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CORNELL
UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY

THE WASON
CHINESE
COLLECTION
Cornell University Library
PL 1111.L29
Easy steps in Chinese studies :a
g^^

3 1924 023 341 815


5

Cornell University
Library

The original of tliis book is in

tine Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in


the United States on the use of the text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31 924023341 81
Easy Steps in Chinese Studies

A SERIES

LESSONS, VOCABULAEIES, EXPEESSIONS


ETC. ETC.

Compiled for the use of Beginners in Chinese

BY

GEORGE LANNING
Principal, Shanghai Public School

KELLY & WALSH, LIMITED


SHANGHAI— HONGKONG— YOKOHAMA— a INGAPORE

i9oe
TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Introduction
TABLE OF CONTBNTS.
Page.

XXVI.— Official Oocupationa 98

XXVII.— Ordinary Occupations 103

XXVIII—XXXIII. Further Exercises on Numerical


Expressions 106

XXXIV—XXXIX.— Common Words in Combination 122

XL & XLI.— Other Pronominal Words and


Expressions 134

XLII & XLIII. Religions 138

XLIV—XLVI. Relationship, Kindred 143

XL VII.— Furniture, etc. ...' 150

XLVIII.— Law, Government, etc. 152

XLIX.— Imports 154

L.— Exports ... 159

LL— Travelling Expressions 164

LII.— By Land and Water 169

LIU.— The Provinces and their Cap-


itals, with the meaning o£

the Names 174

LIV.— A Collection of Interrogative


Expressions 177

LV.— Further Interrogative Expres-


sions ... 181

LVI.- A Collection of Exclamatory


Expressions 187
LVII.- Agricultural Words and Ex-
pressions 190
Conversational Exercises 197
Miscellaneous Words, Expressions and Sentences for
General Practice 208
— ;

INTRODUCTION.

I. By way of Preface.

The proof of the pudding, as we all know, is in the


eating. Whether this little book will attain its object

remains to be seen. And yet it is not a matter wholly


of conjecture, for while the work of compilation
has slowly been going on, Messrs. Kelly and Walsh
have been good enough to supply advanced sheets
which I have used with the boys of my school
and, so far as experience goes, it would seem that,

though there are shortcomings here and there, boys


do take kindly to the lessons and make progress so
long as they have foreign supervision as well as the
Chinese teacher. The adult beginner will, 1 think,
find in the little volume a useful introduction to the

higher manuals, to Edkins, Bailer, Mateer, and others,


to all of which I have been indebted for hints and
information.
n INTRODUCTION.

The plan I have adopted is so to familiarise the


scholars with the characters in the earlier lessons that
these may be recognized at sight, but not necessarily
written from memory. Tone-marks are used, but at
first no notice whatever is taken of them, the boys
being cautioned to depend upon their ear entirely,
and give no heed whatever to the transliteration, except

as a refresher to the memory. Of the success of this


plan there is no doubt. Dr. Bdkins, who did us the
honour to examine the classes in December 1901,
writes thus in his report :
— " The pupils whom I heard
read have the tone and Pekin accent. Though all

are foreign boys they seem to catch the tone from


the teacher, a Pekinese belonging to the Imperial city,
much more readily than they would do if they had
begun to learn at, say, 25 years of age."

As soon as the pupil has mastered a score or so


of characters, he is in a position to begin to use
them, and this he is encouraged to do to the utmost
of his power. If early in his career he buys a copy
of Mrs. Arnold Foster's little Dictionary [price $ 1.00,
Kelly & Walsh], he will find therein a suflacient
vocabulary for most practical purposes, and will be
able to construct many more sentences than if he
used this book only. In all the earlier chapters the
INTEODUOTION. lU

system of spelling is that of the dictionary referred


to. But no great amount of care has been taken to

ensure exactitude in this matter. As I have said,

the Romanization from the outset should be looked


upon merely as a remembrancer, and if, for ex-
ample, the Chinese teacher says " ren " for " man "
(as mine distinctly does) then " ren " it must be,

though the Romanization makes it "j^n." So with


" kiang " and " chiang " (a river). So vyith many
others. The differences are a useful lesson in them-
selves, calling attention as they do to variations in

dialect.

It is not intended that the lessons should be taken

necessarily in the order in which they come. In the


first part of the book this is unquestionably desirable, ,

but further on the pupil may select for himself those

sections which will prove most useful to him, or, in

the case of schools, the master may take the same

liberty.

Whatever faults critics may discover in this little

primer may deservedly be laid upon my shoulders.

Anything of worth may with equal justice be credited


to my late teachers, Messrs. Chang and Huang, to the

sons of Mr. C. C. Bojesen, who gave me much useful


IV INTRODUCTION.

assistance, and last, but by no means least, to

Dr. J. R. Hykes, who so kindly supervised much of

the proof reading.

GEORGE LANNING.

Shanghai Public School,

January, 1905.

II. Some things worth remembering.

The Chinese language is spoken by 400,000,000 of


human beings, fand in its written form is understood
by still mor^ since many educated Japanese, Koreans,
Annamese, etc., are able to read it.

Each character is a sort of picture of a thought

or idea. The language is therefore called ideographic.


Some 40,000 characters are known, but only about
6,000 are in common use, and a knowledge of a much
smaller number than this, if well selected, is extremely
useful.

Mandarin in some form may be said to be the


dialect of the whole of China, with the exception of
the coast provinces south of the Yangtsze.

INTRODUCTION. V

There are a good many cliaracters that have two


distinct pronunciations. Chinese is said to be mono-
syllabic, but this statement needs some little modifi-
cation. " Mandarin is distinguished by the fact that

nearly all its syllables end with a vowel. Its only


consonantal endings are n and ng." — (Mateer).
Remember that the tone considerably modifies
the pronunciation of syllables sometimes.
Pekinese recognises four tones only. In Southern
Mandarin there are five.

The examples given by Dr. Mateer are as follows:

1st tone or _t ^^ Shang p'ing sh6ng ^ ,-Fm

2nd „ -|C2jsgHsia „ ^ ^Fu


3rd ,, ± g Shang sheng ^ Fu '

4th „ ^ ^Ch'u „ ^Fu'


5th >. A ^ " J'* ^ Fuh,
To get them thoroughly and correctly, listen

intently.

You cannot listen too attentively if you want to

speak Chinese like a Chinaman, a remark which applies


to the ordinary convers3tion"'6f daily life equally with

thatyou have with your teacher. In the streets, shops,


and homes of the people, you hear a true intonation
which no Eomanization can give.
VI INTRODUCTION.

If possible, get Mandarin speaking servants (in


Shanghai somewhat of a difficulty), and as soon as
possible hold communication with them in their tongue,

not your own.


Talking is infinitely better as an exercise than
writing translation. Dr. Mateer's experience regarding
the value of learning to read as well as to speak should
not be forgotten. He says, " It is worthy of remark
that one who- does not learn to read, scarcely ever
learns to speak well."
There is no Chinese grammar to trouble a learner,
but there are certain difficulties to be overcome.
1. As in other languages, there is a right and
wrong way of arranging words and clauses in a
sentence. Sometimes the right way exactly reverses
that of English. This is a matter of prime importance

in which practice only will bring success.


2. It is quite possible to use the exactly correct
words in exactly the right order, and yet not be under-
stood. In that case rhythm or emphasis, perhaps both,
have been at fault. Pronounce the word " impertur-
bability " to any Englishman so that the accents

fall on the syllables " per " and " 11 " and see if he

understands it.

Here again the ear is the great teacher.


INTRODUCTION. VU

3. There are single syllables that are apt to


troubre the foreigner in conversation. Some have
vowel sounds not common in English; sonie, othisf

difficulties. Without correct articulation these are not


€asy to be understood. One forieigiier cart, however,
frequently understand another foreigner's Chinese
better than that of the natives, because of the more
exact articulation.
4. The question of tones has already been
referred to. There are aspirates as well. These need
to be mastered before perfection is attained. A good
€ar and careful attention will usually be sufficient.

III. The Chinese Radicals.

The nearest approach to an alphabet which the


Chinese possess is their collection of radicals or root

characters, and phonetics, or sound characters. The


former should be learnt little by little beginning early
in the course. In Chinese Dictionaries all characters
are arranged under these radicals as though alpha-
betically. It is sometimes difficult, however, even for
a native to tell off-hand which is the radical under

which a certain character will be found. Generally

speaking, the radical is the most striking part of


VUl INTRODUCTION.

the character, and is found on the left rather than


on the right, on the bottom rather than on the top,
outside rather than inside. A good many exceptions
occur, however.

Dr. Edkins, in his Introduction to the Study of


the Chinese Characters [Chap. III.] gives a list

of .1,040 strokes and characters known as Phonetics.

Upon each of these he comments, and the student will


do well, later on, to study carefully the 90 pages
covering this exposition.

These phonetics, as their name implies, are " signs


of sound." Thus in the character ^ Meng (Mencius)
the ^ tsz (child) is the radical, while the ]]]1 min or
ming is the phonetic.

The following is a complete list of the radicals,


214 in number :
INTRODUCTION. IX

2 Strokes

7 J^r' (MW *'W0.

8 ^T'ou -^*a cover, a hat.


9 iJSn (H jt A) A -t a man.
10 s
Je/i JL* a man, the legs of a man.
11 'Ju' y\_ to enter, into.

12 ,s Pa A eight.

13 'CMung (HJitE) PI* a limit.


14 Mi' (^ ]^ §) '^* to cover, a cover.
15 ,Ping (pS ifi tK) i *ice, icicle.

16 t' CM JL a bench.
17 'K^an U * a receptacle, a box.
18 ,Tao (S: 7J) 77 1 J a knife, a sword,
19 Li' ij strength.

20 ,Pao -^'to wrap.


21 'Pi {j a spoon, a ladle.
22 (Pan^ (H jIS) C* ''^^st, a case. s*

23 'ITm (H 'M WTH to conceal.


24 iShi + ten.

25 'Pu h t° divine.

26 sC/hV (® 5 7J) P [2 ^ ^^^^' * J°^°*-


*

27 jETan' (^ ® ±) f* a ledge, a cliff.


28 ,5i _/^» selfish, perverse.

29 Yiu' y^ and, again.


INTRODUCTION. XI

53 'Yien ((^ Jt) )* ^ roof, a shelter.


54 'Yin ^U* moving on.
55 ^Kung 7y* joined hands,
56 i' -^ a dart.
57 fKung ^ a bow, archery.

58 C/t'j' (-^ lU) 3 5t a pig's head, pointed.


59 ,5/*an (H M) :^ hair, plumage.
60 Ch'f (^ jl: A) -^ • a step.

4 Strokes
61 ^Hsin iiji '!"> the heart.

&-2 ,Ki :fe a spear.


63 J^u' P
-^
A door.
the hand.
64 'SAou

65 ^Cht "^ a branch, a prop.

66 ,P'u (S X) d^ ^* to rap, to tap.


67 jTr^n ^ literature, ornament.

68 '
Tou •t' a peck, a bushel.

69 fChin ft an axe, a catty.


70 iFang ~)j square.

71 jTTm 5P ^ without, not.

72 Ji> the sun, a day.


!

INTRODUCTION.

73 .Yiie' to Ppeak.

74 Yile' ^ the moon, a month.

75 Mu' ;^ wood, a tree.

76 Ch'ien' ^ to owe, to be deficient.

77 'C/il ih to stop.

78 ' 2ai y '5^ had, vicious.

79 ,5/m "% a pole; to kill.

80 jTTm' ^ to deny ; do not


81 'Pi yC to compare.
82 ^Mao % hair, wool. .

83 (SAf ^ family name.


84 CA'e' ^ breath, vapour.

85 'Slmei 7K <|v water.

(Hi5;k) ^7

^^ 'Hwoti ik. fire.

(0 Si A) >^^^
''^
87 'CAao iK claws.

88 Fw ^ father.

89 ^Yao jX, crosswise.

90 ^CliHang 71 * a bed, a frame.

91 P'ien' rT a slice, a splint.

92 s
Fa :^ a tooth.

93 iMu (J;g -^ ^) 4^ a cow, an ox.

94 'Ch'uen "jt a dog.

» (i^ :^ or ;ft ®) ^
INTRODaCTION. XIU

5 Strokes

95 fHsHen 5Z sombre, black.


96 Yu' j5 a gem, a precious stone.

97 fKwa JJk a melon, a gourd.


98 'Wa %. a. tile.

99 ^Kan "H sweet.


100 f^SMng ^ to live, to produce.

101 Yung' ^ to use.

102 ^THen ffl a field.

103 'PH /E a roll of cloth.

104 ,NP (^ ^ ^) iT* disease.

105 ^Poa^ y^* back to back.

106 iPai Q white.


107 jP'i i^ skin, bark.

108 'Mn (M *i) M a dish, a platter.

109 il/w' g JH an eye.


110 jA/ao ^ a halberd, a lance.
111 ' SM y^ an arrow, a dart.

112 s^fe ^ a^tone. [revelation.


113 Shf TIT jTT ^ ^ divine omen, a
114 'Jbu fSl* a footprint.

115 iHe (^ 7{v) ^ grain of any kind.


xiv INTRODUCTION.

116 ^Hsile' (^iJiSi) f^ a cave, a den.


117 Li' JUL to set up, to erect.

6 Strokes
118 iChu (-tJi^li) It the bamboo.

119 'Mi ^ rice.

120 ,Si
121 'Fou
mm^
^* ^
crockery.
J^aw silk.

122 'Wang ^* 101^^ a net.


123 iYang ^ a

124 'Yil ^ wings, feathers.


125 'Lao ^ old.

126 iJ&r tfij still, yet.

127 'Lei ^ a plow.

128 'A ^ the ear.

129 Fit' ^ a pen, a pencil.

130 Jou' 1^ ^ flesh, meat.

131 ^Ch'en K a statesman.


132 Tsf © self.

133 Chi' M. to, to arrive.

134 Chiu^ ^ a mortar.


335 iShi ff the tongue.

136 'Ch'wan ^ to oppose, error.

137 ,Chon -^ a boat, a ship.


XVI
XVUl
INTRODUCTION. XIX

16 Strokes
212 *Lung f| a dragon.
213 fKwei ^ a tortoise, a turtle.

17 Strokes

214 Yod' "^ a flute, a pipe.

Note. —This arrangement, with the transliteration, ia borrowed


from Dr. Mateer's admirable " Primary Lessons in Mandarin.''
The asterisks denote characters no longer used independently.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON I.

On Number.
T .IKE Europeans, the Chinese count in tens, and
their numbers run exactly like ours till they reach
ten thousand, for which they have a separate word
not known to English. This changes the subsequent
counting, and must be carefully remembered by the
pupil.

Numerical expressions in Chinese frequently vary


from ours. Where, for example, we say "two or three,"

they often say, "three two" (HPM flSl c^*** 'Hang ko'),

dropping the " or," and placing the larger number first.

So, " thirteen or fourteen " is translated "f* ^ 29 fI3

shih, fSan sz^ ko' where the " ten " is omitted from the
" fourteen."

In this and all subsequent exercises the Romanized


sound of a character will, as a rule, be given once
only. The learner must, from the very first, study the
characters sufficiently well to be able to recognize them.

3
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

1
— —
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

A few *p 'shao, ^fi


^ puh, ^to.

Some H 'igl Jd ko\ ^^ 'ijiu ^sie or 'yiu iji\ ,sil


Many ^ ,to, iff- ^ 'hao ,sid.

None 7^ ?)iit/jj ^ '^^m.

Very Jg Hing, ^_g View, -f- ^ sliih, Jan.

Ex. 1. —Translate :

Hi* eg, %-Yii^ 1:+/^, -b+-,


A+ M+, HW,
^'L, -W*/X
sw-fc+r, -hws+i:, AWH+0,

-wm. 5^m-ti=-«A + :^, HW2L+,

Ex. 2. — Count witli the teacher from 1 to 100 in 2"?,

3's, 4's, 5's, 6's, 7's, 8's and 9's.

Ex. 3. —Translate into Chinese :

yi, 82, 73, 64, 55, 46, 37, 28, 19, 101, 203, 304,

405, 506, 607, 708, 809, 1,000, 1,001, 2,010, 3,500,


6,044, 9,872, 10,000, 11,000, 11,100, 36,409, 78,069,
90,008, 100,000, 1,000,000, 736,451, 9,876,543.

Ex.— Count from


4. 1 to 100 in ordinal numbers ; thus,


^ ^ The , ::!, lirst, The second, etc.
BAST STEPS IW CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON II.

Some Nouns and their Classifiers.

(LINGULAR and plural nouns have the same form


in Chinese.

A classifier is a word placed before a noun to refer


it to a certain class. We have some classifiers in

English, usually for plural or collective nouns, such as


herd, pack, coveij, etc. But in Chinese they are
constantly used both for singular and plural, and the
learner must take particular care to use them correctly,

for it would sound as ridiculous to a Chinaman to

hear a wrong classifier as it would to an Englishman


to say "a covey of elephants."
In the course of these lessons the most common will

be given. \_See Mrs. Arnold Foster's Dictionary,


p. 1.] The classifier 'jjgho', may be used with most

nouns.
The following vocabulary must be well mastered
before proceeding to the exercises which follow. The
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 5

characters will, however, be repeated frequently enough


in subsequent exercises to impress them on the
memory.

One man
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

One teacher < tlh^.sienshang


\ — '
^ 3E ^ " w<^i' csien ^sliany

Have; There is, etc. /§ '


ij'lu

How many ? ^ ^) ^ ^ e
^o '«^'«o ; 'ki <(o

Ex. 5. — Cover up the Romanized pronunciation, and


read with the teacher the nouns in the preceding
lesson thus (in Chinese) " One man," "Two women,"
etc. over and over again till you reach a hundred.

Ex. 6. — Eead as in Ex. ,5, thus, "There is a man;'


" There are two women," etc. ^— '
f@ A-
Ex. 7. — Eead as in Ex. 5, using both forms of the
question "How many," and givini;- an answer thus :

"How many men are there'"? ^ ^ ^P \, ^^


m A, "There are ten men "
W + 10 A-
Ex. 8. — Read as in /::",)•.
7, giving the following answers
thus : How many men aic theie ?

There are no men tx WA


„ „ a few men WA ^ 'f*

,, ., some men W^A


„ many men $f ^ ^ f@ A
„ very many men tS ^ ^ A fili
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 7

E,r. 9 :—

W H i^ EQ W 3£ + A li <I> i& ia> ^'PMM'

TT.c. 10 :—

-iiM, >ff ts^^. mffi±^- ^-m, mmn'f.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON III.

Personal Pronouns.
jnHERE is no difference in Chinese between he, she,

and it.

The natives avoid the use of " you " to superiors,


just as we in England say "j-our Lordship," or "your
Grace."

I, me
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

We, us
10 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

And thus : — This cat is my own. That dog is your


own, etc.

,, ,, . — I myself have, etc. You j'ourself have,

etc.

Kv. 12. — Translate into Ohinese :



1.— There are 10 l)rido;es. 2.— 1 have ^1,000.
3. — He has a dog. —^The wheelbarrow mine. 1. is

.').
— The teacher has some books. — His carriage. G.

7. — Your own — They want bamboos.


bool^. S. ,50

9.— They have 100 knivfs. lO.^How many dollars


do you want ? I want 6'12. 11. — There is one river ;

there are five bridges. 12. — This cat is yours.


13. — That dog is hi<. 14. —There a is pagoda.
1.'). — have a
I carriage. 16. — No books ; a few
books ; some books ; many books ; very many
books. 17. — She has a cat. IS. — This chair is hers.
19. —The knife is her own. 20. —That woman has
many dollars.

E.r. 13 :—

^ti^m^m n m it -t , n n m ?, % n ^ »,
ri^
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 11

Ex. 14 :—
m^m^m^, mmm^^m^, wm'i-^^^^

m^-mm, n^-m.nm, mMfii^ts?,

Kr. 15 :

-mm, mmm^ ^mrr^, mmn^f, ^myij-,
fmm, -kmm, /\m^A, :^mK -ti^^ii?,
-is-i-mM, -=f-m-fmm, i:w*-*«,
m-mK mi:m?% mnffiuu, mmmu,
.

12 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON lY

Adjectives.
'•TT'D.JECTIVES may be compared 1»y prefixing various
/ adverbs, e.ij.
^, 5t, ^5, iS' ^^eng\ ijeu\ tsaP, Jud
and ]g, ^, ^, ^g, tf/(/, tsiii', 'hen and sometimes
adding ^^ for the superlative.

The translation of such sentences as, " This is better

than that," rnns in Chinese thus, " Tliis compared witii

{^) tliat i^ better."

Opposites may be expressed by prefixing 7f\ I'uh,,

thus :
7ft ^ pull, 'hao (not good) means bad.

The adjective ^ has an almost endless number of

meanings. Whatever is right, proper, correct, etc.

is Itf

The Chinese frequently double the adjective for the


sake of additional force. When this is done the double
words often have the effect of adverbs; thus : 'j^ maii\
(slow) becomes inait' man'' li/i^ (slowly).

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 13

The character ft^ tlh* added to names of substances


has the effect of en in English, and makes adjectives.
Thus : lead, becomes leaden. ^ ^kin (gold), ^kin tih,
(golden).

Good, bad ^ ; ^, /fj J^ ' hao ; 'tai, pu/i^


'
hao
Old, young
14 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Ex. IG.— Read with the teacher in Chinese the

vocabulary pp. .">


and (j, using with the nouns suitable
adjectives, thus :—The man is old ; The woman is

young, etc. etc. M^U^^ K^ MMiCTheK^U\


man
^'p and thus :— The woman is old; is

older ; The teacher is oldest, etc. M A A ;^ ^


113 5

E^c. 17. — As before, thus : —I have a good knife. He


has a new chair, etc., using all the pronouns in turn

E.I-. 18. — As before, thus : — This hill is high, that is

iovv,etc.affiUj^!/K^iijfa-

Ex. 19. — As before, thus : — JSome books arc cheap.


Many hills are high, etc. W ^ * ^ S 11 W


XoTE. The followiiif; exercises may be read in any ordev.
Those in reading from the character should lie most carefully
liractised,the pupil listening most attentively to the teacher's
pronunciation and intonation.
Before the pupil has pot through them he will probably bo
pleased to tind that with the few words he has learnt so far he is
able to express a great variety of ideas.

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 15

Ex. 20. —As before, thus : — How many old men are
there? M^'P^K-
E.r. 21. — As before, thus : — There one old man.
is

There are two young women, etc.— going through the


numbers up to forty.

E.v. 22.— As before, thus :— The hill is higher than the


pagoda, etc. jlJlfct^i^.

Ex. 23.— As before, thus :— The older, the better. The


cheaper, the better, etc. ;@^M$i""-

E.v. 24. —As before (vocabulary pp. 2 and 12), thus :

The first is good, the second is bad, etc. etc. — going


over the adjectives till you reach " tlie fortieth."

This exercise may be repeated thus : — The first is

bad, the second is worse, the third is worst, etc.

Ex. 25 :—
m ,

16 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Ex. 2G :

m m ^hM^^ m is, ms P5 ^ if m

E.I', il :

mmmpitmmm p am mm ^^utrnm ?vh,

wmtiit?, ^--^mm^^, -^mm^^-

Ej: 28 :—

m m ^h M^-^mm, m m p ^^ fr^ w,
fn 6^ pg ;i m m, ^^ n m m ^ m m m
EASY STEtS IN CHINESE SltJBiES. 1?

Ei: 29 :—
m.m^ mm, m:k, mm, ^imxi^, n&^mm
m^m> m:k, m^h mmm&,
mm, mm
mm, 'im, mrnkm, mmhrnm, nm^m^i
18 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON V.

Verbs.
"ORBIGN students learning Chinese must be pre-
pared for wide differences between the grammatical
usages of European languages and those of Chinese.
They must be on the look-out for them, and should
make notes of such as they discover.
In this chapter we shall glance at some of the
commonest methods of indicating tense, but it must be
remembered that unless a Chinese verb has some
special tense particle joined with it, it may denote
the present, past, or future, according to the general
meaning of the sentence.
The commonest particles denoting the past tense are

17 liao', and E ^S '*'


f^«X<7- The former denotes
completeness, tlie latter past time in the sense of
something being already done. Liao' always follows a
verb preceded by '^'
,kiny, but is frequently used
without, and sometimes is employed merely for the
\

EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 19

sake of euphony. In conversation it is frequently


shortened to la\

j^ kwo' is also used before "J" liao'.

^ "y 'mai la\ bought have bought. ;

B ^S M 7 'mai '' have already bought.


(fiing la',

^f la\ wrote
'si<^ have ; written.

B ^M ^ T '* already
c^*'*5'
****' ^'^\ hdi.\e written.

Common future are ^ want


auxiliaries yao', ; tj^pih^,

or pih^ yao\ must toa' approach ;and ^


g|£ ; ^tsiang.

These are sometimes combined, e.g., pih^ yao'; ^tsiang

yao'.

M 5^ S S (iT^ing ftien yao' kHV, to-morrow want go,


i.e. I, you, he, etc. will go to-morrow.

B9 ^ ^ ,mm^
iEi' itien pih^ kHV, must go to-morrow.
BJ^i^>lc^ .' " " yao'k'ii' „

S Ml ^ c*"" ^^^^'^
^''"''
-' ^''^ S° (j'^st now).

fm^^ c*« (tsiang k'il', He will go (immediately).

T^gt (tsiang tsiu' is also used in the sense of being

willing to accommodate.

fiH ^ 5lf (Ml c^^ /)M/i, ftsiang tsiu\ He is unwilling, etc.

Tense auxiliaries are omitted when unnecessary.


Thus: ^"^fi^^ ,ta puh^kHl' may mean that "he will

not " or " has not gone." ^ @9 ^ S 'wo I'mir^ c tien til
20 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

means " I am going " or " will go to-morrow," without


the use of the yao'-

In asking questions the Chinese use interrogative


particles rather than tones flUj^ ; t'^'* ^"* l^
e.g. T^
^meli. Has he come? where the ^meh has no meaning
whatever, but is merely a sign of the direct question.

To go ^ k'il'

„ come 5jj (lai

„ make ; do fij^ Iso'

„ buy ^ '
mai
,, sell
^ mai^
,, teach ^ lian'

,, write ^ \vi'

„ read j^ nii'ii'

„ „ (silently) ^^ /.'an\shu
„ bring ^ Jjf ,)!a ,?ue

„ take ^^ (?ia tii'

„ pay (bill) iM M Jiwan cJiavg'

,, „ (wages) ^X^ '


ki ^kung ,ts'ien

; see ^ _^ iW kim'
., reckon ^ Sican'

„ count ^ 's/jM

» say |g s/n«o/ij

„ tell § 1^ /mo' sm>


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 21

E.r. 30. —Read with the teacher through the above Kst,

using first "J" liao', and then Q^ '«'


c^i"-9f ^nd using
the English translation, thus: ^^j^T 'wo tii'
Java' la', I went, or I have gone, and BM£T fl!l

^t'a H (king k'ii' la\ He has already gone or been, etc.

Vary the pronouns.

Ex. 31. — Read thus round the class or with the teacher
%^M'^i A'ti' ,meh. Answer Wo ¥u\'

Ex. 31a. — Read similarly using the future forms.


all

E,v. 32. — Combine into short sentences the verbs and


nouns in Lessons V and II.

E.v. 33. — Prepare sentences to be used with the verbs


here given (Lesson V) thus : —They read (silently).

The man counts. Tell the man to come. Teach


him to write, etc., etc. Translate them into Chinese,
and read them to your teacher.

Ex. U :—

n^n^^^ m^^T*, nnmmi



22 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON VI.

Verbs .
(continued).

JFHE following are some examples of the simple uses


of words in the foregoing exercises.

ftasT ,t'a k'ii' la' He is gone.


' ni Jai Ic'an' Come and look.

'luo tso' ti/i, 1 did (or made)


it.

'mai kHl' la' Gone to buy.

'ni mai' 'ke 'wo You sell to me.


'wo Jai kiao' 'ni I (have come to)
teach you.
'ni 'sic tili^ ,meh Did you write it?

(fa viiiJi^ nien' kwo^ ^shu He has never read


(before).
J:'atsainarhk'an^fShu He is reading
there.

(Ha Jai la' ^meli Has (he) brought


(it)?
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 23

E^^T ST '
* i ^^^9 ^nala' k^ii ' la ' Already taken
away.
^ iSM T
fi^ '*"" ^'^'> cliang' Jiwan la" My bill is already
paid.

SSSaX^ muh, 'M ^kung ^ts'ien Wages not paid.

55c MS".^ '"'o niuhi k'an' kien' 1 did not see (it).

^jMT swan' hco' la' (He) has reckoned


(it).

MMM(.T c/te' /oo' 'shu la' This has been


counted.
"0^8^ ^^il^ 'ni shwohj slii' 'to 'shao How many do
you say ?
f3^ @ li Ho fiti
'ni kao' su^ioo tih ,
You told me.

5KJKSS (Zai (lai k'ii' k'il' Coming and go-


ing.

^na Jai ^na kHi' Fetching and


carrying.
nien' J,ai nieti' k' Reading over and
over again.
k'an' yih^ k^an' Take (or have)
a look.

M5KMS '
mai J,ai 'mai k'ii Buying and
ing.
sell-

swan' yili^ twaa' Reckon (and see

how much).
24 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE SitUDllES.

Ex. 35. — Construct as many sentences as you can on


the model given in Lesson VI.

Ex. 36. —Translate — I see : the pagoda. I want to go.

He bought the house. You must read. Do you


want to buy my dog ? My carriage is dirty. Pay
my bill. Tell him to go. Tell them to come.
Count the dollars. Bring my book. Take away this

rope. Men are coming and going. Do you see

the hill? Teach me to read. Look at your book.


He says yon made it. They say we are small. I

see this is bigger than that. Do you want to buy a


cheap chair ? The cheaper the better. We ourselves
are going. You must come yourselves. They can
do it themselves. I shall buy the cat myself. She
sold the book herself. The teacher himself taught
me. I wrote it myself. This book is my own.
That wheelbarrow is your own. He counted ^3,4;.53.


N.B. When you have once mastered the words given in the
foregoing lessons, do not confine j'ourself to them in writing your
exercises, tut use your dictionary freely.

(.N.B. —
The translation of these and similar exercises will draw
your attention to the fact that the arrangement of a Chinese
sentence frequently difl'ers very much from that of the same
sentence in English, You should note these difiurences very
carefully.)
;

BAST STEPS JS CHINESE STUDIES. 25

LESSON VII.

Prepositions and Postpositions.

TTS in English, prepositions go before their nouns,


' postpositions follow them. Many of the preposi-
tions are also used as verbs.

tsai '
^kia at home.
tsai ' shang ^t'eu (at) upstairs
above.
tsai yuen^ 'tsz 'li in the yard.

tsai ' hia' (t^eu below.


tsai '
^shu (fang 'li in the library.
tsai "li (t'eu inside.

tsai ' wai' (t'eu outside.

tsai ^ lieu' ft'eu after, behind.

tsai ' (tsHen (teu before, in front.

fts'ungPehj ^king tao' from Pekin to


Shan' 'hai Shanghai.
tsai' shu' shang on the book.
tsai' (Shu 'ti hia' under the book.
5
26 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

filiHng {fih'ang) Hi f.'-eu in the city.

fs^ung Jang 'tsz shang' to fly over the


Jet kioo' house.

Ji 'wo tih^ fkia kin' near my house.

ching^ tsai\'man ^tsHen just before the


iEffiF3lu
door.

pe/ij ^mdn wai' outside the


north gate.
^chwan kwo' k'ii' to go through.

Ex. 37 :—
^^mmm,' m^±mm, mmMum±,

WHMI5& C^' ^«^ literally 'U road), mM&W^TW^

Ex. 38. —The teacher is at home. The dog is in the

yard. Upstairs there are three chairs. Go below.


lu the library I have 1,000 books.

* Note. —
The P/3|i na' in the first sentence is without special
meaning, but completes an answer.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 27

Put the dollar under the book.

)) ,) Bear ,, ,,

He has gone outside to read. Just before the door


there is a carriage. The teacher came from Pekin to

Shanghai. We buy our books in the city. He has a


house in the city. Go before me. Come after me.
Near my house there is a bridge. Outside, cold ;

inside, hot. Outside the north gate we saw fifty men.


On the hill there is a pagoda. In the pagoda there is

a chair. On the chair there is a book. Under the


book there is a knife.
28 EAST STBPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON VIII.

Time.
^H )
"1* 5^ f ^^" J^K ! .
^''"- t ^'^ to-day.

RBB>B9^ (ining jell,; fining (t'ien to-morrow.

B'pQjH'p^ tsohjeh,; tsoh it'ien yesterday.

b3H)B35^ (ts^ien jeh^; (ts'ien ^t'ien the day before


yesterday.

^B'tS^ heu' jell,; heu\t^ien the day after


to-morrow.

11^. ifi^B 'lipai';'lipaPjeh, Sunday.


Si^— " " y«'') Monday.
jE_^ ^ch^ung yiieh^ the first month.

