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It is the branch of engineering which deals with the measurement, monitoring, display etc. of the several of energy exchanges which take
place during process operations. "In short Instrumentation is the study of Instrument."

Instrument is a device which is used to measure, monitor, display etc. of a process variable.


1- SAES – J-001 (Instrument Index)
2- SAES – J-002 (Regulated Vendor List for Instrument/Technically Acceptable Instrument)
3- SAES – J-003 (Basic Design Criteria)
4- SAES – J-004 (Instrument Symbol and Identification)
5- SAES – J-005 (Drawing and Forms)
6- SAES – J-100 (Flow Measurement)
7- SAES – J-200 (Pressure Measurement)
8- SAES – J-300 (Level Measurement)
9- SAES – J-400 (Temperature Measurement)
10- SAES – J-502 (Analyzer Shelter)
11- SAES – J-505 (Combustible Gas and Hydrogen Sulfide in Air Detection System).
12- SAES – J-600 (Pressure Relief Valve)
13- SEAS – J-601 (Emergency Shutdown and Isolation Systems)
14- SAES – J-700 (Control Valve)
15- SAES – J-801 (Control Building)
16- SAES – J-901 (Instrument Air Supply System)
17- SAES – J-902 (Electrical System for Instrumentation) – Cable tray Noise Susceptibility Levels (NSL)
18- SAES – J-903 (Intrinsically Safe System)
19- SAES – B-006 (Fire Proofing of Cable for Fire Hazardous Area)
20- SAES – B-068 (Electrical Area Classification)
21- SAES – P-104 (Wiring Methods and Materials)
22- SAES – P-111 (Grounding)
23- SAES – P-103 (UPS and DC System)
24- SAES – T-634 (Telecommunications - Cable Testing and Acceptance)
25- SAES – T-796 (Communications Facility Grounding Systems)
26- SAES – T-911 (Telecommunication Conduit System Design)


250 Grounding and Bonding
300 Wiring Methods & Materials
320 Armored Cable
344 Rigid Metal Conduits
352 Rigid Nonmetallic Conduits
354 Nonmetallic Underground Conduits
358 High Density Polyethylene Conduits
360 Flexible Metallic Tubing
362 Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing (ENT)
366 Power and Tray Cable
392 Cable Tray
500/505 Hazardous Location
504 Intrinsically Safe System
700 Emergency System
727 Instrument Cable Tray
760 Fire Alarm System

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 1

QCP Quality Control Plan
ITP Inspection Test Plan
TQ Technical Query
SAEP Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
SAES Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard
SAIC Saudi Aramco Inspection Checklist
SATIP Saudi Aramco Typical Inspection Plan
SATR Saudi Aramco Test Report
SASD Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing
SAIP Saudi Aramco Inspection Personal
SAMSS Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification
SASO Saudi Arabian Standards Organization
AWC Armor Wire Cable
NEC National Electrical Code
NACE National American Corrosion Engineers
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Equation
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ASTM American Society for Testing Materials
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
BS British Standards
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Associations
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
NEMA National Electrical Manufactures Associations
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
ATEX Atmospheres Explosibles
FM Factory Mutual
IP Ingress Protection
UL Underwriters Laboratories
ITC Instrument Tray Cable
PLTC Power Limited Tray Cable
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
XLPE CrossLinked Polyethylene
XLPO CrossLinked Polyolefin
HDP High Density Polyethylene
RTD Resistance Temperature Detector
SWA Still Wire Armored
MICC Mineral Insulation Copper Conductor
PILC Paper Insulation Copper Conductor
FOC Fiber Optical Cable
OTDR Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
RTA Request for Technical Approval
MTC Material Test Certificate


Group – 1: Single Twisted pair/Triad, Unshielded.
Conductor: Stranded, Circular Copper (Material) as per ASTMB8.
Conductor Size:# 16 AWG
Primary Insulation Material:Flame Retardant PVC or XLPO or XLPE minimum temperature rating is 90oC(NEC 501-4 (b), NEC 502-4
Primary Insulation Voltage Rating: 300V for Type PLTC and type IT cable,600V for type TC Cable.
Primary Insulation Thickness: (0.38mm for PLTC and ITC Cable), (0.64mm for TC cable).
Shield Thickness:0.022mm

Group 2: Single twisted pair/triad shield.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 2
Shield Material:Aluminum foil bonded to non-hygroscopic polyester (Mylar) tape.
Shield Thickness:0.022mm
Shield Application:Helical, Minimum 25% overlap, to provide 100% coverage and electrical isolation from conductors.

