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Calculation of ventilation in

short
Air exchange area and calculation of fans in a poultry house
Air exchange area m3/minute = Length width height
For example
Air exchange area m3/minute = 120m×12m×03m

Air exchange area m3/minute = 4320 m3

No. of fan needed for air exchange =


Air volume m3/minute Air exchange capacity of Fan
Standards
1. Fan with diameter of 1.2m = 566 m3/minute
2. Fan with diameter of 1.0m = 283 m3/minute
3. Fan with diameter of 91 cm= 255 m3/minute

For example

No. of fan needed for air exchange = Air volume m3/minute ÷ Air exchange capacity of Fan

No. of fan needed for air exchange = 4320 ÷ 566 =7.6 or 8 Fans

No. of fan needed for air exchange = 08 fans

Calculation of space for Cooling Pad in poultry house(m2) =


(Fan air exchange Capacity m3/minute × Number of fans)÷ Air Speed through cooling pad
m3/minute

Standards

3. For 100mm (10cm or 4-in) thick Pad,


use ( 1.27m/s or 76m/minute )(250fpm)

4. For 150mm (15cm or 6-in) thick Pad,


use ( 1.91m/s or 114/minute ) (375fpm)
For example
Cooling Pad area m2
= (Fan air exchange Capacity m3/minute × No. of fans)÷ (Air Speed through cooling pad
m3/minute)

Cooling Pad area = (566 × 8 )÷114 = 39.7m2 Or 40m2

*It means 20m2 (2m in width and 10 m in length) on each side of the house

Cooling Pad area in m2 = 40m2

The number of fans Needed to exchange required air velocity


=(Required Air velocity m/s ) ÷ { Fan capacity ÷ (width × Height ×60) }
Standard Air velocity

Rearing ˃ 2.03 meter per second (m/s) OR 400 Feet per minute (fpm)
Production ˃ 2.54 meter per second (m/s) OR 500 Feet per minute (fpm)

For example

The number of fans Needed to exchange required air velocity =


(Required Air velocity m/s ) ÷{ Fan capacity ÷ (width × Height ×60) }

No. of fans Needed to exchange required air velocity =(2.03) ÷ { 566 ÷(12×03×60} =7.8 fans

No. of fans Needed to exchange required air velocity = Fans 8

Minimum Ventilation Calculation For Fan Timer Setting


Standards
Minimum ventilation per bird
Age Cubic meter per hour Cubic feet per minute
(CMH/Bird) (CFM/Bird)
01-08 weeks 0.16 0.10
09-15 weeks 0.42 0.25
16-35 weeks 0.59 0.35
35- depletion 0.76 0.45

For example

Bird Age = 20 weeks


Number of Birds = 10,000
Minimum ventilation fan = 1 × 91 cm =255 m3/minute × 60 =( 15300m3/hr )
Using a 5 minutes cycle timer
Calculate the minimum Ventilation ?

Step:1
Ventilation rate = (Minimum ventilation per bird) ×( Number of Birds)
Ventilation rate= (0.59 cmh) ×(10,000) = 5,900 cmh (cubic meter per houre)
Percentage time the fans needed to be run for
Step:2
Percentage time = (Total ventilation needed) ÷ (Total capacity of fans used)
Percentage time =(5,900cmh) ÷ (15,300) =0.39 or 39%

Percentage time =39%

*It means if a 5 minute timer is used, the run timer required would be then 39% of 5
minutes ,or 117 seconds
( or fan should be 24 sec on and 36 sec off for each minute)

For example

Bird Age = 01 weeks


Number of Birds = 10,000
Minimum ventilation fan = 1 × 91 cm =255 m3/minute × 60 =( 15300m3/hr )
Using a 5 minutes cycle timer
Calculate the minimum Ventilation ?