Zl ^ ''''^'
*
1) i> second „

* The %o> in tbege ezpresBioDB is Pelunese.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 29

m^
30 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

li^mn^^xa m^nm^w, f^^cnatis,

"

Ex. 40 :—
^^^m-, m-^mwzi, m^^^^^h, ii^h

:f<m^B-tVi, ^hm^H-fiiJi, -if^i-rLMJi,

U.v. 41. —I will come to-day. He must go to-morrow.


They saw him yesterday. To-day is Sunday. To-
morrow will be Monday, the day after to-morrow
will be Tuesday. Yesterday was Saturday, the day
before yesterday was Friday. The third of the
eighth moon. The thirteenth of the fifth moon.
The first of the sixth moon. The thirtieth of the

next moon. Last moon was the third moon. Next


moon will be the fifth ; this is the fourth. A
"great" moon has 30 days. A "small" moon has 29
days. This year there is an intercalary moon.
There are four weeks in a month. There are twelve
months in a year. A week has seven days.

EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 31

LESSON IX.

Time .
(continued.)

^^ cA'mw (tHen spring.

^5'C ^"'*' )> summer.


^^ (<«'m „ autumn.
^ 5^ , itttifjr „ winter.

^ sz' ki' the four seasons.

^^ k'u\nien last year.

89 ^ ,m2«(7 „ next „

^^^ lieu' „ ,, „ butone.


'l|tj
i^ J
ili'zeH „ the year before
last.

-"JZ, yih^^tHen one day.


—'MiSiS) —'"FiS yih^Hien ^churtg; yihj one hour.
Ida' ^ohung
—^ y/Aj j/((n one minute.
— ^Ij
• „ it'o' a quarter of an
hour.

^ ffi M pan' '<ien ^chung a half-hour.

H, T* @ ^san Ida' „ 3 o'clock.


32 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STDDIES.

^ ^ i^ S ^
cl5 (Chung kwd' 3.05
^<^^ '^^^^ o'clock.
^fun 'i«M

^ — rii5 (San'tien
' ^'J 3.15 yih, k'o' ,,

HS—fIji^+H^ kwo' 3.28


c««« '^2«« «/2^', k'o' „
^san ^fdn
s/«'A,

^ ^@ ffi far^ 3.30


(*'"»* '*'^'' filiung „
^MAS^J ^sanHien t^sanUo^ 3.45 „

iiW5£^:gE9Til <^M«
sz
W'
'*"« c/««
hia ' , chung
s^«' 3.55 „

?• JE; -^-ft 'tsao'kH'tsao ;Chan morning.

_t ^p^ shang' pan' ^Vien the forenoon.

T^^ Am' „ „ „ afternoon.

5^ Pllj 'wan shang' ,, evening.


yi' 'U, heh^ Ida' at night ; in the
dark.
pan ye midnight.

Ex. 42 :—

mmmm^mmmr, -x-^^ni-mrm,
-MAa^A+^, -ymmmm, mhmMum,
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 33

^^^m, m^i^m, r^^cmt, bu^b^bibi.

Z«. 43 :—
Twelve o'clock midnight. I don't read in the dark.
In the evening, 1 will come. They write in the
morning. The woman comes in the forenoon. Bring
me the book in the afternoon. Come at 4.20 p.m.

I will pay your wages at half-past five. This year


is . Last year was . Next year will be

. The next year but one will be


Sixty minutes make an hour ; twenty-four hours,
one day. The four seasons are spring, summer,
autumn, winter. There are three months in spring.
Summer months are hot. Winter is cold.

Ex. 44 :—
Read round the clock the time between seven and
eight, thus : — Seven o'clock ; one minute past seven,
etc., etc. After passing the half-hour read both ways,
e.g. Thirty-one minutes past seven, or Twenty-nino
minutes to eight.
34 EASY STKPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON X.

Additional Verbs.
9®' So ^
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 35

^
36 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Do you remember? No, I don't remember. He


forgot to bring his book. Walk slowly. Eun home.
I think he owes ^100. Do you know this character ?

I don't understand. Look for your book in the


library. I have found it. Ask him to give you a
dollar. He will lend, he will not give. Please come
in. I shall invite ten men. I promise to give you
a dollar. Don't borrow, don't lend. He will build
a small house. They want to build a pagoda. He
owes me five cash. The man gave the woman a
chair.

Ex. 48 :—

'-fmrnm, t^s-, f5;S7^^^*if, i^^


mmmmm-m, ^^Mmmr^m^, mm
'i^mmm% m^.itmmmm, mfmmm
-mmmmmmw7&, mt£mi:mm, 9t^
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 37

LESSON XI.

Conjunctions.
JjHHE following are examples of the use of some of
the commonest Chinese conjunctions. The learner
will notice in conversing with natives that they
frequently omit such conjunctions as " and, but, or,"
etc. where we should use them in English. Dr. Mateeu
isays there is no "and" in Chinese, and that the word
^p haP, is used in place of it by foreigners more
frequently than is necessary. It may be mentioned as
an example of the varying uses of the same word
that the character ^p haV has in Pekin three sounds,
and more than three meanings.

In the exercises which follow, note carefully such


differences as you meet iwith both in the uses of
the Chinese words, and in the idioms of the two
languages.
;

38 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

The new characters are in brackets.

i^fOffii; i^haP). I and he.


i^ ffl fdl ^. You go with him.
® Is] '0^ ; ([rI ii'ung). I with you, or I and you.

^ i-
flil In]
He goes with me.
^ B^ ^ n^- Both food and drink.
5H<K He (S' ^ ; ^ s
l^en, dai,). Both you and I.

ficiB^; (iSs^'^O- I still want


?oS'&' I have (some) yet.

fi^'lil^ ; (-fll
'y'*-')- I also go ; I am going too.

f5^ ^ fffli i!ll<- You want (it) ; he also wants it.

M^fljl; (iato«0. Only he.

^ W PH f@-
ai^ There are only two.
:^\B.^Am!lt^^lMl {UM.k'o^aw/'ls^ie). Not
only is he a good man, moreover he has money
ijr lie has inoney besides.

^ ia m ^ JR m it S P A ^ ?K- He net only


doesn't come himself, but he tells other men not
to come.

afm^mftiffia^^^ mM.,rh ;
<tsHe). This
is not only dear ; it is bad as well.
v^m^mmm^^-, (n^, mm /««o'; tao' ui). i

called him, and yet (but) he won't come,

go either to-day or to-morrow.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 39

-T*^^ ^ Si/t "(S- I^ it' i** 110*' liigli) then it is low.

SK ^ SK M- Either long or short.

'^ fl^MM^ A g'J ; (PJE' giJ < «*'


cP'^/O- Is it you,
or is it another man ?
:^C 65 ^^ ''> 65 -Hi ^ $f I'he large are bad, so are

the small.

-^ffiWlJj-^ffiWM; (ffi mien'). On the one


side hills, on the other tlie river.

mm^r^m^^^'jui^^^m; mm, m <vir>

>cei\ ^nang). Because I cannot go, you must go.


nmmmm^Xnn-Am\;).'^o H). Because (he)
has money, therefore he can buy.

JS ta m ^ ^ ^ ?K ; (5S ta ' ^^'^"^9


P«0- I fear he
will not come to-day.

% >JK» ^t S JS ta fai^ 3fS ; (M


'
teh). You must go
lest he doesn't come.
^^r^T^r^^-^n, i^ ting'). Whether he
will come or not, is uncertain.

E.X. 49 :—

(not the same), ^m%^^^^%^^ ^'^


40 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Kr. 50. — Using any previously learnt words, prepare


sentences to be read to the teacher, each sentence
containing a conjunction.

E.v. 51. — Translate — He : and I. He and you. You


and she. Thou and I. Ours and yours. Theirs
and mine. I will go with you. He came with me.
Both the dog and the cat are mine. Both the hill

and the pagoda are high. I still want ,$10. I have


three books yet. The teacher is going ; I am going
too. The carriage is dear, (but) the wheelbarrow is

cheap. There are only three days. Only he knows


it. Not only is the pagoda high ; it is beautiful
Qhao k'an') as well ; or, The pagoda is not only high.
EASY STEPS IN CHINBSK STUDIES. 41

but beautiful. I looked for him and yet I couldn't


find him. Either this mouth or next, you must pay
your bill. Either he or you must go. If the door is

not mine, it is yours. The man is either good or bad.


Is the chair his or yours ? The rivers are wide, so

are the bridges. The cat is yours, so is the dog.


On one side good, on the other side bad. On this

side there is the hill, on that, the pagoda. I want

to buy this book, because it is very good. Because


you don't understand you don't remember. You
must understand lest you forget afterwards. I

don't know whether he ate or not ; whether he slept


or not ; whether he went or not.
42 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XII.

Additional Nouns for Practice.

Bi, 5fC M- Jeh^^Veu, f-aP ^yancf, the sun.

M^^^W- Yileh^ Hang', t'ai' ci/in, the moon.

B ^ ?K T-fli J^^^> s*'«" ch'uhj Jtai, sun rises.

H M^T- J^^^i it'eu lao' la, sun sets.

^ M- cS*" J/M^'*)! new moon.


Jl ^. (Yuen yiieh^, full moon.
S M- c Sincf (Sing, stavs.

^ jlj. (T 'iVn s
/io, milky way.
j^. 'Shut, water.

^. 'llai, sea.

;5^> jl3 ^7 •
s
Chiang j c/i'ao, ^
c/t'ao ^
Zaj k, the
rising tide.

^ 5IH' }^jM7- -^"^o' ^cli'ao, ^ch'ao f-uP la, the

falling tide.

® BH ]®- '-^^ s^'^" s'"^'


wharf, jetty.

M' IF M- '-^"j ^""'^ '.y") rain, to rain.

§, "f*^. Siieh^, Ilia' siieh^, snow, to snow.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 43

M|. M Jii- <-f««5'» t^'^o* c/w^'j ^i'^<^' windy.


3^^. fTHen A'«', weather.

j^ ^. ^Hai 'tsz, boy, child.

25:^. 'iVus'rA, girl.

J^ fj. 5 Faw^ s
/jaw(/, a foreign firm.

iS tx ^Sil' <-^'''* s^'ffl«5'; itsHen p'u', a bank ;


an
exchange shop.
"* B£ M- ^*^'j /''^''j ''"'*' ^ horse, or pony.
^ ^ H- ^'** t,!/"'5'
kwoJi^, England.

^ S A- c
^''"5' AwoA, ijen, Englishmen.

3?SSS- (^'''^9 kwoh^ hwa\ English.

/^ Ih ®- Ta\cliung kwoh^, G\ana,.

'f' ^ A- ^Chung liwoh^ ^jen, Chinamen.


pjt
Q |g. J
Chung hwoh , /itoa , Chinese.

'^^. tZTttfan /jwa'. Mandarin.

E":);. 52 :—

i% S»z« = every), i53 H sK 1^ H » M ff >g ^ IS ,

^± (M cF«n=side), ^?ciS;K:^Sfia;gJS
(JE = enough, quite), B^ ^ ^ » ii ji ?g
tsuh, =fg :;^

J'^
Hu^'hdn = current very strong), a^T^^^I]
fa'

Ts, m^mMi> m^^mm (itM=tot),


44 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ a A fa i» il A - ^ i^ (- « = the ,!//A
.
^jam, '

same), W tf 1* AifctfiSf 6^ ^ HI i5. ^^1*


ffl

Ex. 5.3. — There is one sun. It rises at six o'clock.

The new moon is small. The fullmoon is large.

Tliemoon sets at 3 o'clock. There are many stars.

You can count thousands of stars. We can see the


milky way. I want some water to drink. The sea
is wider than a river. The tide is rising, or coming
in. The tide is ebbing or going out. There are
twenty men on the jetty. We are going to the
wharf. To-morrow it will rain. It rained last

night. It snows in winter. The weather is windy.


This little boy is mine. The girl is not mine. Two
hundred children came to Shanghai. The foreign
firm buys and sells. I think this is a bank. This
house is an exchange-shop. The horse walks, the
pony runs. Are you going to England ? No, I do
EASY STEPS IN CHIWESE STUDIES. 45

not understand English. There are many Englishmen


in China, but not many Chinese in England. Some
Chinese understand English. China is bigger
than England. Do you understand mandarin ? 1

understand it, but I cannot speak it.


46 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XIII.

Interrogatives.

li. ;Sii- iShui. Shi' ,shui? Who? Who is it?

W&^' fi^^SHifi^- iShui till,. Che' ^shit shi'

^shui tihy Whose ? Whose hook is this ?

M fia- % g- M m $• 'iV« '^o\ 'M. yao' 'na Hang'


fCh'S. Which? Which carriage do you want?

K S, Wi^MMM- '5''*""
'
' '""• (T'a yao" mai
shun' 'mo. What ? What does he want to buy ?

5^» M ^. ilg S® 69- ^^c"*' '^0 y<^ng\ Tsdn' 'mo


yang' tso' tihy How ? How is it done ?

^. ^MfiilT- '^»- '^^«' '^^'«" <c/iMn^ la. How


many? AVhat (how many) o'clock is it?

^- ^^- Jo- Jo Jcao. How? How high?

'mo. (Kin ,t'ien ^fa ivei' shan' 'mo puh^ ^lai.

Why ? Why does he not come to-day ?


? '

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 47

'
M^ ^Mf^>M^tS-\S&- '-^i* '^i siang shan mo
fChok 'hao fUi.

^%tl^^^- Slip 'ni tih^ puJi^ sId'. Is it yours


or not?

g^g. Yao' pult, yao\ (Do you) want (it or)


not?
IBS, %XMM.^- '-^« 'U- 'Ni shang' 'na 'U
k^u'. Where? Where are you going
^ .51, fa ^ a ifi fi^ A- 'Na.rh. ,T'a slu"na ,rh
tihj Jen. Where? What place? What place
does he belong to ?

i^^M^^- 'Ni , ts'ung ' na , rh , lai. Where


do you come from ?

^ B$> ^ M ^- B|f 'Ki ,shL 'Ki ,shi tao' tih,.

When ? When (will he) arrive ?


^Pi> f^K^PtS- c^o rtsmi. 'Nl ,to ,tsan til'.

When ? When are you going ?


M' l!l>?Klf M#- itioh. 'm ,lal 'yen Jioh sld\
What. What business have you here ?

M^ Sll> fi :^ fSl ^ A- iHoh 'tang ,Uh. J'a


iHl

shP JioW- tang ^tih Jen. What kind? What sort


of man is he ?

* (^N.B. —
Ni is merely an interrogative particle. It may be
used at the end of questions not needing " yes " or " no " for answer.
The sentence given means Which or what do you think better ?)
:

48 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Mffl) ^fBlffl- s^^o/t yiing\ 'Yeu Jioh yung\


What use is it ?

""^BcJJfiSS- c-^
ding^ yao' 'too k'u' ^muh.
Must I go ?

m^f^^JS- Jing Mi 'wo ^'w' c'««^'- Oug^t


I to go ?

pT iil' ^ RI Jil £ iS- ' ^^'o ''t'o '« *'«' (mM/«- May
or Can I go ?

ftP^'/TI^- ^Nik'-u'puh)tu\ Are you going or

not?
•^ ^ Jg. 'iVi ^'m' (?n»/i. Are you going ?

i^A'. 54 :

M la fi* SI A pg ^ Bg, '>^ ^ f<i^ _fc IK » £,

:^£^-^, fiff5DTJ^*@. fitlff^^j-aiRia


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STDDIKS. 4£

Ex. 55. —
Who is that man? Whose chair is this!
Which book do you want ? What is he looking for;
How do you write it? How much o'clock is it I

What time did you come ? How large is the


carriage ? How high the pagoda ? Why do yor
run Which book do you think the best ? Is this
? .

dog his or not ? Do you want the boy or not i

Where is the girl ? What place do you come from I

I come from England. Where are you going? ]


am going to Pekin. When did the Chinaman arrive!
He came last night at nine. When are you goino
to the bank ? I am eoiug at eleven. What business
have you at the bank ? What sort of rope did yoi]
buy? What use is the pagoda? Must the smal.
boy go ? Ought the girl to come to-morrow ? Can
you read? Do you remember or not? We arc

going. Are you ?


'

50 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XIV.

Adverbs of Time.

W P^lJKang hang
?R- t ^ ^
lai, just come.

^ ^> ^P ^, ^ ^ l5£, IS- Sien ' ,


kin, Jil ,
Un, Men
tsaP, rfang ^ts'ai, now.
[p] ^. Hiang' ^lai, hitherto.

Ip] SJ IS ff • Hiang\lai 'hun 'hao, hitherto it has

been all right.

^ gif. s
Ts^ung ; is'wn, formerly.

^SBUfiSE?3W^- iTs'ung ^tsHen cliP ^rh ^meli


^yiu ^k'iao, formerly there was no bridge here.

® ® Sli B$- Tsan^ ^ts'ieh, tsan' ^sJd temporarily.

S^^ 'f* S- Tsan^ jts^ieli 'wo ^puli yao', for the


present I don't want it.

f^, f^^. Beu'', lieu\lai, after, afterwards.

^> t5E ^, 156 :§:•


/^'^''> /^*'
£>"' ^i' sM\ already.

"l^KSE^WT- '-^* ki' Jan'yiu Ja. You have it

already.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 51

-^.. ^M^ ^.^MCi- H^^^^K h.wuk Jan (suddenly)


liwuh^ Jan ^f'a Jai Ja. He came suddenly.

W' Ji W- cC'^'M) 'c^'^ (Ch'u, at first, at the beginning.

-T* Wa f^ H*- c^uh lun^ kH' ^shi, no matter when.


^ HJ. ' Yiu 5 shi, sometimes.

^ '^, HJ '^. s
Shi s
cli'ang, ; cli^ang j ch'anc/, always.

j^ H$ ^- '-STm j sAi , kien, in ancient times.

^ ^ 1^. ^To ^sJiao ts'z\ How many times ?

!H PS ^- c'S«"i 'Ziaw^ is's^ two or three times.

li #[^. li 'ff- M ' ^«''"5' c


w"' '
'5«"'*5' ! »»«'' '«/«'«'> never.

I^M- (ChHng i\ seldom.

fSM'T»!^S"Hifi!l' (ChHng i\puh ta' kan' kien\t'a.


seldom see him.

Ew. 56 :—
52 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Ex. 57. — Using mainly the verbs in Lesson X, and the


adverbs in Lesson XIV.
Translate : — He has just eaten. 1 heard you just nov?.

We are just going to sleep. Hitherto I have not


forgotten. It has been very bad hitherto. Formerly
there were no foreign firms at Shanghai. For the

present I want to borrow ^100. Eat now, drink


afterwards. At first he could not understand ; now
he does. They have already built the hut. In
ancient times men built pagodas. Always think
first, then do. He suddenly ran away. No matter
when he comes, he must come to me. Sometimes
I run, sometimes I walk. An old man always walks.
How many times has he invited you ? He has
already invited me twice. I have never been to Pekin
He never forgets, you never remember. I seldom
understand a man who speaks the Shanghai dialect.
Please come now. I knew it already. Formerly
there was a pagoda here. There is now a house.

Ej;. 58. — Write other sentences with the help of your


dictionary, and translate them to Chinese for the
teacher's criticism and correction. You will thus
learn by experience that the same English word
used with varying meanings or shades of meaning
will need a complete change in Chinese.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.; 53

LESSON XV.

Adverbs of Place, etc.

SS. S SE- CW Hi, che' ^rh, here.

M S- M IS- -^«' '^^ ««' i->'h, there.

Jb^. _fc M JlM- Shang' ^pien, shang' ^feu, shang'


mien', above.

~F ^' J!S T*! T^ ®' -^^«' (pie«, 'ti hia\ Ida' mien',
below.

•i* ^1- P3 S. ^ 4*> S EM- c C'Awray ( /"'era, ne' ' li, ^ tang
^cliung, 'li ^teu, between, among, inside.
'&^- 'Tso, yiu', left, right.

jj3 S- fiheti ^loei, all round.

ji^ IS- S-' t'-heu ^we>, in or from all qnarters.

M 4- C/ii'Aj 'f^ew, walk straight.

$4^- s'S/f^ '^sei/, walk o'jliquely.

1^ V ^- '-^'^0 ' s
''^'O^' '<se?/, walk in a roundabout way.
^iMi & & J^oh^ ch'u', ch'u' ch'u', everywhere.

flil^ffifsJilLBU- <T'aJaitsai"wo'iitsHen. He
comes before me.
54 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^I^M^^^"^^^- '-^i<. ^ai shP ts'ai'


'
wo ' tseu

,chi heu\ "When you came, 1 had gone.


ftH ffi fJs JiJl ±- cT'a ts'aP 'wo <i shang\ He is

above me.

f|^:jgf|J),j^.~p. ']rots'ai\t'a'ihia\ I am below him.

^y, ^(» /^ ^ ^. '/ luai' '


yiu ^to 'sJiao. How many-
are there over and above ? What balance is there ?

M 'M- s
-^^0 ^t'ung, east of the river.

LU 0^ ^- (Shan (Si ^pien, on the west of the hills.

^ f§. s
fC'i'^o ^nan, south of the bridge.

i§ "Hj ^- '?'fi(/i peky (pien, on the north side of the


pagoda.

Ex. 59 :—

?i«-^)l, i-Milf^, «^Jg, #^ai^Kii7


(ir, <(w = all, in every place), BM'^lii, iiL0.mm^
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 55

Ex. 60. —You are recommended to take as many


suitable verbs as you know, and combine them with
the adverbs in Lesson XV, thus :
— Go here ; Go
there, above, below, right, left, etc.

Ex. 61. —Translate —Come : here. Go there. Look


everywhere (for it). Go below and do it. To the left
there are hills. To the right there is the river. Walk
to the right. He walks obliquely. The dog went
straight (along). Where can you buy it ? Everywhere.
Where did you see him? I saw him on the west of
the hills. Where do you live ? I live south of the
bridge. Where did you buy it ? In Pekin. Where
did he go ? He went amongst the trees. Are you
above or below him ? I am above him. He is
below me. There is a balance of ^20.00. East of
the river there is a foreign firm. Where is the
exchange shop? On the north side of the foreign

firm. All round Shanghai. In Hongkew. Between


the houses. It rains everywhere. The wind blows
from ail quarters. Bring the book here. Walk
before me. Walk behind him. I had gone when
he came. Spring has gone when summer comes.
Don't walk in that roundabout fashion.
56 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XVI.

Adverbs of Manner, etc.

•TTDVERBS of manner may stand either before or


/ after tlie verbs to which they belong. They
frequently consist of adjectives either used singly or
doubled.

§f \. ,Hao ^jen, a good man.


^ ?§• ^'- ' ^^'^ i^^^^ ,hao, writes well.

>^. Kw'aP, fast.

S E5 B :^ ^M 'Hi-
CM' -pih^ ma' shi' 'hen kw'ai',

this pony is very fast.

'K '^ ^ Sfl- K'o'ai' kio'al' ^tih p'ao^, run quickly.

^ M>-> ®- si'w".'/ *') !,nan, easy ; difficult.

^^ '12 ^- lYung V ^tung ^ieh, easy to understand


or easily understood.

i8 S9 Q- iNan fining peh, difficult to understand


c\ea.r\j.

^i^- 'Ilao siang', like, as, the same as.

^ IrI- s"^** ii^ung, like, as, the same as.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 57

g^lf^^igfi^iB**- Che pun, ,shu 'hao


siang' 'wo ,tih na' pun, ^ shit. This book is like mine.

S fH —'^- (ChSn siang' ^yih yang', exactly alike.

^ i^ ^. 'Liang yang^ ^tlh, different, differently.

^^T • Ch^a-' (to fla, very different.

ii'?»^' Ch'a' puh' fio, slightly different, nearly

the same.
ij^\^, 7^^- ^ih, ting', kwo' Jan, certainly, surely.

^ ffi-
£^'""5' pien', convenient, conveniently.
>^. 'fcj^'^ fi^.
Kio'ai'; kw'ai' kw'ai' (tih, quickly.

ifi' ?S jE l5^- Kin' ; kin' kin' ^tih, near.

jg, j§ j(§ rt^. 'Fuen; 'yuen 'yuen ^tih, far.

"H* lb' M W,- c


Kan t
sin, yuen ' yi', willingly.

Ex. 62 :—

m'^m^'i^mm muKmm^mK^ mm
m'i-tam-kK-m, nm%^mmi\% mm
**6^;fc/>ii^7, mmm^m?r^^' ^Ws

'K '^ 1^ ?K> -O? fa a JE i£ rj, 15: §1 ^1 (Mi-- open)


58 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Ex. 63. —Translate — He : willingly paid the wages.


Don't walk far. Come quickly. Bring it near me.
To buy just now is not convenient. He certainly
knows. He will surely come. This and that are
slightly different. Your book is diilerent from
mine. It is very different ; mine is big, yours is

small, mine is clean, yours is dirty, mine is dear,

yours is cheap. These two men are exactly alike.


This boy is like that girl. My pony is like yours.

Some books are easy to understand ; some are


difficult. It is easy to write English, but difficult

to write Chinese. You write very well. He runs


very quickly. I paid ^§200 for this pony ; he is very
fast. I think it is certain to rain. How does he
teach ? He teaches very well. How are you going ?
I am going to walk. Do you walk quickly or
slowly ? Sometimes quickly, sometimes slowly. It

is easy to walk slowly. I will go willingly, if you


go too.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 59

LESSON XVII.

Adverbs of Degree.
jnHESE are attached to adjectives as a rule, but
many of them may also be used with verbs.

Iglf. Keng"hao, better.

M^' t,Hwcin 'hao, better.

JC ;S- ^^"' ieJi''ancf, longer.

If ifc © 113 /ff •


^«<^«'' 'p* ^^^' ^"^ '^*«o> better than
this.

M •^ $f
lin • J^weA' c^*'" jomA' 'Aao, worse.

®^ T -T* • ^"^^* ' c/i^^* J""^* "hao f la, still worse.

]J ^. 'Tin^i 'Aao, very good, or best.

^^. s
Ki/i 'hao, very good, or best.
^$p. C/j^' 'Aao, very, very good, excellent.

;g0. TiMp '/iao, very good.

^^. TW (/o, too much, too many.


5<j^ ;/<;. Toh' ta', too big.

5^ j^. Zwo' '«/Mew, too far.

j^ S5 ^' ^"'o' s2/" (*") f^i" *°° many or much,


.

60 EASY STEPS I5f CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ^ Jf Puh' . ta' 'hao, not very well.

^ jj. 'Hen 'hao, very good.

5^ ^. 'Hao (^ch'ang, very long.

^^ 6^' '-^''"' *«' c**^) very big.

^K tS S? ^T • -^* ko"haOi kill


' ^ la, that is very good

^ }^ — 10 '
.H- jf''"^'' 'man (j///j ko' yileh^ not a full

month.
^^. LioP 'hao, a little better.

;§. ^ S^. Lioh' lioh' ,tih, very little.

^ |5g. 'F^M /iiew*, has a limit, little ; not much.

ffil 6t) ^W KB- f^'** ('^'^ (is'iWn 'yeu Men'. His


money is not unlimited.

Ex. 64 :—
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 61

Ex. 65. —Translate — Older:


(as a man), older (as a
thing). Cheaper, dearer, higher, lower. There are
none better than this. Many are worse. You write
badly, he writes worse, and I still worse. This is

very good : that is excellent. This is the best water.


He has too much money. The house is too big.
There are far too many boys. England is small,
China is very big. This is not very well done.
A very long rope is very dear. It is not quite a
week. This is a little better than that. A very
little better. I have only a little money. Very
dear, very cheap, very high, very low, very bad, very
good, very clean, very dirty. Rather dear, cheap,
high, etc. He has gone too far. I am not very
well to-day. There is a limit to my money. Far
too big, small, high, long, etc. Not big, small, high,

long, etc. enough.


J

62 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STDDIES.

LESSON XVIII.

Adverbs of Degree— fconh'nued.


^^^^ ^ 1^- -^''" ' ftwui ' ( shtooh ( pull hwui ' ts'o ',

he can only talk, he can't do.

ho'ai' ii/cmg ^tsHen, there are about ten dollars.

;;fl j|^ -f' {0 ^. , Pull ' cAi' s/h'/; ,


ho^ Jen, not only ten

men. (There were more.)


— d^
. ;Ji; g^ — •
^ /J-* t5{|. J K/j pan' ^a' ,i27i ,yih paii'

'siao ^tih, half big, half small.

/i> j^ ^— •
'0'. ^Pull kwo^ 'ijiu ^yili
'
pai, not more
than a hundred.

^ f^. 'Siao yung\ use little.

J|^^/f»i|. ,Sz Jiao (puh ch'a', not in the least


wrong.
^ ^ 8" ^ — ' MiS ^- c'S'e t^^M ^«n' £sie«' (?/i7i Hieh
'rh, can see a little.

^ ;^ ^ J^. ,PmA <a' fkan tsing', not very clean.

^ 1^ — ^. (Pm/j ,tan ,?/j7i ko', not one only.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 63

1^ H flil ^. iTan ftan ,<'a hwuP, only he can do it,

/fJUlJ — ^. iPuh tao\yih ^tsHen, not so much as


1,000.

:Jt^']^^MM^- Ta' ,yOh 'yiu ^san sz' Hi lu\


about three or four U.

>E ?S- Tsuh^ keu\ quite enough.

S + FS IS ? JE ^ M fi^ T •
' ^" s
«''«'^«
' ^««"9' s2/«'«

'<s tsuh, keu' 'mat ^tih ^la, fifty taels is quite sufficient

to buy it.

^Iji!'^
— ' ^* K'ung^ 'tsiing 'yiu ^yih ^ts'ieii, there
are altogether a thousand.

^— iTvh ko\ only one.


fISj- cyih

^^^ ^. (Siao 'yiu fU-ei ^ts'ien, a little rich,

rather rich.

'K^ ® W f^ A- i
^^^ s*"'' '^'" 'Hang Jen, there are
only two men.

^J^^W~"W- t^o^' t"^o/t ^choh 'yiu ^yih 'pai,

about a hundred.
PfJ j^ — "g",
,
Puh 'man ^yih 'pat, not quite ; almost
a hundred.

/F» >S — W- t-P"^ <«w/(j ^yih 'pai, not quite ;


almost

a hundred.

^ H — W- t-f"'* keu\yih 'pod, not quite ;


almost

a hundred.
64 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ Si^ ^ ^ ji -' H- ''^0 <yoh tmoh ,puh 'man ,yih

'pai, I have not quite a hundred.*

i:x. 65 :—

Ex. 66. — He can only walk, he can't run. We see

about 3,000 stars. There were not only the two


boys, there were also two girls. Half the books are
mine, half are yours. There are not more than 40
million Englishmen. This jetty is but little used.

The bill is right. It's not in the least wrong. We

* (Note the doubled expression for " not quite." Doubled words
and expressions are common in Chinese.)
EAST STEPS m CHINESE STUDIES. 65

can see a little here. This pony of mine is not very


clean. I want to buy a dozen, not one only. You
can't do it : only he can do it. 1 can lend ten, but
not so many as 100. From this place to that is

about 10 li. ;$100 is quite enough. To buy this

house, seventy taels is quite enough. Altogether


there are 50 foreign firms. I have only one child.

This mandarin has a little money. There are only


six bridges. He wants about one thousand cash.
I know about 200 characters. We saw about 5,000
men. There were nearly 40 children. I have not
quite 1^20.

10
— ;

66 BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LEiSSON XIX.

AdverTbs of AfiB.rmation, Negation, etc.

"77TE have already had occasion to use various affirma-

^H. tive and negative expressions, e.g. —


^ it is ; it is so ;
yes, etc.

^ ;^, it is not, etc.

^ used for " yes " ; Iam present, etc.


11 S> iK' S. i£J ^ g- 'Tsung yao\ pih' yao ',
piP
ting' yao\ all used in the sense of must.

Others are :

^M- ^TsHen ivan', used in the sense oi certainly.

^i^Mt^^K- Y°'i certainly must come to-morrow.


•=p^^ ^^ You must not Jf[. fail to bring it.

^^^ Twan' Jm pj. pith' ' k'o, certainly not.

?^ ^ ^ » "
pT- s
^'*"'''«
si«»* » '.

MM^RT- llan'i«a«' „ „ „ „
^ 6^. It is so.

/f» |g. " Not -wrong," is used as an affirmative,


meaning " yes," " all right," etc.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 67

^ f^. PmA' ^neng, unable, you cannot.


/f» ^. „ i^ng^, it is not certain ;
perhaps.
^^- » 'chuen, „ „ „ „
'^^M- )> ,t'ung „ „ reasonable.

^ t^ ^- am unable
'fi I to go.

^'^^^^ 5K- uncertain I 3,m if I shall go or not.


/f» ip ;^ fUj. It is not certain it is he.

S 10 A ^ S ^M Gi' = reason). The man is

unreasonable.
^. ^Miih or jmei, no, not any, etc.

IE ^- Cheng' ski', just, just so.

f^K ?K 6^ JE^ BjfH- You come just at the riglit time.

^ ;§. Tsieu' shP, it is so ; that's it.

I;;gfi^fi5- That's the way.

W. ^ ;§. Ping' puh' sJd\ certainly it is not.

3fi -Ti ^ ^ ^ ^. Certainly not book. this

@ ^' '$»5K' ^'^^'


'P^^
ij'^'^f Mh
naturally, of course.

iS-^i HC ^- sl^wew ^pun, ^yuen ^lai, naturally, of


course.

