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SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course

Heat and Mass Transfer for Chemical Engineering

Submitted by:

Benito, Angelica Joyce

Cabaddu, Quennie

Magannon, Judy Ann

DECEMBER 21, 2017


ABSTRACT

In designing a suitable heat exchanger for cooling a gas oil from 200°C to 40°C the parameters
are cautiously followed. In this paper a suitable design for cooling a gas oil is presented, the most
suitable design is a 4-pass divided flow, shell and tube type heat exchanger with a 25 percent cut
baffles and a pull through floating head. The thermal design and mechanical design computation
is carried out to demonstrate the requirements and dimensions needed to yield an optimized design
suitable for cooling a gas oil. In presenting the proposed design of the heat exchanger, Computer
aided drafting CAD® and Sketch Up® is used.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................................................

NOMENCLATURE FOR THERMAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN .................................................................. 1

I. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 5

II. OBJECTIVE ................................................................................................................................................... 5

III. SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER ................................................................................................ 5

A. DEFINITION........................................................................................................................................................ 5
B. THEORY .............................................................................................................................................................. 5
C. APPLICATIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 6
D. CLASSIFICATIONS ................................................................................................................................................ 6
1. Fixed tube-sheet heat exchanger .............................................................................................................................. 6
2. U-tube heat exchanger .......................................................................................................................................... 6
3. Floating head heat exchanger.................................................................................................................................... 6

IV. STEPS FOR DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER ........................................................................................ 7

V. PROBLEM STATEMENT .......................................................................................................................... 17

A. THERMAL DESIGN CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................................... 18


B) MECHANICAL DESIGN CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................................ 27
Design temperature and pressure .......................................................................................................................... 27
Materials of construction .................................................................................................................................... 28
Design component calculation .............................................................................................................................. 28
i. Inside depth of the head...................................................................................................................................... 29
ii. Effective Exchanger Length (Leff) ........................................................................................................................ 29

VI. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 36

A. THERMAL DESIGN ............................................................................................................................................... 36


B. MECHANICAL DESIGN ......................................................................................................................................... 39

VII. 3-D REPRESENTATION OF DIVIDED FLOW TYPE SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER .. 41

IX. REFERENCE ............................................................................................................................................... 42


Figure 1 : 4- Pass Divided Flow type Shell and tube Heat Exchanger schematic diagram .... 17

Figure 2: Parts to consider on mechanical design ................................................................ 27

Figure 3: 3-D design of heat exchanger ............................................................................... 41

Figure 4: Tubes and Baffles ................................................................................................. 42

Table 1: Conductivity of Metals............................................................................................. 7

Table 2: Typical Overall Coefficients................................................................................... 10

Table 3: Constants in calculating tube pitch and the bundle diameter .................................. 12

Table 4: Properties of Water and Gas oil ............................................................................. 17


NOMENCLATURE FOR THERMAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN

Tube diameter (D 0 )

Tube diameter (Di )

Tube length (L)

BWG number

Tube pattern Triangular Pitch

 1 
Fouling factor for cooling water  
 id 
h

 1 
Fouling factor for gas oil  
 h od 

Thermal conductivity for carbon steel (k w )

Temperature (Thin )

Temperature (Th out )

Temperature (Tcin )

Temperature (Tcout )

.
Mass flow rate (moil )

.
Head equation duty (mc )

Log mean tempe rature (Tlm )

1
Temperature correction factor ( Ft )

Mean tempe rature difference (Tm )

Overall heat trans fer coefficient (U o )

Provisional area (A)

Number of tubes (N t )

Tube pitch (Pt )

Bundle diameter (Db)

Bundle diameter clearance (BDC)

Shell diameter (Ds)

Baffle spacing (Bs)

Area for cross flow (As)

Shell - side mass velocity (Gs)

Shell - side velocity (u s )

Shell equivalent diameter (d e )

Shell - side Reynold' s number (Re)

Shell - side Prandlt' s number (Pr)

Shell - side heat trans fer coefficient (h o )

2
Pressure drop in the shell (Ps )

Number of tubes per pass (Nt pp )

Tube - side mass velocity (G m )

Tube - side velocity (ν t )

Tube - side Reynold' s number (Re)

Tube - side Prandtl' s number (Pr)

Tube - side heat trans fer coefficient (h i )

Overall heat trans fer factor (U )


o

Tube - side pressure drop (P)

Shell thickness ( ts )

Inside depth of the head ( hi )

Effective Exchanger Length (Leff)

Thickness of the Head ( th )

Channel Cover Thickness ( t cc )

Tube Sheet Thickness ( t ts )

Nozzle thickness ( tn )