Step:1
Ventilation rate = (Minimum ventilation per bird) ×( Number of Birds)
Ventilation rate= (0.16 cmh) ×(10,000) = 1600 cmh (cubic meter per houre)
Percentage time the fans needed to be run for
Step:2
Percentage time = (Total ventilation needed) ÷ (Total capacity of fans used)
Percentage time =(1600cmh) ÷ (15,300) =0.10 or 10%

Percentage time =10%

*Assuming a 05 minute cycle timer, the run Timer required would then be 10 % of
05 minutes ,or30`seconds
Evaporative Cooling Pads: Use in Lowering Indoor Air Temperature

AEX-127-99

Brian R. Strobel
Extension Associate
Richard R. Stowell
Assistant Professor
Ted H. Short
Professor

Summer heat can cause indoor conditions to


become much hotter than desired. Evaporative
cooling is one way to reduce temperatures inside
buildings. As water evaporates, it absorbs energy
from the surrounding environment. A well-
maintained ventilation system with evaporative
cooling can reduce incoming air 10 to 20°F. Cooler
indoor temperatures can improve the environment
for plants and animals, plus significantly improve Figure 1. Changes in air properties
working conditions for employees. during evaporative cooling as
shown on a psychrometric chart.
Evaporative cooling systems lower air temperature
using mists, sprays, or wetted pads. Introducing
water into ventilation air increases relative humidity while lowering the air
temperature (see Figure 1). This fact sheet specifically describes systems that utilize
wetted pads (see Figure 2).

Evaporative Pad Cooling System

The typical evaporative pad cooling system (shown in Figure 3) draws outside air into
the building through wet vertical pads. The major components of this system are: pad
media, water supply, pump, distribution pipe, gutter, sump, and bleed-off line. As air
flows past the moist pad surfaces, some of the moisture evaporates into the air stream.
Heat is withdrawn from the air during this process and the air leaves the pad at a
lower temperature with higher moisture content.

Water Delivery System

Water is continuously circulated over and through the pad cells during operation. A
pump transports water from a sump through a filter and to a distribution pipe along
the top of each pad. A gutter collects unevaporated water that drains from the bottom
of each pad. Water can be recycled as long as salt or minerals do not collect
noticeably on the pads.

Only part of the water flowing over the pad material is


evaporated. Water temperature does not have a great
effect on the cooling achieved. Recommended
minimum water flow rates through vertically-mounted
pads and sump capacities are listed in Table 1.

The excess water that is collected from the pad should


be screened to remove pad fibers and other debris
before the water is returned to the sump (Figure 3). A Figure 2. Building equipped with
50-mesh inclined screen mounted below the return an evaporative pad cooling system.
flow is generally effective. Install removable caps on
the ends of water distribution pipes to allow for bi-
monthly flushing and convenient access.

The salt and mineral concentrations of water in a pad system increase as water
evaporates. If the mineral content of the water supply is high, a bleed-off system is
essential to prevent mineral deposits in the pad. A continuous water bleed-off rate of
0.05 gpm for every 1,000 cfm (0.02 L/min per m3/s) of airflow is recommended.

Pad Selection, Sizing, and Placement

A pad system should match the ventilation needs of a facility. Most pads are made of
either aspen fiber or cellulose (Tables 1 and 2). A cellulose pad typically needs more
air and water flow than does an aspen pad. More evaporation can take place through a
6-inch pad than a 4-inch pad.

Place pads continuously along the entire side or end of a building so that they are
opposite the ventilation fans to provide uniform ventilation. Pad area for a wall-unit
evaporative cooler is calculated by dividing the required airflow by the recommended
face velocity (see Table 2) through the pad. A rule of thumb is to have 250 ft/min of
air flow through a 4-inch-thick pad.