S f!? fi ^ ^ !;• Naturally he is unwilling.

'^ JK :^ flfii-
Of course it is he.

*^^l?ig^M-Mfl!i- Of course if it is bad, I


don't want to buy.

1^ ^ :§ iK fit)' Of course it's old.


j^ ^ ^.
5|f
/J> Bad as a matter of course.

68 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Ex. 67 :—

ftii
;^ -^ § ilF Ti B 1^. ;ig » 5 J:Jc M S 51 :^ ig,

aPiaianS, ^, aB$f^lE;^f/Kf^KT, ilffl

Hg^^am f/PSBgB a^^g-Dg, A AM


^^Tg-
£";». — Run68. through the affirmative and negative
expressions with your teacher using :

1. — Adjectives, e.g. It is right. It is high. It is

cheap. It is not right, etc.

2. — Pronouns, e.g. It is mine. It is not mine, etc.

3. —Adverbs, e.g. It is here. It is not here, etc.

Ex. 69. —Translate —You : must go, come, buy, sell,

etc. (using all the verbs you know). The teacher


will certainly come to-morrow. Don't fail to pay
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 69

the bill. I certainly shall not sell. He certainly


does not write well. We certainly do not want to

buy that pony. Is this right or not? Yes. Have


yoTi any money ? Yes. I am unable to go. It is

not certain if I can go. Perhaps he will come to-

morrow. What lie says is unreasonable. He has


no children. There are no dollars in the house.
He paid my wages just at the right time. Our house
is small. It is so. The child is too small to read.

Just so ; that is so. Your house is certainly not too


big. Naturally the dog runs fast. Of course t!ie

mandarin is rich. Naturally snow falls in winter.

Of course the weather is hot in summer.

Ex. 70. — The student should use such words as perhaps,


certainly, naturally, of course, unable, must, etc. with
the verbs in Lesson V, going through them viva voce

with the teacher.


70 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XX.

Money Matters.
JT[HE only national coinage of China at the present is

the cash, ^ ^ts^ien. Uncoined silver is much nsed


by weight. A tael is roughly 1\ oz. of silver. These
are cast into "shoes of sycee " (literally IfJ,^ fine silk)
of varying weights and purity. There is no tael

coin.

Money M^ its'ai .p'ai Qpo).


Cash ^ J
ts'ien.

One tael of silver — '


P@ fM "f" <lA^'-
'Hang ^yin ftsz.

A shoe of sycee — '


fl3 Tti ^ cph ko' ^yiten 'pao.
Dollar -^tS|J¥^ cy'/« hw'ai' ^yang
^ts'ien.

Five cents M^

'w" c/««-
Ten cents .^ ^yih'cMo ('ko).
Fifteen cents — ;^c^ .yih'cJdo pan\
Eeady money 3^^ U6n\tsHen.
Credit ^|g .sUchang'.
BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 71

Receive
;

72 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Invoice hivo' ^ta?i.

Bill of lading (P'ing ftan.

Freight mmm> mi I
^ch'ivan tsai' tsHen
1 tsai^ hwo^ itih

; ch'ioan 5 ts'ien
'
shui 'chio.

Passage-money mm ^eJi'wan ^tsHen.

Duty ±m sharig' shui'.

Taxes shui'; ^tsu ,ts:.

Municipal Rates Jcung boo' Jil ^chuan


5 is''ien.

Market shV
„ price shi'kia', Jiang (Ch'ing.
Bankrupt mmmr 'mai mai' ^kwan ^la.

Bank note ^yin pHao' ; ^tsHen


p'iao' 'isz.

Insure 'pao.

Capital 'pun ^ts'ien.

Cargo mm hwo' wu'.


Retail mm Idling mai'.
Wholesale Jah mai', ^p'i (fah.
puh'^ling mai'.
Bribes ; to receive ft'' an ftsang ; sheu'
bribes hw&' lu'.

Broker mm fChin chih'.


Brokerage 55 )) ( ZS Zc/2*
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 73

Smuggling fi^ fSZ liwo'-


Exchange |^> j^l^ hwan', t'ui' htoan'.

Worth
Rich, poor
s
kHung ijen.

Wages, salary m ^) ^ >jti (hung ^tsHen; ^itliin

!^ HP # Si
.
^ shui ; shu\siu ;

feng^ luh'.
Business

^iB. 71 :—
A A H? '^ M ^ ('S «i' to like, to love), ^^'P^

ns:^. ^^n^^^^ m^m^um^ mn^m^^

^^Mfi'^Xm^'P (® '"^^ every), 1 (i^ A'^

11
74 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

WMmmm (.tang = things ,s/ generally), fj^^m

mmiM&m^-fmm3s.m i^m= Tientsin),


m ti' = hnd, ground), mUTT^iZ, X^ ^ ^
IT, Ifi

Us'ing wan'^may I ask?), ^.'a^-^^^fPl^iSf^,


^>;ii:i
(is ;tt s^M /(ZTO'==of' all sorts; a general cargo),

xnnm (ffla=i>'-okerage), mmmw>mJ^M

Ex. 72. — Translate — My: money is limited. Cash is

used everywhere in China. The pony is worth


Tis. 100, but I paid only Tls. 75 for him. This shoo
of sycee is worth Tls. o3. The price is a dollar.
Seventy-five cents. Half a dollar ; a quarter of a
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES, 75

dollar. My little boy wants ten cents. He has no


ready money. Buying for ready money is better
than buying on credit. How many taels have you
received ? What have you paid out ? Prices are
high just now. Sometimes prices are low, sometimes
fair, or moderate. There are many banks in

iShanghai. A money-changer has not very much


money. The banker is sometimes very rich. Which
is the buyer, wliich the seller ? There is no profit

in this business. 1 pay ,^1.00 interest per month.


There was a loss of fifteen cents. Every man wants
to gain. My income is Tls. 50 per month. What
is his debt ? More than Tls. 1 00. Who is the debtor ?
1 don't know. A debtor ought to pay his debts.
The creditor wants to receive his money. We sliall

have a big dividend this year. The discount was


Tls. 10. Go to the broker for the invoice. Where
is the bill of lading ? How much freight is there to
pay ? The passage-money to Canton is ^5. You
must pay the duty. I will pay the taxes and the
Municipal Rates. Go to the market and ask the
market price. In Shanghai we use bank notes. This
shop is bankrupt. I have insured my house for
,85,000. My capital is not very large. The cargo
is not enough. Wholesale sellers do a big business,
76 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

retail sellers a small one. The broker wants his

brokerage. Many men receive bribes in China.


Smuggling is done every day. What is the dollar
exchange to-day ? Some men are rich, some poor.
The coolie receives his wages, the mandarin his

salary. There is much business done in Shanghai.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 77

LESSON XXI.

Conversational Expressions.
\_Here and there throughout these exercises literal translations

of the Chinese have been given.']

Note. — In Southern Mandarin the pronoun jKin or


jNin na' is replaced hy fjvftt) "*" I^Kj "'' omitted
altogether.

^ ^ ft j^. 'Lao ^yeh kwei' sing' (asked of a man of


higher class). (Old father) what is your (honourable)
name?

^ i& ^- '^" ^^^9' (Chang. My surname is

Chang.

i^WilM±t^M^- iNin na'Ju shangUsaV'na'rh.


Where is your mansion ?

iS ffi St P ft- 'Wotsai\ Hung ten chu '.


'
I live in
Hongkew.
78 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^
;g » £1 P RT :i ^^ aP Big- ShP'li ,
Hung '
k'eu

koli slip wai\ Hung ^k''eu ^ni. In the inner or outer


Hongkew ?

f^ fi i£ $'h fit P- 'Wo chu' tsai' wai\Hung ' teu.


1 live in the outer Hongkew.
M^Bi^^^M]^- 7i' rh> tso' ta' ,k'iao ' pei

fpien ^rh. On the north side of the second bridge.

2" i^ S P^ KS ^. (
Kung c,
fsi J-yuen'' ^koh pih'.
Next door to the Hospital.

xummm
^man ^pai
JAIL'S m:f^m-
shih' rh' 'pai ^ling liu' hao'.
Mng pu^
The Municipal
d^M
number is 206.

^ ^ ^ ^ 1^ 7.
<**
;/,; ^Nin ,Un iUien ,to ta' sui'
shu' ^la. You this year how many years ? = How old
are you ?

shou\ kuei'' ' kia 'ts:, kiiei' J^aiig, ^tsuen 'ch^ih, ^ch'ing

^ch^ucn 'hi Jioh. Exalted age? Honourable cycles?


Honourable decades? Venerable teeth? Verdant
springs how many? (These all mean, "How old are
you ? " 1 and 4 are applicable to the elderly, 2 and 3
to young men, 4 to anyone except children.)

S^^^tt^S- (Chang ^sien fSMng tsai' kia' fineh.

Is Mr. Chang at home ?


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 79

^ Hi ^ T- iTs'ai ^ch'uh chu' la. He has just gone


out.

fifc^B^fllJillSlJK- (T'a ffo c


tsan '
k'o '
i ^
hwui ^
lai.

"What time will he come back ?

a^^nm-faS^TIS- '\yopuh\c1utao\ J^a


f^mSi ^liu Ida' hua'. I don't know. He didn't leave

word.

:M.'M'(£.M}M-
'^''«*' ''«2'^ '««"*'' Ma'\muh. Is the

mistress at home ?

:*::*: W^
?; ^g M
^- ^-w^ <'ai' 'yu< &;»2^', p«/t'
^ndng kien^ k^oP. The mistress is ill, and cannot see
visitors.

'wo c/iiu' ^liu Ida' fining pien' 'tdng 'lao ^yeh Jiwui t^lai

h&i fta. Then I will just leave my card. When the


master comes back, give it him.

i^\ Wi m ^- i
^^'* '"'"'' 'chHng (so'. Please sit down.

iff P»1S fill- 'C/i'mg wan"paohao'. What is your


'shop name?
/J-»|^jgflJ. 'Siao hao\fu IP. My shop name is

Fuh Li.

^ffi^E^PM- ^^ien> tsaP ,shang i' Ju ^holu

How is business at present ?


80 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

M Rliil^SJf- iHai 'to 'i, puh' sh&n' 'hao.


Fair. Not very good. " Can pass."

1S -S^ S JK T ^H ^' Tso\shan ftno Jai Ja ^nin na\


What do you want (to do) Sir ?

tn'M^- ''TsHng tsin' Jai. Please, come in.

i5 ^ S ^ 6^- ^'"^ */"' '^2'


J<^"' M- That is

natural = Naturally, of course.


^]Sl0WSSifM^- c
C'/iZ-r/t ko 'yiu
' j
shen ,
mo
^nhin ^wdn ^meh. Is there any news to-day ?

^yao ^yen. Ta^ kai\to shi\niei 'ying-rh ^Hh ^shia hwa'.


This is rumour. Probably it's all without substance
all false.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 81

LESSON XXII.

Conversational Expressions— /^co«/f.y

iS S i? T SO ^- '^'^o *«o' s's2 c^a ipieh sungK


I (will) take my leave (now), don't accompany (me).

H ^. Tsai' chien\ Again see=I shall see you


again. An revoir.

IS ^ l!S- Kia-rh' ^ni. What price ?

M^^- 'Maipuh"chH. Can't buy = Can't afford


so much.

MM^^lUU^l- N<i\rnah cJdu' pa\la'wo


Jiwui ch'u',la. Then that's finished. I shall go back.

t'^' flfii 5K- Chiao' (ta Jai. Call him here.

^W^^^ H -f • 'M t'aP kuo\to ' shao jih'Usz.


You stayed how many days ?

^ SI ffi P5 s. ;^> 3!c 1^ m pg *• '^«o .y^^ <«/*'«

iin&n ^meh. Shi', 'wo yao' fCh'u ^mcin ch'ii'. Are you
going out, Sir ? Yes, I am going out.
12
'

82 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIKS.

^^^M^MM^^^^T- c^^c yah ! ' siang puh


tao' chd' j«/«' hou' (la. Hullo ! I dida't think (we had)
reached this time ; i.e. 1 didn't think it was so late.

S b] its '1^ T B "f • ,-Kuniji ^sz ^cliuan icu' Ja jih'

Hsz. Public Company ship (mail) has delayed days


(is late).

iS BS- H ^^ ^ 6^ is JK-
' T'^'o p'an ' wang ' wai ' kwoh ^

till' hsin\lai. L am expecting some foreign letters.

nao' ' kuei chiu' Jia\meh nao' ^ kuei. You (must) not
play the devil this way and that. (Used of mischief or
"squeezing.")

.^ S- iTsao 'jao. (I) disturb, harass (you) =


Excuse my intrusion. (Used also as an expression of
thanks.)

U^t^WtUM- joh> ,nung keu' chiu' tso\'^^^0

I can, then do = I will


if can. if 1

R ic M-
?!& li^ y^o' inang ^ah. I only
'^^'o ^'"^''

want power = would I could.


I if

%Wi.W.Wk'^\\!),- '-^i- J/w«« ' y« ' cA/w " A'o S". You
wish, then may = You may if you like.

nWmmmMT^m -m-
' Wo >
tsmzg Jan yuen^ yV
'yeh p'uh\nang keu\ I even if wished, then not could
= I couldn't if 1 would.
'

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 83

0> SI ^ ^ ^ 1^
llE til 1^- ''^i i
«««'
s>« s ^'^iiff keu
^ yell ^puli ^kai ^tang. You althougli cau, yet not should
= Although you can, you should not.

M ^ ^ % 1^- <^i Na' ,puh shP pi' ' til (


till. That
is not necessar}-.

yp fpuh yuen' yp Usung 'lei tso'- Not discuss, you like

not like, must do.

fChih.
m^T^nn,mM:t-
I am unable to shirk
' Wo sW puW
it, so (I) do
M it.
^i ,rh ,xvei

^ iSt H^ "^
Sf Uien^ tsoLp ^sJiih ling' pvh'
-T* • 'hao.

Present season not good =


Unhealtiiy weather.

M^^Wi^'MK- '-^^«« ch'u\rh ,tu sJiP ping'

ijen. There are sick people everywhere.

^tt'^M^'ii^iU^T- ^ien ' tsai ' ,ylng , kwo , tih

^yang kia' kwdi' Ja. Just now English money price is

dear.

W^f& 7 fHlS- s^«n^ Js'ien 'chang Ja kia-rh'.

The price of dollars is rising.

T^ ;iS ^IJ. Hia' pulp ^wei IP. Afterwards not


constitute rule = This must not be taken as a
precedent,
84 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

SS^^i^- iLin c/icln' ^mo ^ch'tanff. Just before,


battlefield, to what, the spear ^ To leave everything
to the last moment.
i&iMWit&'HtM^- cTa na' ^chioh wei' sJiP

shih' Jisi ^tih. His rank is hereditary (generation


descending).

fj^\MM^^- il'ieh cM\muh^yang chP. Don't


put on such airs.

fSi W -TI :§:• s-^^" ^chang ^pvli shP. How, can be


proved, not, so = It is undeniable.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 85

LESSON XXIII.

Conversational Expressions— /^co«^.y

MUMt£.^^ -^i MMtt.- < Shwang ,


chHn ^ liai

tsai\t^ang. ShV ; (tu Jiai tsaV . Are your parents both


alive? Yes, both.

^IS^M^-ffiBS- (Kia ^yen ,Ma ^t'sz ftu tsai\na.


Father and mother are both alive.

^^fi^^ji^T- c^wA i/«'"iw 'mw ,tsHng kwo.


cliu^ (la. No, my mother is dead.

M fl* ^ &• t^w'en chung' 'chi weP. How many


brothers have you ?

^ JtL ^ tfc-
^*' (Uung 'cJd wei\ Hovir many
brothers ?

M^^'ffi- (Tsi mei" cJii wei\ How many sisters?

8 fl) SP tl' t
'?'«"«" 5 /'""S'- !
P '««'
s
^'«"5'' Honoured
rank = What position (by age) in the family ?

nm:k,mm:l- 'Wo,faita\ 'Woyatrh'.


I am the eldest, I am the second,
86 BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^T^ S- iCh^anp (la ^kia ^meli. Completed


home ? = Are you married ?

%^'^n&i%^'M^M- '^^i (Shwoh ,


tih hwa"ioo ^puli

ai\tHng. I don't like to hear you talk like that.

it n n 1,1 !ai ^b ^ m 6^ i^ s- .
?'^« . '»"«
'
^^""^
'tee ^t'ung fSin Jioli i' ^tih ^sliang Hang . We must
matched miiida combined a^ree meaninix consult = We

must lay our heads together.


^Tii- Suan' Ja pa\ Reckon finished ! = There !

enough about it.

B^^^JKf^^I^jffi- iTso-rh 'nijai 'wo '/urn ,shih


iying. I am sorry 1 was out yesterday when you

called.

^ 85 T I^K-
Ilsin' Jc^uei Ja 'ni. It was most
fortunate for me, (or) Thank you much, your service

was most timely.

fill ^ :S ffi tt- (^'* cliing'' shi' t^jen sldng^ He


thoroughly is following disposition = That's just like

him ; characteristic of him.

^J^^m^^M^tkU- iMmg-rh ko' ' wo yao\lai


'ch'iiig chiau\ni. I wish to call on you to-morrow.

^ ^ ffi "F- s
-^"'' ^^'"'^^ hwa' sia'. That's of course ;

or, Unnecessarj' to be spoken of.

^^W,y. '
^Fo hwei' P ^la. I catch your niCEining.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 87

^^^TIpJ- 'Wo Usou chuan'Ja siangK I


missed my way.

iSSffillB^- 'Wo ¥an\ta'yen^shou. I know


him very well by sight.

315 10 mH fl^ M JT 7 BS 7 Na' ko' ,tung ,si 'ni


'mai Ua Ja 'i/an Ja. That thing you bought struck


eyes = You have made a bad bargain.
yK.^'^Vi- ' Cldu ^yai^g ta' fining. Long honoured
great reputation = Have long wished for the honour
of your acquaintance.

M ^'{f. % fi^ ^ }:.• -^a' shi' tsaV 'ni ,tih ,shun


shang'. That's your affair ;
you will be answerable.

fiK Wt M a^]MMWM- '^i (^^^oh hwa' ,pieh


che\moh ^k'ua ^chang. You speaking shouldn't thus
expand = Don't exaggerate so !

% ?A fll ii& S R DK- '^i iP^eh haP < ivo ,shiia ,pHn
<tsui. Don't use such offensive expressions (common
mouth) to me.

1'4'0^^'K- Chiao' 'ni p'o' fei'. Cause you waste


expense^ I'm afraid I'm putting you to great expense.

— •^ ft -S S& £• c^'*^ «^««' e^^'iao' ,pH lma-rh\


A very witty, amusing expression.
88 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

K -T* 'fS B^- s"^^'*' P*'^*' fSiang ^man. Truly not


mutually deceiving = To tell you the actual truth.

% YA ^ IS ff5 fi^ y- 'Ni ,pieli aP 'wo ^man ,tih

shih'. Doa't you meddle in our affairs.

M^u^t.i;in 6i ^"^^^ ^^^' 'wo ,chHu ,chih puh


^teh ftih. That is I seek not get = I sliould only be
too glad to do — or get, it.
'

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 89

LESSON XXIV.

Conversational Expressions— /^co« z'.y/

i^ ff! ^ i3> ?a ^ 11- '


TT'o s
man '
tsou , ch'ao chi-rh

pa'. We go cross cut road = A short cut.


•^i^j^^S- i^^^ ''^*^'*' kuo\MoIi fineh. Are
you a siu-ts'ai ?

J^ ift ^ 7* BB- i^in chung^ 'kii ^la ^meh. Are you


a cliu-jen ?

PM' i^ ?S ffi ^ M '^- c^Wj s«"* *^'«"' ^«««'' «^«''

Zz'an^ 'pang. Oh, you are a c/(m - shih (twice


placarded).

'^ IP J^ "J". (Hsiao hsing' kuo' Ja. Good luck


fortunate passed == I am a (whatever the degree
may be).

Ut'HSSJS^^?^- '^^ ^«o' '^^^^'^ c/w'-r/i' toan^'


'c7w' ti'^Vr^. I should like to put up here for a few

days.
13
'

90 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^^ ;;^ -gr. Wei\c]iang pu\cMa. Not, caa be


proved, not, admirable = Excellent in every vv'ay

(said of anything).

'0[^llt|-'l!l'^ P M-'- '^'' 'tsung 'tell .sin 'h'eu Ju ,yih.


You should heart mouth as if one = Say what you
think.

^^S 'K- (Kuang .yin shun' k'uaP. The time


(light, shade) passes very quickly.

ft^^TBiS- Kiiei\i/ang ' Jiao Ja ^meli. Honour-


able complaint ? = Are you any better ?

flii 61l ^^ 51- #• (T'a.tihping' puh'ai' shih'. His


illness is not serious (not hinder business).

W S S :^ Eii ix W- i^i^t ishdn (Wzo


' ' shao ji'o ^mei
' yiu. Can you let me have it for less ?

Wi^^M tl E- ^" '


'
«'"'
c/"» ^J'
s
Rising j
/(«'. At
what rate of interest ?

^ ^n ^ ftH 65 T ^ M- '^'»
c
c/'e tao'.t'a^ tih Ida ' lo

.meh. Do you know his whereabouts? (where he has


settled down).

i^ ffi S W ^ }^ H ^ 7 • iNln tsai ' cU '


'
shang lo

hii'' ^ki ^nien Ja. How long have you been settled in
this province ?
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 91

IS M ix W Ji # M ^- ' ''^0 ping ' ^ mi^i 'yiu j wei Jei


tso
'
' tai. I indeed not have acted wrong done wrong =
Indeed I have not done anything wrong.

?SW-^)SM-?35'R- '^0 '2/*'"


(P^>'
«^«'"^ if<^ng

'tsz ^ch'u Un'. I have a house to let.

^mW^Ml^l^M-'M- 'Ni chih' 'kwan pa' 'so

H ^jan ^shwoh i\shwoh. Tell me exactly how the whole


thing occurred.

Mf^9n^t'^W^&tl- Che chien' shih' 'wo


pull' ^nang tih''ni^ch'u IP. I cannot help you in this

matter.

iS -T* §5l ^
E/ lis ®- '^'^ pwA' ^kan Jao lung'' ^nin

na\ I not dare trouble disturb you.

J^ 5^ "J*.
jiVi';i ^lai Ja. Are you coming, Sir.

m ifi ^' 'Ch'ing tsin' Jai. Please enter; come


in.

liii&M' ^^^WM- iNin, ch'ou ,ijen,


'
wo puW
hwei\cli^ou ^yen. Will you smoke ? I can't smoke.

Mf^U^ WM S Si^S—^- ,Pieh .chioang 'chia.


An' ^clioh tsz' 'chi ^cliia 'li ^yih yang'. Don't stand
on ceremony. Do as you would at home.

n^WMMMT,m,^Ml'- 'Wo^Ui.nintao'
'sM Jai Ja. ^Nin ta' 'shi Ja. I have come to

congratulate you. You are to be congratulated.


92 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

'
sM. It is very friendly of you.

mmiMl, mmmir- ^^m Jan nm '


, la. Shou '

shu' tao\la. I condole with you (in case of a death).

His years were sufficient = His time had come.


i^ In lis ^¥ T
?K ^Wo^Mi nin pai\ nien
• ^ ^ lai ^ la.

I wish you a happy new year.

;^ if if. IS if H- £ ^"^ c
shin ' shi. £ Nin , shin '
sM.
New year greetings. The compliments of the season.
— — —
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 93

LESSON XXV.

Miscellaneous Words, Phrases, etc.

yPHB Chinese are fond of arranging things in sets of

five. The following are some examples :

1. The five grains: —1§, ^, ^, ^, ^ tao\ ^liang,

t^ou\ map, 'sh'u. After all these the character ^ tsg

is used in conversation, except the second, which in the


colloquial is
^^ 'kao Jianc/. The corresponding
English names are rice, sorghum, peas and beans,
wheat, and millet. These are the ^^ 'wu 'ku, five

grains.

2.— The five coloufs .—^, Q, ^, ^, ^ ^hung,


ipai, Jan, Jiwong, Jieh, red, white, blue, yellow, and
black. Collectively they are the jE'Si 'w" 'shai, or
'wu seh', the five colours :

Light Blue, ^^ *ehHen Jan,


Dark Blue, ^^ ^shan Jan.
Tinged with red, ^K ISL '«'*"* Jiung,
94 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

i?.ga>?i^ a shades of blue.

[^ /t» fe; |§ S
i'l^cifi inu' seh'; ^tsung seh' lit. south
wood colour •= brown.
§Q ^sileh (pai, snow white ; as white as snow.

Jfil S! '^we^« Jmng, blood red ; as red as blood.

^ Ea J
chHh hell, paint black ; as black as ink.

^C M t,i''i6n flan, sky-blue.

JllS s
'^5'''
s
hwong, gosling yellow.

§^ .s/h'w^? '
s
hwong, the Imperial yellow.

^^ (/««ta' Wt', ash colour = gray.


3. — The five metals: —^^ ';«« tHn.

<fe , ^^, IIp), ^, ^ r^7'n, iVin, ^thmg, H'ieh, ^sih,

gold, silver, copper, iron, tin.

Besides these there are; fQ, |[J, ^ Ifp]


(/,wi^,

(?/en, ^hwong (,t'ung, steel, lead, brass.

Tinned iron used for making boxes, etc., is ,1| P^


'ma 'kou 't'ieh.

i\^ hwa', to melt.

^ siu\ rust.

^ c/m', to cast in a mould.

4. — The five tastes : — ^ (^ 'tou W(3f'.

^> M) ^; 5t) ^ c««««, ia\ 'k'u, it'ien, ^han,


sour, hot, bitter, sweet, salty.

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 95

ii> ^. :^^> I®, ^ <«'«'. ,isiang, tap ^hivong,


if'ang, ^yen, vinegar, ginger, rhubarb, sugar,
salt, are substances which serve as examples of
the taste.

5. — T)ie five elements: — ^^^ ^wu ^sliing.

^. tK' 7jC, IK^ ± c-^^j »"<'> '^^'"2) '^""o. '*'". gold,


wood, water, fire, earth.

6. Tlie five quarters: —^ |p] 't«M sliiang''.

^> M, rS) ^! fj' ri'wn^r, ,«/, jwaM, ';3e?', ,c/i'lH?^,

East, West, South, North, Middle.


Pekin is divided into these five cities, the middle
being also known as the Forbidden City.

^^^ 'Tsz ^Mn^ch'ing.

Ex. 73 :—
IS?, I§?@?5b7jtm (ft ,cAim^ = plant), ^^
^^^m^ {-^ </on^ = place, district), S^ll^
JflL^i^fi^, g:^&e^, ^;g^6^, />Slfi^€
;;^^&^ (^ ; jrtao ^ feathers, hair, down), ifl ^ iJij

Wi^m fi^ (moA'=ink), m^m^^ikm,


96 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

mm mm mm ^m 4*m, f3:±si5sas,
mmm^, mm-m, mm±mm^, mmm
(^ , loan = tun), mm^m^M^mm, ^^m,

alone), ^U^MU, nU%-i^^^mfm

Ex. 74. — Translate, using your dictionary for all the

words not supplied in previous lessons. Gold is

yellow. Silver is white. Copper is red. Iron is

heavy. Tin is not so heavy as lead. Steel is hard.


Lead is soft. Brass is copper and tin mixed. Lead
melts easily. Iron will soon rust. There is casi

iron and wrought iron.


Vinegar is sour ;
ginger is hot ; rhubarb is bitter ;

sugar is sweet ; salt is salty. Unripe fruits are sour.

Preserved ginger is very nice. Rhubarb is a useful


medicine. Quinine is very bitter. Chinese people
don't use sugar in their tea. Bacon is very salty
sometimes.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 97

The Chinese say the five elements are gold, wood,


water, fire and earth. But in truth gold is the only
element amongst them. Wood is composed of three
or more elements ; water of two. Fire is not a
true element, neither is earth.
How is Pekin divided ? Pekin is divided into five
cities. What are they called ? They are called the
Eastern, Western, Southern, Northern and Middle
cities. What is the Middle City also called ? The
Middle City is usually called the Forbidden City by the
foreigners, but the 'Tsz ^hin ^ch^eng by the Chinese.

Ex. 75. —Write out lists of things that are red, white,
blue, green, etc. Each under its proper heading.

Ex. 76. —Write out all the English expressions you


can think of connected with colour ; e.g. as white as
snow ; as brown as a berry, as black as ink ; blood-
red, sky-blue, etc., etc. Translate them literally, and
read them to your teacher and see how many of them
agree with Chinese idiom.

Ex. 77. —Make a collection of the names of food plants


growing about Shanghai, and use with them from
your dictionary such common words as plough, dig,

sow, reap, cultivate, water, manure, thresh, etc.

14
98 EASY STEPS I^ CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XXVI.

Official Occupations.
^ _tli ^ "^ iHwang shang\ ^ Hwang ti\ the Emperor.
^)g ^Hwang heu\ the Emperor's wife Empress. ;

i^l^^ ^iistla T'aP heu', ^Ilwang t'aV heu\ Emperor's


mother Dowager Empress.
;

2> M^^ 3E^ iWang, ,ChHn ^wang, ^Wang Hsz,

Princes.

^ ^Kuan
"^ (,yuen, Mandarins.
§
M 'Tsung ^tii, a Viceroy.

Wi o" '-^** ^'<^^' ^^^ Governor of a province.


s

jg 1^ Tao' ^t'ai, the head of a " Fu" city.


^n M> ^n B
cCId ,cli6u, ,Chi 'fu, a Prefect.

^Wi c^^*' fisien', the head of a ^^ hsien" district.

District Magistrate.

iJ(^ t^'m an Ambassador,


( cA'ai, Minister.

fM ^ '^ 'imf/ ^kwan, Consul.


s/w'

^ ^ HioeP
'g' slum ^hoan, Mixed Court Magistrate.

I,®1^ ^ W] Tsung shuP wu^ the ^sz, Inspector


General of Customs.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 99

f^^ p1 ShuP wu' fSZ, a Commissioner.

ffl _h 65 A c-S^M«w shanc/^ ^tih Jen, a Custom house


officer.

P3 Iffi 6^ A -^^*^ cP^'* (**^' si^**' *^^ indoor staff.

^Mffi fit) A ^^(^i' cP<^^ c*»^ sj^") the outdoor staff.

H ^ s^Mo (I'M, the Government.


jj^ Chang' slii\ State affairs.

P ti. ^P law.
iw/t' si'eao, '
Fall lilh',

p^'tK JTWoI '2a go


-^^o' chwang', (^i«a?j jSr, to to law.

^ F'ai, appoint an
to or duty. to office

^K dismiss
i^^^^ i
mandarin).
''^'^^r to (as a

^ jp dismiss (anybody).
jiTe/j (Za/j, to

^ P5 an
s-^'''
residence
jWi^w, official or court.

y?J =§I5
LmA' jom', the six boards or Government offices.

X hI5
(Kung pu\ the Board of Works (in Shanghai
the Municipal Council).

|& §15 rPing pu\ the War Office.

^ §15 Hu' pu', the Board of Revenue.


IS hB '-^i
P"') the Board of Rites.

JflJ §p ^Shing pu\ the Board of Punishments.

1^ §15 iz' pu\ the Board of Civil Office.


KB. — Note carefully the difference in tone between

M and jf^.

If Jl^ pg 'Tsimg 'U (Yamen, the Office of Foreign


Affairs.
100 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

13 ^ (Siang ^pang, to help, to assist.

^^ Pan^ slip, to condnct affairs.

^ 'Seng, a province.

^ Kwan, to govern.

=3 s-Fa/i, to punish, to fine.

g ^Ch'en, a stati^sman, a high official.

E'.r. 78 :

«• ^m^ l5tj 'B' A. IS .^ W II §> ® #1 (Soochow)

^
mm-^ i^^m, m'i mmmm^mm, -s^
mfT'^m^-mmm m±m±mm m
Am, m:^Um^^^, ISB, liSIJ. MU< M%
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 101

Ew, 79. —I have never seen the Emperor yet. Have


you? The Empress is pretty, but the Dowager
Empress is not. Many Princes live in Pekin.
Thousands of mandarins live in the 18 provinces.
The Viceroy at Nankin is named §|J i^ — , Who
is the Fu-t'ai at Sooehow? The present Taotai
of Shanghai is Mr. Ts'ai. I saw the prefect yesterday.
The Chihsien was calling on (visiting) him. For-
merly no Chinese ambassadors were sent to foreign
countries. The English Consul wrote to the Taotai.

The Mixed Court Magistrate has gone into the


city. Sir Robert Hart is the Inspector General of
Customs at present. Our Commissioner allowed the
ship to go. Mr. Wang is a Custom-house officer.