Design of Gaskets ( D IG )

3
Design of Gaskets ( D OG )

Gasket Width (N)

Mean Gasket Diameter (G)

Basic Gasket Starting Width (Bo)

Effective gasket seating width (b)

Bolts ( Wm1 )

The bolt load under tight pressure ( Wm2 )

The minimum bolt cross-sectional area( ( f a = f b ) ( Am )


both material is carbon steel)

Flange thickness for the gasket seating ( flange bolt load , W)


condition

Flange thickness for the gasket seating ( flange moment , M f )


condition

Hydrostatic end force on area inside of the ( HD )


flange

Moment due to HD ( MD )

Gasket load under operating conditions ( HG )

Moment due to HG ( MG )

4
I. INTRODUCTION

In the process industries the transfer of heat between two fluids is generally done in heat
exchangers. Heat exchanger is used to transfer heat between a solid object and a fluid, or between
two or more fluids. It is one in which the hot fluid and the cold fluid don not come into direct
contact with each other but are separated by a tube wall or a flat or curved surface.
The most common type of heat exchanger is the shell and tube heat exchanger. It is used in
oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure application. This
type of heat exchanger consists of a shell with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through
the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes to transfer heat between the two fluids.

II. OBJECTIVE

The main purpose of this paper is to present effectively a suitable, efficient and a fully
optimized design of heat exchanger for cooling a gas oil from 200°C to 40°C.

III. SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

A. Definition

A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is one of the most
common type of heat exchanger used in heat transfer. Typically used in applications when a
process requires large amounts of fluid to be heated or cooled. Shell and tube heat exchangers
offer a large surface area and thus high heat transfer efficiency.

B. Theory

Two fluids, of different starting temperatures, flow through the heat exchanger. One
flows through the tubes and the other flows outside the tubes but inside the shell. Heat is
transferred from one fluid to the other through the tube walls, either from tube side to shell
side or vice versa. The fluids can be either liquids or gases on either the shell or the tube side.
In order to transfer heat efficiently, a large heat transfer area should be used, so there are
many tubes. In this way, waste heat can be put to use which is a great way to conserve energy.
Heat exchangers run on the principles of convective and conductive heat transfer.
Conduction occurs as the heat from the hot fluid passes through the inner pipe wall. To
maximize the heat transfer, the inner-pipe wall should be thin and very conductive. However,
the biggest contribution to heat transfer is made through convection.

5
C. Applications

The simple design of a shell and tube heat exchanger makes it an ideal cooling solution
for a wide variety of applications. One of the most common applications is the cooling of
hydraulic fluid and oil in engines, transmissions and hydraulic power packs. With the right
choice of materials, they can also be used to cool or heat other mediums, such as charge air.
One of the big advantages of using shell and tube heat exchanger is that they are often easy
to service, particularly with models where a floating tube bundle is available.

D. Classifications

1. Fixed tube-sheet heat exchanger

A fixed tube sheet heat exchanger has straight tubes that are secured at both ends to
tube sheets welded to the shell. The principle advantage of fixed tube sheet construction
is its low cost because of its simple construction. In fact, the fixed tube sheet is the least
expensive construction type, as long as no expansion joint is required. Other advantages
are the tubes can be cleaned mechanically after removal of the channel cover or bonnet,
and the leakage of the shell-side fluid is minimized since there are no flanged joints.
A disadvantage of this design is that since the bundle is fixed to the shell and cannot
be removed, the outside of the tubes cannot be cleaned mechanically. Thus, its
application is limited to clean services on the shell-side.

2. U-tube heat exchanger

As the name implies, the tube of a U-tube heat exchangers are bent in the shape of
U. There is only one tube sheet in a U-tube heat exchanger. However, the lower cost for
a single tube sheet is offset by the additional costs incurred for the bending of the tubes
and somewhat larger shell diameter due to the minimum U-bend radius, making the cost
of a U-tube heat exchanger comparable to that of the fixed tube sheet heat exchanger.

3. Floating head heat exchanger

The floating head heat exchanger is the most versatile type of shell and tube heat
exchanger, and also is the costliest. One tube sheet is fixed relative to the shell, and the
other is free to float within the shell. This permits free expansion of the tube bundle, as
well the cleaning of both the insides and the outsides of the tubes. Thus floating head
heat exchangers can be used for services where both the shell side and the tube side
fluids are dirty making this the standard construction type used in dirty services, such as
in petroleum refineries.

6
IV. STEPS FOR DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER

Note: all information including figures and charts were obtained from Colson &
Richardson, Chemical Engineering, volume 6)
1. Assume tube diameter and BWG, Assume tube length, L
2. Assume fouling factor based on inside and outside tubes, hdi and hdo
3. Assume material of construction for the tubes  thermal conductivity?

