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

Thus, the Eigen values are


If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have
.

For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii
……………… iii
From the above, we have equation (i) and (ii).

Thus the Eigen vector is


For

From above we have, rank of coefficient matrix is 1.


i.e., and the no. of unknown is 3, i.e.,

We have linearly independent solution.


From above matrix we have,

the matrix is having 2 linerly independed solution so we will take the two values of x and y.
For
Then Then the Eigen vector is

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 12


For
Then Then the Eigen vector is

Question : Find the Eigen values and the Eigen vectors of the matrix

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

Thus, the Eigen values are .


If be the components of Eigen vector corresponding to the Eigen values , then we have
.

For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii
……………… iii
From equation (i) and (ii), we have

Thus the Eigen vector is .


For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii)
……………… iii
From equation (i) and (ii), we have

MANOJ SHARMA SIR 98265-70044 M1 – Matrices Page 13


Thus the Eigen vector is

For

From above, we have


……………… i
……………… ii
……………… iii
From equation (i) and (ii), we have

Thus the Eigen vector is


Question Find the characteristics of the matrix A. verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix A and find

its inverse

Solution: Given

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

…………………………………………
By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1), So that we have,
…………………………………………………
Taking
L.H.S. =

R.H.S.

Cayley Hamilton theorem verified.

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Now, find
Multiplying the equation (2) by , we get

Question Find the characteristics of the matrix A. verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix A and

find its inverse

Solution: Given

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

…………………………………………
By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1)
So, that we have .
…………………………………………………
Taking
L.H.S.

0 = R.H.S.

Cayley Hamilton theorem is verified.

Now, find
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Multiplying the equation (2) by

Question Find the characteristics of the matrix A. verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix A and

find its inverse

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

…………………
By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1)
So, that we have .
…………………………………………………
Taking
L.H.S.

R.H.S.

Now, find
Multiplying the equation (2) by

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Example : Find the characteristics equation of the matrix and find its .

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

……………………
By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1)
So, that we have .
…………………………………………………
Taking
L.H.S.

R.H.S.

Cayley Hamilton theorem is verified.


Now, find
Multiplying the equation (2) by

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Example : Find the characteristic equation of matrix and hence find also find matrix

represented by

Solution: Let

The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

…………………………………………
By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1)
So, that we have .
…………………………………………………
Taking
L.H.S.

R.H.S.

Cayley Hamilton theorem is verified.

Now, find
Multiplying the equation (2) by

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2nd part

Divide the given equation by L.H.S. of equation (2) i.e. by

Example : Verify Cayley Hamilton theorem for the matrix and find its inverse also.
Express as a linear polynomial in A.
Solution: Let
The characteristic equation of matrix A is given by

……………………………… )
By Cayley Hamilton theorem, A must satisfy its characteristic equation (1), So that we have
………………………………… )

Now, find
Multiplying the equation (2) by

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2nd part

Divide the given equation by equation (2) i.e. by

Question : Find the rank of

Solution: Given

Now,

Operate

Now following cases arises :


Case-I, If ,

Then

Since all the three columns are identical, this implies that & every minor of order 2 is also Zero.
This shows that Rank of
Case-II, If ,

Then

Since two columns are identical

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This implies that
This shows that rank < 3
Now, the minor of order 2 is

Since from above, we get one minor of order 2 not equal to zero.
Rank of
Similarly we can discuss for cases
If

Case-III, If a, b, c are all different


Then
i.e., a minor of order 3 is non-zero and there is no minor of order .
Rank of

Example : For the matrix find non-singular matrix P and Q such that PAQ is in the normal

form also find the rank.


Solution: We write A = I A I

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Hence,

Since, there is the normal form


Therefore the rank is given by , i.e.,

Question : Find the non-singular matrix P and Q. such that PAQ is in the normal form for the matrices.

Solution:

We write

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Hence,

Since their normal form


Therefore the rank is given by , i.e.,

CONSISTENCY
Question : Test for consistency and solve it , , .
Solution: Given equation are

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In matrix form,

Let be the rank of coefficient matrix.