Group 3:Multipair / Triad, Unshielded or without overall shield thickness 0.022mm.

Communication Wire:Not required if required shall be manufacturer’s standard size, Insulation same as primary insulation –Orange

Group 4:Multipair / triad, Individual and overall shields.

Group 5: Thermocouple Extension wire conductor – solid thermocouple extension wire as per ANSI MC 96.1
Conductor Size:# 16AWG for singal pair, # 18 AWG for multipair.
Color Code: ANSI MC 96.1(Temperature Measurement Thermocouple), (Yellowand Red) Negative shall be Red color and magnetic

Terminal Block: As per minimum thickness of terminal block shall be 5mm or higher with Spring type terminal block are not acceptable,
Terminal block shall be fire retardant halogen free, High strength material such as polyamide on equivalent in
accordance with UL94.

Lugs: Drawing / Color Codes / Ferruling will be done for easy identification with use of lugs. Lugs are two types. One is crimping type and
the other one is soldering type.

Type of Lugs: (1) Shanap Type (2) Pin Type (3) Ring Type (4) U Type

Gland Size: ½ inch, ¾ inch, 1 inch, 1½ inch, 2 inch.

Thread Type:ET (Equal Thread), BSP (British Standard Pipe), NPT (National Pipe Thread).

AC Supply: Phase Black
Neutral White
Ground Green or Green with yellow tracer

DC Supply: Positive Red

Negative Black

Signal Pair: Positive Black

Negative White

Signal Tried: Positive Black

Negative White
Third Wire Red

Thermocouple: Positive as per ANSI MC 96.1 (Yellow)

Negative as per ANSI MC 96.1 (Red)


Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 3

T TypeThermocouple Copper + Constant -270 ~ 400oC Blue – Red/White
J Type Thermocouple Iron + Constant -210 ~ 760 oC White – Red/White
K TypeThermocouple Cromel + Alumel -210 ~ 1372oC Yellow – Red/ White
E Type Thermocouple Chromel + Constantan -270 ~ 1000oC Purple – Red/ White
S Type Thermocouple Platinum/Rhodium-Platinum -50 ~ 1768oC Black – Red/ White
R Type Thermocouple Pt87/Rh13 + Platinum -50 ~1768oC Black – Red/ White
B Type Thermocouple Platinum/Rhodium-Platinum 0-1820oC Grey – Red/ White
Pulling tension of FOC = 600 Pounds.
Fir Resisting:(CI: Circuit Integrity)Flame Retardant, fortransmission of analog or digital signaltoinstrument and control systems.
Insulation: Silicon Rubber
Armor: Zinc Coated round steel.
RE: Instrument Cable
2G: Insulation of Silicon
SI: Collective Screen
H: Inner Jacket of LSZH
SWA: Round Steel Wire Armor
I/W: Outer Jacket of heat resistant PVC
FL: Reduced Flame Propagation
CI: Circuit Integrity
FB: Field Bus Cable
Y: Outer sheath of PVC
2X: Insulation of XLPE
PIMF: Pair Screen
HVAC: Heating Ventilation &Air Conditioning.
ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network
LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated.

CableBending Radius (Φ)= 10 x Cable Diameter

Tube Bending Radius (Φ)= 05 x Tube Diameter

Cable Shield:Prevent Electromagnetic Electrostatic Interference from being endued into the inner wire conductor.

 Design and installation of power and wiring system for instrumentation shall be in accordance with NFPA 70 and NEC.
 Fireproofing of cable in fire hazardous area shall be in accordance with SAES-B-006.
 Shielded cables shall be used as required to reduce electrostatic noise. The shield shall be grounded at one point only.
 Field Bus Cable shall Comply with IEC 61158-2 (Type A)
 Cable Insulation thickness 0.38 mm PLTC/ITC
 TC Cable thickness0.64mm
 Light blue color coding shall be used to identify intrinsically safe wiring the preferred practice is to specify intrinsically safe
interconnecting cable with blue outer jacket. Alternative blue sleeves slipped over the jacket.
 At all the points of termination may use to identify I.S. wiring.
 If used for connections of equipment to ground rods or ground grid to be minimum25 mm2 (# 4AWG).
 Intrinsically safe system shall be used in zone 0 hazardous area.
 MV cable to be cover in trench by Thermal send.