Table 1: Conductivity of Metals

4. You have the option to assume three known temperature and find the fourth one or four
temperature values and find one of the shell or tube side flow rate. Use the heat duty
equation q  mc cp c (Tcou  Tcin )  mh cp h (Th , out Th , in ) where subscripts c and h

refer to cold and hot streams. Then obtain the heat duty, q.
5. Based on the type of flow, calculate Log Mean Temperature Difference, LMTD. For
(Thi  Tco)  (Tho  Tci)
counter current LMTD 
(Thi  Tco)
ln
(Tho  Tci)
(Thi  Tci)  (Tho  Tco)
For co-current LMTD 
(Thi  Tci)
ln
(Tho  Tco)
6. Based of the exchanger configuration obtain the Temperature correction factor.
For 1 shell-2 tube pass exchanger

7
For other configurations use the following charts

Graph 1: Temperature correction factor: one shell pass; two or more even tube 'passes

Graph 2: Temperature correction factor: two shell passes; four or multiples of four tube passes

8
Graph 3: Temperature correction factor: divided-flow shell; two or more even-tube passes

Graph 4: Temperature correction factor, split flow shell, 2 tube pass

7. Calculate the mean temperature difference using DTm  Ft  LMTD


8. Assume overall heat transfer coefficient as initial guess from the table below:

9
Table 2: Typical Overall Coefficients

10
q
9. Calculate the provisional area A 
U .DTm
10. Based on the assumed tube diameter (ID and OD at a given BWG) and tube length, L,
A
calculate number of tubes: N t 
 .d o .L
11. Calculate tube pitch and the bundle diameter

Where K1 and n1 are obtained from the table below based on the type of tube arrangement
(Triangular or square pitch):

11
Table 3: Constants in calculating tube pitch and the bundle diameter

12. Provide/Assume the type of floating head of the exchanger and obtain the bundle diameter
clearance BDC . Use the chart below:

Graph 5: for choosing the Floating head

12
13. Calculate the shell diameter. Ds  Db  BDC
14. Calculate the baffle spacing. Bs  0.4Ds
( pt  d o ) Ds.Bs
15. Calculate the are for cross-flow, As 
pt
shell - side flowrate [kg/s]
16. Calculate the shell-side mass velocity, Gs 
As
17. Calculate the shell equivalent diameter

18. Calculate the shell-side Reynolds number

.Cp
19. Calculate Prandtle number. Pr 
k
20. Obtain the shell-side heat transfer coefficient

Where j h is obtained from the chart bellow

13
Graph 6: Shell-side heat- transfer factors, segmental baffles

21. Calculate the pressure drop in the shell

Where j f may be obtained from the chart bellow

14
Graph 7: Shell-side friction factor, segmental baffles

22. Calculate the number of tubes per pass; Ntpp  N t / number of passes

tube - side flowrate [kg/s]


23. Calculate tube-side mass velocity, Gm 
N tpp  d i2 / 4

Gm
24. Calculate tube-side velocity v  where  i is the density of fluid inside tubes.
i
.Cp
25. Calculate Prandtle and Reynolds numbers for fluids inside tubes Pr  ,
k
i di v
Re  where subscript i refers to fluid inside tubes.
i
26. Calculate heat transfer coefficient hi by using either the following relations
0.14
  
0.33
kf  di 
If Re  2100 (Laminar flow) then hi  1.86 Re . Pr  0.33
   
di L  w 
0. 7
kf  d 
If Re  2100 (Transition and Turbulent) hi  0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.33 1  i 
di  L
0.14
kf   
Or by analogy hi  j h Re . Pr 0.33
 
di  w 

15
27. Calculate the overall heat transfer factor
1
Based on “inside tubes flow” U i 
1 1 d i ln( d o / d i ) di d
    i
hi hdi 2k w d o hdo d o ho
1
Or based on “outside tubes flow” U o 
1 1 d ln( d o / d i ) d d
  o  o  o
ho hdo 2k w d i ho d i hdi

Where hdi and hdo are the heat transfer coefficients for the scales (dirt) inside and outside
tubes, respectively.

28. Compare the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient you obtained from the previous
step with that you assumed in step 8. if it is close to what you assumed, then you had a
valid assumption, then tabulate your results such as total surface area of tubes, number of
tubes, exchanger length and diameter, heat duty and other design specification. Otherwise,
use the calculated value in step 8 and do loop until the difference between the calculated
U between two consecutive iterations is small.
29. The tube-side pressure drop may be calculated using the relation
  8jf L  m    i v 2

P  1.5  N t 2.5   ( ) 
  di w   2

16
V. PROBLEM STATEMENT

Design a suitable heat exchanger for Gas oil which is to be cooled from 200°C to 40°C, with
a given oil flow-rate equal to 22,500 kg/h. The cooling water is available at 30 °C and the
temperature rise is limited to 20°C. Pressure drop allowance for each stream is 100 kN/m2.