And be the rank of augmented matrix.
And be the number of unknowns.
From the above matrix, it is clear that
and

Given equation are consistent.


There are infinite no. of solutions.
From the above matrix we have,
…………………
………………
From equation (2),
Put the value of equation(1), we get

Where z is the parameter.


Question : For what value of k the equations , , and have a
solution, and solve them for each case.
Solution: Given equation are,

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Writing the equation in matrix form,

Let be the rank of coefficient matrix.


And be the rank of augmented matrix.
And be the number of unknowns.
Since we known that system of eqn will have solution if they are consistent that is if .
From the above matrix it is clear that .
And for consistent we require .
Only if

Case I: For

From above matrix, we have


……………
……………
From equation(2), we get

Put the value of in equation(1), we get

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Where is parameter.
Case II: For

From above matrix, we have


……………
……………
From equation(4), we get

Put the value of in equation(1), we get

Where is parameter.

Question : Investigate for what value of and the simultaneous eqn have a solution ,
, .
Solution: The given equation are,

Writing the given equation in matrix form,

Let be the rank of coefficient matrix.


And be the rank of augmented matrix.
And be the number of unknowns.
No solution.
If and
Then we have and

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Given equation are not consistent so it has no solution.
Unique solution.
If and any value
Then we have , , and .

Given equation are consistent and has unique solution.


Infinite solution.
If , and
Then we have , and .

Given equation are consistent and has infinite no. of solution.

Question : Test for consistency and solve it , ,


Solution: Given equation are,

In matrix form,

Let be the rank of coefficient matrix.


And be the rank of augmented matrix.
And be the number of unknowns.
From the above matrix, it is clear that

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Here,
So, there is no solution because equations are inconsistent.

Question : Test for consistency and solve it , , ,

Solution: The given equation are,

Writing the equation in matrix form,

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Let be the rank of coefficient matrix.
And be the rank of augmented matrix.
And be the number of unknowns.
From the above matrix, it is clear that
.
.
.

So, the given equations are consistent and there is a unique solution.
From above matrix, we have
…………………… i
………………… ii
……………… iii
Put the value of in equation(i), we get

Ans : , , .

Question : Test for consistency and Solve it , , .


Solution: Given equation are,

Writing the equation in matrix form,

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Let r be the rank of coefficient matrix.
& be the rank of augmented matrix.
& n be the number of unknowns.
From the above matrix,

Here,
So, the equations are inconsistent and there is no solution.

Question : Find the value of for which the equations


are consistent. When will these equations have a unique solutions?
Solution: Given equations are

In matrix form,

By

By

By

Let be the rank of coefficient matrix.


And be the rank of augmented matrix.
And be the number of unknowns.
If
i.e. If
, & here

Equations will be consistent and have infinite number of solutions.

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If
i.e. If
,

Then the equations will be inconsistent and there is no solution.


If
, & here

Equations will be consistent and have a unique solution.

Question : Show that if , the system of equations ,


have a unique solution. If , show that the equations are constituent. Determine the solutions in
each case.
Solution: Given equation are

In matrix form,

By

By

By

By

Let be the rank of coefficient matrix.


And be the rank of augmented matrix.
And be the number of unknowns.
If
, & here

Equations will be consistent and have a unique solution.


if

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…………………… )
……………………… )
………………………
From equation , we get

From equation , we get

From equation , we get

If
, & here

Equations will be consistent and have an infinite no. of solutions.


if

…………………… )
……………………… )
From equation , we get

Where z is a parameter.
Then from equation , we get

Where z is a parameter.

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Question : Show that the equations , , do not have a
solution unless .
Solution: Given equations are

In matrix form,

By

Operate 3

We know that, system of equations will have solution only if rank of coefficient matrix is equal to the rank of
augmented matrix.
From above matrix it is clear that: rank of coefficient matrix is 2
Above system will have solution if rank of augmented matrix is 2

…………………………… Proved.

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