Guide Lines to identify T/C and T/C Extension wires:

For Extension wires having insulation color as per ANSI MC96.1 (American National Standard Institute).The negative wire is always
RED colored as per ANSI.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 4

 For Hazardous &Non Hazardous locations shall be in accordance with BS 6121 or BS 50262.
 Cable Gland: Cable glands are used to protect Mechanical damage. To give earth continuity and for entering it a junction
box & MCC etc. For PILC (Paper Insulation Copper Conductor) cables lead covered are used because in refinery,
hydrocarbon gases will damage the PVC insulation, for this purpose lead cover is used, for these purpose plumbing type
glands are used.
 In Explosion proof areas double compression glands are used to avoid these gasses entering in the electric at apparatus.


M8 14~16NM
M10 26 ~33NM
M12 45~58NM

0.75 mm2 18 AWG
1.0 mm2 17 AWG
1.5mm2 16 AWG
2.5mm2 14 AWG
4.0mm2 12 AWG
6.0mm2 10 AWG
10mm2 08 AWG
16mm2 05 AWG
25 mm2 04 AWG
35 mm2 02 AWG
50 mm2 1/0 AWG
70 mm2 2/0 AWG
120 mm2 4/0 AWG

 Ground rods 2.4 meter minimum length.
 Cathode protection material is used galvanized steel.
 Individual Ground rod maximum resistance should be 2.5 Ohm.
 For copper or copper jacketed steel rods is a minimum of 16mm2 in diameter or19mm2 in diameters.
 Earth Tester is used for measuring of earthling system.
 Underground wire for grounding to wire connections shall be cadweld or thermoweld. Compression connector shall not be
 Shields wires shall be grounded only at the one point for the signal cables.
 Shields and amour of power cables shall be grounded at both ends.
 If used for connections of equipment to ground rods or ground grid be minimum25 mm2 (# 4AWG)
 Metallic cable trays shall be bonded at both end points and a minimum of every 25meter to the local ground grid.
 If buried/ used for grids or interconnections of ground rods to be minimum70mm2 (2/0AWG)
 Be copper or copper jacketed steel or galvanized steelor copper jacketed steel shall meet the requirements of UL-476
(Underwriters Laboratories).
 Power Applications:Metal cable trays must be grounded and eclectically continuous systems as per NEC article 318.
 Non-Power Applications: Cable tray systems containing conductors outside the scope of NEC Article 250 (such as
communications, data, signal cables, etc.)

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 5

Cable Tray Installation: The publication is intended as practical guide for the proper installation of cable system. Cable tray systems
design and Installation shall comply with NEC Article – 392 & 318, NEMA VE1, NEME VE2 and NEMA FG 1
and follow safe practices as described in NFPA 70E.


 Cable tray specification shall be per NEMA VE1 the tray shall be per NEMA VE2.
 The distance between consecutive rungs shall not exceed 229mm (9 Inch).
 Cable Ties for Vertical Application shall be provided every 18 inch (after one rung).
 Cable Tied for Horizontal application shall be provided every 27 inch (after two rungs).
 Unless otherwise noted, the support interval shall be not more than 2.4 meters as per NEMA VE1.
 For the Vertical Application cable ties must be 316SS with PVC coated.
 The open gap between tray/conduit to the instrument maximum 350mm.
 The cable tray system shall be installation with manufactures standards fittings.
 Such as Clamps, Splicer Plates, Connector, Hangers, Reducer Plates, Grounding Brackets Blind, Nut Bolts, Washers etc.
 The channel cable tray material shall be copper free aluminum (Aluminum with max of 0.4% copper).
 Channel cable tray width shall be 3, 4, or 6 inches with a minimum loading depth of 1 ¼inch.
 Non-metallic cable tray permitted in corrosive area. Non-metallic cable trays shall be made of flame retardant material.

NSL: Noise Susceptibility Level

Level 1:High to Medium susceptibility analog signals of less than 50V and discrete instrument signal of less than 30V.
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 6
Level 2:Low susceptibility switching signal greater than 30V, analog signals grater then 50V and 120 ~ 240 AC feeder less than 20 Amps.
Level 3: Power AC and DC buses of 0 ~ 1000 V with currents of 20 ~ 800 Amps.