Figure 1 : 4- Pass Divided Flow type Shell and tube Heat Exchanger schematic diagram

Table 4: Properties of Water and Gas oil

Water Gas oil

Units inlet mean Outlet inlet mean outlet


Temperature °C 30 40 50 200 120 40
Specific Heats kJ kg-1°C-1 4.18 4.18 4.18 2.59 2.28 1.97
Thermal kWm-1 °C-1 618×10-6 631×10-6 623×10-6 0.13 0.125 0.12
Conductivity
Density mNm-2s 797×10-3 671×10-3 544×10-3 0.06 0.17 0.28
Viscosity Kg m-3 995.2 992.8 990.1 830 850 870

17
A. Thermal Design Calculations

1. Assumptions,

TUBEDIAMETER D0 = 20 mm

Di = 16 mm

TUBE LENGTH L  4m

BWG NUMBER BWG =14

TUBE PATTERN Triangular Pitch

2. Assumption of the fouling factor on the inside and outside tubes

FOULING FACTOR

1 m 2 °C
Cooling water : = 0.00025
h id W

1 m 2 °C
Gas oil : = 0.0002
h od W

3. Assumptions of materials for construction of the tubes

W
CARBON STEEL k w = 45
m°C

4. There known temperatures

Th in = 200°C Tcin = 40°C

Th out = 40°C Tcout  50 oC

18
Mass flow rate
. . kg
m h  m oil  22,500
h
. .
m c  m water

Heat duty equation

qh  qc
.
q = m c cpc (Tco - Tci ) or
.
q = m h cph (Th o - Th i )

 kg 1h kJ 
q =  (22,500 × )(2.28 )[(200 - 40)°C]
 h 3600s kg°C 
kJ
q = 2280
s
q = 2280 kW
. kJ
2280kW  m c (4.18 o )(50 o C  30 o C)
kg C
. kg
m c  27.27
s

5. Calculation of the Log Mean Temperature Differences, LMTD.

For Counter Current LMTD

(Th i - Tc o ) - (Th o - Tc i )
ΔTlm =
(Th i - Tc o )
ln
(Th o - Tc i )
(200 - 50)°C - (40 - 30)°C
ΔTlm =
(200 - 50)°C
ln
(40 - 30)°C
ΔTlm = 51.70°C

19
6. Temperature correction factor, Ft

For 1 shell-2 tube pass exchanger

TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTOR

Th i - Th o 200 - 40
R= = = 8.0
Tco - Tci 50 - 30
Tco - Tci 50 - 30
S= = = 0.12
Th i - Tci 200 - 30

These values do not intercept on the figure for a single shell-pass exchanger, graph

1, so use the figure for a two-pass shell, graph 3, which gives Ft  0.94

7. Calculate the Mean temperature difference, ΔTm

ΔTm = Ft × ΔTlm

 0.94  51.7
 48.60 o C

8. Assume the overall heat transfer coefficient, U o

W
U o = 500
m 2 °C

9. Calculate provisional area

q
A=
U o ΔTm
1000W
(2280kW × )
A= 1kW
W
(500 )(48.60°C)
m 2 °C
A = 94m 2

20
10. Number of tubes

A
Nt =
πDo L
94m 2
Nt =
1m
π(20mm × )(4m)
1000mm
N t = 374.5 tubes  375 tubes
N t = 376 tubes, use even

11. Calculate tube pitch and the bundle diameter

TUBE PITCH

Pt = 1.25D O
Pt = 1.25(20mm)
Pt = 25 mm

BUNDLE DIAMETER

1
N
Db = Do ( t ) n1
K1
For 4 tube passes, triangula r pitch
K1 = 0.175
n1 = 2.285
1
N
Db = Do ( t ) n1
K1
1
376 2.285
Db = (20mm)( )
0.175
Db = 574.5mm = 575mm

12. Assume pull-through type floating head

Since, Db=575mm
BDC=92mm

21
13. Calculate the shell diameter, Ds

D s = Db + BDC
D s = 575mm + 92mm
D s = 667mm

14. Calculate the baffle spacing, Bs

Bs = 0.2Ds
Bs = 0.2(667mm)
Bs  133mm

15. Calculate the area for cross-flow

(Pt - D o )
As = DsBs
Pt
(25 - 20)mm
A s = (0.5) (667mm)(13 3mm)
25mm
A s = 8871.1mm 2