Example

A room has a 48-inch fan (0.5 Hp) that will deliver 14,600 cfm against a static
pressure of 0.10 in. H20 for warm-season ventilation. A 4-inch aspen pad will be
mounted horizontally in the endwall. The pad is 11.75 ft long x 8 ft high. What is the
recommended air face velocity for this pad and is one pad sufficient for this building?
Solution: The recommended air face velocity (from
Table 2) is 200 ft/min. The pad area required for
complete cooling is found by dividing the required air
flow rate by the recommended air face velocity. For this
case, 14,600 ft3/min ÷ 200 ft/min = 73 ft2. The total pad
area supplied is 94 ft2 (11.75 ft x 8 ft) which is greater
than the 73 ft2required, so one pad provides adequate
face area.

An effective evaporative cooling pad system should


cool incoming air to within 3.5°F (~2°C) of its wet-bulb
temperature. Air temperature then increases from the
Figure 3. Wall-mount evaporative
pads to the exhaust fans as mixing occurs and heat is
coolingsystem (MWPS-1,p. 635.1).
added as air passes through the room. Periodically
check air face velocities through pads when all room
fans are operating to ensure that the desired air flow rate is being delivered through
the pads. Air should flow smoothly from the pad into the room without noticeable
turbulence.

Building Requirements and Suggested Layout

Greenhouse designs usually specify 0.75 to 1 air change per minute as a maximum
ventilation rate for buildings 100 feet to 150 feet long. Summer ventilation needs for
animals may vary from 0.1 to more than 1 air change per minute depending on the
species and the ventilation system that is selected. An air change is represented by the
volume of air in a room.

A pad-and-fan cooling system typically consists of axial-flow exhaust fans installed in


one wall and correctly-sized wetted pads placed along the opposing wall (Figure 4).
The fans exhaust air from the building and draw in fresh air through the pads. Fans
should be located in the side of the building that is downwind of the summertime
prevailing winds. To function properly, the fans must be able to develop a slight
vacuum inside the building. This requires that the remainder of the building be
reasonably airtight. For example, all doors must be kept closed.

Table 1. Recommended water flow rates and sump capacities for vertically-mounted cooling pad
materials.

Minimum sump
Minimum water flow rate
Pad type and thickness capacity
per unit length of pad
per unit pad area
gpm/ft L/min'm gal/ft2 L/m2

Aspen fiber

2 to 4 in (50 to 100 mm) 0.3 4 0.5 20

Aspen fiber, desert conditions

2 to 4 in (50 to 100 mm) 0.4 5 0.5 20

Corrugated cellulose

4 in (100 mm) 0.5 6 0.8 30

Aspen fiber

6 in (150 mm) 0.8 10 1.0 40

Table 2. Recommended air face velocities through several different pad materials.

Air face velocity through pad*


Pad type, thickness
in (mm)
ft/min m/s

Aspen fiber, 2 to 4 in (50 to 100 mm)

mounted vertically 150 0.75

mounted horizontally 200 1.00

Corrugated cellulose, 4 in (100 mm) 250 1.25

Corrugated cellulose, 6 in (150 mm) 350 1.75

*Velocity should be increased by 25% when limited by construction space.

If the air inlet opening is larger than the pad, place the pad so that excess open area is
distributed uniformly around the pad. Pad height should not exceed 8 ft (2.5 m). If the
pad height exceeds that of the inlet, the pad should be set back from the wall opening
a distance equal to half the height difference. Construct inlets so they can be easily
closed without removing the pads.

System Control

Three stages of control are preferable to meet the cooling requirements of most
controlled-environment buildings. These stages are designed for hot, mild, and cold
conditions. Water is circulated through the pad system only during hot conditions.

Wire a control switch in parallel with each control stage to permit manual control
when desired. Also, install a safety disconnect switch near each fan and pump. Locate
thermostats at plant or animal height, if possible. Thermostats and other control
sensors should be near the center of the room and away from unrepresentative hot or
cold air streams. If the building is divided into zones, locate a control sensor near the
center of each zone.

Set the ventilation thermostat at least 10°F above the heater thermostat setting to
prevent simultaneous operation. Air inlet controls should operate on the same
thermostat that activates the fan system. Control sensors should be capable of
withstanding extremely humid and dusty conditions.

Suggested Maintenance

Water should be screened before it is returned to the sump, as already described.