Tray to Tray Spacing in mm:

NSL 1 2 3
1 0 150 650

Tray to Conduit Spacing in mm:

NSL 1 2 3
1 0 100 450

Conduit to Conduit Spacing in mm:

NSL 1 2 3
1 0 75 300

Tray to Tray:
Level 1 to Level 2 gap should be 150mm
Level 2 to Level 3 gap should be 500mm
Level 1 to Level 3 gap should be 650mm
Tray to Conduits:
Level 1 to Level 2 gap should be 100mm
Level 2 to Level 3 gap should be 350mm
Level 1 to Level 3 gap should be 450mm

Conduit to Conduit:
Level 1 to Level 2 gap should be 75mm
Level 2 to Level 3 gap should be 225mm
Level 1 to Level 3 gap should be 300mm

 Consist of either hot dip galvanized rigid steel or PVC conduit, incase in concrete.
 75 mm of concrete from the outside surface of the duck bank to any conduit or reinforcing steel.
 Fabricated spacers shall be used at intervals not exceeding 2.4meter.
 The spacers shall provide a minimum conduit separation of 50 mm for 2 inch conduit.
 For equipment, devices, or appropriates certified as intrinsically safe, only those that are certified are category EEx or AEx “ia”
shall be used.
 All metal cable trays, enclosures used for intrinsically safe wiring shall be grounded to the plant grounding system with a min of #
4AWG copper wire with green insulation.
 Cable Tray material shall be galvanized, carbon steel in indoor air condition area.
 Bare copper cable does not used in or on aluminum cable tray.

Conduit fittings and accessories include conduits and pull boxes:
 Conduit cover and gaskets
 ConduitSeal
 Conduit Unions and Couplings
 Factory Elbows
 Drain
 Breathers
 Plugs
 Conduit Connectors reducers
 Expansion fittings
 Straps and Clamps
 Bushing
 Cable and duct seal, etc.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 7

 Conduit Expansion fitting shall be provided in indoor 30 Meter.
 Conduit Puller J/B shall be provided every 25 Meter.
 Pull Box to Pull Box maximum bends acceptable in 360 degree without 90 degree bend.
 Support (Bending) does not occur NEC-344
 Pull & JB are Installed & Securely fixed as per NEC-314.28
 All connection of conduit shall be made by the pipe thread with engagement of at least 5 threads in the effective threaded
 The connection part shall be painted by the zinc primer.
 When EYS and EZS Series (Explosionproof Conduit Sealing Fittingsonly).
 Tips: 1-Sealing fittings are used to seal cables in conduit entering enclosures; a conduit union shall be installed between the
sealing fittings and the enclosure.
2-Restrict the passage of gases, vapors or flames from one portion of the electrical installation to another at atmospheric
pressure and normal ambient temperatures.
3- Limit explosions to the sealed off enclosure.
4- Limit pre-compression or pressure "piling" in conduit systems
 When EYDand EZDSeries(Explosionproof conduit sealing fittings with drain).
Tips:1- Drain to provide continuous, automatic drainage of condensate.
2- Large openings with threaded closures to provide easy access to conduit hubs for making dams.
3- Integral bushings to protect conductor insulation from damage.
4- Taper tapped hubs to ensure ground continuity.
 NPT type accordance with UL34E 34997 or CSA (Canadian Standard) LR 9795.
 Seal fitting shall not be less than ⅝ inch.
 Sealing compound shall be 35 oCto 85 oF.

Support for Rigid Metal Conduits:

Maximum Distance between
½” ~ ¾ inch 3.0 Meter
1 inch 3.7 Meter
1 ½” ~ 1 ¾ inch 4.3 Meter
2 inch 6.0 Meter

 Seals are provided in conduit & cable system to minimize the passage of gases and vapors and prevent the passage of flame
from one portion the electrical installation the conduit.
 Bushings:Where a conduit enters a box, fittings or other enclosure a bushing shall be provided to protect the wire from