16. Calculate G s and u s

shell - side flowrate


Gs =
As
kg 1h
(22500 )( )
Gs = h 3600s
(0.00887m 2 )
kg
G s = 704.6
s - m2

Gs
us =
ρ
kg
704.6
us = s - m2
kg
850 3
m
m
u s = 0.83
s

22
17. Calculate the shell equivalent diameter, d e

For an equilateral triangular pitch arrangement

1.10 2 2
de = (Pt - 0.917D o )
Do
1.10
de = [(25mm) 2 - 0.917(20mm ) 2 ]
20mm

d e = 14.2mm

18. Calculate the shell-side Reynold’s number

u s d eρ
Re =
μ
m kg
(0.83 )(14.2 × 10 -3 m)(850 3 )
Re = s m
-3 kg
0.17 × 10
s-m
Re  58930

19. Calculate the shell-side Prandlt’s number

μc p
Pr =
k
-3N -s J
(0.17 ×10 2
)(2.28 ×10 3 )
m kg°C
Pr =
W
(0.125 )
m - °C
Pr  3.1

20. Obtain the shell-side heat transfer coefficient

1
k μ
h o = hs = [(jh RePr 3 )( ) 0.14 ]neglect the viscositycorrelation
de μw
1
k
ho = (jh RePr 3 )
de
W
0.125 1
ho = ( m°C )[(2.6 ×10 -3 )(58930)(3 .1) 3 ]
14.2 ×10 -3 m
W
h o = 1967 2
m °C

23
21. Calculate pressure drop in the shell

2
Ds L ρu s μ 0.14
ΔPs = 8jf ( )( )( )( ) neglect the viscositycorrelation

d e Bs 2 μw
kg m
(850 )(0.83 ) 2
662  10 -3 m 2 4 m 3
s ]
ΔPs = 8(3.8 ×10 -2 )( )( )[
14.2 10 m 132 10 -3 m
-3
2
N
ΔPs = 251481 2
m
kN
ΔPs = 252 2
m

22. Calculate the number of tubes per pass

Nt
Nt pp =
number of passes
376
Nt pp =
4
Nt pp = 94 tubes per pass

22. Calculate the tube-side mass velocity

tube - side flow rate


Gm = 2
πDi
Nt pp ×
4
kg
(27.27 )
Gm = s
1m
π(16mm × )2
(94) × 1000mm
4
kg
G m = 1442.87
s - m2

24. Calculate the tube-side velocity

Gm
νt =
ρ
kg
1442.787
νt = s - m2
kg
992.8 3
m
m
ν t = 1.45
s

24
25. Tube-side reynold’s number

ρdv
Re =
μ
kg m
(992.8 3
)(16 ×10 -3 m)(1.45 )
Re = m s
N -s
671× 10 -6
m
Re = 34378

Tube-side prandtl’s number

μc p
Pr =
k
N -s J
(671× 10 -6 2
)(4.18 ×10 3 )
m kg°C
Pr =
W
(0.631 )
m°C
Pr = 4.44

26. A floating head will be needed due to the temperature difference. Use a
pull through type.

Tube-side heat transfer coefficient

1
k
hi = [(jh )(Re)(Pr) 3 ]
Di
(4200)(1.3 5  0.02  40)1.45 0.8
hi =
(16 0.2 )
W
h i = 6982 2
m °C

25
27. Calculate the overall heat transfer factor

1
U =
o d
d ln( o )
o d d d
1 1 i + o + o
+ +
h h 2× k dh dh
o do w i i i di
1
U =
o
(20 × 10- 3 )
(20 × 10- 3 )ln
1 (16 × 10- 3 ) 20 × 10- 3 20 × 10- 3
+ 0.0002 + + + (0.00025)
1967 2 × 45 (16 × 10- 3 )(6982) (16 × 10- 3 )
W
U = 800
o
m 2 °C

28. Calculate the tube-side pressure drop

8j f L μ ρ υ2
ΔP = (1.5 + N p [2.5 + + ( ) - m ]) i
di μw 2
8(3.5 ×10 -3 )(4) 992.8(1.45 ) 2
ΔP = 4[2.5 + ]( )
16 ×10 -3 2
N
ΔP = 39660 2
m
kN
ΔP = 40 2
m

26
B) Mechanical Design Calculations

Mechanical design of heat exchangers includes design of various pressure and non-
pressure parts.
Figure 2: Parts to consider on mechanical design