Is he indoor or outdoor? State affairs are transacted


by the government in Pekin. The mandarin who
did not know the law was dismissed. Wise people
don't go to law. The outdoor staff man was
appointed one day, and dismissed the next. I went
to the Taotai's official residence last week. There
are six boards or Government offices in Pekin.
What are they called ? They are called the Board
of War, the Board of Revenue, the Board of Rites,

the Board of Punishments, the Board of Works,


and the Board of Civil Offices. The office of foreign
102 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

affairs is new compared with the others. To govern


a province is not an easy matter. The viceroy has
many mandarins to assist him. This high official

was punished. He was fined ^1,000.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 103

LESSON XXVII.

Ordinary Occupations.

^ ^, ^ ;;^ TaP Ju, ac^ c


Sencf, doctor.

^ ^ Sheo^ a veterinary surgeon, a


J, farrier.

ED ^ 6^ aI7n,' fShu ftih, printer.

R ^ 6^ ^^'^P t*^" t'*^*' ^ bookseller.

^ ^ ^ fihwang Jen, farmer. ^Jcia a

miS) '^'*IC (Kung tsiang', 'Siao ^hung, a labourer, a

coolie.

l£ _\ Tsiang' ^jen, an artisan.


J^ ^
jPi tsiang^, a shoe-maker, a leather seller.

Jffi ^E s
-^"^ t
c^*''^ tsiang ', a painter.

^ i^ s
T!s'a? ifung, a tailor.

7[v E Muh' tsiang', a carpenter.

^E 'THeha blacksmith.
tsiang',

iM E a
s-^^** tsiang', silversmith.

IM ^ E iTung a copper and t,sih tsiang', tin-smith.

Jffi E ^Tiao
-fb ^hwa a wood tsiang', carver.

i^ E
^Ij an engraver, a type
^'fi/*' tsz' tsiang', cutter.
104 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^^ £ ^Chung 'piao tsiang\ a, clock and watch


maker.

3£ ^ '
ITa tsiang', a mason, a builder.

^ 'flj 6'5l '^"" /'" ' c


^^^') '^ dyer.

^^ fi^ 'i^an^ sien' jilt, a spinner.

)^ ffi 6§ (CM pu' till, a weaver.


i^ ^ '/S/m? 's/ifiM, a sailor.

^ (Ping, a soldier.

^:^i WfS 6^ '^'"' ^^^'j ^Kwan ^ch'wan (tih, a boat


captain.

^ ^ g^ '(Si'eA i*s' f
f?7j, a writer, a clerk.

^ ^ A (Smg P ijen, a merchant.

U^^ ^T'uan lien'' cping, a volunteer.

^ !^ Hioh (Seng, a pupil, a scholar.

SS' W A s
^*''* c
*''**'
c
^<^^*
si^") ^ scholar, a learned man.
¥SA 'Shell i' Jen, a handicraftsman.

Ea;. 79 :—

(ping\ sickness), H^ it S S * S> ED If 65 gfl 6^ ^


mm (^u\tohive),^mmB'i'mmxmm^,

* Note. —'jV« si'i;f« = pony money. The doctors formerly rode


to visit patients.
liAgY STEPS IK ehlNESB gTUDiES. lOS

^^Ammm, i^flifitifi^-^^^x, ate

m'^^mfm (tie «vo, (^ m a m i4 m i a.

IS
106 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XXVIII.

Further Exercises on Numerical


Expressions.
One.

The student will find as he advances that numerical


expressions are in frequent use. We give herewith a
selection of them, to which he may add from his own
experience or from Stent, Mateer, Bailer, etc.

~* ^M Yih^ ^chien ^ivu, a room.


~* ff aS ^
I7/j, chien' ,z 'sJiang, a garment.

— i^ ^Yih^ fChih 'pi, a pencil, or pen.


"~ S )IB ^^) (CAz'/i ^chw'en, a ship.
— ^^ Yih, soon
(king, as already.as,

— "^ ^ Yih^
• hwa', a sentence.
kit'

— ^ ^ Yih^ (Chuang
• '[§ an
s7dh' ^cliHng, affair.
— ^ J^ Yih^
* a short space
hui^ ^rh, time. of
~* ^ i^ KA, 'kan a musket,
^tsHang, spear, etc.
— P ' /^ Yih, 'k'eu 'shui, a draught of water.

rf "^ dl Fz"A, k'uai' Hii, a piece of land.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 107

"* M "? ^^K ifang a row houses,


?Bf ^w*' 'tsz, of
~* A ^^^
ffi >
company men.
<P'^^ ij^^) ^ of
~^M® fShuang Y^ih^ a of Jisieh, pair shoes.

^ iS
""* Yih^ an ingot of
ting^ ^yin, silver.

—^ miao', a temple.
Hil rj/i, tso'

— ^ Yih,
• once,
^ehH, all at altogether.
— • j|[ ri'A, ^chih, straight.
— • Jt^ Yih J fChin, a catty.
— ^ Yih^ (fan, once.
— ^ Yih, tz'u\ once.
— in Yih, ihui, once.
— jS* I'zA, pien', once.

— j/an^,
;j^ Fi'A, the whole neighbourhood, 10,000
(in money).
— Yih, hsiang\
[pj hitherto, a while past.
— Xg Yih, one hsiang', sort or kind.
— Yih, affi ^siS, little of, a few.
— • i^ Yih, fSin, the whole heart.
—— Yih, yih, one by one.
— • ^Ij Yih, h'o\ a quarter of an hour.
— 3t ^^^i kung\ the whole all, of.

— •Yih, chHeh\ „
-gj „
— g Yih, mien\ one while, on the one hand.
— j^ ;^ Yih, fhan ta\ of the same size.

— ^ Yih,ping\ the whole, together, all.


.

108 EAST STEPS IN OBIHESB pTUI»IBS,

—^ -^ ^ pu^
* Yih, ,yih pu\ step by step,

—^ > Yih, fSJiCmg, all one'glife.


—B$ Yih,
' ,shih, inadvertently, a time, sometimes.
—^ Yih,
' tai', all along, the whole row.
— J^ Yih^
ifi
Hie-^rh, a little.
—^ t'mg\Fi'/t, certainly, positively.
— Yih ^Ij , fs^ , in the first place.

— |,§ Yih^ 'tsung, the whole of, all,

— ' '^ Yih, yo-ng', the same, alike.

^^— ^ '
t
^^w s&7i' ^yih yang\ all alike.

— I^ i^ ®
' (^^^' (<'^" jW^*' shan', once is enough.
— M I^ ^
*
c
Y^^^ mien '
( cAz ^ iz, one side of the question

The student will be wise to use these expressions


and those 'in succeeding lessons in conjunction with his

previous lessons. For this reason no exercises will be


given. Each student will thus be able to vary his work
to suit himself, and teachers in schools will easily set

exercises for their pupils.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 109

LESSON XXIX.

Further Exercises on Numerical


Expressions.
Two AND T0EEE.

^ jg 'HP cMa\ two prices.

-L ^ '-^^'
fCkHn, parents.

Zl H ^ ^ '^^*'
c^"
'»'^' t'i") hesitating, confused.

]Il i^\ *i2/i' (Si«, douhle'Ddinded.

HA IbI 'Cl^
'-^^'
si^** s*'""5' c®*"> ^0*-^
°f "'^^ mind.

Zl 15 ^ 'i2/t' ^kSuff ft'ien, the second night ^yatcb.


'^ ^ 'i?/j' Jai, in the second place, next, etc.

ZlM'R^'M, » » » »
3^ ^ 'jRA* jZan, navy blue.

^
"*.
'i?A' flianff, two taela.

I— ^ jK ^ 'i^A' jjnao 5Joe 'aa, a skin coat ^itb wool.

Zl }B ^ 'i2A' 'pa 'sJiou, a four-handled barrow for tw©


men.
I^ S$'-^^^ *^''' f ^M * two^rhprae carriage or cart.

"^ f^ 'Bh' weP, two, or both gentlemen.


110 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STDDIES.

Zl ^ BS '-^^' '^" 'y^"> *^® same (goods).


3 ft t
'^<'''* 'chiao, triangular, three-quarters.

H^K ffi fSan j«s'?'e« 'Zzan^ <?ao', 2,000 or 3,000

cash.

3 ^ ^ (San ^chih 'shou, a pick-pocket.

S SI A? (5an (CA'm tfe Z?m' Am', various friends and


relatives.

S ^ it fSan ^chw'an
"fc (Chi 'met, most excellent.

3 y ,San a general, the army.


fCliiin,

S ^ iSan fCh'un a kind of acacia plant.


fflJ
'liu,

S H ^ <San
JCI' V, undecided, irresolute.
^sin 'rh'

3^ (San "three happiness, emolu-


(Sing, stars,"

ments, long life.

S W X 1^ (Saw fkang 'lou ^ch'anc/, the 3 Bonds and


5 Constant Virtues.
^ ^ (San (kwang, " three lights," the sun, moon and
stars.

S ?B t0 (San 'Hang two or ko', three.

]3 ^ 2 ^ San ^nien 'lou ^tsal,


three or four
I
years.

3^ " planks,"
,<San 'paw, three a boat.

H (San "three thoughts," think


<^» fSZ, thrice, be

careful.

3f^ fSan tap, father, grand- and great-grandfather.


3^23 (San ,tien 'wu jih', three or four days, a
few days.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. Ill

^ 3£ (San 'wu
5*5 three or four days, a few days.
^tien,

S W M '^ (San ^yen a few words.


'liang chu',

^ ^ Tsai' again, and


fSan, a third time.

H S ^ tl flB ^rh heu'


(Sci^ (Sz think^shincf, thrice,

then act.

^ 3E )JS S (San 'tou ^ehUng ^ohUn, three or five make


a group (used respecting unlawful meetings.)
112 EASY BTEPa m CHINESE STUDIfiS.

LESSON XXX.

Furtiier Exercises on Numerical


Expressions.
Four, Five and Six.

29 ^ '^2' (C^ih, the four limbs (man).

29 iH 'S^' ^chih, square, a map.

23 ^ ^ 99 &' chih' ffgn fining, the four boundaries


clearly defined.

Eg ^ &' ch'u', all around, everywhere.

pg )\\ Sz' fCh'uan, "four streams," Szechuen.


pEj ;^ /S» ' cfang, square, the four cardinal points.

29 tM '5*' '^''''*'' "four seas," everywhere.


29 ~F 'S^' Ma', all round, everywhere.
^ &' iUn, the neighbours all round.

pg Ig Sz' lu\ "four roads," on all sides.


29 ffi 'S^' mien'', all round, everywhere.
29 A S^^ mien' ^pa (fang, a cube, everywhere.
ffi 3i^

29 ^ A IS sP% '^^' «/"« '*"«") firm, substantial.

29 h5J "Sz' saw', dispersed all over the place.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 113

gg ^ &' the four


fsMnff, tones.

pg ^ cAP, the four


iSs' seasons.

H$ &' s*^*') tlie four seasons.

E9 iS /V ^ Sz\t^ung ^pa 5 t<z, a thoroughfare, in every


direction.

3£ 3^ 'l^w t/o'J^', five quarters, E., S., W., N., Centre.

BE 3^ ^ '
JFm ,/«<« hsioMg'f a five-tenths likeness, a
profile.

^^ '
IFm j/«, the five blBSsings.

S }^ '^ 'l^w s/m ss' Viae, the Empire.

5E ^^ A 'f'P
'^" s^angf ^pa ,<so, small tradesmen.

5 S^ 'g'
" ^" t'*^")
^''^^ ^*'^ drum or watch. 3 or 4 a.m.
3£ ' PFm ( At^an, the five senses.

^W&^^ *TFm ich'ang Jan, %'m full beard.

S /^ '^" the 'i«'a«', five colours.

spleen, liver,
3£ jg 'PFm ts'ang\ five viscera: heart,
lungs and kidneys. (See Lesson XXV.)

}?; Iljf
iiw' '/m, the abdominal viscera.
;^ ^ Liu^ hsiln\ six decades of days or years, a cycle.

A? + ?£ ¥ -^*'«'
s*^"'^ ^hualiChia, a cycle of 60 years.

16
114 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XXXI.

Furtlier Exercises on Numerical


Expressions.

Seven, Eight, Nine and Ten.

•^ ^ /\, M. iT'sili ^tsang ^pa Huan, long and short,


scandal.

•"tj Jff /\ f ^T'sili ^cM ^pa k'ou\ seven or eight parts


in ten.

•^ ^ (T'sih ch'iao', the eyes, ears, nostrils, mouth :

7 holes.

•ij M (T'sih ^ch'tnc/, the seven passions.

-t ^ (T'sih ^hsi, 7th evening of the 7th month.

't M (T'sih (hsing, seven stars ; Charles's wain.

"tl 3^A |jiC (T'sih ' ku (pa ch'a\ at loose ends, tangled.
-b ^ A M (T'sih ^ling ^pa lo\ scattered about in all

directions.

"fc A ^ iS (T'sih ,pa (Cheng ^7-h, seven or eight to


one in favour.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 115

-fc ^ /\ KI (T^sih 'shou fpa 'cMao, too many cooks spoil


the broth.

-t ;^ /V 4"* (T^sih toi^ ^pa ' siao, different sizes.

"b Ij^ /Vl? (T'sih 'tsui ^pa ^shS, conflicting opinions,


a tattler's gossip.

•^J s /V ^ (T'sih ^yin ^pa ^yil, conflicting opinions,


a tattler's gossip.

/\ 1^ jPa jc/i't, the eight banners at Pekin.


j\^^ (Pa ihang ^shu, Chinese note-paper.
/V flil cP<^ ^hsien, the eight worthies.

j\ ^ fPa fko, the raven.

j\^ '^ (PC' c^*'* s


^^) niusical boxes.

•fl^ 1^ 'Kiu s tsanff, a name of Pekin.

^ iC 'Kiu ( kianff, 9 streams, Kiukiang.

^ 'Kiu jl>I>I
fChou, the nine provinces, everywhere.

^ ^ 'Kiu iCh'uan, "the nine springs," hell: the


grave.

•^ ^ 'Kiu 'pin, the nine ranks or grades.

^^—^ 'Kilt 'su P ^sMng, a very narrow escape.

^ ]^ 'Kiu s
tsu, the nine generations.

^
"t* £iS/K7t ^ch'uan, complete, perfect.

1§ iShih 'cJdh, the ten fingers.


"f*

-p ^ ;^ — • 5)SAi7f {/wn (is^! .^zA, one-tenth.


116 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

"f* SJ t® iShih Jai ko\ nearly ten.

^Wi^WL iSMh o' ipu s7ie\ the ten unpardonable


crimes.

"t* A ^' iShih fpa 'sheriff, the 18 Provinces of China


Proper.

"f* ^ ^ ^ ^Shih ftien pan' yiieh', 10 or 15 days.


-|* i^^ ^Shih tzu' fChieh, cross streets.

-f* ^ /^ }^ iShih 'yeu ^pa 'kiu, eight or nine chances


in ten.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 117

LESSON XXXII.

Further Exercises on Numerical


Expressions.
A Hundred, a Thousand.

W ^ W ^ ^Pai chan' 'pai always sheng^, victorious.

W^ j^ 'Pa? The Book of Surnames.


(kia Jising',

15 W §^
"g" ^pai ^ning,
'P'^'i kinds of
'ch'iao all abilitj.

S" JS A "f* 'Pai ii-h ,pa ishih, 8Q or 100.


"^ ^
g' 14* 'Pai ^fa 'pai chung', always successful.
g' *§" 'Pai fkivan, all the officers of government.

W ^ ^ ^ 'Paiinien ^chih hou\ after death.


g" :^ ]^ j^ 'Pai nien pu yU\ an extremely '
rare event
s

W IS '-^^* cjjcwi, many kinds, various.

W ]^ years age).
'-f '''*' **'*') ^*50 (of
g" ^Pai upwards 100.
isJiih ko^, of
-f* fl3
§ 'Paeg){ wild animals,
show', beasts.
"5"
^ a countless numbers.
'^'''^" «'<^'*') million,
§ ^ j^ ^ '^«* Man' fChihfu', exceedingly wealthy.
118 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ^ W 'S c
Tsieii ^cli'i 'pai kuaP, very strange.

=^ ^ ^Tsien Jcin, a thousand pieces of gold, your


daughter.

^ ^ §Tsien f
(fang, versatile, versatility.

^ f
3J^ j- (Tsien Jang 'pai chp, by hook or by
crook.
•^ 5^ ^ g: (Tsien (hsin wan' (Jcu, extreme hardship.
^ j^ ^Tsien ^ku, ancient times.

^M^ (Tsien Hi ching', a telescope.

"f^Wli (Tsien Hi 'yen, „


=f-
fp ^Tsien ^nien, 1,000 years.

^ Ig" (Tsien 'pai, 1,100, above 1,000.

^^WiVCi (Tsien pien' wan' hua', changeable.

^^ 1,000 years a kingly


(Tsien sui', ; title.

^ ^ /^(Jj wan' and


(Tsien ^sJian 'shui, far wide.

T^ M J®
*W*
(Tsien (Su loan' 'hsiang, full of thoughts.

^ ^"^ 1,000 Character


(Tsien tzu' ^wen, Classic.

^M wan', 10
(Tsien myriads, by means. all

^M 'T»
pu', on
(Tsien ivan' any account. don't
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 119

LESSON XXXIII.

Further Exercises on Numerical


Expressions.
A Mtraid, a Half.

M Wi Wan^ innumerable c^fu, blessings, a woman's


salutation.

j^ ^ Wan' hsing\ great happiness.


^ — Wan'' a (-yih, just possibility.

^ Wan'
-jjf
from the most 'kii, distant ages.

M ^^ ifi
^cMu,
TFixw' 'ku ct'sien all antiquity.

1^ ^ ^ iS 'kua ^Ung the


IFcin^ ^chih, slicing punish-

ment.
^9^ s^KO VA/m
j|i[>| the world.
TFixn' ,c7jom,

H M ;S ^«"' Ilk the Great Wall.


'^^ cC^'«w5' sc/j'^n^',

^ ^ jQ ^ TFan' outrageously wicked.


o' ,too (i/en,

H ^ peP, 10,000
fra?i' fold.

^ 'TJ fiib
on no account able
fFfl'i'pw' fPing, to.

in ^B
/f>
pw^ be obliged.
TFizn^ s«e
'«',
to
120 EASY STEPS lU CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ^ Wan' sui\ a myriad years, the Emperor.


M^M Wan' sui' ,yeh, "lord of 10,000 years," thei
Emperor.
^ ^ Wan' "the myriad
sJdh', everything. affairs,"

^ ^ Wan' sh6u\ the Emperor's birthday.


^ H RT TFan'
T"» pw' you must not on any
ii;an' '/;o,

account do it.

H ^ — ^ Wan' not one in 10,000,


^lou i' ^sJdh, failure

perfectly safe.

^ ^ Wan' wu', "the myriad things," things all in

creation.

^ ^ Pan' a large
^cliieh, half, piece.

:^ ^ Pan' fChung
tfl the ^yao, waist.

:^ ^ Fan' ^han pan' tu\ half-concealed,


-g^ Bj^ half-

confessed.

^ i^ ^ Pcin'
-TJ lisin' pu' chiu', the worse for wear.

^ fg ^ ^ Pa7i' hsin' pan' ^i, half-believing, half-


doubting.

^ M S Po.^' Jisuan (^ung, in mid air.

i^ @ Pan' ko', half.

^ ^Ij Pa)i' A'o', a little while, a brief space.

^^^ ^l^ Pan' ^kimg pan' ^su, half-public, half-

private.

^ Pan'
/J§ lu', half way.

^ ^ Pan' ^nien, half the year.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 121

^ "§ Pan^ a hundred, 50 years


'pai, half old.

^ ? Pan'
ffi peP a middle-aged person.
'tsz,

^ :^ ^ Pan' ^shen pu'


-T* half paralysed.^shui,

^ ^ Pan' ^sMng, middle aged.

^ ^ ^ ^ Pan' half
s,«/ieM(? j)m* ^shu, ripe, half
cooked.

^ 5E ^ vS Paw' *iit pit' j/oto, dead and alive, life-

less.

^M.^ -P^**' *«"' s''^«)


h^lf ^^^ way.

^ ^ Pa?i' ftHen, half a day ; a long time.

3^ ^ Pan' 'isai, half a year.

^ ^ Pan' yeh', half the night : midnight.

^ ^ ^ 1^ -^'«"' cP^ P"-^' sJ/«"5'>


'^^^f bl'acfe, half
white.

=^ ^ ? Pa«' '«/M '<«^, a stutterer.

16
122 BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XXXIV

Common Words in Combination.


Tea, Wine, etc.

^ JL a tea-poy.
sC'/t'a ,c/m',

^ J^ ^Ch^a and wiae.


'cJuu, tea

^^ iCh'a a t^hu, tea-pot.

^ S^ 'kuan, a
sC/j'a tea-shop.

S a tea-cup.
lf> sC'/t'a (pe/,

^^ s
a
C/j'a '
ivan, tea-cup.

^^ jCA'a ye/i', tea (in leaf).

jS ^ 'C/im breath smelling of wine.


cA'«',

S^ ' " wine money," a cumshaw.


^^"'^ iCh'ien,

^S '
chung,
t'/iwa small wine cup.
s

S /S a dinner, a banquet.
'C'/tm jAii,

}S §]| 'C/rtM 'kwan, a wine-shop, an eating-house.

j]@ fi 'C/«'« Uang\ a man's capacity for wine.

S^ *C/w'u iP'ing, a wine bottle.

S ®? t!x IQ 'C/mm <6i«j' /au' ^pao, to have eaten and


drunk one's fill.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 123

^ @ lYen tap, a pipe.

^ J® (Yen tap
lIQ li^ 'tsui ^rh, the mouth-piece of a
pipe.

'M. ^ (Yen yeli', tobacco in leaf.

^M. ^ ^^" c
'c/man, a cigar.

15 i^an', boiled rice, food, a meal,

fi ^ Fan' 'kuan, an eating-house.


1!^ ^ i^an ' ( A«o, the pot in which food is cooked.
^^Fan\shih, food.

15 1^ Fan' (tan, a napkin or bib.

15 ^ i^aw' ts^aP, rice and vegetables, food.

gj! 7«im'', drunk, intoxicated,

^^ drunken man.
Tsui' han', a

^ ^ '^M«, an
2««««' drunkard. habitual

^ 52 Tsui' dead drunk. 'ssn,

8^ TsmP
flj down drunk.
'too, to fall

^ 7'«mP"j* drunk, 'liao, intoxicated.

B^ 'T* T y*'"' pu' Hiao, incapable of being drunk.

ffi^ fiS ^T Tsui' ^hu ^t'u Hiao, stupidly drunk.

'M.M c^'^'* t''*"^ tobacco ashes.

SSf il J® c^«'»
'««' c*"o s'»"^'>
ttie bowl of a pipe.
j^ i t
^'^" '^'^5 opium.
124 EASY STEPS IN 'CHINESB STDDIES.

LESSON XXXV.

Common Words in ComTbination.


Cotton, Silk, Oil, and Water.

^ -fE <.M.ien Jiwa, raw cotton.

'f^ •?£ ^ iMien Jiiua 2Ju', cotton cloth, calico.

IS ^ -wadded
i^fien Jisieh, shoes.

^^ jMen cotton hsien', thread.

^ ^Mien
jfg 'j^
cotton ^i 'sJianc/, clothes.

IS ^ ? iMien ip'ao wadded gown. 'tsz,

^ -f (Mien Us:
yft cotton seed iyiu, oil.

^^ cSz, silk, raw silk, small, minute, etc.

^^ f
S2 hao, the
s
least, the slightest.

i^ ^ -^l^ |g (Ss Jiao ipii t'so\ exactly right.


^^ c"^- Ji^ien', silk thread.

J|§ 5^ ^ ^ (Sj s^a? ^Jiao ch^u\ a very little, the least

bit,

^^ fiSz jZo, crape, gauze, silk ; matrimony.

^^ ,
Ss (
tai, silk ribbons, braid.

^.i^-f-fS: I
too 'tsz, silk edging or fringe.
EASY STEPS IN CHIi^BSB STUDIES. 125

c
Yi>t, oil.
'?fl

?ft ^ s^*w (C/t'i, oil colour, varnish, lacquer.

?ft ^ IS i^'i'^ (Ch'i tsiang', painters, varnishers.

fiil IK 5
^'''" 'c/w/(, oil paper.

y® jfS s^^" Jtsiang, oil boxes.

Vfi ^ i 17m pw', oil cloth.

'?ft D^ i'i' 5 s
-^"' '^*''* c^"'''* s^^'^j "greasy lips, slippery
tongue," eloquent, glib.

jfi
?• sI'*M '^^'J) oily mouthed.
/^ fM 'Shiti 'chang, to flow in ; flood tide.

/(TC ^ '<S/mi c/i'e, a water-wheel (for irrigation).

/^ Ml '•SAtfi 'chiao, fare by water.


7K ^ 'fS/tMi idling, crystal.

/d'C ^ 'S/«i«2 t
/iM, a kettle.
"^ 'J^^'^'Shui 'huo ^ivu ^ch'ing, fire and water
don't agree.

j)}( ^ '»S/iM? s^MO, fresh fruits.

^ 1^ 2p ^ '5/iMi Zm^ sP'^'^5' '<^"5 I "'^ish you a pleasant


journey.
7jl(
fl '«SAm« ilung, a pump, a fire-engine.

/d'C it 'T* flS


'SImi 't'upu' J'li, climate don't agree with.
126 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XXXVI.

Common "Words in Combination.


Rice, Meat, Fruit, and Cooking.

^ 'Mi, rice, seeds.

^ tS ^Mifeu^, cooked or rice millet.

^ )^ 'M 'fin, rice flour.

^ 1^ 'Mi husks or
f^k''ang, rice chafl".

i jf 'if/ /«', rice.

^ 15 Jiang, food general,


'Jfi in rations.

;^ ^ mien',
'xlfe and rice flour, rice flour.

^ ^ 'Mi ( congee, bounce,


i'ajjgr, flattery.

^ iS '^^'- '"'"''
^ shop. ''^°®

0^ Jom', meat, flesh.

^J )r J°'"-^ 'p'ien, a slice or slices of meat.

^^ "^0"'
P'^'j ''^ butcher's shop.

^ ^ /om' fS/ie«, the body.

^ rff >^ow' .s/h'A', a meat market, abattoir.

^ 1^ -'^"^
c^^)
shreds of lean meat.

^ B^ Jbu' 'j/en, " flesh eyes," dull sighted, blind


(abusive).
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. l27

H Ts^ai', vegetables, victuals in general.

3^ ® J® Ts'ai' 'clLung ^rh, vegetable seeds.

3^ IK Ts^aP fan', vegetables and rice.

^ 77 Ts'ai' (tao, a chopper, a kitchen knife.

sK Bl "f Ts'aP c,yuen 'tsz, a vegetable garden.

^ nn '-/^'^'o sP'^M) fruits generally.

^ '^mo
tJC tom', fruit trees.

^ -f '/rwo 'tsz, fruit.

J^ Jl ^ '^t«o s
yuen '
fee, an orchard.
!^ t
S/iao, to burn, to roast ; to boil.

j^ ^ c
SAao 's/iMz, to heat water.

!^ ^ cShaojoii, to roast meat.

!^ ^H ^Shao ^cJii, to roast a fowl.

'M S c
S^i-'io
s
c/t'a, to boil tea.

'M 'M (Shao ping\ fever.


!^ A c'S'Aao VtMo, to light a fire.

1^ S iShao 'chiu, whiskey, ardent spirits.

1^ ®f < SAao 'ping, name of a round wheaten cake.


I^ i\j (Shao hua\ to burn up, to consume.
128 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XXXVII.

Common Words in Combination.


The Cardinal Points.

y^ f
'Tung, the east, the place of honour, spring,

master.

^ Tung
"M. a master, a
t
^chia, host.

^ ^ Tung a spread, a meal guests).


(
^rh, (for

^ ^ Tung (fang, the eastern regions.


(

M Tu7ig
"M. t
and west a thing, things.
Jisi, east ;

"MMM^ <Tung ,nan E. W. N.


Jisi 'pei, S. (the

fixed order).

^ j^ ;^ /Tung (gang ^ch'e, a jiurilisha,

^ (Hsi, the west, European.

® ^^^ JR, ( , ^v.a, the water-melon.

M© (-^-^'* jAiMo, western countries, Europe.

^ ^ j^si |.p?Vn, on the west side, westward.

15 J^ i7.si ^yang, the western ocean, foreign


t
countries.

j^ Nan, south.
5

rS ^ jiVaH ^ching, Nanking, the southern capital.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESB STtlCIES. 129

S "^i ! -^^" c
/i^"5'> the southern regions, in the south.

iSM iNan facing the south the Emperor.


mien'', ;

^ ^ ;^ g c^Nan iyang superintendent of


ta' ^ch'en,

southern trade.

^t 'Pei, north ; to oppose, to retreat, perverse.

4t "^ 'Pei ^clung, Pekin, the northern capital.

4t S 'JPei^cU, the North Pole.


4fc ^ 'P«' (fang, the north.
:}fc .^ 'Pez 'ioif, Charles's wain, the " dipper."

•Iti j¥ ;^ E 'P«' iijang ta' iCh'in, superintendent of


northern trade.
tft fihung, the middle, central ; among, in ; half.

t^l
^ (Gluing chien', in the middle, within, between.
rft^ ^Chung chien', a witness.
4* ® fChung ^kuo, China.
l^t
^ (Chung 'teng, the middle class.

tjt ^[» ^Chung wai\ within and without ; native and


foreign.
fp 13 (Chung yung', capable, efficient.

pfj ft* S5 fChung


chung ^ti, middling, passable.
4* ip m (Chung ^hua ^huo, China.
tft ^ (Chung (hsi, China and Western nations.
4* *T» 4* (Chung puh' (Chung, Hit or not? Succeeded
or not ?
17
130 EASY STEFS in CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XXXVIII.

Common Words in Comlbination.


The Four Seasons, the Yeae.

^ JJhhui, spring.

^ ^ ^Ch'un the spring chi', season.

§^ spring and autumn;


I'-'fi'un ^c/iHu, age.

§ 5^ Jlihat a spring day,


Jieii, weatbor. s})ring

^M (Ch'iuispring 'i/ii, rains.

g summer.
IJsia',

gQ Bsia' a summer day.


jih\

g grass
/fU i7.s/a' pw', cloth.

S ^ i7sia' summer
(f'i'en, time.

g^ yveh\
i7s/a' the summer months.
^ autumn.
fCh'iu,

Wi ^ (Ch'iu autumnal equinox, a term.


^/cn,

^k f^ (Ch'-i.ii hou, in the autumn.

Wi ^ (Ch^iu 'n/tui, the autumnal assizes.

Wi JJl t
Ch'iu s
//c(;/^, cool.

^ (Tung, winter.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 131

^ ^ ^Tung the winter cliX, solstice.

^ i.Tung Jiua, a kind of pumpkin.


jKi

^ ^ ^Tung bamboo 'sun, edible shoots.

^^ fTung winter, a winter's day.


^tHen^

^ J^ /Tung yueh\ the 11th month.

^ ^^ ?>t!
how are you?
;iV^!'en c/«'' (fo Ja', old

^ "^ fu\ "rich


f,2\lien years," middle-aged, in in
one's prime.

^ i^ advanced
il^ien (kao, in years.

^^ s
one advanced
JVz'eK jZao, in years.

^^ iNien sup, years.

^ SK beginning
s-ZV«^« s^'ou, year of the ; crops.

^ I® ~F hsia\
(.Nien end 'ti the of the year.

^ ;S ^ien i
the 'chang, elder.

^ ^ iNien young, youthful.


'sliao,

^ fS 65 iNien young. ^cliHng ^ti,

^ SB years
s-^2^" <'^"\ years, time, of age, a person's

age.
fp ^ c
Nien (king, year of one's birth.

^ |§ Nienc 'li, new year presents.


i^ fjj 5 iView 5
new year, winter
chieh, the holidays.

^ f^iM" i
^i^n iCh'eng 'hao, a good year for crops, etc.
182 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XXXIX.

Common "Words in Combination.


Compounds and Combinations with Q self.

g 2 Tsz'' 'ki, self, one's self.


Q g, _\ 7sc' 'la ijen. very intimate.
g ^ Tsz^ one's own family, one's self.
fCli/a,

S^ 2k' ^ch^ien, humble.


Q ^P 7'm' (C/h'A, conscious of, to know one's self.

g •^ f^ Tsz^ (Chin hou'', from this time forth.


J[JJ, 'i

S ffi 2>s' c/h'k', to commit suicide.


Q^ to assume consequences.
2".?-:' 'c/h<,

Q ^ j2^ m Tsz' 'chic fChih ^chhian, sovereign rights,


free will.

@ ^ ^*^' ij'^^t 6ase, certainly, naturally.

Q ^ ^ Tsz' Jan ^tih, of course, natural, certainl3^

§ ^ 6^ 51 Jan Tsz'' ^tih ' li, a necessary truth.

§ 1^ iil ?JS Tsz' 'Icu 'i Jal, from ancient times till

now.
@ ^ Tsz '
J
/.'tja, to boast.

9 ?K A ^«~' ;''«* '^"""j matches.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 133

S 111 ^ ^*^' fining fChunc/, clocks, self-striking


blocks.

Q ^ Tsz' pien', convenient to one's self.

@ ;^ ^s^' •s^«/*'j self opinionated.