Number in one run:There shall not be more than the equivalent of four quarter bends (360 degree total) between pull point to point.
Mandrel Testing: Testing of underground duct bank and bend radius of conduit is 90 degree.
When union cannot be avoided in underground conduit installation, unions shall be protected with heat shrinkable sleeves.
Conduit and cable sealing shall be installed in accordance with NEC-5050.10.
Conduit seals shall be installed within 450mm (18 inches) from the enclosure.
PB: Pull Box
RGS: Rigid Galvanized Steel.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 8

Split Conduits: Split conduit Installation shall be used to repair existing conduits which contains existing cable these conduits shall be
installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations or NEMA TCB2 User manual for the installation of
order ground plastic conduits.
 We can use maximum bend in one conduit (Point to Point) 360 degree, but we have to avoid 90 degree bend or sharp bends.
 If there is sharp bend so we can perform Mineral Test.
 Direct buried conduits (Underground) shall be threaded, rigid steel per accordance ANSI C80.1 and addition it shall be hot dip
galvanized and PVC coated as per NEMA RN1 (minimum thickness of PVC 1 mm) or PVC conduit type DB-120 (Minimum
elasticity 500-000 PSI) as per NEMA TC6& TC8 type.
 Concrete incase conduit shall be threaded, rigid steel as per ANSI C80.1 and in addition it shall be hot dip galvanized.
 Conduit Installed exposed (not embedded in walls) above grounding in outdoor industrial facilities shall be threaded rigid steel
per ANSI C80.1 and in addition it shall be hot dip galvanized.
 Conduit above ground in severe corrosive environments shall be as threaded, rigid steel as perANSI C80.1, in addition shall be
factory PVC Coated (minimum thickness of PVC 1 mm) as perNEMA RN-1.
 Electrical Metallic Tubing (EMT) is acceptable only in non-hazardous indoor locations. EMT shall comply with the requirement
of ANSI C80.3
 Intermediate metal conduit (IMC) is prohibited.
 The Minimum conduit size shall be ¾ inch, except for instrumentation wiring inside building.
 Conduit and threaded conduit fitting shall have tapered (NPT) threads in accordance withANSI/ASME B1.20.1
ANSI C80.1 Rigid Steel Conduit-Zinc Coated
ANSI C80.3 Electrical Metallic Tubing-Zinc Coated (for indoor only)
 Process Piping shall be used to support conduits.
 Flexible conduit: shall be used at instrument end of the conduit to provide isolation from vibration prate against thermal
expansion of the rigid conduit systems
 Conduit sealing shall only be poured at temp between 35oFto 85oF
 The sealing compound shall provide a seal against passage of gas or vapors through the seal fittings.
 The minimum thickness of the sealing compound shall not be less than ⅝Inch.
 Conduit seal fitting plug is painted with red color and non-poured seat fitting are painted with green color.
 Gap selling of expansion splice palate 25 mm (gap max)
 50oF or 10oCgap is 9.5 mm (Standard)


Conduit size shall be as per design of duct bank to be installed with minimum gap from wall to wall shall be 75mm. Support of Conduit to
be fixed every 2.4 Meter. Support shall be PVC material anchor type.

The minimum depth of burial requirements for underground installations shall be as per:
System Voltage Direct Buried Cable Direct BuriedPVC Duct Bank &Direct Buried Rigid Steel
600V & Below 610 mm 460 mm 460 mm
600V to 35 KV 920 mm 610 mm 460 mm
Over 35 KV 1070 mm 760 mm 460 mm


Impulse lines for remote device should be as short as possible, 3 feet for close-coupled transmitters and preferable not more than 20 feet
(6 meters). For liquid measurement the lines should slope down at least 1 inch per food from the orifice taps.
Tubing: Stainless steel tubing shall seamless, annealed, minimum wall thick 1.24mm as per ASTM A269GrasIP – 316L.


Slop of Impulse tubing: Minimum of 1inch for every 1 metertowards tapping point.
Bend: Minimum bends length around 70 mm.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 9

Test Pressure of Impulse Line: 1.5 Times of the working pressure with 3 minute.
Instrument Tubing size: ½ inch x 0.89mm (wall thickness) = 0.035 Inches.