Design temperature and pressure

a) Design Temperature

10°C greater than the maximum allowable temperature


T = 1.1× 200°C
T = 220°C

27
b) Design Pressure

10% greater than the maximum allowable working pressure


kN kN
P = 1.1×100 2
 110 2
m m
P  1.1bar

Materials of construction

The material of construction chosen is carbon steel which is cost effective and compatible
with the process fluids and others parts of the heat exchanger.

a) Carbon steel

Allowable fluid temperature = 540°C (1004°F)

Design component calculation

The major mechanical design components of shell and tube heat exchangers are: shell and
tube-sheet thickness, shell cover, flanges, nozzles, gaskets, stress calculations and design
of supports.

a. Shell thickness

pDs
ts = ;
fJ - 0.6p
pDs
ts =
fJ - 0.6p
N
0.1
2
(1.1bar × mm )(667mm)
ts = 1bar
N
0.1
N 2
(100.6 )(0.8) - 0.6(1.1bar × mm )
2 1bar
mm
t s = 0.9mm : including corrosion allowance
: use 4 mm

28
b. Torispherical Head

i. Inside depth of the head

1
Ds Ds
h i = R i - [(R i -)(R i + ) + 2ri ] 2 ;
2 2
1
667 mm 667 mm
h i = (667 mm) - [(667 mm - )(667mm + ) + 2(0.06)(66 7 mm)] 2
2 2
h i = 89.29 mm

ii. Effective Exchanger Length (Leff)

L eff = L t + 2 × h i
L eff = 4m + 2 × 0.08929 m
L eff = 4.18 m

iii. Thickness of the Head

pR i W
th = +c
(2 fJ - 0.2p)
1 667mm
W= (3 + )
4 40.02mm
W = 1.77 mm
N
(0.11 2
)(667mm)(1 .77mm)
∴ th = mm
N N
2(100.6 2
)(0.8) - 0.2(0.11 )
mm mm 2
t h = 0.81mm + c
t h = 3.72mm : including corrosion allowance
: use4mm

29
c. Channel Cover Thickness

Channel cover material: carbon steel

Dc c1 p
t cc =
10 f
kgf
(0.3)(1.1 )
t cc =
(671 mm)
× cm 2
10 kgf
10.26
cm 2
t cc = 3.76 mm + c
t cc = 6.76 mm : including corrosion allowance
: use 7mm

d. Tube Sheet Thickness

FG p p
t ts =
3 kf
For triang ular pitch
0.907
k = 1-
P
( t )2
Do
0.907
k = 1-
25 mm 2
( )
20 mm
k = 0.41
∴ Therefore :

(1)(667 mm) 0.11 N


t ts = mm 2
3 (0.41)(100 .6 N )
mm 2
t ts = 11.48 mm

30
e. Impingement plate

kg
6.25
ug = s
π(0.1524m) 2 kg
[ ][850 3 ]
4 m
u g = 0.06 m
s
Impingemen t Parameter, ρν 2 = (0.85)(0.0 6 m )
s
= 0.051 << 125
∴ Impingemen t protection is not required

f. Nozzle thickness

N
(0.11 2
)(152.4mm)
tn = mm + 3mm
N N
2(100.6 )(0.8) - (0.11 )
mm 2 mm 2
t n = 3.10 mm : including corrosion allowance
: use 6 mm thickness

g. Design of Gaskets

D OG Y - pm
=
D IG Y - p(m + 1)
kgf N
(5.35 ) - (0.11 )(3.75)
D OG mm 2
mm 2
=
D IG kgf N
(5.35 2
) - (0.11 )(3.75 + 1)
mm mm 2
D OG
= 1.12
D IG
D IG = D s + 0.25
D IG = 667 mm + 0.25
D IG = 667.25 mm
D OG ≈ 747.32 mm

31
i. Gasket Width, N

(D OG - D IG )
N=
2
(747.32 mm - 667.25 mm)
N=
2
N = 40.035 mm : Use 50 mm

ii. Mean Gasket Diameter, G

D OG + D IG
G=
2
G = 707 mm

iii. Basic Gasket Starting Width, Bo

N
bo =
2
50 mm
bo =
2
b o = 25 mm

iv. Effective gasket seating width,b

b = 0.5 b o
b = 0.5 25 mm
b = 2.5 mm

h. Bolts

i. The bolt load due to gasket reaction under atmospheric conditions is given
by:

Wm1 = πbGY
N
Wm1 = π(2.5 mm)(707 mm)(52.483 5 )
mm 2
Wm1 = 291428N

32
ii. The bolt load under tight pressure

π
Wm2 = 2bGmp + G 2 p
4
N π N
Wm2 = 2 (2.5 mm)(707 mm)(3.75)( 0.11 ) + (707 mm) 2 (0.11
mm 2 4 mm 2 )
Wm2 = 47764.88 N : Wm1 is the controllin g load because Wm1 > Wm2

iii. The minimum bolt cross-sectional area both material is carbon steel,
( fa = fb )