Q 3^ Ti^r' ia', self important.

S ft
^'^'^ tsai^, to be one's self, composed, self
possessed.

S f^ S ^ Tss' tso' tsz' shou', yon must take the


consequences of your own acts.

Q JS s^^"j satisfied with one's self.


^^'•'~'

@ ^5; itshmg, since, from that time.


J^'Ss'

g Ts:' 'te'(^ from this time forth.


Jtt;

SWS^ ^^^'
'^"''^ t° ^^''^ t° one's self.
s.y*'^ '.?/">

@ S il ft T^sz' ^yu tsz' 'tsai, at liberty, free.

Q jg Q '[g Tsz' yuen' tsz' hen', blaming one's self.


@ ffl 1^^'''t° ^^^ one's own discretion
'y^''^9i to use ;

one's self.

9 ^7 $ Tsz' ^hsing cli''e, an auto-car.

g J^ Tsz'^man, self-satisfied ; to boast.

^^Tsz' ,ch'ih, self-control.

@ 3K ''ik
Tsz' Jai 'shui, water from a tap.

@ $^ M IM Tsz' ft'ou Jo 'wanff, to expose one's self

to danger [a trap J.
@ -T* ''J'* 'd'
Tsz' pu' 'hsiao Jisi?!, to be careless of
one's self
134 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XL.

Other Pronominal "Words and


Expressions.

^ ; Ch'i, lie, she, it, its, the, that, they.

fnj j/Zo, who ? what ? which ? how ? wliy ?

^ Ko', each, every, various.


^ ^ Ko' everywhere.
chhi',

^ J^ iTo' hsiang', every or kind. sort

^ ^o'
:g- each person, every one.
s/(?n,

^^S^ each attends


^^°' 'Aifan tc/«'i s/»'A', to his

own affairs.

;^ flfc —•
|p] Ko' kiing'' V -Js'Ti, each to tell a different

story (in evidence).

^ ^ Ko' Jcuo, each or every country.

^ ]^ Zo'
flfi
ti' tfang, every place. '

# if IMil -^^''^' '^''"''' ;•"" ;'''^"'' let each follow his

own convenience.
^ ^ Ko' yang\ each or every sort.
fiASV STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 135

^ W M ;S 'y" 1^°' each has '*" <,ch'ang, his own


strong point.

^ IE ^ A Ling' chmg' ,fa Jen, a your wife, wife.

-^ ^ Lm^' your cousin or nephew.


jc/h'A,

•^ 52i Ling' Jishing, your elder brother.


-^ ^ ^ Ling' ^hao ^fang, your father and mother.

-^ MB Ling' ; Za?!^, your son.


^ H^ Ling' ti\ your younger brother.

l^i^ M f® A '^^ '"^'^ ^"' si^"» yo^ (speaking severely).


"0^ ^ •^ ?K '-^*
s
^'^*
P" ' s ^"^j '"^^^ y°^ coming or not ?

13^ ffl ffi '-^^ (Wera 7ia, you two, both of you.
i^^'^^i'ii-'o, you and I.

f?n ?^ -7* ^i '-^'' 'i^o ]ju' tui', you and I don't agree.

^ ^A 1P5 '
'^''' '"^" £
^'^ j'^'*' ®'''*^^' °f '^^^

^ 31 ' iVo pei' we, us.

•^ ^ 'TFo we, 'Jen^, us.

fi W T'a hai' 'wo, he and


ISq c
I.

iK t® A cT'a 'na ko' J6n, that person.


flil

Pll^ Lsa s
me, myself.
^chia, I,

Dg 1^ 5 7 6a ^ti, mine; 'Tm j«i, why? why so?


136 iSASY StBPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XLI.

Other Pronominal Words and


Expressions.
1^ Shui, who, whose ? what ?
5

ffi ^
5/iMi ^chia, of what family
c ? whose ?

i§ MS F3 iShui who knocks at tlie door?


^ch'iao ^mijii,

dfi A t
Sliui ^jen, ? who ?
what person
iS /f» ^[1 (Shui jm'' ^cJuh, who doesn't know that?
B.
am 7B a ^^ ^Sliui shih\shui (fc'i, who is right, and
who wronff ?

IS 65 ^ :^ jS/u(/ ji//i jpw shih', whose fault is it?

ffi iU 'f* fl (Shici 'yeh pu^ Jising, no one would do.

[I@ c^Tsa, 1, me.


"& ^ i'^^^'^
^clda, I, me, myself.
•© iPI s^'''^ (?)ic«, we, us.

"9 ffi ffi s7«a (?nera 'Zia, we, both of us.


Pg ffi 65 i^^sa (Wert (</A, our, ours.

K =& A '^0 ^o' J««. i> myself.


^^ '
W'o s
A«o, our country.
BAST STEPS IN OHIKESB STUDIBS. 137

K m TFo "01? ' s^fi 'mi, I and you, I with yon.

^ 'Wu, me. I,

^ ^ '^M (hsiung, my brother (complimentary).

^ g 'PFm ^pei, we, us.


^ ^ 'Wu 'teng, we, us.

.'S s ^^) simple, stupid, ignorant, I.

j§ HH Fm s
jc/io, rustic, simple.

^l^iYii 'ch'un, stupid, simple.

^ I"! s-^" Jisiung, stupid elder brother ; I,

j§j ^ sTii ^jen, a stupid person.

iS( S s
-^ jwin, the simple people, the common people.

^^ iYu ti', "your stupid younger brother ;" I.

^T iYil hsia\ I.

j^^ sFm iChS, the stupid one, I.

^ 6^ '^^ Bis ^^^ mine where


c** t"*' ? is mine ?

K ^A fP5
'^^ 6^oh of c'"«« s^o si*") us.

^ what
'Tsin, how why ? ? ?

i^ S '^ 'Tien yang', what way


jwio in ? how ?

18
138 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XLll.

Religions.

^ Chiao', to teach, to command, a doctrine, a sect.

WL ih ^/««o' hua\ to instruct, to convert.


^ Chiao' hui\ church.
Sfc a

^ ^ Cliiao' (tong, a chapel.

^ Chiao
Hjj;
a '
s
/iii, a teacher, professor.

^ ^K a teach a
C/ijao' 'kuan, school, to school.

^ P3 C'/w'ao' jwiera, a sect, disciples.

S Chiao' a church member.


I8t 'i/u,

^ Buddha.
,i^o,

^^ (Fo chiao', Buddhism.


^ ^(Fo hsiang', Buddhist images.
^ ^(Fo (k^an, little shrine of Buddha.
1^ P3 ^ ? f-'^'' i'^"' **' '^««) a disciple of Buddha.

^^ ,i?b 'shou, " Buddha's hand," a kind of citron.

^ Fo Ijjl ,
'
<«u, Buddha.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 139

'B^ (Fo ii/eh, Buddha.


f§ (Seng, Buddhist priests.

f^ ^ (Seng Buddhist
^chia, priests.

f^ \ Sdng
c Jen, Buddhist priests.

© ft? (SSng jsu, spiritual and secular; priests and


laymen.

f^ ^ ^Seng tao', Buddhist and Taoist priests.


140 BASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XLIII.

Religions — {continued).
f^ Sh&n,
s
spirits, spiritual, god.

Sf H ^ fS iSMn ^ch'ai 'kuei 'sJiih, spiritual emis-

saries.

jp^ ^ s
Sheng ch'i', the spirit, eagerness.

?if ffl ^^ iSkeng ^ch'u 'kuei mo', marvellous,


astonishiag.

Wf fill iShSng fhsien, fairies, genii.

ffi? ^ s
Sheng '
kuei, spirits and devils.

1$ ^ i
SMng J
ling, spiritual, the spirit, soul, gods.

^ 13 s
Sheng ming, j intellect, intelligent.

W «^» i
Sheng fSsfi, the thoughts, intellect, etc.

j^ Zao', road, way ; to speak, reason.

W. ifc
^^<^' chiao', the doctrine of Taoism.

Jg ^ Tao
'
' hsi, to congratulate.

^ IS Tao' A«ieA', to thank.

^ \ Too' Jen, a Taoist.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 141

j^ g Too' Hi, right principles, reason, right.

^ jf§ Tao^ lu\ roads and ways, a way.


Jj^ "^ Tao' 'nao, condolence in case of death.

^^ a
Tcjo' ipao, Taoist priest, 6 robe.

^ j; a Taoist
2'ao' ssft^ priest.

^ 2 Tao^ an intendant of
^t'ai, circuit.

^ 3^ ^
^'''''*
s*'"> road.

JL 'K^ung, Confacins — an :
a hole, orifice.

JL ^ ^Kung the peacock.


'ck'ich,

JL ^ ^ "F ^Kung Jing peacock's


^ch'iao Hsz, feather

formandarins.

fL ^ -J 'Kung Joo Confucius.Hsz,

?L ^ A Confucius the
'^*»»5' «A^n^' j_;en, sage.

^ 89 <,SMn gods iining, (Taoist).

^ jjij Tie' 'isM, sacrifice to ancestors.

^S Buddhist
5-f"" t***^' (2nd deities class).

|g ^ jio Aan',
„ „ (3rd class).

^ ^ Tsz' Buddhist monasteries.


yuen',

^^ iHo shang', „ priest.

Xj]^ ,Kung ^teh, merit.

j^ @ ^Shau fhsiang, burning incense.

i it cS^O" '"'«>
>.
paper.

J: ^ -SAan^r' «;', God.

5 ^ FmA' <«', the god of the Taoist.


142 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ^ Miao' ^yii, Taoist temples.

^ ,bamboo divining
T'sien, rods.

^ ^iCh'iu ft'sien, to divine.

U fiSm
JlJjk the jsAen, soul.

;^ pj^ ^KHeu 'yil, praying for rain.

M i$ £
^••*'i
i
sMn, god of riches.

S^ fiSan ft' sing, the three pure ones.

SK c'S«'* 'pao, „„ precious pure ones

^ ^ Nien' (king, chanting prayers.

SI ^ cKuan fijin, the goddess of mercy.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.' 143

LESSON XLIV.

Relationship, Kindred.

^ (Fu, a husband, a man, any working man.


^^ (Fu (ChH, husband and wife.

^\ fFu ijen, a wife, a lady.


^ ^ ^Fu a 'tsz, sage, teacher, husband ; yon.
^ Fu', a a father, title of respect.

^ jPi
-'^''** (CliHn, one's father.

^ -^ 'mw,jFm' father and mother.


^ '^ W -^«' '»i!< ,feMaw, district and prefectural
magistrates.

^^ father and
-f^it' *tsz, son.

^ a
^Tsz, progeny, a
son, child, viscount.

^ jg *T«2 sons and nephews.


^chih,

^ _g Tss jwrn, the people.


^ ^ Tss sons and daughters,
*?iM, children.

? j^ '^*^ descendants.
<***"'

^ ^ 'Tss 11 1
isJdh, midnight.
to o'clock,
144 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

J-f^'Tsz tP, sons and younger brothers ; young


folks.

51 ,Hsiung, an elder brother a term of respect. ;

SL St (Hsiung 'chang, a senior, Sir.


}rii -^ (Hsiung ^t'ai, "eminent brother," a term of
respect.

_J1 f^ ^Hsiung ti', a younger brother,

^ (Ko, an elder brother.

"if % 1P1 1-^" s^^' (inen,


brothers.

j|5 ^Ku, a father's or husband's sisters; a girl, a


maiden.

^ ;^ (Ku ^chiu, cousins.

JS5 :^ c^" c/") S' father's sister's husband.

ifi iH. c^w s'^**)


indulgent, forgiving, to spoil as a
child.

$j§^ ££« fku, a father's sister's aunts.

SS ® c^w '"»", » »
H^WjWi <^" *"'"* ''^'^^ * great aunt. (A married
girl is so called).

iS iM t-^*' t^niang. Miss, a girl.

^^ (-STm 'iao, sisters-in-law.

^ ,Zm
jiS s^e/i, a father's sister's husband, a son-in-
law.

^ 5 iS/ju, a father's younger brother, an uncle.


EASY SfBPS IN OMNBSB STUDtfiS. 145

^ i& i
uncle and nephew.
'^^'" s '^^^K

^ ^ iShufu', an a junior uncle.


uncle,

M ^pai fhsiung
fl5 3tL 5l& s-S/jw older male ti\ cousins
f the same name.

19
14(:) EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STtlDlES.

LESSON XLV.

Relationship, Kindred.— {continued).


jji§, 'Tsu, ancestors, a grand father, to begin.

jjifl ^ 'Tsufu', a grand father.

SIE 5E 'I'su fhsien, ancestors.


iB. -t 'Tsu shang\ „
M ^ 'Tsu „ ftsung,

Wl ^ 'Tsu 'mu, a grand mother.


WL Iflf
'^•'^ c^'"') tlis patriarch of a sect, patron saint.

5|^ 1'i\ a younger brother.


^ 51 ^'' Jtsuiig, brothers.

^^ 2'*' mei\ a younger brother's wife.


^-f Ti' 'tsz, a pupil, a disciple.

ffi sf") an uncle ; a senior, a superior.

fS @ chueh, 3rd rank of


s-f ^ ! an nobility, earl.

f6 ^ iPofu^, a elder brother, an


father'suncle.

fl5^ ^ elder
s-^" ''*"'' brother's
father's an wife, aunt.

fS <K s^'' s*^"' uncles on the father's side.

^^^ TaiKj' ( /../cs ' ts.:, kindred of the same surnames.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 147

^ 1^ ^Tsin ^ch'ih, kindred of the different surnames.

Jg ^ £ Yei ^yd. Paternal grandfather.

^ ^ 'Lao 5
yii, Maternal grandfather.

SJ5 SJJ *-^'** '^'''^ Paternal grandmother.

^^ *iao '
Zao, Maternal grandmother.

^ f^ /?0M descendants.
' tap,

^^ ^Erh a boy.
'tsz, son,

Jg Jg 'Ts^2 '<s^/, elder sister.

^ ^ 3M' younger
m^i', sister.

§§.^ T^ee mei\ sisters.

^ ^ Shuong^ ,sheng, twins.


148 EASY STBPS m CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XLVI.

Relationship, Kindred.— (conhnued).

j^ ^ ,Suen 'tss, a grandson, a son's son.

^h ^ Wai' (S&ng, a granddaughter, daughter's


daughter.

K A (Swen a daughter.
'
nil, son's

^Y ^ "A Wdi' a daughter's daughter.


fSSncf 'nil,

M ^ ? Ts'ung fSuen a great grandson.


s
'tsz,

S J^ Ts'ung^suen a great granddaughter.


3fc s
'nil,

M M I?} s-^ mother's aunt.


'wai 'naz, father's

^^ ^ il mother's mother's
'lao 'lao, aunt.

^ -^ 'mw,
'/S/iew uncle's wife.

^ ^ ^m^ mother's irother.


kill',

!^ -^ ^m' 'mu, mother's brother's wife.

iS M 51 ^ c-^" ^^"' fishing ti\ mother's brother's

son.

MM^ JtL 'Liang -i ti' Jisiung, mother's sister's


son.

2t ^ (^hang^ Ju, husband.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 149

^ J- fChH 'tsz, wife.

^ ^ (Kung husband's
fhung, father.

^^ husband's
s^'" s
mother.
J'''")

3t;_\ Chang' ^jen, wife's father.

^ -^ Chang' 'mu, mother. wife's

;^ ^ a
'i\^M Am'', son-in-law.

Hi M ^ a daughter-in-law.
s^r/t s
si ffu,

^^ a
'<«zV t/w,husband. sister's

>'C S "? 2a' Am' '<««, a wife's brother.


/]> ^J" 'Siao ^shu 'tsz, a husband's brother.

J5 ^ '/Sao '<««, an elder brother's wife.

^ lis a younger
^*' mez', brother's wife.

MM jCAott *Zi, sisters-in-law.

j^ ^ 'mw,
^iVa^ a nurse.

jS ^ ^Mo' chP, to adopt.

^ ^ (Kan (by adoption).


ftie, father

^ Jg mother
tiTan ^niang,(by adoption).

^^-f" (Kan c,erh Hse, son (by adoption).

^^ % fffan Sm j^rA, daughter (by adoptiqij,).


150 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XLVII.

Furniture, etc.
^^ fCJio 'tss, a table.

^ ® iCho mien', the top of the table.

^ 1^ ? c^^' ting' 'fsz, a square stool.

W. S '-f*«'i t^ng', a stool, form, or bench.

^ ^ 'Pan iCliHang, a woodea fence or wall.

WL ffi
*•?*<«" ^wei', a press, cabinet or wardrobe.
^ Kuei', a cupboard.

?H Jft ,® ^M«' (C/t'oM tHh\ the drawer of a counter,


a till.

U ^ Kuei' ifang, an office or counting-house.

Wi "f cSiang
'
tsz, chest or box.

H ^ ,Siang Jang, a granary.


^ ^ T'mo H^an a long high
J
', table.

^ Is basin stand.
s-P'*** c/tz'a',

^^ book
,S/iM c/«'a', case.

S te2', a kitchen cupboard.


ffi sC/('m

;jf2 jSJ
(Hwa s
p'in^, a vase, a flower jar.
EASV STEPS IK CHINKSE BTtJDIES. 151

?E ^ (flwa 5
2''ew, a flower pot.

^ ^ Ching^ 'tsz, a mirror, looking-glass.

M M'Chiao ,t'ah, a foot-stool.

ft >^ ,SAm fSiang, a book-case.


Jlf |g Jfaw' cAia', hat-stand.

^ ^S -^««' s^''^. a hanging jar.

^ ^ ? sP'in^ a (tsai Hsz, bottle stopper.

^^ a
iP'ing 'tsz, bottle.

^
1!^ a dining
i^an' (CAo, table.

^ ^Ch^uang, bed stead.

j^ ,r^«5r, a lamp.

j^ ^ c^^'^S' cAao', lamp shade.


jEj* ^ (3en^ ^hua, lamp wick.*
itT ^ (^^^9 {^"^' *^® lig^* °f ^^^ lamp.

'Jtr 'I!^
c^enqf fSz'w, the wick.
lantern.
'JOT SI t2^«'*5' s^""^'' '•'

)J^ ^ ^Teng 't^sao, rush made wicks.

That particular part of the wick which is alight.


152 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XLVIII.
Law, Government, etc.

p m Ln' 'fa, laws.

Jg ^ ^ Ting' la' 'fa, to make or enact a law.

-^MW^ K/i' itiao lii'fa', a law.

^ ^ !^ iCIiu hi' 'fa, to do away with a law.

WL^^ 'Ziiz lu' 'fa, to amend a law.


P^ 1^ ^SJieng ^huan, to be promoted.

M 'M 'Fan
p^an', a rebel ; to rebel.

^^ jZfo a^/we/i', treaty.

^
iSt jl^^w an ^sJiu,despatch. ofl&cial

^^^ <.F^ s**^** an


£
*^"-'' ^o ^^1^^ official despatch.

^^f ^ ^'^' i^sHen


Jiang, pay to taxes.

3^ ^ hung',
(7/im^ pay to tribute.

J§ ^ tChuen subscribe money.


^tsHen, to

ii '^ (Ch'ai 'ssti, official business.

W ffi iChueh wei', official rank, nobility, etc.

^ ^ ^Shang j Zi'an^', to consult, to deliberate.

^ ^ Cheng' ssu', national affairs, politics.

^ ® ^ 6^ ^ ^Kxian ^kuo ,chia ,ti ssu', to carry on

government affairs.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 153

^ f
Kuo, a country, state, or kingdom.

^ 'Sheriff, a province.

jj^ 'Fa, a prefecture.

j\\ (Chou, a division, a district.

^ Hsien^, a district (smaller than the foregoing).

^^ (Chinff f^chSng, a capital city.

^^ ^Chhiff t^tn, the residence of the Court.

W^ 'Sheriff icheng, capital of a province.

^ i^ '/ w J chenff, capital of a prefecture.

^tlWL fihou ^chenff, capital of a district.


1^ 1^ Hsien^ ^chenff, capital' of a smaller district.

^ 3E !
-^"'' i
huang, a king.

y^ 31 SS
Ta^ ^yin ^chxien 'chi, Queen of England.

S SS iWang ^yeh, a prince, a king.


^ 3E fC/jm t^ioang, prince of tlie blood.

^^ Fii' 'shih, censors.

5^ ^ ^HsiXn ^fu, governor of province, Fu-tai.

iS
'fti
^"' pj c/ie«^' fS/«7t, a provincial treasurer.

^ -^ j/'^an ^tai, a provincial treasurer.

^ ^ -^ An^ ^ch'a ^shih, a criminal judge.

^ -^ iV^/Jj' jto', a provincial judge.


20
154 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON XLIX.

Imports.
(Selected from the Customs' Tariff.)

^ IliM iUuang la\ yellow bees-was.

-t^ Hi 'Ping ; la7ig, the betel-nut ; Penang.


^^ 'i/a< («/i(6«, beche de mer, sea slugs.

3^ ^ Yen' fWo, swallow's nest, edible bird's nest,

ill ii Jn i
Thing 'niu kou', brass buttons.

& S^ jPai <om' Z;'ot«^ white nutmegs, superior


curdamoms.
S^ tl c'^^"' ci^'*! cardamoms, inferior.

^ 'S Jom' kuei', cinnamon.


1* ^ c
^''''''5'
c
hsiaiig, cloves.

'^iAfei, coal.

^ ^ fShan ^hu, coral.

^ i^ 'i¥a 'nao, carnelians.

^ -?£ i Alien ^hua, raw cotton.

6 fii flj s-P«« se' ]iu^, white shirtings.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 155

^ -^ ^ ^Hsieh ^iven pu', drills, jeans, twills.

En ?2 -flj
^"*^ Jiua pu', chintz.

^^ ^Mao pu\ ginghams.


^ 'Shouijl ^chin, napkins, handkerchiefs, towels.

HI ^ ^Hui ijung, fustians.

^
;ij^ (.Mien fisien', cotton thread, sewing cotton.
jf^^^ ^Mten fsha, fine muslin.

^^ Hsiang'' ^ya, elephants' tusks, ivory.


'^'^^Yil'tu, fish-maws.
J^ ^
jFm sP'/, fish-skins.
3^ 3^ Jr t-^" t^' p'ten^, window glass.

^^ £
^'* t
fi^"'«o, glue.

M^ (an imitative name) myrrh.


-*^<'' ^'^o',

?L ^ gum olibanum, frankincense.


''^*' (hsiang,

^ <^ ^ (Sheng untanned^niu ^pH, hides, leatheiv

•^ ^ jiVi'j ^chiao, buffalo horns.

J@ ^ Zm '
s
c/huo, deer's horns.

^^ c^'" ^^''*> varnish, lacquer.

^ 4^ JK iShou ^niu\p'i, dressed leather.

S -^ ^ma
IIB i?«'' pu', " fine flax cloth," fine linen.

^
ffi 'fU c^'*" s*"^ pw^! coarse linen.
'

^ Shou ||p) ( s
i'lmcc, manufactured copper.

SE iI3 (Sheng ^t'ung, copper ore.


156 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^^ cS/iou 't'ieJi, wrought or manufactured iron.

Sc. Ml (Sheriff 't'leh, cast iron, or " pigs."

M^^M^Mi (Sh'ang ^chuen ^ya ts'aP HHeh,


kentledge, i.e. iron ballast.

^ IJ^
'
T^leh fSsu, iron wire.

^^ ,Ch'ien k'uai', lead in "l^igs."

^ i'^ 'Shut ^yin, quicksilver.

& is s
^'^'- fcA'ien, spelter.

§1^ (Kang, steel.

^ jiTi/, tin (also moans to confer, to receive).

Ji§ n ^ ^^Id- 'k^ou ^tieh, tin plates.

Wi M s-Ka" ^ii'j olives.

SS )r '^« p'ww', opium.

]§g f^ ^Hu (Chiao, pepper.

Jg ^ fHsia 'mi, dried prawns or shrimps.


1^ ^ ^Teng Us~, cane, rattans.

^ ^Hsien
^'i^ c^yiX, salt fish.

^^ (Hsiao, Skltpetre, nitre.

ft ^ ^T^an Jisiang, incense made of sandalwood.


^"^ iSu mu, Brazil wood, sapan wood.

;^ ^ jFm cll'^ih\ shark's fins (a delicacy).

W.'^^ (SAa iyil ^pH, shark's skin, shagreen.

^ ^ 3|g s//m Ji ip'i, fox skins.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 157

^ H§ iS "-^i' s^'""5' sP'4 sea otter skins.


^K '-^" sP'^ tiger skins.

f^ j^ Pao' tp't, leopard skins.

M &l K ,jHm« 's/i'M


sp'2, grey squirrel skins.

^S S iS s-^'*"
'*^"'
sP'^ white squirrel skins, ermine.
7jC^^ '/S/w« <'a' ^pH, otter skins.

* 'jjac^",i
-f* snuff.

^^ jiiw c^huang, sulphur, brimstone.

Jl^^ Hu ' ^ku, tiger's bones (medicine for rheu-


matism).

5f^ J^ Tap mei\ tortoise shell.

^ 'San, umbrella, parasol.

Ht S ^ iShih fcJt^en ' piao, watches.

»^ tJv (l^M mu', ebony.

^ Hung mu
;;^ J
', red wood.

^ ^ iChhiang ^chan, blankets.

^ 1^ To IJfg J 5 ?o jn/, broad cloth, Spanish stripes, etc.^

H? I'M
-^*' c«^") English long ells.

J^ ^^ 'Yu fSJia, crapes.

^^'Yil tuan\ Dutch camlets, lastings.

^ 1^ '
^'* s
c/i'oM, imitation camlets, bombazettes.
/]» |]|g
^ Hsiao ^ni, cloth, cassimeres.

3^ M ' ^'"
s''"^''
Hastings.
158 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ^^ ^Junc| ^mienpu*, woollen and cotton mixtures,


lustres, etc.

tlR ^ iJung listen^, silk thread.


EASY STEPS IN CHINlteB STUDIES. 159

LESSON L.

Exports.
(Selected from the Customs' Tariff.)

Q^ 5Pai ifan, alum.


^ {^2 Hsing? ^jen, almonds, apricot seeds.

fg ;j5 Hsin' fShiJi, arsenic.

5IK if£ 'C/h'A fhua, artificial flowers.

^ ^ iCha bamboo ware. ehi\

^^^ bangles,
Liao'' 'shou ^cho, glass armlets.

^ ^ Tom' pulse the nutmeg.


'i«c, ;

^^ bean
2o)/' 'ping, cake.

^ >^ ^ ^ jiVm 'Am bone and horn ware.


jc/io c/ii',

^ W- i'^'^ng ^ssii, brass wire.

W t^hang
flS camphor. 'nao,

Iff tffi c^a« !


'"C"") cantharides.

^^ fC/ian 'i^r, felt, druggets.

^ ^ 'Tan 'tsz, a rug or carpet.

^ ^ ie <ss, chestnuts.

i^ H Ts'm c/t'i, China ware, porcelain.


.

160 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

1^ ^ Chu cinnabar. sha,

-0 ^ BS ^" cotton clothing.


* ./">

Di ^ Ch'ou fu,
flS i silk clothing.

1^ Tsung, the palm.


coir, coir

^^ cow bezoar.
^>-iJ- fiiianf/,

5^ ^ Pao chu, fireworks, crackers.

l5 5C -^^'^ zoa;?, curiosities, antiques.

^^ ^«' ^iao, black dates.

_^ ^ preserved ducks' eggs.


P'^' tan,

^ ® feather
-^'^ 5/(C(H, fans.

^J551 paper
C/hVj i/iflH, fans.

^^ palm
/<r');e/ «/(aH, leaf fans.

^ Chan mao, caps or


ipg felt hats.

TfC5 or mushrooms.
'''^" ^''^'' fiJngus

^ Sua7i'', garlic.

B3 ^ A § (Kuan Jen (turn] ^shen, Mauchurian


ginseng.

^ S ^ (A'ao IP ^shen, Corean ginseng.


^'^^ ^ Ko^ se' liao' ^chu, glass beads (any
colours)

f4 ^ Liao' chH', glass ware.

^^ ci/j(a (Sheng, ground nuts, pea-nuts.


;g ^ jS/i//i s^-ao, ground gypsum, plaster of Paris.
|§ ^ io'
^"g s^'o, jHiao, camel's hair.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES 161.

[1| ^ ^ (Shan t^yang t^mao, goat's hair.

^M '
-f^"" "
t'ui, hams.
5 ^ iShih i^hiiang, hartall, orpiment, yellow lead.

^ Ma, hemp.
5

^S i-^'^^9 '"^'j honey.

^ ^ ^Lu ijung, young deer's horns.

^ Mo', ink, black, obscure.

^
ifc 'T'l* ^/e?i', dry indigo.
^ ij^ (Ch'ien 'fen, white lead.

^
11^ izi' sp'i, green leather.

^ ^ LP ^chih, lichees.

^ ^t ^ jC/j/n fCMn is'ia', dried lily flowers.

^^ J
L/*??! ' tsz, water lily seeds, lotus nuts.

y* ;^ (isTan 'ts^ao, liquorice.

S HI -Swfi*' ^yuan, lung-ngan (a fruit).

j^ ^Hsi, a mat (a repast and entertainment).

J]J^ ^ ,A'«a 'tsz, melon seeds.

^ (Ilsiang
ffi mushrooms. hsin',

^ ^ She' musk. Jisiang,

^ ^m', native cotton


/fP 'T'?( cloth.

if^ S^Bn iMien pel' (t'ai, cotton bed quilts, palampore..

fS ^ 3^ fCMn fChu, false pearls.


'
C/ii'a

^ jS s
CAen cp'«, dried orange peel.

?S -^ fSl
^"^ s^'o s2/") peppermint-oil.
21
162 EASY STKPS m CHINESE STUDIES.

J^l ^ 5 Yu hua', oil paintings.

^^ s
earthenware.
-^^'^'' /mo*, pottery,

^ IS 1^ ^ ^t'ang preserves.
•''^*' c/itVn' 'kuo, comfits,

^ IS iT^^^g rattanware. ch'V,

^ ^ y«' ihuang, rhubarb.


^ ^ ^ fH m'aP jim ^Uang, paddy, wheat, and
'Jfe

-other grains.

^ 1^ agar
'Zra2 tsiu', agar, seaweed.

S iChih ma, sesamum


itt 5 seed.

^ ^ Zs'ao straw
'
^hsleh, shoes.

}i^ Jy^ j/?M ,««(«, silk from Hu-chou.


^^Wi '^^^'' iis'an fSsu, wild raw silk.

^ ?^ EM Tuan' fSsfi- ct'ou, silk refuse (a blockhead^.

S^ s
Ts'an '
chien, silk cocoons.

^
ipi^ c'S*" ^«*') silk ribbons, braid.

ill1^ (Chuan ^chu, Szchuen piece goods.


^H ^
s2«a huo\ miscellaneous goods.
B^M iP^ tV^n, snuff.
^ J J Chiang' ,7/u, soy.

^ l|l|
In 'Tsao mao' pien', straw braid.

Q IS s
^'^' s
i'ting, white sugar.

:^ ||| (Ping ^t^ang, sugar candy.


^ ftb s-^<" sJ"M> tallow.
-^ ^ jC/i'a 2/^/i', tea (in leaf).
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 168

^ ^ Hsi 5 ipo, tin foil.

^ (Teni^, ^ssu, manufactured tobacco.


^^ ^Yen yeh', unmanufactured tobacco.

S^ s-f'* (Ji-sianff, skin trunks.

^^ s
^'"' ((^ftu, vermilion.

Q Si^ (Pai la\ white, or insect, wax.


tJC f§ iiw' e/t't', wood ware.
^^^ s
^^ien lyang ^inao, wool.
164 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON LI.

Travelling Expressions.
^ f/ff ^ jM CJihi' 'erh fu' 'fan, to go and return
again.

£ 5K C/i'i{' ^lai, going and coming ; having been.


^ t^ /f» Ch'u' pu' ^teli, unable, impossible to go.

S® C/t'w' ^t'ou, worth going to.

f* f^j Shang' ^chieJt, to go in the street ; to go from


home.
jHj fj (Ch'ii Jisiiig, to go on a journey.
fll P5 t^^^'w i,mm, to go aboard, to go out.
fft 5>|> jCA'm loai', to go abroad.
ffi )S P5 (Cli^u 'yuan ^men, to go on a distant journey.

^ S' '^^.soM cA'a', to take different roads, to go


astray.

^^ "j* 'Tsou ^fa 'Uao, weary with travelling.


^ '^ 'T^oM ku'ai', hurry up !

^ 1^ 'Tsou
J5§
In ' ^rli, to walk, to travel.

^ M ^ "F '7«0i( pieii' itien hsia', to travel the worldl

over.
KASY STEPS IN CHINESE STDDIES. 165

^ ^ JS ^ ^Tsou pu' huo' go ch^il^, can't across.

^ ^ ^Tsou pu^ cannot go


5'1 tao', to.

^ U^ f^ ^Tsou walk up and down.


fang'' f'ang'', to

^ M ]S 'TsoM tao\rh, walk, to to travel.

i^ Wi iCh'i 'ma, to ride on horseback.