Check the screen regularly to ensure that it is reasonably free of debris. Cover the
sump to keep out debris.

Pad life can be extended by:

 flushing pads with plenty of water,


 utilizing algae control techniques,
 bleeding off return water,
 flushing the sump,
 periodically cleaning pads as per the manufacturer's specifications, and
 not using chemicals that soften the pads.

Algae require light, moisture, and nutrients to survive. To control algae:

 shade the pads and the sump,


 dry the pads overnight,
 avoid nutrient contamination of the pad system, and
 drain and disinfect the sump regularly.

Always read the manufacturer's label to determine the correct dosage. As a check, use
this equation for determining disinfectant dosages (note that 78 is a conversion
factor):

concentration X sump capacity __ ppm X __ gal

dose = = = ____ fl oz

percent active ingredient X 78 _____ X 78

For instance, with a sump capacity of 1,000 gallons, an algaecide with 10% active
ingredient, and a desired concentration of 40 ppm, the disinfectant dosage is:

40 ppm X 1,000 gal

dose = = 51 fl oz

10 X 78

Summary

Air moving through a wetted pad picks up moisture, and is cooled in the process. A
properly designed and maintained pad-and-fan evaporative cooling system will
effectively cool ventilation air without wetting a room and its contents. Proper design
supplies: 1) water impartially over and through the pad area and 2) the desired air
flow through the room. Good maintenance practices preserve the pad and keep the
water delivery system in proper working condition.

Figure 4. Typical location of pads and ventilating fans.

References
Acme Engineering & Mfg. Corp. 1975. The Greenhouse Climate Control Handbook.
Muskogee, OK.

ASAE. 1991. Heating, Ventilating, and Cooling Greenhouses (EP406.1). ASAE


Standards. 38th edition. pp. 490-493. American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
2950 Niles Rd. St. Joseph, MI.

ASHRAE. 1977. Handbook of Fundamentals. Fourth Printing. Ch. 9. American


Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers. New York, NY.

Czarick, M. and M. Lacy. 1998. Evaporative cooling pads reduce incoming air
temperature. Poultry Times. May 4, 1998. pp. 25. Gainesville, GA.

MWPS-1. 1983. Structures and Environment Handbook. Eleventh Edition. pp. 602.1-
602.10. Midwest Plan Service, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

NRAES. 1992. Greenhouse Engineering. pp. 79-87. Northeast Regional Agricultural


Engineering Service. Ithaca, NY.

Wark, K. 1988. Thermodynamics. 5th edition. pp. 434-457. McGraw Hill. New York,
NY.

Wilson, J. L., H. A. Hughes, and W. D. Weaver, Jr. 1983. Evaporative cooling with
fogging nozzles in broiler houses. Transactions of the ASAE, Vol 26 (2): 557-561.

Reviewed by: Joe Beiler, Mercer Co. Extension; Steve Ruhl, Morrow Co. Extension;
and Mike Lichtensteiger, Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering.

Greenhouse Ventilation and Cooling


J. Raymond Kessler, Jr.
Fan and pad cooling systems must be properly designed to obtain maximum evaporative efficiency

during periods of intense hot weather. This requires a non-turbulent potential flow through the greenhouse

to avoid mixing the cooled air at plant level with warmer air in the top of the greenhouse.

Exhaust Fans

The fan and pad cooling system consists of large volume exhaust fans and a correctly sized continuous

wet pad system, both properly located with respect to the greenhouse layout. The fans exhaust the air and

develop a slight vacuum or negative pressure throughout the entire house because it is substantially air

tight.
This slight vacuum draws air in through the cooling pad system and causes cooled air to move

smoothly through the growing region of the crops absorbing heat. The warmed air is then expelled by the

exhaust fans in the opposite wall. This system produces a potential type air flow that moves a cool layer

of non-turbulent air through the plants for best cooling efficiency.