Wm2
Am =
fa
47764.88N
Am =
N
100.6
mm 2
A m = 474.8 mm 2

M16 nominal thread diameter with bolt circle diameter (𝐶𝑏) of 860 mm, 32 bolts
and 18 mm root diameter (𝑑𝑏𝑟) are selected from IS:4866-1968.

iv. Corresponding actual bolt circle area

π
Ab = d br 2 × no. of bolts
4
π
A b = (18mm) 2 (32)
4
A b = 8143mm 2
Since A b > A m , therefore the selected bolts are suitable

33
i. Flange thickness

i. For the gasket seating condition

(A m + A b )f a
W=
2
(474.8mm 2 + 8143mm 2 )(100.6 N )
W= mm 2
2
W = 433475.34 N : flange bolt load

W(Cb - G)
M f =
2
(433475.34 N)(860mm - 707mm)
M f =
2

M f = 33160863.5 1N - mm : flange moment

j. For operating condition

i. Hydrostatic end force on area inside of the flange

πB 2 p
HD =
4
π(671mm) 2 (0.11 N )
HD = mm 2
4
H D = 155592.12 N

ii. Moment due to HD

MD = HDh D
(C b - B)
hD =
2
h D = 94.5mm
M D = (155592.12 N)(94.5 mm)
M D = 214703455. 34 N - mm

34
iii. Gasket load under operating conditions

HG = W - H
πG 2 p
H=
4
2
π(707mm) 2 (0.11 N )
H= mm
4
H = 43184 N
W = Wm2
H G = 47764.88 N - 43184 N
H G = 4580.88 N

iv. Moment due to HG

MG = HG h G
(C b - G)
hG =
2
(860mm - 707mm)
hG =
2
h G = 76.5 mm
M G = (4580.88 N)(76.5 mm)
M G = 350437 N - mm

35
VI. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

A. Thermal Design

Tube diameter (D 0 ) 20 mm

Tube diameter (D i ) 16 mm

Tube length (L) 4m

BWG number 14

Tube pattern Triangular pitch

 1  m 2 °C
Fouling factor for cooling water   0.00025
W
 h id 

 1  m 2 °C
Fouling factor for gas oil   0.0002
W
 h od 

W
Thermal conductivity for carbon steel (k w ) 45
m°C

Temperature (Th in ) 200°C

Temperatur e (Th out ) 40°C

Temperature (Tc in ) 40°C

Temperature (Tc out ) 50 o C

. kg
Mass flow rate (m oil ) 22,500
h

. kg
Head equation duty (m c ) 27.27
s

36
Log mean temperature (Tlm ) 51.70°C

Temperature correction factor ( Ft ) 0.94

Mean temperature difference (Tm ) 48.60 o C

W
Overall heat trans fer coefficien t (U o ) 500
m 2 °C

Provisional area (A) 94m 2

Number of tubes (N t ) 376 tubes, use even

Tube pitch (Pt ) 25 mm

Bundle diameter (Db) 574.5mm or 575mm

Bundle diameter clearance (BDC) 92mm

Shell diameter (Ds) 667mm

Baffle spacing (Bs) 133mm

Area for cross flow (As) 8871.1mm 2

kg
Shell - side mass velocity (Gs) 704.6
s - m2

m
Shell - side velocity (u s ) 0.83
s

Shell equivalent diameter (d e ) 14.2mm

Shell - side Reynold' s number (Re) 58930

37
Shell - side Prandlt' s number (Pr) 3.1

W
Shell - side heat trans fer coefficien t (h o ) 1967
m2 °C

kN
Pressure drop in the shell (Ps ) 252
m2

Number of tubes per pass (Nt pp ) 94 tubes per pass

kg
Tube - side mass velocity (G m ) 1442.87
s - m2

m
Tube - side velocity (ν t ) 1.45
s

Tube - side Reynold' s number (Re) 34378

Tube - side Prandtl' s number (Pr) 4.44

W
Tube - side heat trans fer coefficient (h i ) 6982
m2 °C

W
Overall heat trans fer factor (U ) 800
o
m 2 °C

kN
Tube - side pressure drop (P) 40
m2

38
B. Mechanical Design

Design Temperature (T) 220°C

Design Pressure (P) 1.1bar

Carbon steel allowable fluid temperature 540°C (1004°F)

Shell thickness ( t s )
0.9mm

Inside depth of the head ( h i )