Sa.^'f' Tso' citiao' 'tsz, to ride in a sedan chair.

^ j^ 750' ^rA, a passenger.


^ )^S
'^*'' iC^^'Uan, to go in a vessel.

^ 5 Using, to walk, to go, to do, etc.

^^ ^ iHsing ^ch^eng, to travel.

^ ^ Hsing 5 j chuan, to go aboard, to sail, to travel


by boat.

^ _\ ^Hsing ^jen, a passenger, a traveller.

fj ^ jiTs/ngr 'Z?', baggage.

=Rf^ s
-H«iw5' c
chuang, baggage.

fl ^ ?lj iJSsing pu' tao\ had not arrived at, or gone


to.

^^ ?JC iHsing 'shut, to go with the stream.

^^ ^ c^Hsing ^tsou, to travel, to move, etc.

|g 'Kuan, a tea, or eating-house, inn, hall, or school.

^ 1^ 'Kuan P, post-houses or stations.

^ Ku', to hire, to obtain labour for money.

^^ Ku\ cM, to hire a cart.


1G6 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

MM or conveyances.
-^'*' 'chiao, to hire coolies

^ f^ Ku' ^ch'uan, a to hire vessel.

^^\% ^ Ku' pu^ time go.


s«e c/«'m', can't find to

^^ f^Fang a room, house,


'tsz, office, etc.

S (Fanff
i?3 a room, rooms.
fCkien,

M^ t-^'^^^ffhousef,chHen, rent.

^ ^ ,Fanff 'chu,
landlord.

j^ ^ J^ang ^tung,
landlord.

^[ ''Yin, to lead, to guide, etc.

^1 }§ 6'5 '^'w '


cldang ^li, a pilot.

01 »M! IS 6^ '-^"'" ^^i'' s''^' c'*j * leader, a guide.


01 K 'itn ^lu' to lead the way.

01 'T* tt ^Yln pu' ^cJtoii, (the fire) won't kindle.

01 Ih X '-^ "' '*'" '^^'«o, to mislead.

^^ 'ZrMj^ tai\ to lead, to direct.

^1 J
i/, to leave, to separate ; from, distant from,

^t S ^ 7& s
^* '^^'^
' i
''' '^^"" ') '^ot far from here ;

near here.

^ S ^ J^ 1-^'^' <^^'^'
s'"'*
'yuan, distant from here ^

far from here.


"^^ iLii ( cilia, to leave home.
^^^ iLi pu' fkai, unable to part from.

^ t^ P^ s-Z^i its ^kai, able to part from.


-

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 167

Jl ?^ ^ (Chiang Jai k'eh', an adventurer.


Ifl ^ t-f" bedding. ^<^'')

W 1^ ^ (pw
ffl
'^''^ ,^''ae leap, unroll the bedding.
& Pao ^ Ific c
*/") traveller's bundle.

Be ^ MS^M iff -^'^'''


s^'** s«/ien
ehiao' lean' (tutifff

^si, look after your things carefully.

^ Bl ^ ^ ji-'w yao' to' i\ don't be careless.

Jt ^ iKang ^tai, to carry (two men).

H^ '-f*«e?2 tow', a carrying pole.

^ ^ ? iChien ^ta 'tss, money bag.

dK jp§ ;I (Siang, clothes box.

^ ^ //mo (/m, a coolie, a carrier.

^ ^ BS ^ J<^ 'cMao iJ^'f^i with c^chien, settle coolies.

SiS!^ H '2Yen ftung count the things. ^si,

I® Ml 19 ^ Shveii' (feng Jisiang sung\ may you have-


fair winds.

^^ a hamper.
'Xott 'i«,

^^^M (iwn^ odds and ends.


i^'^^9 *"*^ («i,

Kl ^
/d'C passage money.
'Shiii ^cliiao ^c]iien,

^ ^ ^m' cAao\ a passport.

ii :^ ^ ^ ^iSui ^slimtap
fi^ ^tih ftung^si, personal)

effects.

^ ^ jPa 'shou, a pickpocket.

A ^ M ? *^o js/kA jZaw 'is5, a food basket.


168 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

S ^ 'Yiu ^hung
'§" shih', to have or be ou public
"business.

^ ^ Piao' 'tsz, tickets.

^ AMM K'eh^ Jen 'sii> p'iao\ take your tickets,


gentlemen.

® ?^ ^ 'Tuan ^p'an 'tsou, to go hj stages.


— M^' s
^^^^ ^"^ 'tsou, to go by the same road.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 169

LESSON LI I.

By Land and Water.

IS ffl 7 ^^««' 'i»«o 'K (animals) fed to the full. ^

l§ ft P Wei' fSJien ' k'ou, feed the animals.

"^ f4 '
T'sao liao \ fodder.

BU Hil s
Ts'i£n 'tui, fore legs.

It ^ Tu' tap, girth.

3^ ^ '
Ta /szen, halt for dinner.

f^ Jii -Hou' Hui, hind legs.


!^ :f T-i 'fes, hoof.
,

Wt %% '^ia ,tsung, mane.


Jg T/m', an inn.

^ IH 6^ '
CAawg( hueV (tih, landlord, proprietor,

jg ^ Liu' 'ma, to cool a horse by leading him about.


^
fij" -Fm' ^chHen, to advance money.

^ ;^ ^ 'i/o js^j'/j c,ch'ien, money for table expenses,

g'g^ 7 5 cliiao'', a camel litter.

/'<^$ *jyo ^lun c,ch'4, railway carriage.


21
170 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ^ Ha7i' ki', journey by road.

^ ^ ^An 'tsz, a saddle.

(^ ^ P^^^ ^tna, to saddle a horse.

^T ^ < Tinff 'chang, horse-shoe.

^ .^ *
ChH han', take to the road.

^^ '_ffa?2 lu\ to travel quickly,

S
fif
' Chuan (lean, to turn a corner.

i^ /dt ' Yin 'shui, to water animals.

M-^'^^^M Na' yih' ^tiao la' 'liao ^ni, which

road is best ?

^ J- ^Pien Hsz, whip.

J^ ®B (
Ta Viao', put the gangway in place.

/^ fre SS '
-^^ s
^"" s
ch'uan, a steamer.

^^ s
T'Mi^' ;Zm«, to stop a steamer.

Ml ^ ^Feng pao\ a storm.


^^ a hand
jifM 'shou, rail.

j|3 /jt s
Ch'ao 'shui, tidal water.

S jj c^a ch'ien'', to tow or track.


^ •^ 2 (
'?«2 iP'ing, the walking beam.

/^ E§ '/S/iw« /u', water communication.


"^ IJ t
Ch'S ^cJiou, the axle.

PB •? ^«^'oMs
'
i«5, bit.

^1 EH iLung ^t'ou, bridle.

fi ^1 c
Chiang j sheng, bridle reins.

|§ ^'2 ^o' jio, a camel.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 171

~p !$ Hsia^ ^cli''i, to get out of a cart.


'}\,^Ta^ ^ch'^e, a baggage cart.
^ ^. Chuang ch^4, to load a cart.
c ^

h ^ Shang' ^ch^i, to get into a cart.

$ fl" t
C/i'e (
hang, a cart hong.
i^^ Chiao' ^cUd, a brougham

^^ r'ao-' (CAV, to yoke a cart.

^ li c
C/i'4 scAWi, a rut.
^ !^ fi'5f
'ifan (CJi^d ftih, a carter.

jfc ^ s
Ch'eng 'Ian, a contract to take goods.

!^ 1$ -f c
^^'^ s'"^* ''*-> ^^® curtain of a carriage.

^ % ^ ^'o' cAan' 'f«0M, to exceed the usual day's

journey.

^ ^^ ^P'an ^ch^an, travelling expenses.

^ S iP'anfei', travelling expenses.

"ff
^' Ta 'san, to open an umbrella.
A ^to -^ S i^^^ (*''* P"' I**") people are never
satisfied.

^ ^Mao, anchor.
JJll Hj fP'ao jmao, to let go the anchor.
JE §S ChH '
s
maso, to take up the anchor
3S Ml '
Ting J&ng, head wind.
'^
^ < <San ';oaw, a small boat.

j^jj ^ (^Hua 'tsz, a small boat.

j^ .J*
'
TFan 'i«2, a boat hook.
172 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ^ ^Kao, 'tsz, a boat pole.

^ §3 Jia '
ji'oi/, wharf jetty, business centre.
)IS EIH iCIiuan 'chi, a boat captain.

^^ L/sjz' 'tsz, a chain.

5^ § ( Chih kai', to cover over.

5^ J'bJ ^mo' j/io, to cross a stream.

ji^ JX ifwo' ^chiang, to cross a river.

a^ IB A'mo' (kuan, to pass a custom's barrier.

J]^ -^ ^ Kuo' ,ch'ia 'tsz, to pass a likia station.

y^ It ^0 '
clip, crew, assistants.

t& "K ^Ts'ang 'pan, deck boards.


^^ c
^^uao sldi'', to deliver goods.

^P fli S/w'e^ Ao', to discharge cargo.

jll Jit
'Pa/ tu\ a ferry.

;g| ^ J
C'A'i 'isc, a flag.

ffi Ml iK'uan J&iig, a gale.

:/C Jii ^«' c/e«£/, a gale.

"X. fit
'^0 ^ts'ang, the cook's galley.

_t )IS Shang' ^ch'uan, to go aboard.


p. ^ Sliang' an', to go ashore.
"]>
7K ^^si«' '.sAwi, to go down stream.
F* ^J'C Shang' shui, to go np stream.
JIS in ^o' (kung, the helmsman,
m ^ it ' Ch'ing 'ho cJii', to hire a crew.

Jit ffi
'
Ch'e ,cliH, hoist the flag.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 173

^^ < Chuancf Jio\ to load a boat.

^^ c
CM chH\ machinery.
||q s
TFei, a mast.
— • iJ§IS M. s
^''' '"'
s/" thsing, may a happy star
light your way.
53 1^ c,Ming ^lun, a paddle boat.
i^ ilS c
^"^ iCh'uan, to take a passage.

i^§ ^ c
^'^ iWt', to take passengers on board.

Si SB s
^''^'"
s
ch'uan, a passenger boat.

5M ^ s
ChHang tao\ pirates.

^ iP'eng, sail.

^ ^ Lo^ p^ing, lower the sail.

^
iit
' ^^*'^ P^^ng, haul up the sail.

'g*
j|^ ,Kuan (ts^ang, saloon.

0§ f^ An'' ^lun, propeller.

!§. 'iw, a scull, sweep, yuloh.


^ 'f®' s
^"'o s^M, to scull &c.

{^ ^ T'iao' 'pan, shore plank, gangway.


174 BABY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSOiSI LIII.

The Provinces and their Capitals,


with the meaning of the names.

lit W^ iChih IP, direct rule.

^Blf^ 'Pao ting' \fu.

LU '%. (Shan ftung. East of the hills.

MM 1^ ,Chi ,nan\fu.
Ul M (Shan ^si. West of the hills.

'MM.M ^o-i' i!/uen 'fit.

M jS i^^o ^nan. South of the (Yellow) river.

^ ^ (Kiang The region


^su. fertile of the river.

^ cK/ang
?jC ^ning
iit 'fu.

^ ^U An " Peace and Beauty."


( Jiuei.

^MJMc^nchmg"fu.
JX M (Kiang ^si. AVest of the river.

M ^ f^ s^'«« cch'ang [fu.

jjf JX C'/ie' (kiang. Crooked I'iver.

^ !m M i^ang .chou'fu.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 175

I^^^Fu kien\ Happily established.

n^ ^M j^ iFu ,cJiou 'fu.

M s^w >«"• North of the (Tung-t'ing) Lake.


4fc

^ ^ j^ 'Wu ,ch'ang 'fu.

^ ^Hii ^nan. South of the (Tung-t'ing, ^)


J§| JlqJ

lake.

^'3M iChang ,sha 'fu,

J^ ^ 'Kuang (tung. The eastern " Kuang."


^ 1^ 'Kuang
jf'I'I Ju. (Cliou

^ ^ 'Kuang The western " Kuang."


^si.

® 1^ ^ jZm jS'Me2^ '/m.

S iS s^wn South the


s?ian. of clouds.

M'M f^ iYiin i-nan 'fu.

^ >]>\>\ Kuei' ^chou. Noble region.

ft i^ ^ KueP ijjang 'fu.

^ )\\ Sz\ch^uan. Four streams.


)^UMfih^^ng,tu^fu.
^ 03 ''SAen ,««'. West of the passes.

V^^M,Si,an'fu.

Note. — This ia written " Shen " to distinguish it from Bhanai,


but there is only a difference in tone in the Peking pronunciation
of it.

176 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIKS.

"^ ^Kan isu. Volnntary reverence.


'^^
MMJ^iLan,c7wu\fn.
^ ^ Feng' Received from heaven.
^t'ien.

^ JR SMng\rhlng.
^ ^ iChe Jing. The lucky grove.
M fi VX c
^^"-^ The Black
i
^"'^5' s
cfiicmg. Dragon
Elver.

Chinese cities are divided into classes according


to their Governmental importance. These are as

follows :

]^ Ching, the capital city.

^ Fu, a provincial capital, e.g. Hangchow-fu.


>J|I Chon, a district city, e.g. Ting-chou.
!^ Hsien, a district city, e.g. Shanghai-hsien.
^ Wei, an unwalled town.
^ Hsiang, the country
a village, also generally.

^ Ts'im, hamlet a or village.


There are cities which rank between these in some
provinces : e.g.

W.^ M' ^^^'^ ^' t'ing, next to the Fu cities.

W. ^ "M Chi li chou, next again.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 177

LESSON LIV.

A Collection of Interrogative
Expressions.

^ '
how many?
Chi, some, a few, &c.
also several,

^ in Chi '
how often?
Jiui, also several times.

^ ^ Chi '
how many? 'huo,

^ IS
~1^ CM ' (Chung, what o'clock?
hsia'

^ B Chi how many


'
jih', days. clays? also several

^ Chi how many?


fl^
'
ko', some. also several,

^ 3l Chi (kung,
"
how many day's work?
^^ '
how many persons?
C^'" t,ining, several also

persons.

^^ '
how many years?
C'hi ^nien, years? also several

^^ ' ^°^
^'^" *"*'' yoniig ^^'^ ^''® 3"^°^ ''
(^° people.)

^ B$ CAz when what


'
s
s/ii, ? time.

^ B$ ^ 6^ '
when did you come?
C/i2 js/w' sZa« ,tih,

^ S Mfi
CAi chung,
' what 'izVra s
o'clock ?

^ ^ Chi '
how many days
, <'/e«, days. ; also several

^ ^ ' how many


C'Ai fto, ?
!

178 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^^ '
Chi ts'u', how many times?
;g '
Ch'i, how ?

si S^ ' tow dare I ? (polite.)


^'''* '^'«'i)

:a T> ^Q ChH pit' ccJiih, why don't you know? how


'

not know ?
fnj (i^o, who? what? which? how? why?

^
jSJ i7o chang, why ? when ? for what reason ?
s J

M S ^P JHT '-^o ''"''^ iju 'tz'u, why carry it to this

extent?
fiff f^ ^Ho (fang, what objection? &c.
fnj J^ //o s
'/, how shall we ? &c.

fBJ [ill jiTo j_;m, how, in what manner ?

fgj g5j s/7o Jean, how dare?


fSJ ^ ^Ho 'kan, what concern? what business with?
fnl ^ J
how can I? how working? how
//o , A-'aw,

adequate?
fSJ ^ ^i/o why? what occasion?
'^'m,

fnf 5^ Ho s
why ? on what account ? wherefore ?
hu \ '

M 1§^ ?K ^o '<''' ^"^j why take the trouble ? how


!
'
s

unfortunate

M ^ i'^" kuang', how much more also? how able


thus to ?

M s^" ll^ s'^^n^, how able to ?

M ^^ i2J s i'^') what need ? why must ?


M no M s-^-^"
'p'in ^chi, what rank or degree ?
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 179

fsj ^ illo pu', why not ? to be sure, why shouldu't ?

fnj ^ ji7o shih\ what affair ?

fnj ^ i/o 5 what *


tenp, sort ?

fnJ •^ i/o s 5 ts''ing, how can ? how able to ?

fSJ -ffi s
1^0 tsai', at what place ? where ?
M .S !what need why
^^0 s
^*") ? ?

^
fnJ 'wang,
i
where are you going
/7o ?

@ ;//o
(pj why? wherefore? what
jtw/, are you
doing ?

(nj ^ ;
flo wu', what or which thing ?

M i-^°jfl 2/""^''') of what use ?

^ s
why//o, ?why not ?
^ ,Na, what ? how ? where ?

^K 5i IDS
'-^'^'^'''
s^'"''' c'"> liow is that? where is it?

M ^ 6V-^« s^*"^* c<«'^*) where?


^U (^ g^ ^ 'iV^a jlrA ftili hua\ what sort of talk?

nothing of the kind.


^ — f@ '•^'5'
t^^'* ^'''i which one ? which ?

WK II '^V« '^''> where?


^ Shin\ what? extremely, also very.

^^ WW, what
(SAen' J
?

f§ 5 jS/iM2, who ? whose ? what ?


oti ^ s
'^^*'^* fC/i/a, of what family ? whose ?

1^ ^^ P5 5 S/iMZ J
c/i'iao s
who knocks
?7j|«, at the door ?

i^ A iShui ijen, what person ? who ?


180 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

f^ JfJ
7' iShui c,lai 'la, who has come ?

IS it ® iSJiui ^neng hou\ who is able to ? who can ?

1^ fF5 s
'S/m? 5?we«, who ? (plural.)

f|i ^ ^[I iShui pu' fChih, who doesn't know that?


a^^ ^ i& iShui pu^ hui' tso\ who cannot do it?

anybody can.

i^ :S fS ^^ iShui skih' ^shui ^fei, who is right,

who wrong?
pfi 65 iShui ^tiJi, whose?
D^ ^ ^ ^ iShui till pu' sJuh', whose fault is it?

D^ ffi ^I* BM iShui tsaP waP ^tou, who is outside?

J^ '
7V», what? how? why?
>iS S ' j'^*-'« ima, what? how? why?
'
Tsin c^nio ^ni, how is it ?

^ tfflK
(^ '
7'seii i^mo tso'', how is it done? how do you

doit?
i^ SS 1^ '
Tsi,n t^mo ^shuo, how do you say ?
nS S '^ '
Tsen ^mo ya.ng\ in what way? how ?

i^ , how? what? also don't.


Yen,

^ ^D 5"^'* <(?Az7i, how do I know ? I


c
don't know.

iS §^ -^'^^ '/taw, how dare I? I dare


c
not.

j§ ib ^'^^ wf "/?! how able to ? I am


c s
not able to.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 181

LESSON LV.

Further Interrogative Expressions,


^ ""^
(
An 'k'en, are you willing to ? very willing.
^ la^ IM iHj {^'* ining ^ju 'tz^u, how can it be thus ?

'J]\\ ^ i}^ filiia ,to shao\ how much more will you
give?
P:]- ^^^ Chiao^ huan' ^shen ^mo, what is he
calling about? (derisive.)

^ -^ £ Ch^u' pu' ch'ii', will you go ?

fJJ /fj 4* Cftung' pu'' chung^, succeeded or not? hit


or not?

^ Jt ^R Sf '^Fu shang' ^tu hao', are your family


all well ?

'a' -^ 'b"
HuP pu' hup, are you able to ? can you ?

f^ 'f* f^ Hsiang' ^lu^ hsiang', is it like? does it

resemble ?

f^ ^ S IJsiang' ^sMng' ^mo, what is it like?

j^ J£ ^ //smgr' ^shen ^mo, what name? what is

your name ?

^ ^ nS Hsing
ffi ' j
sZten 5 ming ;
s/iMZ, what is his

full name ?
182 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^^ iJo-n you, is it so or not ? also, uncertain.

S^^ Jd^ng' Jo 'shao, what discount will you


allow ?

@ ffi S (Kan' ^slien ^mo, what are you doing? why?


'^jl^^Kao hsing', what is your surname? "lofty
surname ? "
"^^ (Kao sJiou', what is your age? (to elderly

people).

pj ^ ^K'o pu' irf may or can be done or not?


k'o', it

pI ^ :^ S 'K'o pu' shih' ,mo, not right? is it

;^ ^ ^ Kuei' how old are you?


'cJiia 'tzU, (to

middle aged people).

^ ^ Kuei' (keng, what is your age (up to 40 years).


^ ^ Kuei' ch'ii', what is your "honourable place"?

S Kuei'
•'i^ 'fu, what is your " honourable home " ?

S ^ Kuei' hsien', what is your native city ?

ft i4 Kuei' hsing', what is your name ?

^ ^ ^weP /;an', what is your business ?

;^;^ /fweP 5 two what is your country ?

;^ ^ Kuei' ^yu where are your lodgings ?

3K fs ^ W si«' ^mei ^yu, any word or not?


/'«"i'

SJ T S W 'y"j
s-^«2' come
'^<^
s'"^^' ^'^s it ? etc.

^ "T )S has come have you come


s-Z>a2 "Za (7?io, it ? ?

hallo ! are you come ?

<^ J gig
'
Leng '
/eao , n/, is it cold ? if it is cold.
?

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 183

tt -S S s
•^««5' s
s^^" s
'^o, what are you in a hurry
about ?

^^ '
-^OM cA'm ', what place ? a certaia place.
^^ *
Mou ijen, who ? so and so.
^9 '
Mou jih what day ? a certain ', day.

^ ifp '
JifoM 5 nz'en, what year ? a certain year.

^^ '
ilioM shih ', of what family ? Mrs So and So.

^ _^
*
ilfow !/Me/i ', what month ? a certain month.

?^ fiH M ^'^^ ' (t'ci s


ho, how able to manage him
unable to do it.

id ^ s
-^*" *'"<' '> y°^ don't mean to say ? it is hard
to say.

'^^ ^ 0' pu' o', are you hungry ? if hungry.

W^^W' -^"'^ "'^* ' 5


?"''* '' have you transacted it ?

^1 'f* 1^ -^'^" '


P" ^ P'^'* '»
^'^^ 7°*^ manage it ?

^ ® ® ff Pan '
s
i/ilM {
mo shih ', what affair are you
engaged in ?

S
f-f- s
'S^"'' s
*""> '^^^t thing ? what ?
ff*Sy s
(SAz'A s
wjo i/ii'A ', what affair ?

fl^ ?# Shih '


; teVi, will it do ? it will do.

•^ ^ 5A;7i ' 'fou, is it or not ? yes or no.

:^ ^ ;^ <S/h'A '
pw ' «/«7i \ is it so or not ?

^ f§ S/k7i '
s
s/jMJ, who is it ?

g^ '
5Aw s
s/ien j mo ^ tih, what do you belong
to?
?

184 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

B li W shui 'kuan, under whose


'
S^»i s
jurisdiction ?

^KS Shuo shin mo, what do you say


f s , ?

JT iK H ^« w« ^«^ whence did you come


' ' ' ^''
?{v s
?

;^ ;^ ;^ Ta' pu' large or not ta', is it ?

^ S Tang c
a ^ a
chen, is it really fact ? it is fact.

5lJa^ S !& Tao' ^«o mei have you been ' j ' yiu, ?

^ijT Jx W ^'*'' or arrived


'
' ^*^'' s
"^^'^ '3/"') is it) he, ?

?ljIK 1^ S cA'«\ where are you going?


^'^''' '
""^ i
'"^'

T^^
J-i- s
how much have you
-''''"'' ' ^^'"^
c *" ' «^iao,

obtained ?

^ -^ 'T* s
T'en^ jOM ' 5 t^eng, is it painful ?

^ ^ H« c
2"in^ jj»m' ,i'/n^, do you hear ? whether
you hear or not.

W: T ^^^ !
riw ^Uao ^mei ''yiu, is it lost ?

^ '^ ,To chung \ how heavy is it ? very heavy.

^ M y^ c
^ ° cft'ung^ iP'i, what is the tare?

^ s'iS c
'^''' whenever
''"'' s
''''*' '^vhen ? ?

^ 0] how high
i-io ^kao, very high. is it ?

^ ^ ^ 2o f
much are there many
joit ' ,to, is it ? ?

^ ;^ Zb , how many or much a good many.


"
shao, ?

^ ;^ To 'shao
2jj (
how often? how many tz'n', times.

^ ;^ :^ Jo ^[J chi\ what


, your age ta' 5wie?2 is ?

^ p^ To t
when? wdiat time
,<sa?i, ?

^ ^^j^ '^ (To 'wan when what time 'tsao c'rA, ?

'IS '^^ Ifi 'Tung pu' 'tung, do you understand or not?


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 185

fil 1^ S '
Tung s
teh j mo, do you understand ?

P& 6^ s
^** c''^') "'^'ty ? why so? also, mine.

ffi IK 11 ^«««' '»»« 'li, where?


^ IB 15- , Ts^eng chP ^teh, Don't you remember? &c.

fSi[ -S )® Tso' t^sMn ^mo, what are you doing?


© iS t ^SMw hsing^, what is your name ?
8^ (
Tsun yang', how is your complaint?
^^^ s
3"*'*w* t'" ''S^'^o how much is still to my
credit ?

^ ^U ^ Ts'ung na\'rh, where from? from whence?


s

S 3i ^ 'Wang 'na
WJJ where are yOu ^'rh ch'u',

going?

^ Wei why? wherefore? what reason?


ftij
*
^ho, for

^ S S Wei^sMn ,mo, why on what account?


*
?

b1 M ^''w ^i^' how


'
s
styled
^"j is it ? is it ?

^^ TFo Ufg and'


mine where mine
t</A ,Jii, ? is ?

^^ Wu s
not? ffei, is it also really, truly.

M^ ^yuan
Sit for what reason
<
^*''' 5^"* ku', ?

@ ^ -^ i@ t^«« s*^^" c™o» for what reason? i*"^^

why ?
J* J]5 B^ s
ri« na\sMh, at what time ?

]^ ^ fnj =p 5 Fm ,t'a jAo (Aaw, what is to be done


with him?

H^ f»l s
Zwara iho, why? wherefore ?

W7 ® ' ^" '&o ,«io, has he got ?


22
186 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

WSW ' ^'" s«ie? *3^M, have you got ?

^^^^ '
1m sliin^ (Vio sJdh\ what is the matter ?

what business have you ?

^ |])g
'
Jm (. nz, is, or are there any ?

;§ ^ ]@ |g Fm '
(to jOTo cAmh^ how heavy
', is it ?

/g"
^ ^ Fm '
jfo 'f/iao, how much ?
/§ ^ Fm WM, '
or not has
s
or not
is it so ? it ?

^ 1^ Vung^ chuan', have you eaten or not?


! ! ! !

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 187

LESSON LVI.

A Collection of Exclamatory
Expressions,

j5gl ;
ah, an exclamation of doubt,
i^ jaz, an exclamation of pleasure, surprise, pain, or

anger.
I® P^ cfli ^ya, alas ! oh dear ! dear me !

S^ c'l* c f'^O'if alas I

^ '
ai, used as a sound of reply, to sigh.

^nSS'K '<** ''tsen ^mo yang', oh dear! how's that.

^ ^ ^ (Chen 5 ko ^ tih, true I right!

^fl ch'ii' pa\ go! begone! be oflFI

gjj "J" ,c7i'u2 '?a, enough ! no more about it

?^^ fC/i'wi jiew^', enough! no more about it!

T* ^H ^*^^' ''^*'"' ?<*'' g° down


/|\^^ '^'*^^'' ''^'"' (SMng, you young brute

/f»^ 'Asj'ao 'kou, you whelp 1 a young puppy.


^m^H jA«?«)i cA;o jC^o pa', let it bo for a bit.

fs ^ A«m' ,fsm, how true

^ ^ ^ tA«M t«o jsAuo, don't talk so much!


— ! !
!

188 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ffl fm (^^si^ p'«' c''«; don't be afraid of him I

^^ Jtsiu (Shuo, don't speak!

^{g (hsiu ft'^t, don't mention it!

^jlfc (A«w '<2'm, give up this! don't do this!

^^ tA«i?i wew\ don't ask!


^g ,/i«M i/ao', I don't want
^ '^jang' ,z pw', stand aside !

^7 ffii si''"'
''^'(fo (t'a, forgive him !

^7^H si'"'
''*""' '^^ P*^'' forgive me
iRfl^ 'A'o ^hsi, alas! lamentable, pitiable.
pj f /fj ^^ 'A'o 'liao pu' ^teh, terrible !

Jj^^ 'kou 'tsz, dog! the flea.

glj ^ (iua jc/jo, look out! (for the cart, &c.).

^^^ ^kuaP(kuai ^tih, keep quiet' (to children).

1^'^ ku'ai' ku^aV, make haste ! be quick

^?K hu'aP ^lai, come quickly !

^KS ^w'ai' ^mang ch'il', go quickly!


^ jHj ilai 'ts'u, come here.
3jt|l3' ilai ^ya, come here.

ilHJlS^^ '^'^ shang' chiu' jZai, I will come im-


mediately.

J^^@ miao' ^chiieh, admirable!

i^^ jnan (Shuo, it is hard to say I you don't mean


to say I

^^ 'nao A^n', bother! curse! spite.


! ! ! ! !!

EAST STEPS ITS CHINESE STUDIES. 189

I3»^ii '"' 'tiou pa', you go!


B^ ?^ cP^ P"' s'^^i I ^ish ! may it be ! oh that I

^IK iP^aifan', set the table

»!l^ spM jcAta, do not!


SOS spz'eA c/jm', don't go!

S'J® s/'*^'*
iwn^', don't disturb ! don't stir.

^^ jow' 5 cheng, eh! what? incomplete.


"^^ pu' its^ing, eh ! what? not yet.

53 i^ 's/jan tao\ clear the way ! get out of the road

^ ]@ shSn' (ino, what


^ ^1] iAz'A' ,Za, yes, all right I

^ ^ US 1^ ' shuang ^ eJiih ' fe'gn 5 'rh, quicker 1 be quick


look sharp
flJUJl^^ iflto' 'na s'r/j cA'm', go there!
^ "X s'^^«
'^"' enough I alright

^g JJ ,<o jTOO 'Aao, how good!


W^S *y cj"?^'* s'»'^') capital! first rate! it will do.
190 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

LESSON LVII.

Agricultural "Words and Expressions.

H ? '^ 'Auo 'tsz s/iw', fruit trees.

51 i^ 'Kuo mu' ihu\


tJ; fruit trees.

^^ Shinff' shu', apricot tree.

Wi^ -^"^ *^" i ')


acacia.

^ '^
ffl c
•^^"5' s
'<^'' ^^"i cherry tree.

^?M -^*' *^i5 sAm, chestnut tree.


^ ^^ -?£ (TFii j/i«a 'Amo «/m, fig tree.

K^ '
^'Sao shu, a kind of date tree.

^^ , iSaw^' shu, mulberry tree.

^ ^ Ho Iff s s
t'ao shu, walnut tree.

S^ "? '^ Shih^ 'tsz shu, persimmon tree.

^^ jZ/i shu, pear tree.

I& SJ s
•^" «Am, elm tree.

Wi Wi ^^^9 i
®^"5 poplar tree.

Wi ^ tSung shu, fir tree.

1^ ^ shu, willow
'Lilt tree.

'S ^ Shing' ^rh, the apricot.

@^ c cherry.
I'zw^ J
^flto, the
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 191

^f LP 'tsz, the chestnut.

fe 'fE H s^w t^'w 'Amo, the fig.

M^ ' 2^*'^''
s'*"/')
the date.

S I® (Sang shin', the mulberry,


i^ D^ j^To s<ao, the walnut,

/fif) -jp S/w7i' '<«;?, the persimmon.

^ 5 L?', the pear.

^ ^ ^Ping the 'kuo, apple.

^ ^ the plum.
'Z(i Hsz,

^^ the grape.
s-f*' s*''^"!

^ 5 peach.
T^ao, the

^^ s
orange.
C/iiiA 'isz, the
^ J^ (Pa banana. (Chiao, the

?S ^ ^ *^az s^an^ a small 'kuo, sort of apple.

U^ pumelo.
5 Flit 'i«:,

^^ 'te, small
jC/ien orange. a sort of

^ iPan ifelfe
whorled peach.
^t'ao, the flat,

^^ (Po Jo, the pine-apple.


strawberries are
|g |g sFangr jm^V t^e arbutus;
called foreign yang mei.
^ W t^uan itnei, greengage ; a sour sort of prune,

ifjt tG Pi ! cP'«> a (Chinese fruit, also called bi-wa.

1^^ the hazel nut.


fihen 'tsz,

^ ^ 'm«,
}«' Indian corn, maize.

^ ^ '^'m grain, small 'tsz, millet.


192 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ^ 'Shu Hsz, millet.

^ ^ ^Mei 'tsz, another kind of millet.

^^ fihieh 'tsz, another kind of millet.

^ ^ Ta' mai', barley.

fg^ Tao' '<«, rice.

^ ^ iChHao map, buckwheat.


^ ^ (Jfao sorghum.
^liang,

^ Suan', garlic.

@ !^ ^ (Chiin f_ta ts'aP, beet-root.

^1^"^ iHu ilo pu^, carrot.

^^ ^Man ^ching, turnip.