Pad System

The pad system requires a sufficient flow area to accommodate the large air volume needed to

remove the intense solar heat. It is composed of wettable, fibrous material, in the form of self supporting

special fluted cellulose cooling cells. It is kept wet by water recirculating through it. The pad system also

distributes the air uniformly and by virtue of its resistance, restricts the turbulence from the outdoor air,

delivering a smooth, laminar flow of cool air into the house.

Rate of Air Exchange

Because the solar heat comes into a greenhouse on a ground surface area basis, the air flow rates for

ventilation are always determined on a cubic feet per minute (cfm) for each square foot of floor area. The

basic air flow rate of 8 cfm per square foot has been determined to be sufficient for moderately shaded

greenhouses having a maximum interior light intensity of about 5000 foot candles. However, in warm

climates and houses with tall gutters (>12 feet), 11-14 cfm per square foot is advisable. This basic air

flow rate is then adjusted for elevations over 1,000 feet above sea level, the expected interior light

intensity, the allowable greenhouse temperature increase, and the distance from the pad to the fan.

Exchange Rate Adjustments

Elevation: The heat removal capacity of air depends on its weight and not on its volume. Because air is

less dense at higher altitudes the elevation of the greenhouse must be considered in design calculations.

At higher elevations a greater volume of air is needed to provide the equivalent weight of air required at

normal elevations. Corrections for elevations (FElev) greater than 1000 feet are in table 1.

Light Intensity: The interior light intensity, which depends on the location of the greenhouse and the

amount of shading, determines the amount of heat input into the greenhouse. The interior light intensity,

measured in foot candles (FC), corrections (FLight) are in table 2.

Temperature Increase: The greenhouse temperature increase from pad to fan is a design factor. It is

inversely proportional to the air flow rate and can be adjusted to any value desired. Usually a 7°F rise in
temperature is tolerated. If it is important to hold a more constant temperature across the greenhouse, it

will be necessary to raise the velocity of air movement through the greenhouse. Corrections for pad-to-fan

temperature increase (FTemp) are in table 3.

This completes the adjustment and design factors necessary for a heat balance. Combining all these

factors determines the house adjustment factor (FHouse) as follows:

Pad-to-fan Distance: The pad and fans should be located on opposite walls. The preferred pad-to-fan

distance ranges from 100 to 200 feet. This distance is an important design consideration. Distances

greater than 200 feet can result in unacceptable temperature increases across the house. For very long

houses (>200 feet), consider installing pads in each end and roof-mounted fans at the midpoint. For short

pad-to-fan distances (<100 feet) the cross sectional air flow velocity within the house becomes too low

and the house feels clammy or stuffy even though the air flow rate is technically correct. This can be

compensated for by increasing the size of the fans which increases the cost of the system. The correction

for several distances less than 100 feet (FVel) is in table 4.

Total Air Flow Required

The correct factor FVel is ignored for pad-to-fan distances of 100 feet or greater. For pad-to-fan

distances less than 100 feet, calculate BOTH FHouse and FVel and use the LARGER of the two to complete

the total air flow requirement where,

TOTAL CFM = L × W × 8 cfm/ft2 × FHouse (unless FVel is > FHouse)

Next select the size and number of fans that collectively equal or exceed the rate of air movement

required and should be rate to do so at a static water pressure of 0.1 inches. If slant-wall fans are used, the

fans should be rate to do so at a static water pressure of 0.5 inches. The static pressure rating takes into

account the resistance encountered by drawing air through the pad and the fan itself. Fans should not be

spaced more than 25 feet apart and should be evenly spaced.

Pad Design

The size of the pad system is determined by adding the total cfm for each exhaust fan selected and

dividing the cfm that can be moved through one square foot of pad per minute. Cross-fluted cellulose
pads, 4 inches thick can move 250 cfm/ft2 and cross-fluted cellulose pads, 6 inches thick can move 400

cfm/ft2 (6-inch pad flutes are designed differently than 4-inch pads). This area is then divided by the

length of the wall on which the pads will be mounted to determine the actual pad height (not including

hardware).