89.29 mm

Effective Exchanger Length (Leff )


4.18 m

Thickness of the Head ( t h )


3.72mm

Channel Cover Thickness ( t cc )


6.76 mm

Tube Sheet Thickness ( t ts )


11.48 mm

Impingement plate Impingemen t protection is


not required

Nozzle thickness ( t n )
3.10 mm

Design of Gaskets ( D IG )
667.25 mm

39
Design of Gaskets ( D OG )
747.32 mm

Gasket Width (N)


40.035 mm

Mean Gasket Diameter (G)


707 mm

Basic Gasket Starting Width (Bo)


25 mm

Effective gasket seating width (b)


2.5 mm

Bolts ( Wm1 )
291428N

The bolt load under tight pressure ( Wm2 )


47764.88 N

The minimum bolt cross-sectional area( both material is


carbon steel, ( f a = f b ) ( A m ) 474.8 mm 2

Flange thickness for the gasket seating condition


( flange bolt load , W) 433475.34 N

Flange thickness for the gasket seating condition


( flange moment , M f ) 33160863.5 1N

40
Hydrostatic end force on area inside of the flange ( H D )
155592.12 N

Moment due to HD ( M D )
214703455. 34 N - mm

Gasket load under operating conditions ( H G )


4580.88 N

Moment due to HG ( M G )
350437 N - mm

VII. 3-D representation of divided flow type shell and tube heat exchanger

Figure 3: 3-D design of heat exchanger

41
Figure 4: Tubes and Baffles

VIII. CONCLUSION

Based on the computed values for the design of heat exchanger, the most suitable design is the
4-pass divided shell heat exchanger on which it reduces the pressure drop or flow.

IX. REFERENCE

Taylor, & Francis. (1981). Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design. Washington, D.C.: Bell.

Colson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering, volume 6

42
RUBRIC FOR HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER DESIGN PROJECT EVALUATION

Name: BENITO, ANGELICA JOYCE Z.


CABADDU, QUENNIE S.
MAGANNON, JUDY ANN P.
Title of Design Project:

EVALUATION CRITERIA 1 2 3 4
SCORE
Beginning Developing Proficient Exemplary
Identification of Problem or Insufficient Partial identification of Adequate identification Clear and complete
Definition of Project identification of problem; lack of of problem; any lack of identification of design
problem; inadequately specifics does impair specifics does not goals and objectives.
(3 points) objectives. solution of design. impair solution or
design.
Application of Engineering Principles No or erroneous Serious deficiencies in Effective application of Critical selection and
application of proper selection and engineering principles application of
(5) engineering principles use of engineering resulting in reasonable engineering principles
yielding unreasonable principles. solution. ensuring reasonable
solution. results.
Use of Computer–Aided Tools Serious deficiencies in Minimal application Computer–aided tools Computer–aided tools
understanding the and use of appropriate used with moderate are used effectively to
(2) correct selection tools. effectiveness to develop develop and analyze
and/or use of tools. designs. designs.
Meeting Design Requirements Few design Only basic Design requirements All design requirements
requirements are met. requirements are met. are met. are met and exceeded
(5)

1
Design Documentation Reports may have poor Reports attempts Reports use mostly Reports use appropriate
and Presentation quality writing and mix appropriate appropriate language/format for
jargon with engineering language/format for language/format for the engineering field.
language. the engineering field. the engineering field.
Reports are informative
(5 points) Reports miss many Reports are fairly Reports are mostly and easy to read.
important topics and informative and informative and easy to
are not easy to read. generally easy to read. read. Information in reports
is well organized so that
Information in report is Information in reports Information in reports data or design feature
not organized. Data or organized into sections is well organized. All explanations are easy to
design features with data or design data and design features found.
explanations very features explanation can be found without
difficult to locate. present. difficulty. Avoid plagiarism, does
not use information
Evidence of plagiarism. Evidence of plagiarism. Both positive and without giving credit to
negative results the appropriate source.
presented.
Punctuation, Capitalization & Spelling There are a number of There are 3 or 4 minor There are 1 or 2 minor There are no
(3) major errors in errors in punctuation, grammatical, spelling or grammatical, spelling or
punctuation, grammar grammar and/or punctuation errors punctuation errors
and/or spelling which spelling which do not
make it difficult to read break the flow for the
reader
Sources Attempt to document All sources are All sources are All sources are
(2) source used is not accurately documented accurately documented accurately documented
completely accurate Only 1 or 2 sources and in the desired and in the desired
Only 1 source was used were used format format
2 or 3 sources were
used
TOTAL SCORE

Rater: Engr. CAESAR P. LLAPITAN