^ , Ts'ung, onion.

Hi ^3. (Shan i/il' tou', potato.

^ Ts''ai\ kitchen plants generally.

J^ ^ iChHn ts'ai', celery.

^ (Jew
IS caraway.
.su?', coriander,

^ fHsiang
35 caraway.
sui', coriander,

H the
?il 'C'Au? tsai', leek.

^ ^ La' cayenne pepper,


ftsiao, the chilli.

^ Tmw^'
JBi c pumpkin.
,kua,

^ Huang
JK, s
cucumber.
fkua, the

;^ ^ H s
7«a?i5'ground-nuts,
Jiseng 'kuo, pea-nuts.

^ IS ^ io' (Aua ground-nuts, Rising, pea-nuts.

IS TE iMien fhua, raw cotton.


IS ^Hp iMien ^pao 'tsz, wadded gown.
EAST STEPS IN C'HINESB STUDIES. 193

1^ ^ ^Mien cotton 'tsz, seeds.

t® ? iMien ifi cotton seed 'tsz ^yiu, oil.

^ "? s^Am the bamboo. ,<*2,

^ ^ jCAm the fchi, snipe.

45"^ iChu ch'P, bamboo ware.


^ Wi iChu of the bamboo.
^cJiieh, joints

44" ^16 jCAk 'chill, bamboo paper.

^ 5iifC iChu ^ch^uang, bamboo bed.

^ 1^ -f- iChii 'i 'tsz, bamboo chair.

Yt fi* iC'^w Jean, bamboo stick or pole.

^ ^ ^Chu fkan, bamboo canes.


Y[ ^ jCAw kang', bamboo pole for carrying.

"tJ" tt s
Cliu 5 Zz'w, bamboo grove.
^ Wi'f' iChu ,mi bamboo. 'tsz, split

^^ bamboo
s
" planks."
^^*" 'po.n,

^ jCAm
tJ" pu', linen.

^^ bamboo
jC/iu 'swn, shoots.

14" "K s
C'/'" '
i'MJi^/, a tube (to hold cash, etc.).

^ ^ W iClm yeh' ^cliHng, a kind of wine.

@ Chung', plant sow to or ; etc.

^ ^ Chung' ^chuang
ffi
chia', to cultivate crops.

@ @ ^ Chung' 'chung sow ^rh, to seed.

@ ^ Chung '
^rh, seed.

@ ^ Chung' plant flowers; ^hua, to to vaccinate.

@ 5^ Chung ' a lei', a species, sort.


194 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

@ ^ ^ Chung^ ^niu tou\ vaccination.


Q 1^ Chung shu plant ' ', to trees.

^ A& Chung'' ti', to cultivate land.

Note. — How the same character may change its tone in

different combinations.

^ , Tsai, to plant, to transplant.

^S ( ^•S'f* chung^ to plant and to sow.

SS ifE (
'^^'"'^ (hua, to plant flowers.

^^ ( Tsa? «Am', to plant trees.


^^'Sa 'chung, to scatter seed.
^ Keng, plough,
(
to to cultivate, to till.

^ @ (Keng plough and sow.


chung', to

^^ ,Keng plough ^niu, a bullock.

^ ^ (Keng plough ti', to land.

J(5J , Shou, to collect, to receive, to put away.

^K ^ (Shou ^ch'eng, a good harvest gathered in.

JK J3: f^ (Shou (Chuang chia^, to reap the crops.

§|J t-ffo, to cut, to cut off.

S'J ^? c-^^ wiaz' 'isr, to reap wheat.

Wi '^ s-^'* (Mn, to pull up, or cut off: to raise, etc.

^ "^ iPa 'tsao, to pull up grass, reeds, etc.

ffi ^ !S s-f '^ i»M2«o s'*"/',


to thin out young plants.

^ ^Ch'ang, an enclosure, a thrashing floor.

^M ( 3"«'an5' Jang, a granary.


^ 2^ fife c^i''"n5'
<«''
s''> a plough.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 195

^ ^CUu, to cultivate, agriculture, to assist.

Wi ^ C*'" s
(lien, a kind of scythe.

^
Wi 5 C^'"^ ti^, to hoe the ground.

MM s
Ch'u it'ou, a hoe.

©!l ^P^ao, to dig, to hoe, to plane, to pave off.

^^ s
dig
^'''''' hole or
( ^^wfl'i to a pit.

MM iP'co dig ground.


ii\ to the

1^ ^ a
t<SAai 'i5«, a sieve, strainer, to sift.

— X ^*^' >«
ffi a c«^'«> fork.

^ manure,
i^en', excrement. filth,

y_ ^ Shang^ spread manure.


fen'', to

IE c
^'''' * '^^'^^ or harrow, to rake.

IE Sfcc-f"« *«'» to harrow the land.

® Si 5 -^^^flio
J
'rh, sprouts, shoots, etc.

^^ '
Taao <e', grass land.

^
'M. t
Ohiao ti\ to water or sprinkle land.

|g Po', to winnow.
Jg ^ a winnowing machine.
<S/jaM' ,cA^,

T^ ^ ^Nien clean the husk,


'mi, to off

ffi ^ vS Chuang cUa' farming work


c
Jio, generally.

Jl*
J^ '2'a ^
chuang, to thresh corn,

ffl ^^^ li ^ Y^ng' 'ti^ ^hsien iChilek W, to dig

with a spade.

^ Wi c
^^i^ *^"'' to graft.
196 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^ ® ^ ^ ti?Wi^^^^ c^wra^' (Chih ^to 'shao 'mou


tV, How many mow do you farm ?

^ S^ t,Feng ^nien, an abundant harvest; plentiful

year.

§ JK < ^^^9 c
shou, an abundant harvest.

W. Wi (-^^"-9 ishou, an abundant harvest.


^^ ^ Huang (Tiien a year of dearth.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 197

Conversational Exercises.

No. 1 —Intkoddotort.
3fc ^ ItF PBT (Hsien ^sMng 'hao ,a, are you well, sir?

t^ ^tf M 'Hao ^ni "-hao ,a, I am well ; how are


you?
^^ Chine/ tso', please take a seat.

j^ ^ Nien^ read say


^sliu, ; lessons, etc.

J^ ^ write
'^SzV te',
write ; characters.

U^ 'Tung understand.
f^Uli,

M 10 ^ ;^ S ® <m' sM' C'^e' Ao' sA^ra' ,mo, what


is this character.

Wt S5 c^A"" Awa', to speak.

WL^^ (Shuo (Ching 'chu, speak plainly; distinctly.

^^^ siVix fShu ^lai, bring the books.

^9 dip your pen


Teen' 'jsi, into the ink.

^^
""*
s
mo',
J^iiA iwai'
of slab ink.

^ ;^ Ifo' 'aAwe, foreign


ink ; fluid ink.

^ ^ (Chien 'pi, lead pencil.

¥ ?1 JS '-^* s'"" s'*"^' P®'* °^^-


4* SI ^ B ^ S
'0J ffl '-^2 ^^MWS'' Aung jiwo >i 'jiV
fjs' c
mw, do you use a Chinese pen to write with.
198 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

^^i^^^'Woai' 'shih ,ohien 'pi, I'd rather use

a lead pencil.
0^ S ^ ED ^ S *^« '^^^9 y^^' do you
s*^^ *^^' ("*«>

understand the printed characters.

^ 'M ^ 'Wo 'tung 1 understand them.


c^teli, yes,

^ ^ 'TFo
-T» cpw huP don't understand.
I

^ ^ ^ 'K
ffil
to'
c^'* c«/«Mo cte^he speaks ^waa', too

fast.

OT S If S 'Ching kao'
'0^ 'ni please me.
su' 'wo, tell

[J^ 'K'eu pronunciation.


^yin,

^ ^sheng the four


pUj <Sz' tones.

M ^«S ^ ^
113
^^*^' c^" ^^^^
c™" ^^^ '^^'^'^ '*^^' '8

this character written.

^UWt^^"^ 'Ching 'chid ,shuo 'M 'wo ,ting,

"please explanation give me hear".

^ ^ ^^
j@ J^ Che' ko' tsz' nien' shen' ,mo, how
do you read this character ?
^^ ^ Nien'
" k'an"'' it is read " k'ati ".

-p^ii^S^ c^*** *''^' t^^^t i/no 'chiang, what does


"(kan" mean ?

^^i^Ta^if ^:1=F:1S '-Z^»' <ting Uo'


(liao, 'wo fShuo ^t&h ,pw sMh' ^\kan", shih' "kan," you
mistook, I didn't say "kan" but '^k'an'".

MMM^^^B^
shen\tno cfun ^pieh, what difference
^^l Che" Hang
is
ho' tsz
there between
'yiu

these two characters.


EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 199

eh'u' .sheng ^ihuo ^shih 'yiu c'hi' ^chu ^lai; " kan/' is

the "out going" (4th) tone, and when spoken is as-

pirated.

=F ^ :1 ± ^ ^ W ^ fli
"'';««" <«' *^'^' ^A««^>

^ping ^mei ^ yiu ^chu ch'P ; " kan" is the upper level
(1st) tone, and is not aspirated.

MBM^'J^^U^&i ChP sz- ,sheng shih' pp 'tei

^sliiao (ti, these four tones must be learnt.

S 1^ # M?>ffi 5J, Yu'' peP 'chi ^pi mo' yen\ prepare


paper, pen, ink and inkstone.

iSil^® — ^»i:® '^o ^«o' itsi^ng ^t'ou yih'


ehang men '
' chi, I want to begin from the first page.
200 BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

No, 2.— General.


-^- 1^ ft i^ ^Nin kuei' hsing', what is your honour-
able name, sir ?

^- K^ S ilS
* '^o "^i^" ' ^'^'"9 ' i huang, my humble
name is Huang.
-^' S:S;Sffl5^ Zm«'^ c^'ii' fM' 'na VA, where
is your honourable place ?

ft ® ^ ft !^ -?"2' "^'m' «^*^' 'pa« fcAm^', my


humble home is in Peking.

%^WL i^^ '


^^'"9 chiao \ I have not yet asked
— your address, etc.

-^' K ^ H A ^0 ^I'
' *^*^' '
"'^''
I
^^0 ii^n, I am a

foreigner.
B. 'B'® ®;ft^ ''Yiu shin' ^mo kuei' kan', what

is your honourable business.


^- JT ^S SW 1S[
''^'''' «"«»' y«o' **o' 'waj mai*,
" I reckon I want to buy and sell."

B. liK^SMSIJil'S ^«o' «^««' <"«> '»'«« »"«'*


'
hao (Tii, what sort of trade is best ?

'hao, I think foreign goods is best.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 201

B. "0? JlSBl^ ^ 'Ni shang' j/ia VA ch'ii', where


are you going ?

Jang, I am going to the oflBce.

B' '0V ± 85 IS ^ ^ S '-^» «^a»^' s «a '»** cS'«' J


^aJ

(CAjA, where have yon been?

, c/h'A, I have been in the streets.

WSSA^J^S '^''" *^'«'»' c"»o J«» s^«' c^.


who has come ?

-®- S W A 3K 5
•^'^^ *F" J*" i
''''' nobody has come.

33
202 BAST STEP3 IN CHINESE STDDIKS.

No. 3. Mr. Li's liouse.

ifang 'tsz tsai' 'na ^'rh, where is Mr. Li's house?

^ ^ 91 S Tsai' nei' fpien ^rh (pierh), 'ni ^is'ung yu^

cpien i'rh, ^chih 'tsou, tsaP 'tso ^pien ^rh, tP ^san ^cJiia,

pien^ shih\ (N.B. — The commas mark the phrases in

Chinese.) In that direction ; turn to the right, go


straight on, the third house on the left, that's it.

A. ^ 56 ^ M S ffi ffi S '-^''


c«2«" i'heng tsar
chir^ i'rh chu' ^ma, does Mr. Li live here?
s. "P^^M^M^ i-P" '*"'> ^^^^^' *««*' «^"''"'
s''"^'

quite right, he lives here.

A. ^^^^^V$ 'Li fSien ^ sheng tsai' ^cliia

J
ma, is Mr. Li at home ?

B. ffi P3 S^ (
'^''''" im.en ch^ii' (la, he has gone
out.

A. ^BSSBsSfi^ (*o ,iscm fChu ch'U' ^tih, when


did he go ?

S- © ^ g^ ^ ^ '
C'Az ^lai chu' 'tsou Ja, after he

got up.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 203

^. SlS^miil^lllS SAen' (OTO iShih hou' ihui


Jai jJm", when will he be back ?

B. 2S ^ % s^^* 'c^" '''/'j 1'™ DO^^ certain.

^- i^^^9c^^^MW^ 'J!fi 'c^o 'Li ,sien

fsMng *yiu shen' ^nio shih\ what is your business with


Mr. Li.
-^- ^ -J^ ]^ SS ^ fi'S jl/et s/je/i' 5??)o 3/ao' 'clung

^tih shih\ nothing important.


A.
'huo 'rh
M
pa\
M^^^ ^^
will you please come
'CUng
in and
chin'

sit
,lai

a while.
tso'

chin' ck'il' (la, I am too busy to-day.

A- m^t&m^mmmmm'TSng ,sien .*Ung


^hxd ^lai tih' 'wo ^shii ^theng pa', when Mr. Li returns
please tell him I called.
^- '6^ ^ j^ ^ 'ff
'Shih ^teh <,mn ^hui ch'ii' Ja,
very well, are you returning now !

^- WcM^HSWCBn^^'f^o ,hyi e¥u' M


'kaijih' tsai' chie7i' pa', yes, I'll see you another day.
^- ^MM i^ao iuin chia', I am giving you
trouble.

^- "Well meaning " thanks."


tS-M 'Sao ,shuo, said,"

204 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

No. 4. General.
A. ^H^ J^^ (To Jsan shang' Jiioh, when are

yoTi going to school ?

B. |§^ 'J^^ 'Li paP ,1/ih sJiang' Jiioh, on


Monday.
^- WlT ^'pB^t^^ Fang' Hiao ,to 'shaojih'

'isz ftth ^hioh, how many holidays have you had.


^- WC7 MM M Fang' Hiao Uiang hi)' yueh', two
months.
A. ^ ii HI ^ 7 ® t
'S'^fi'*
t
sheng ^hui , chia ''la ^ma,
is the teacher back ?

^- i^ [BI ^ i^^^'' (^"' ^cMa, He's not back-


^- %M%^'^MW>'^i ««' s»"^ '«o' «^«"' ,»">

t«a, what are you doing there ?

B. ^m^U^M '
^^0 'chi ,rh 'sid tiz> ,na, I
am writing.
^- ^SFT S [Tien 'hao 'la iVia, is the 'weather
fine ?

-S- MS ^ Iff i
J^<^'' I "*** ' ^<'"' t ""' i^'s °o*' fi'is y®*'-

'*• BIT* PS Hi ^'^o' ^*'<''' '2/" t'Wj is it going to

rain?
•B* <S» ffl ^ "F *
ffi'M^' /Ja '
yao' ^»2'a ', I fear it is.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 205

^' Mijk^:h {Feng ta' pu' ta\ is the wind


strong or not ?
5- ^M:kP^' '*«« '« \ not very.
^' ^VMJ^o^ ^<^^' s*'o" «^2'/«' s*A"*» wJi° is

outside ?
-S.
K i^ M i# '
TTo 5^M jSn' s feA, I don't recognize
him.
^- foi Pol flfi, Sf ;?^ iSF ^«»' j*^' c'a ' A«o ;»«' 'f^o,
ask him how he is.

B. ^ 0? 65 M !
'^*'* '*** f**^ ;o«en', as you please.

A. '0?^Sf@ ^S '-^^ ««' c*^^' ^o' ipo ai\ do


you like this ?

•B. ^'^fC^' ^0 ipu ta' at" , not much.


^- f^Wi^^M&^tS^ '^i 'hsiang 'fsen ,mo pan'
'hao, how do you manage it ?

B. ;?;j9i;g®ii5igF ^w' .c^* '««^« ('"".'o'^,


it doesn't matter how.
206 BAST STEPS IN 0HINB8K STUDIES.

No. 5.— General.

A. "^ ^ MH^ Pfil fihin s


nien 'mat map 'hao ,a,

is business good this year?


B. i^ rT Jlil iUai 'ho 'i, pretty good.
^- I^J^JiASflSS '^Ve tso' kuo' 'ho ,lun
chuan ^ma, have you travelled in a steamer?

B. ^ ^ T«o' huo' Ja,


B2f have. yes, I

^- ^ ^ 5 Yuen'
jifi;
^ehuan ^pu yuen\ do you get
sea sick ?
B- ^ ;^ S
iP'" («' yuen', a little, not much.
^- 0J S" 5^ ng ^ S^
'^* ^««' c<2«« fl/«' '«^"?«

J
mo yang', what do you think of the weather ?
-B. ^ ES^^~F nM '^^ iC^*ao ((^^"'^ yao' lisia'- j/ii,

I think it will rain.

^' ^ HM K SL l!ii P.1 ^«*' s'"" <^"« </«"5' c«a c'"«)


is there any wind outside ?

there's not much wind.


-^- M ? *& ff T S 'S' (^« '*!«' <«^«<'"
t«^"^ c^''^"

jmet *ym, is the room repaired (put to rights).

B- iRft P5 ("SAoM js/«Acia, yes.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 207

"^' ^ SP ^ IS 2? (Kan chin* pu' ^kan cUn\ is it

clean or not ?
-B- — S5 H a S S liff Yih' Hien ,Uang ,rh ,tu
(inei fla, there is not a speck of dirt in it.

^- ^
M U ^ SS ,Chia
ifi. iff- 'hm 'pai 'hao ,la
^mei 'yiu, is the furniture put in ?
B- WkW^^^ iTo ,an pai' 'hao Ja, it is all

arranged.
^- ^ ^ 5> ^ 'Ching fi: ^to 'ahao wei' ko', how
many guests are invited ?

-^" "f* 1^ fifc £


'S^^^^' *^^" '"**'> niore than ten.
^- 115 S H SF 82 Ri c
To yW peP 'hao ,lo ^ma, is

everything prepared P

( Ii5 ^^ "Iff c
^0 t
cA'* J
c7j««A c
Za, it's all ready.

B.<^tt Wt ^ fi ^^ Esien' tsaP tsiu' chu^


f ^hsing pu' ^hsing, may I go out now.
A. S ^ S 'K fj ^ s
-^«« * A«« ' 1 "»" cP'^ I ^"^9 i *^^>
there's nothing to stop you from going.

208 BAST STEPS IN CHINESE 6TUDIKS.

Miscellaneous Words, Expressions,


and Sentences for General
Practice.

NoTB. The ttudent must carefully remember that many of


the following expressions may be employed in varying
senses.

Lesson No. 1.

!• B^^ '^'^0 ^^^'t " brain bag," the head.


2- ^ JS^ ^chiai ^tou *fa, to cut the hair,

s 3. ^j ^ jAwa 'Z/«n^, to shave (the face).


4. ^^)j ti' ^tou, to shave the head.

5. ^'f'^Ji-u 'tsz ^chang, long moustache.


*'• 5iil^'T»^ '^'' <^° i^^^9 P^^^' (Cfien, unable
to hear distinctly.

^' HSMS-^Jra 'y*"^' c/m'h^' Jean' puh' i''J''ng,

unable to see clearly.


^' ft-^Ml^S iP^ '^^~ s'"^'*
^*'^^'
s^''^'>
(ivirrh),

the nose smells.


BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 20$

Lesson No. 2.

1. II^SB^^BS 'suei 'U ^ehih ^tung ^ksi, the


mouth eats things.

2. 3^^ s»/a iteng, tooth-ache.


3. M^ 5 ""** 5 mao, eye-brows.
4. ^ ipo -jp
'
tsz, neck.
5- Ml^ (Chien 'bang, shoulder.

6- Ji& W c''^''
^**'' *''"•

7. ^ '.'AoM, hand.
8. }g lig Jz'A j«oM, finger.

9. J§ ^ si«A c/iia', finger nail.


10. ^ "^ s
c/w' ; ne'lngf, the back.

11. i^ fi/ao, loins.

12. J^ gu ,shung, ^chien, breast.

13. ^^ too' 'tsz, the heWy. .

14. II 't'ui, the leg.


15. ^ 'chiao, the foot.

16. §^ s
^w s
'""5 bones.

17. ^ ichin, sinews.

18. ^^ ,«' shang\ clothes.


19. ^^ 'Zi??(7 ,tsz, collar.

20. ^^ shiu' (tsz, sleeve.


210 EASY STEPS IN CHtNBSB STUDIES.

Lesson No. 3.

^- ^? ^'*'^'
c**^) coat.

2. 'pf Jj|Jkj9eP ^ksin, waistcoat.


3. ?F^ ZiaM^' ^sJian, summer singlet.

4. l^-f ^m' c^^'S') trousers.


'^-
m? ^"^^ c^*^5 stockings.

^- ISlJ fffc? <*^'"^ ^shileh ^tsz, to brush or clean


boots.

7.
^@ jcltuan Jisieh, put on shoes.
S- 5S ? mao' ^tsz, hat.

9. ^ r[J '^^wf ^cliin, handkerchief.


^^- BS iS HS c*" (^ s^'"> to undress.
-'•'•
^ ^ "F <''*''* '^'^^
'^*~i P'lt on a belt or sash.

12. ^ ^ ftl ^cldeli ho'' ^erh, to unbutton.


^^- 3^^J5t^ ™«' 'shut 'sJd 'tsao, to bathe with

warm water.
14. '«/«' 'Zi«j, wash the
^;?Jc !5b Sfe £^^««5' '^/iW'i' to

face with cold water.


15. ^f 'niu ^tsz, buttons.
16. Sb iS HK '*^^
t' j/"j to wash clothes.
17. ^O 53 if ti' itoa ^teh, a barber.
1^' ^^ s
i^<^^ if^^Wi ^ tailor.
BAST STBFB IK CHINB8B STUDIBS. 211

Lesbon No. i.

1-

shien\ to
^^^M^M
make
tso' ,i 'shang yung' ^cUn
clothes (we) use needles and thread.
2. ^^•f^'^^ina 'chien ^tss ^cldao ^tsai

liao', take the scissors and cnt the stuff.

2-
M ? ® IR s"^***
'*•'* tso' fan', the cook prepares
the food.
^- M ^ 23 'mai ftung Jisi, to buy things.
5. W^ (Ching tsai', green vegetables.
6. 3^ 1^ s3/M ru', fish and meat.
^- 8^ ^^ (Shien 'kuo ^tsz, fresh fruit.

8. 13^ jS 'Aao 'i«^'M, good wine.


9. @ ^ mien' cP<^o, bread.
10. ^§ ^ 'hsiao
/J"*
^chi ^tsz, chicken.

11. ^ ^ ro\ ifiiu beef.

12. Jl^^ ^ '^«o '_y«eA jc/h, roast pheasant.

13. ^ ^ (Chang
-J* 'tsz ro', deer's flesh, venison.

l^' ^^ milk.
s'"** *na2,

15. ^ -f pigeon.
c^o '^*~>
16. ^ ^J butter.
'jiae cyjM,

17. ¥l ? c^* '


'«'2^) (luck.

18. 'M ^ M c^^'^o s2/«'*i' '^^'^^ "^oast leg of mutton.

19- M^^ <cA2 't«^ jer/i, eggs.


212 BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 5.

1. 41* ill s''^'" ("^^'j snipe.

2- ^ §mfl ^sMng tsaP ^yiu, vegetable oil.

3' ^ Ul ^ shan yo 'i'^ ( \ boil potatoes.


4- ^^(CAa 'i!*:;, fork.

5. ^TJ'fS'J s"*^ e^'*" '^^'^ s^O) take a knife and


cut it.

6. ^ -f P^ ^ c •sAao '
is; (
ho ,
iany, drink soup with
a spoon.
7-
^-J*^^ (/'«« 'i^sr ^cheng tsai\ the plate
holds the food.
8- ©j — * IfJ jS iao' i/i' ,paz Hsiu, pour out one cup
of wine.
9- ^l^/fl?*^ <^«w, a napkin or bib.

10- llo -fU s^a* pw', table cloth.


11- -^ rT 1^ 7 i'l''*' '^0 wu' Hiao, cannot delay.
12. D^^ T (Cliih ^wan Ja, finished eating.
^^- KSK ^ f?K
'*""
J"^'''
'shang 'ni ^chien, I want
to reward you with money, (cumshaw).
14' 5^^3fe^^ c**'*"
''<"*' ckuang ^clii ^nimg, on
a hot day to go partly undressed.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 213

Lesson No. 6.

1- ^^^^.yi"' '.s7(0M 'sieh tsz\ write with the


right hand.

2. ^ MI Sli s'''' '^tsiao 'tsat, stamp on it.

^" MM
'iS[
**"' ''"'^^ jwa^, to do business.
4. 1^^^ (kai ^chien pu\ to open an exchange
shop.
5. ^ ^ ^tung ^chia, the master.

6. ^5 5 Z^wt? ?7iai', to retail, to sell little by little.

7' i^ ^ ^ ^lisiang ^chi ^lai, I think, remember.


8. S'J JS T sP«2^* wang^ ^la, don't forget.
9- ^ S A '«^WM yi' Jen, artisans.

10. ^'fR fi^ 'chang kuai' ^tih, the head of the firm,
the taipan, or a cashier.
11. ^ tang^ pu
§Jj ' a pawn shop.
12. ^ 1^ fi^ 'kiian chang^ ^tih, an accountant.
13' ?¥flt§S sy<''*5' ^'uo' pu\ a shop for the sale of
foreign goods.
14. ^ jj S c/jen /jao /law, really very good looking.
15. -^JJB^iff^ '2/*" s'" P"^' '^'^o 'foOM, too
muddy to walk.

l^' S^? s'""' < "^ien^'


'fw, hemp cordage.
214 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 7.

1. tUWi yien' ^shu, to print books, printing.

2. '^ ff* ^ A ?K il!/"* iShih ffno Jen 5


?ai, -wbo has

come ?

3. ^n^T" A '^"" V'^'' (Z/ao ;/>/(, the dog bites


people.
4. ^^^-f ,"iC(o s'ia /'flo' '^^'~n the cat catches

the rat.
5. "JJ -f'^\]~r ^ ^tao ' tsz s
to ' liao 'shou, the knife

cuts the hand.


6. 1^ -f _h ^S '*
s**~ shang' tso'' ^chii, sit on the
chair.
'^-
M S W ~" S 9S £ ''" '^« ':!/*" J"/*' f*^^^"'*
iClman,

there is a boat on the river.


8- M5i§'f§>^^65 "^'^^^ ^<^''' ^rhiao shiJi' 'tielt

. ti'h, this bridge is made of iron.

9. 'tS"'^ ? i^^'-'* s^"* ''^'^> ^ bamboo grove.


10. ~F /f» i^jS
Itsia' 'hsiao 'yii, small rain falling.

11. "I* ^ /iij'a' i^'m', mist.

12. ~F § -jp Asia* s/jao 'te, hail.


13. JT @ ''"^
s^*^^'
thunder.
14. *<« 'shan, lightning.
JT P3
BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STaDIBS. 215

Lesson Ko. 8.

1- ^5^~F§ (tung ^tien Jtsia' 'Jisile/i, in winter


snow falls.

2- fi ^M ^'^^' "^'^^ c^^nff, electric lamp.


3' !% M M s'"^* ''^"' c'^'^5'' g'''®
'i"np.

4. ^ j^ 'huo^ yu
jft ,teng, kerosine oil lamp.

"'• ^1^ ^ (tienjo'ffl ^IC


'tei yung' ^ping, on hot
days use ice.

^' ^®
/''C
'
^'''O i
^^^ c"/'^) railway carriage.
7. /Aj^ )|S
'
/i!<o
s
Zwn s
chuan, steamer.
8. i^^ ,c/h c/ii', engines.
9- Pl ^ $ chiao^ ta, ^che, bicycle.

10- jl^^SB cC^w 'pa7i ^clman, sailing ship, a junk.


11. ^^ s
wei ^kan, masts.
12. UlES^fiF^ («/ian hi' puli' 'hao ^tsou, it is

hard walking on mountain paths.


13. ^il^^^^ chaP tso' ^t'a 'hin ^hao, this

pagoda is very high.


14. T^^SiS^ j3/«"5' iChien shih' ^yin ,tih, the
dollars are silver.

15. @^^ ^ s^M 'pan huaP ,la, the upstair floor


is broken.
216 EASY STEP3 IN CHINESE ST0DIBS.

Lesson No. 9.

^- S M P5 c^^iuang sJian' ^men, a " pair of" doors.


2- W^jiiii V"^* y'^' ('^^iwuig, Venetian blimls, or
shutters.

3- -ffi :^ I® 7b M 61J
/'"' «Ai/«' ^mien Jiua tso' Jih,

cloth is made of cotton.

silk cloth is made of raw silk.

''•
S Jffl iX Jiuang ^pu ^cliiaag, the Whaugpoo
river.

6. i^ifi'IM <'5i« icliow Jio, Soochow creek.

7. ^^ ti' dung'' earthquake.

8.!^ -f $1^<!"» ^®
'hsiao ^clie ^^Iz (tin ^tung ^chi,

the wheel-barrow " pushes along " things.


9- M^5JITA '"*" ^chc peng' ' liao Jen, the

carriage knocked a man down.


10- K^^^
"iC
""" J*'" 'y^'^ s"'"' c"^'*? women
also ride on vehicles.

11- ^^^ W 51 (3/'" <'''^«


s'««2' V" '^'' i^ou,

it is cloudy ; there is no sun.


12"- J^^M '™<^'* c*^'^'*
i^i-sing^ the sky is full of

stars.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 217

Lbsson No. 10.

!• -^ ^ilfilS yiieli^ Hang'' tV Hi, the moon shines


on the earth.
2- S 55 JS ^ '
wang 'na ^mo'tsou, go another way.
3. ig:T;BiSif gS 'wo sFwA je«' s^^/;
Zw', I don't
know the way.
4. JlJ^T^trit ^'^o' Jisiang hsia'' chii' 'ta

(Chiang, to go into the country shooting.


5. ^S£»^^^ Asz'en' i!M«' 'nwo jr/j ^to, there

are many birds about here.


6- ^^MIB
'w"' V^^' ''^''^^^ ihiang', I want a

photograph, or to photograph, or to be, etc.


7. ^j^ ftH ^chu, to play foot-ball, or a foot-ball.

8. fl 3^ S 'to ichiu ^rh, to play at ball.

9. p@ ^ fr 'K '^2«"5' £^"0 'to chang', two countries


at war.

10. ^Afr^'^'«"5' sJ"^" ''^'^ '^^*^'' *'^° ™®"'


fighting.

11- WtM^ ^"«' s^^^ '''*^' '^°'^* ^^^ ^*g-

12. IllMifi i3 shuan' Jeng 'sMh ipeng, when the

wind is fair use the sail.

13. ^Jj^ta' kaP, generally, probably.


21
218 KASY STEPS IN CHINESB STUDIES.

Lesson No. 11.

1- S W ^ 3^ ihuan 'yiu ^to '^yuan, how far is it

still? "^Hiian," sometimes pronounced " HaV


2. fl «^ *^ ^ ''i^ idling tao^ ^rh, to ask the way.
3- fia^^-^MM^ '^^^ '^0 i^"- ^^' iP"^ff
'''^«'"

.lai, bring me a bottle of wine.


4- ^^ ^ Jin s
c^a s
A« t
chi j cAa, put tea (water)
into the tea-pot.
5. tS T» tS 'titng puh^ 'tung, do you understand ?

6- fBl :^ i^ c'*^
s/i/A' ^shui, who is he ?

7- '"'0 ipuJi jin' ^teh ,ta, I don't


i^^lS^ffffi,
know him.
8. — • IM IM ? '^*' 'i''^9 cfiang' '^*", a curtain, a
mosquito-net.
9. -J* /f» :^ 7 j^^^' 'tz jpiih' 'shao 'liao, too long

a time.
10. gf ]% ^g ,eM?i^ 5<d/j 'Ae;i, very dirty.
11. ^ "! ^ s«a /isia' cAm', take it down.
12. — gb
53^ ' A«^' ;7i' 'As/, wash it.

13. ^ij
— ISlJ £ Aswa 2'A' Jisua, brush it.

14- S'^Si^'? ^^'**'' 'f^stang Ja 'tsz, to think out

another plan.
EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 219

Lesson No. 12.

1- 1^ T is T s*"^*'
'^^^^ s'"*" 'fco, difficult to do.

2- JifiW^S '*"" 'i'^w *^'^'' c/(m\ I have some


business to do.
3. [SI ?K ^H Jiwei Jai chien' pa', I will see you
when I come back.
4. |§ !^ 'ma ,c/j4 a carriage.

5. R'^^JS/ll i^^o i**^* 'P<^'>


^ma, races were held
yesterday.
6. '^ '^ ^ ^ kuaV kuaP Hsou, walk quickly. ^ti

7. )|S _fc ^ 7 S i^huan shang' ^chuang 'liao 7iuo.^,

to take in cargo.

8- i^m^^'^' ^'i^'/*
s
'e'* ^^"^^ P"'' ' s ^^^> ^ill ^^^^
do or not ?