Pump Capacity

Water must be delivered to the top of a 4-inch thick pad at the rate of 0.5 gpm per linear foot of pad.

For pad lengths of 30 to 50 feet, a 1¼-inch water-distribution pipe is required, while for lengths of 50 to

60 feet, a 1½-inch pipe is needed. Sixty feet is the longest recommended pipe length. A 120-foot pad

length could be serviced from a water supply at the midpoint supplying two 60-foot distribution pipes. At

every 3 inches, 1/8-inch holes should be made in the pipe.

The flow rate for a 6-inch thick pad is 0. 75 gpm per linear foot of pad. A 1¼-inch distribution pipe

is used for pads 30 feet and shorter, while a 1½-inch pipe is used for 30- to 50-foot pad lengths. The

longest pipe length recommended is 50 ft. Again, 1/8-inch holes are spaced 3 inches apart in these

distribution pipes.

Sump Tank Volume

The sump tank volume should be at least 0.75 gal/ft2 of 4-inch thick pad and 1.0 gal/ft2 of 6-inch

thick pad. These sump volumes are designed to operate at half the depth of the tank and will provide room

to accommodate water returning from the pad when the system is turned off.

Example: Design a pad-and-fan system for a detached, glass-covered greenhouse that is 100 feet long and

50 feet wide at an elevation of 3000 feet above sea level. The pads and fans will be mounted on opposite

walls over the 100 foot distance (50 foot width). The greenhouse has a moderate covering of shade cloth

with a maximum interior light intensity of 5,000 FC. A 7°F rise in temperature can be tolerated. Assume a

design air flow rate of 8 cfm/ft2 and 4-inch cross-fluted cellulose pads.

1. Determine FElev, FLight, and FTemp from tables 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Calculate FHouse.
2. Look up the FVel for a pad-to-fan distance of 100 feet in table 4. Because the pad-to-fan distance is

100 feet or greater, FVel = 1.0, this factor can be ignored.

3. Calculate the TOTAL CFM required for the greenhouse.

TOTAL CFM = 100 × 50 × 8 cfm/ft2 × 1.12 = 44,800 cfm

4. Determine the number of fans required. Because fans should not be over 25 feet apart and will be

mounted on a 50 foot wall: 50 feet / 25 feet = 2 fans.

5. Determine the minimum size for each fan by dividing the TOTAL CFM by the number of fans

found in step 4: 44,800 cfm / 2 fans = 22,400 cfm per fan.

6. Next determine the pad area. Divide the capacity of all fans by the capacity of the 4-inch pads per

square foot: (22,400 cfm × 2 fans) / 250 cfm = 179.2 square feet.

7. Divide this value by the length of the wall to get the required pad height: 179.2 / 50 = 3.6 feet

8. The pump capacity for a 4-inch thick pad is 0.5 gpm per linear foot of pad and 1¼-inch water-

distribution pipe. The pad length is 50 feet: pump capacity = 0.5 gpm × 50 ft = 25 gpm

9. The sump tank is 0.75 gal/ft2 of 4-inch thick pad. Multiply this value time the total square feet of

pad area found in #6: 0.75 gal/ft2 × 179.9 ft2 = 134.4 gallons

Table 1. Factor used to correct rate of air removal for elevation above sea level.

feet < 1000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

FElev 1.00 1.04 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.36
Table 2. Factor used to correct rate of air removal for interior light level.

FC 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000

FLight 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60

Table 3. Factor used to correct rate of air removal for pad-to-fan temperature rise.

F° 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

FTemp 1.75 1.40 1.17 1.00 0.88 0.78 0.70

Table 4. Factor used to correct rate of air removal for pad-to-fan distance.

Feet 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Fvel 2.24 2.00 1.83 1.69 1.58 1.48 1.41 1.35 1.29

Feet 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Fvel 1.24 1.20 1.16 1.12 1.08 1.05 1.02 1.00