9- ^^^ISP"^' '^*" t*^"5' ^""'j he does not

listen, or he does not obey.


10. Il^^mji ^tsung ^tei yung' Jisin, you must
pay attention.

11- ^l#^.5^ e^A"" £*eA 'hen skih\ what you say


is quite right.
12. 5E i^ |5> ^Jisien 'kei 'ni ^chien, I will pay in
advance.
220 BAST STEPS IN OHINBSK STUDIES.

Lesson No. 18.

1. ^TS^ ^toan Jiao tsaP suan\ to settle

when finished.

2. M.~'Wi^ ^mai ^ih tun' ^mei, buy a ton of


coal.

3. ^ — S .^
' ch'ing' ih' 'lou tan\ weigh a basket
of charcoal.

we want 100 catties of split firewood.

5. ^— 113 A ?K 'chao Jh ho' ^jen ^lai, call a man


here.

^' S mr M U'-^'
'^*' '*'*
c''^"'"5'j iJi t^e night we
watch.
7. 3^ ^ 5^ ffi «''e' 'Zia??^ ,<ie?i ^mang, very busy
the last few days.
8- -©AfllKiS ',y^" sis'* c*" (tung Jisi, some-
body has stolen the things.

9- 11!!' ^11 '^sung Hei Jiu ^shen, you must


look after them.
10. ^S S ^ 'hen/ei' shih\ very difficult.

11. fltljglll^ A (<'« ^hi^i' rtsu Hu Jin, he's a


very coarse person.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 221

Lesson No. 14

1- 'i^ S^ s/""^ y^o' 'chin, it doesn't matter.


2- ^MM^ s/iuei' chiao' tso' vienc/', to sleep
and dream.
3. ^'I^^'^ ^/iiVi' ^ching ^chi kuai', what a
curious affair 1

4. /!» ^|li> ^ % ilfi


'hsiao ,hsin chih 'tien ^rh, take a

little care of it.

5- ^ 1^ :?fe 'It S in ^ «'"''' sc^'% ^««' jwangr


jmej fhung ^fn, I have too much to do no; leisure.

6. j]^ T
B^l^ Am"^ 'Ziao jiAz'/j liou', past time.
7. B'JiST sP««'* wang'' Hiao, don't forget.
8- S:;SJKB£'^ j/iHan s/»7i' nei' ^pi kuai', that

horse is the faster.


9- li! ^ 5K 'is^nff ^mei Jiui Jai, will not return
yet.

10. ^ f^ ^ (f P"'«' sW^M(? /)an' shih',


unable to do
business.
11- Ju'^^M (kung ^fu puh' ^chang, the time is

not long.
12. ffi X^ ^y"'jp'\^""5' ' Asi'e/i <53 ', busy writing,
or to pay attention to writing.
222 BAST 8TBPS IN OHINBSB STUDIES.

Lesson No. 15,

1- ffl'lli^i^^ 2/""5'' Jisin nien' ^shu, reading


diligently.

2. "^ ^H ''" c^w' ^a') you may go.

3. ^^T '^^ if'^ c


^'^1 ^ ^'^ tired.
4. ^-f fflffi^^Jh (C^a" 'i*s tP'« <^a«' ichuang
shang\ put a felt covering on the bed.
5- fJoM^T '^^ y"' «/'M2' 'Z/ao, I want to

sleep.

6- /f» ^ !!^ ffl sP"'* J/^"' 'c/iao ?iao', don't make a


noise.

7- §& JlM. '^'^^ *^"^'*^


c*!^".?) light the lamp.

8- IB _h F5 c^"*'* shan' ^min, shut the door.


9' 'STEM'S' ^'^'^ '^^'^o '^'''"
s''**' '.y'") have
you fed the dog or not ?

10. 1^ iQ 7 'loei^ ^ poi.0 'Uao, he has finished eating,

he has been fed.

11- ^SWA^^J" "oa' 'y^i( si«" '«''«o '""',

if somebody comes to call me.


12. f^K Pol ffii W ft S ^ ' "*' «^«« ' c
«'« 'yiM s
«/«Vj ^mo
sMh\ ask him his business.

13. ^§ 'c/h' 'shou, the beginning.


EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 223

Lesson No. 16.

1- ^ i$ S "T ;jlj s^*" ^shin ^pieh ,tiu 'liao, take


care not to lose it.

2. "iHi :S W^ ''yieh sliih' 'yiu ^ti, there is such a


thing to be had.
3. ^ fa ipuh tso\ not wrong ; right.

4- S! ^ ^ hunj s J
cJia t/eh\ black (lit. red) tea-leaf.
5- ^^J^IC '^^ pat' fang' ^kung, Sunday is a
holiday.

6. ^ 'I^ 'It
«^*''' fuelling ^mang, business brisk.
7' ^S ^ jmez kung' ,^erh, no time (to do some-
thing).

8. ^» ?i ?ll S 10 ^ JS 'A«aw9 ^puh tao' chei' ho'

yang' c,erh, it can't be expected so.

^- ifc 3)^ 1^ 'P* { A"5' c*^™") suppose.


10. i!gf0$f "^^ 'hsiang ho' liao Ja 'tsz, think
out a good plan.
11- W" ^ JT ^ ''" <''''''^ '^« r*%, enquire.
12. ^ A J^ ^ pin^' 5_y'eji Auo' ^to, sick men are too

many.
13. ?E A ffl( ^^ '**" si*''*
'y*'^
P"' 's/iflo, the dead

are no less.
224 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 17.

1- ^ "^ @ S R ft* i
"'*^ 'y' (,
^^"^' r™" ''Jiai mai',
has nothing to do in trade.
2- ?¥ ^^^^ s^"",'? s*^^"^'* knaii'' ^to ' shao, what
can you get for a dollar ?

3. A 'T* 5i fli i« ' /imA^ j


/'« (CAu, receipts small,
expenditure lar^^e.

'chin ^te 'hen, the market is " tight" just now.


5- ^^ ll3 J^ (tien eld' ^chao ^shih, the weather is

damp.
6. j^ ^ 9§ ^uo' yii' ,tsana, too dirty.

thai', put in the sun to dr}'.

8- Ml 11^ 12
lyf ^ cA/ao' ,/eng ^chui Jain ,la, it will

dry in the wind.


9- ^M ?'St s'"* s^/'
'**•* 'shi, get some soap and
washjit.

10. ISlJ 3" («''"« iyo-t brush (clean) the teeth.


f- 11- I^ P '5^'"' '/com, to wash out the mouth.
12. f!^ Jill fSA/w '
chiao, to cut the toe-nails.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 225

Lesson No. 18.

^- fi :S JiS Sl^ "^'e' j/nVi' '<if?i (WO fShuo, what


kind of talk is this ?

2- ^ jM ^ '<sou iao' jrA, to walk.

^' Hi 3^ F3 afe t*^^"' '' ijuan ^men chii', to go to a


distance.

*• f# IS
:$E H^R
</'«>« '<«* «/"' ;»«*' cyoaw fei',

first get ready your travelling expenses.

^- fl* Mfi fl ^ '


^"^ '
^'^'^ s
^'^"'5' ' ^^ get your baggage
ready.
6. J'JC !?§ ^ SJS
'*''"' ^"' **"' ^chuan, we must take
a boat for a water journey.
7. .^ 1^ ^^ Aa?i' /it' fio' (C/ie, on land we take a
carriage.

8. Q ^ JT ^ si"^*' c*'*"
'*« ^chien, take refreshment

in the daytime.

.9. B^ B|q) fi/S 'ic^" "^ shang chu' tten', at night stay
in the inn.

yao fClia Hien, look carefully after everything.


11- M%.M%M^'^ ya»9' yo-''W ' <
^ou ' tei hsi' ,
hsin,

see attentively to everything.


226 easy steps in chinese studies.

Lesson No. 19.

!• ^^^ )Ii$ c*" '*^2 s^'^ ^shen, see attentively to


everything.
2- S'JHS^ (,pieh ,su ^hu, don't forget, don't be
careless.

'sheng, be economical every day.

4. /f»pJ^pf^p«A"^o hao''fei\ don't be extravagant.


^- j£ f@ "? si''*
,fisien ^isz, a leather box.

^- S 'M % s?^ cP^o s^''^*' * leather-covered bundle,


or bag.

7. ^ ^T "? ^ _h s
'"' (i5/«(7 '
tsz J
i//z(/ shang', bring
a nail and nail it.

8- $^ ll! 1-^ _h s
^'^ (
^-2^
s
'""£' shang', screw it up.
9- ^'f'i <^^"" '*^-! ^ hammer.
10. BJC f fl
'
kai ichiii, a screw-driver.

11. ^Ij ^^ jyjfs/i t^lei chni\ don't be troublesome.


12. JUi ^
vM c./<3'\'i'
^rt",'/' ia', the wind and waves
are high.
13. ^ A ft )IS
^'^'
si^'"-
y^'^' ichuan, the passengers

are sea-sick.

14. M A flu ^tl"* IS Iff-


'^^'ei' l-o' Jen Jisin ^
rhang 'hao,

this man has a irood heart.


KASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 227

Lesson No. 20.

!• W ^ BM J^ '2/*'" (hsin 'yen ^erJi, very intelligent.


2' M "? ^ '^ ffl '^'^'^ '**^ *'*'
sP"^' ?"''' '^'s courage
(gall) is great, lie has no fear.

2' ^iJHf ^i§^ 'i^o' Jisin 'hai ,kiian chu\ go to


the new (foreign) custom-house.

what place is he from ?

5- ^ /f^ _fc ffe


'^01™ sP" shang' ^fa, I could not
overtake him.
6. i^ ^^^7 hsien' tsai' ^tien j
chang 'liao, the
days are long now.
7. :§ /f» ;^ sJiih' ^puh shih', is it so or not ?

8- '^"^ 'j'* '^^ ""'ould this


pT JItl -T* pT iil P**^'^ i/''

do or not? Can you do it or not?


9- m^^7 s'*"' (Cfi-i<^ o/iil' (la, gone home.
10. 2 ® ^ ^ fl cAe' ( mo pan' pu ' j s/imdc, cannot
manage way.
in this

II- — ^ ^ it
iiS -ffi
2'^' '^»^« s
''^* 'yiepuh' tso\ not
the least bit wrong.
12. ^y^-^^ (Chin ,tienfang\hsueh, to day is a

(school) holida}'.
228 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 21.

1- @^^ *kan 'chin pan', to manage or do


something quickly.
2- flilgSSS^S? (^« c«^«wo che' ,mo pan' 'hao,
he says this was managed well.

3- M W J@ ^ "? fl* i
^^* '2/'" s*^"^' t'"'' sA ''^S^)

what other way is there ?

4. ^ J^'^i^ ^nien ^chenff pull' 'hao, a bad year

for crops.

5. jIS J® tSC ^J ^c^i-'en yi' tai' W haP, the pestilence


is extremely bad.
6. A ^ ^ si^"
'I!^ t''*"* si"*'^* ii"ff\ men's thoughts
are wandering.
7- B ffl ^S ^ :*: >Vj' 2/«?i^' , Awa /«> tai' ,to,

my daily expenses are very large.

]^ 7j{]^ff V" '*^'"* P"^*' s*''^''' ^^^ rainfall


8- is

not moderate (either too much or too little).


9- ffi ^ iS ^ ^chuang'?^ chia ' 'chang puh\cheng,
the crops are not growing properly.
10-
]R 7^ ^T^
c
''•'"'' *^"° sAom' 'Zi'ao ping',

melons and fruit are damaged.


11- ^ "F ^ ^chung ^tsz ito, insects are numerous.
BASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 229

Lesson No. 22.

!• Il§ 7X /dt (ho fping 'shui, drink ice-water.


2. 5t "? ^ '"' '
'*2 iteng, stomach-ache.
2* 'Kff'^J'^ ,«AoM ji/iz'/i r^an ching', put it to

rights and clean it up.


^- M M ^ ^^^' <^h^' i^^'^ffi pS'iii ill ^^6 stomach.
^* SiP^W^/"^*' *^*'
'S''" P>'ng\ disease in the
lungs.
6- ^' !•$ (^ BIS! s^'i'i 'chuan ^ko sou', asthmatical
coughing.
7. Btlfll «m' Azo/i', to spit blood.
8. ^IP^ 'Aao iMoh (SMng, to examine (as in
school).

9- ^^H 'shang ^tung Jisi, to give or bestow


something.
10- ^IS A '«/«^^ chuan' Jen, to admonish a man.
!!• ^ fU ^ jS/jMO J
Ao skih', to make peace.

12. MT^ffti '^^^"5' ''*^''''


s''^^'*^'
jc/jow, two men
at enmity with each other.
13. |ffi^ A 'hung pien' Jen, a cheater, a beguiler.

14. ^ ^ tt shou' ,yuan 'wang, to suffer injustice.

15. ^ BS A t^hi ifu ijen, to insult a man.


230 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 23.

1- ^ ^ ?^ shih^ W ta\ great power or influence.


2. |§^ ^cliiao ao\ proud, haughty, etc.

3. jj, iiit V^'' ""'') patient, to put up with.


4. ft -f ^ hsing^ '
tsz jjao', of a hasty temper.
5- ^^ *3^ Ei c^'' ./^'*' 'shou 'chi, to be content in
one's sphere.
6. if^S^l^^lf^ c^shih ^mo tP J'ang ^chao 'ho,

where is the fire ?

7. 1^ ^ 6^J \ chiu' 'Ito ^ti Jen, a fireman.


8. ylXfi shui ^loong, a fire-engine.
'

^- :M 'f^ "? ^cha7ig ,ti 'tsz, a long ladder.


10. ^ -f" ^f'l 'tsz, an ase.
li- 1^ ^ "? ('^^'(^^
s/*^"^ '^•'^j to pull down a house.
12. :^ ^Ij T' ichicmg 'tao 'liao, the wall has fallen.
12- I^ T^^^ (SAao 'Zmo (io '.sAao ^chien, how
many houses are burnt ?

l^- ®M7 c^"i'' mieh' 'liao, the fire is out.


IS- J§'!^® 'chiang ^tung Jisi, to salve goods
(from fire).

l^' K5 ^ JJ''^'^ c
<'^"''') to change one's home ; to
remove one's furniture.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 231

Lksson No. 24.

^' H^S'^'fC ^"' (CM ,la f


cilia 'huo, hire a
cart to remove the things.
2> ®3^^jE (CAj'^A tao' iping cJi'Sng', the roads
are very level.
3. f^ j^ fShiu tao', to put roads in order.
4. j§ f^ ,po fChieh, to put water upon.
5- fTJ^i^*^ '^'^ '*'"'
c"^"*^ ^''"'' ^0 sweep the
roads.

^- ?^ JS^^ si"** 'P" s''^*'* c*^'""^^'


t^® policema:n
watches in the streets.

7. ^ JS ^ ijun 'pu ifang, police-station.

8- S^ fCAzeH Zao', a lock-up, a prison.

9. ^f^P3 c^sm sya jmew, a new ya-m^n, the

Mixed Court.
10. #Pf3D^ 'shin wen' 'kou hung\ to take
evidence.
!!• S^^ ^"'5'' **"*' s''"'*^') to condemn, to

convict.

12. 19 JflJi3 2/M«5'' ihsing ^fa, to give punishment,


to employ the law.
13. J^ JE 2^ (j/a 'cU 5 Za?', to keep in custody.
232 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 2.5

1. Jjj 7 fang'' 'liao, to set free.

2. ^ _fc '•so sliang^j to lock.

3. ^ f^ ^ 'i/iou kao''tsz, handcuffs, manacles.


4. 1^^^ 'so lien' 'ts.', fetters, chains.

5. JC 'tlm i^'"':' ,chia, the cangue.

6. ^ 5^
flS t^^^'W 'i^wo' sliih'', to issue a proclamation.
7. HA^M (f''*''^'
si^" s"" itsei, to send men to

take a thief.

8. Wl^/'^^s' (C^i-ie'iff, to let off a gun.


9. ^ ii^ ^chuang pao', to load a cannon.
10. /''C^ 'huo yao', gunpowder.
11. !^ 5S ?^ <^''*'
P"^'"'
'^^^ s*"^''
^i^ explosive shell.
12- i^ SH "F ichiang ^t'ou Usz, a bayonet.
13- Mi 7] (y^o c'^«o, a dagger.

14. j{^^ jjao' fChe, gun-carriage.

15. 5^ ^ hao' ji, soldier's uniform.

16. ?^ ^ (i^'io fei', to drill, discipline.

17. ^^ 'ching ^chi, to put in order, to arrange.


18. ^ ^ han' (ping, literally " dry soldiers " i.e.

land-, as opposed to sea-, soldiers, also " Zm' (ping."


.

EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 233

Lesson No. 26.

!• JJt ^ ' shui ^shih, water soldiers, i.e. man-of-


war's men.
2- ^ IIrI t.P^^9
'
hsiang, soldiers' pay and rations.

3. 1^ -^ Aao' ling', words of command.


4. $f ^^ fChien hsi', a spy.

5. ^i^-*^ chi' ^yao tai', to tie the sash.

6. JTSffil ''^ ' Icuo 'tui, to bind the leg.


'^-
i\ ^ 'fet
''i^ shSng' cliang', to fight and conquer.
8- ^AjK/'^ c*^*^ ij^n fang' 'huo, to kill and
burn.
^- 1^ }B WM c'*"° °''
c*^" V'"'' V" ^*«*"\ to harass
the people.
10. Ji"^jH^ 'chiang ^to ^tsai ^po, to plunder
one's wealth.

11. xH jS HS^ chin' tui' 'Hang j nan, difficult to go


either way ; a dilemma.
12. S '& '^^ ;S ' '*" y^" ' sP"^' *'"^'
'' °° ^*y right
or left.

13. ^ 1^ iwei ^nan, difficult to accomplish.


14. tK,f^ fang' Jisin, don't trouble, make your
mind easy. .

25
234 EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 27.

1. ^"fj^mien W, strenuous effort; to urge one


to do one's best, to encourage.
2. ^ 5S yao' ^chiang, must try to excel.

3. ^iC^ (Chuan fhi'ing, with the whole heart.


^' ^^??C ^ '"^0^ ^ehih ^wan ^erh, playing and
romping.
5. ^^WJ ^"f" s'*"" tung' ^sMn 'tss, to give motion
to the body.
6. jyfe j^ ^ tiC'O' kuo' chii\ to jump over.
7. 7^ M^ M<^i 'tao ,la, to fall down.
8- SA^ ^ ?K tP* pull' 'chi ^lai, unable to rise.

9. ^SK@^ ^tsung ^na ^mo 'tsou, whence does


he go?
10- — iS ^ ^ '^'' iChili ^chao (tung, go straight to
the east.
11- ^® ^chax) (hsi, turn towards the west.
12. ;^JSM^Jh '<^' cc/"^A mien' ^erh shang', on
the big street.
13. <I> ^ JS 11 SI '^siao 'cMeJi ^erh 'U ^tou, in the

small street.
!*• 'fJ ffi 1^ ^^"" { chuang
( j er/j, a village, or hamlet.
EASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 235

Lesson No. 28.

!• ffi^^^SMc'*" cMeh^ 'li ^tou, in the foreign


settlements.

2- ffi^^lM (Chuang chia' ti' 'li, crop lands,


farms.
3. /jt^ 'shui Jcou, a ditch or moat, the bed of a
stream.
4. ^fl* ilan (kan, a railing, a balustrade.
5. !^ — fs ^if ^f&ng write a
'hsieh ih' hsin', letter.

^- ^ ^ '£ sung' Jiuei ^chia


111 send home. chii', to

7. JT H^ t^ ^ kuaP '^«
t^ang, send a
*^^'*' P<^o'

telegram quickly.
^' JT M^ ' '<"
V" '
*"'"' *° '^°^'l
^P ^^ nmbrella.
9- S'^J'fll/'t (<MW5' (tien ^lung 'huo, in winter
make fires.

10. M^SJlJUM ''*^' c*^^'* f^'"' c/^"5' shan', in


summer pull the punkah.
li- ®S "Js {«/*««
s/ian' '<««, to fan one's self.

12. ^^ fiS ?F c^'^'*.7<'' e''^'" /«an', in hot weather

perspiration comes out.

when walking carry a walking sticky


236 EAST STEPS IN CHINESE STODIKS.

Lesson No. 29.

!• @ $ 6MI^ IM "F '^''"^ t*^^'^ c^'^ '«^"^ (P^i^ *'««>

the driver uses a whip.


2. §f S^ '^*«o f
c/k' Amj'', a good opportunity.
3. IB tt /f» Jf cAi' 7t«;w' jdkA' 'Aao, memory not
good.

to tell you about the affair.

5. —'^ISg^iST ^^''' ^""' s*''A c/tm' wang'


J
Zt'ao, to forget in a little time.

call one for me.


7. SSilBE &f) ,^ert <pan (ie'/i, a follower.

must understand how to do the business.

^' -^S^IG^fttl !?"^» y"' inien cJii' ta' ^tih,

old men not wanted.


10. ^^H^ES^ iShuo (Chih Usung puh^ 'kai, I
have scolded him, but he doesn't reform.
11. ifVf,ii#Mg pan' sUh' Umng 'tei je'n'

'eJien, business must be done diligently.


BA8Y STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 237

Lesson No. 30.

!• <^ bI & US "T ^ /'"'' *'ko i


han 5 ku ' liao thih ',

must not be indefinite in this matter.

2- ^W^SS^ ,shuo JiO shih' yaa' (kunc/

iping, to arrange an equitable settlement.


^- ^^^^ ?"*" ' ji^A J
waw 5
chuan, to manage a
complete settlement.
4. 1^ A M>l^ s^** ti^'* </<'"'S' pzWn', beneficial to

men ; something to the general advantage.


5. @ BiJl^J^® <«' 'ehi 'yiih Jang pien', con-

venient for me also.

6. 'if^'flj^ '^*" *'"^*' ^"''' s'""' '^'^^ affair is

disposed of.

7. ^ ^ ^ ^ 'Hang ^cliuan ^chi 'mei, of advantage

to both sides.

*• ^^^ Iff' t^u shih' iShing'hao, all are ^ood


and charitable.
9- iS 3® il S — % *6 '«"' 'Awan^' ^«o' ''»««'
s«^«

Awai' iiA', I think I will buy a piece of ground.


10. :^^I1HIK *«' 2/"' er' fSan Sjiu, probably
two or three mow.
238 bast steps in chimesb studies.

Lesson No. 31.

1. ^^^^•"Wi ''*'
c*" 't^O'O icMen ih' 'mu,
what is the price per mow ?

2- iJ^^ifc:;!^^ »«' '<« ^an' «P /an^ ,erh,

that depends on the position.

3' ^W'f'A ''*'


V'" ,tsung ijen, a middleman
is wanted.
4^-
l.t S? T iffi ;3& K jc/i/ao 'Aao 'liao ti' Jang ^erh,
look if this place is all right.

5- S^TIH^ *%' ''0 ''««" c/i/a' jcAtw, the


price is settled.

9 SSfT^i^S ^<^"' ^^'"'^ ^liao (fang ^tan, see


if this deed is all right.

7. H^^fl&fJg JTSg i^a?' '«Aao «i' 'pao 'ta ,ehoh,


look again for the tipao to stamp it.

8- S&i^^^ff tP 'chu 'hsieh tsz' hua' ,ya,


the owner of the land must affix his signature.

ming tih' chid*, give the purchase-money in the


presence of the middleman.
10. f¥ ^ j& H ^ ^ tsaP ii^ i-na (fang , tan huan'
tao^ chi', take the fangtan, and change it for a Taotai's

deed.
BABY STBP8 IK CHINBSB STUDIja. 239

Lbsson No. 32.

!• ^ ^ i8 ?|v IS A«Vk
(
'tei ^chao mu' chiang', first
find a carpenter.

2- ]^Hi^B)t'!>&iE ''"o' ,/)ao ««ao' huo' pu*


fpao Isao*, perhaps it is piece-work, perhaps not.
3- ^vj 0, t^u'ko'i, all is satisfactory, "can pass."
4. ^t^^^^ iP^^9 '^^"' **'
t/""5' «*''''> make
the ground level.
5. '^ffi^^ ftua' fCJm s<w yang\ to draw the
architect's plans.

^' M^^*® y*"' *''^' itsung ^lu, how many


stories ?

7- jr Sfe W ''"^ '^' 'chiao, to beat down the founda-

tion.

8. M /t» 'N" '""'"


"*"' Z/ao', to buy timber.
^' SSf'SlS^ '*"'** ,chuan 'wa ^shih fhut, to
buy bricks, tiles and lime.
10. SiE'®!!^ '""" chiang' chp ichiang, the brick-
layer builds the wall.
11. /J'* m M J; '^ JIS 'ftsiao ^kung yun' 'tu Jio 5m",

the coolie carries earth to mix with water.


240 EASY STEPS IN CHINKSE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 33.

!• §c ffi J2 ^ ^^'^^ ch'u* shang' iliang, pillars and


beams.
2- 3E^^B"F^X lisien' ting' jiP 'tsz ^chiou

fkung, to settle beforehand the day when work is to be

done.
2' ^^^^^ t'^" cP" s
^' (Chuang hu', put glass
into the windows.

^- ^^^ ^'^^' ''^'*''


J*'"^) electric bells.
5- ^^JbtfiS"? ^*'
"Z*^" shang' ^pn 'tan 'tsz,

ojL the floor spread a carpet.

M^^W'M
6- ^*'** c'*^" cP" s^/aw^r jc/h', in
summer we spread mat. a

^ ^
7. ':?5
t'" c^^^'^ iP^^^!/> put up a matshed.

SH^
8- 'mai 'CC i^hih ^chia 'huo, to buy house-
hold furniture.
9- ^ ,«/ma
Wl 5^ '/ew ^c/iiqng, to whitewash a wall.
^0- J; ^ shang' ^yu
fSl ^chi, put on varnish.
11- # S JK ft ^ i ^-^ ' cAm% shoii s
«/«7t s
c/«' ' ching,
make it all right everywhere.

12. ^ S ^ gf ® ^ yanj?' yang' ^an ^pai 'to, tang,


arrange everything in order.
BAST STKPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 241

Lesson No. 3i.

!• ^ x£ £ '^ 'pa7i chin' cJiii' 'chu', to enter upoa


premises and dwell there.
2' ^^^^^"f" iChttang ting' ^tu yao' titn'
*
tst, the beds and seats must all be covered with padded
stuff.

3. ^^^ i'/C
' '"«« 'chan fChia 'huo, bowls, cups

and crockery generally.


^' iS 5C S^ ^ '^" ^loan ^chSn sho', curios, antiques,

etc.

5- ^ IS "? JE :S 1^ s"'* '''^" '**^ s***" c"''" **' bring


a duster and dust the chairs and tables.
6- ffl -^ ^^ "F «/""5'' pw' f**'* ching' 'tsz, take a
cloth and clean the mirror.
'^'
^^^WM '*ltih itiao 'chou 'sao ti\ use the
broom to brush it up.

S- ^ ft M ^ y ifE
"'*'*' "**' chung' ,lma 'tsaoj in
the courtyard plant flowers and grass.
9- @ S -^ i!^
"'^''
*y«''S'
'chiao'niao, to rear birds.

10. X5ll 9 ^ l£ tAwTj^' too' <«' Ja« ioMng, work


properly done is naturally all right.
242 BASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 35.

1- W^B iScit^W '"»^« i«^*' c^^o" '*^"'* c^''"


ehing', every day it is to be cleaned.

2- ^^^ 'C^ c'" 'teiiliu fhsin, take care of every-


thing.
3. ^ :§ ~*
"t* tJ" ishth ^feng sliili' ^yili ts^un', ten
fin equal one inch.
4. :§ — ^
"f* T'J' s
*^*^ <i'«n' s/iiA' yi'A' 'chih, ten
inches equal one foot.
5. "f*^ S —'^t isMh 'chih shih' ^yih chanci', ten

feet equal one chang.


6. JLJ^^—"^ 'wu 'chih shih' ^yih pu\ five feet

equal one pu.


7. ^Sm-i'1S^m-W(,er"paisz\shihJar^
pit' shih' fi/ih 'mu, 240 square pu equal one mow.
8. ^Wa*"!*^^— M( ^^'^ '/"** '*"* j«/«7j pu*
shih' yih' 'li, 360 pu equal one mile.
9. +^:§ — ^ s*^"^' (/«« «''«/»' y^^*' iChien, ten
/^n equal one chien.

lO- + ^ ^ "" M s*'"7» jc/iien shih' yih' 'Hang, ten


c/H*«n equal one tael (weight).

KAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. 243

Lesson No. 36.

1. f'i^M ^ '
Jf^ ishihliu^ 'Uang shih^ yih' (CJdn,
sixteen taels equal one catty.
2- + ^ ^ — ^ Mih t siting sJiih' yih' ' tou, ten
pints equal one peck.
3. '^^ ^—'^'wu'tou shih ' yih ' j liu, five pecks
'equal one Aw (corn measure).
4. M fl^:^ — S 'Hang ^hu shih'^yih ,shih, two hu
equal one picul.
5- 7J jFSlJ^T ('«" ''*^ j^o /"o' 'Zi'ao, the knife
cut it in pieces.

6. M^f-LTA '"*''
c"^^ y' '^^'^o ijen, the
carriage runs over (and crunches) the man.

liao, the rickshaws are damaged hy collision.

8. MfMM^'^ s«A''» c'^A <c/'e '^'^« *«««''. the


bicycle goes very quickly.
9- ^ilStflT*® '<40M jcAwaji pa' hsia' wu', the
moving ship fears the fog.
10. ^1^^'J^ iChuan pSng' ^chen 'liao, the boats
collided and sank.
244 BAST STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES.

Lesson No. 37.

1. ft ^^^T ^'"o' ^f'"' c'" c^*** 'liao, the cargo


is all lost.

2- ^ ^ 5K T f
^'"' '<'^"
s
^"^ '^2'ao, it has been pulled
out.
3. Tii^Wi^ 'shtd 'thou ^pan chao', the sailors
pull the oars.

4. f^X^fS ^o* t^wn^r j/ja io', the helmsman


holds the tiller or helm.
5. JS 1® M 'Z"^"
*/iun' t/«"5') to go with a fair

wind.
6- fS tl S ii^ xi: i5S s«^wa« 2«w' '^* («Au tsao

^cJiuan, in the dock they mend the boats.


7. mf^fl chiao' huo' ihang, an auctioneering
firm.

^* }fl M ]K ® (J"'"
"*'*'' c<Mn^ ,/(«', they sell goods
by auction.
51 IM_h
9- ^
ft '"^'^ s*°" shang' JtsieP huo\ on
the wharf they discharge cargo.

10. ih^fi^it^M 'fisiao Jun -^chuan Usou nei'

Jio, the launches go on inland waters.


BASY STEPS IN CHINESE STUDIES. .24:5'

Lesson No. 38.

!• 'fii /"Clra ^ S& f


^«w '/'''o s
'«« <«'*« ^"'> to repair

a railway.
2. # i® ^ ^ i^ ^0^ c/iw' ,an tien' Iisien', every-

where electric wires are put up.

2' 1^ ^ ?^ c^''* s"*^* 'kuncf,~to open a coal mine.


^' ^ ^ 4^ (C/ji'n j?/m 'kung, gold and silver mines.
5. iK flj P '<" ^iMo'
c^^"' '^""i native goods are
exported.
6. ^^ ;;^ :/C ^ c*^ s
'^^^'^ iAz'A^ ia' Jsung, silk and
tea are in the largest proportions.
7. J^K j^ P sy'^5' ^^^°'
"^^'"^ 'kou, foreign goods
are imported.
9. ^^^M^ il/<^nff pu ' tsui' ( to, foreign cloth in

greatest quantity.
10. ^^S^ ilini^ suP Jiuo' wu\ general mer-

chandise.
11. ^ fl^ @^ ^^ 'sJiou 'sJiih ^ti ttung ,hsi, articles

of common use.

12. ^ j^ ^ ? ffi
'c/m ,chin yung' chiao' 'tsz, at a
marriage, use the (red) chair.
246 KASY STBPS IN CHINESK STUDIKS.

Lesson No. 39.

! tB ^ ^ !^ t"^" pi^' sung' pin', to send a corpse


to burial and attend it.

2- S M t'& i^*' ^kuan ^tsai, to carry a cofBn.


3.©J JK ~F ^ sP"^" t^^ng hsaP tsang'', to dig a hole
or grave to bury in.

^- ^f ± W 10 S S ^ ^^'«
'
s^««^ ' 'yi^ ^0 ' ' «««<'

jerA 5?»o, on the tree there is a bird's nest.

5- ^5 T^S@ ^ ffi (/iij'an^r /m'a' tP Hi clmng'

fClmang clda^, in the country they plant their crops.


6- ^ffl"?}^^ '*'**' lyuan Hsz ^chiou tsai\ to
water plants in the vegetable garden.
7' '?E Bl ?^ -ifB -^ c^*""' ,yuan ^tsz ''yang Jiua
'tsao, flowers grow in the flower garden.
8. f^l^^tfo' ^yin yo', to make music.
9. Pg^ chang* ksi', singing and playing; the-
atricals.
SHANGHAI:
Printed by Kelly & Walsh, Limited.

1904