Piping and Impulse tubing shall be support as follows:

Size Maximum Distance Between Supports
Tube Less than ½ inch 300 mm
½ inch Tube & Pipe 1800 mm
¾ inchPipe 2400 mm
1 inchPipe 3000 mm


 All main and branch headers shall be sloped {minimum 64 mmper 30 Meter (2.5 inches per 100 feet)} and provided with
lowpoint drains.
 Supply takeoffs to individual instruments (a line serving up to amaximum of four devices) shall connect to the top of thebranch
header through a takeoff-line-size, full-bore isolationvalve.
 The minimum size of supply takeoffs is ½ inch.
 Twenty percent (20%) spare takeoff fittings andblock valves shall be installed on the branch header.
 Instrument air piping shall not be pocketed. Instrument air piping shall not be installed underground.
 The Piping route shall avoid aharmful effect from a heat source (keep 150 mm minimum distance) and not be under the
process piping and equipment, which is covered by the hot or cold insulation materials.

Air Piping Maximum shall be No of Users as follows:

Pipe Size Maximum No of Users
½ inch 1~4
¾ inch 5~9
1 inch 10 ~ 15
1 ½ inch 16 ~ 80
2 inch 81 ~ 150
3 inch 151 ~ 300

Indoors and Outdoors Plant Area:
Indoors: With in the Perimeter of the Process Unit (NEMA 250 / NEMA ICS6)
Outdoor:Outside the Perimeter of Process Area (IP54)
 Severe Corrosive Environment (Industrial Area) NEMA Type 4X or IP66.
 Non Industrial Area IP34.
 Name Plate Shall isattached to the cabinets using stainless screws.
 Indoor Cabinets shall be made of metal.
 The Cabinet shall be a NEMA Type 1 as per NEMA 250 and NEMA ICS6.
 NEMA ICS6: Enclosures for Industrial Controls and System.
 The Max Door Width shall be 900mm (36 Inch)
 The Marshaling cabinets from the front surface to the surface of rear terminal block, shall not be more than 46 cm (18 Inch)
 A minimum of prime, undercoat & finishing coat of enamel or polish is required.
 Interior cabined color shall be white or of light color such as light gray off.
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 10
 Name plate for cabinets and panels letter height and spacing shall follow ISA RP 60.6
 Name Plate shall be made from laminate Plastic, white – Black – White (Information engraved into the black core) with white


ATEX:(Atmospheres Explosibles) – It came from Europe’s intrinsic safety regulation, European Union’s commonly called
ATEX. NEC-505 is similar to ATEX.


Divisions Zones
Zone ‘0’ In which an explosive gas / air mixture is continuously present for long period.
Division 1
Zone ‘1’ In which as explosive gas air mixture is likely to occur under normal operation.
In which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation and if it occurs it exist only
Division 2 Zone ‘2’
for short time.

Example 1: Class I (Zone 0 / Division1) AEx ia IIC T6

Area classification
Symbol for equipment built to American
Type(s) of protection designation

Gas classification group (not required for protection

Techniques indicated in NEC 505.6, FPN No. 2)
Temperature classification

Example 2:

Zone ‘0’ – Ex‘ia’ and Ex ‘s’(Specifically certified for use in Zone ‘0’).
Zone ‘1’ – Any type of protection suitable for Zone-0 and Ex ‘d’, Ex ‘b’, Ex ‘p’, Ex ‘e’.
Zone ‘2’ – Any type of protection suitable for Zone–0 or Zone-1 and Ex ‘N’ or ‘n’, Ex ‘o’, Ex ‘q’.
Designation Technique Zone
Ex ‘d’ Flame proof or Explosion proof 1
Ex ‘e’ Increased Safety 1
Ex ‘N’ or ‘n’ None Sparking 2
Ex ‘ia’ Intrinsic Safety 0
Ex ‘ib’ Intrinsic Safety 1
Ex ‘p’ Pressurization 1
Ex ‘o’ Oil Immersion 1
Ex ‘q’ Send or Powder filled 1
Ex ‘s’ Special Protection 0

Representative Gas IEC USA

Methane I D
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 11
Propane IIA D
Ethylene IIB C
Hydrogen IIC B
Carbon Disulphide IIC -


In hazardous area only I.S. meters such Meggers, Vibration meters and Temperature meters shall not be used unless the hot permits
Safety Barriers: (Zenner Barriers) Diode shunt barriers are used in intrinsically safe zone to limit the current and voltage.
Safety Ground Definition: All exposed and non-exposed non-current carrying by the metallic parts that could be energized its hazards.
That’s why all safety ground must connect to the plant ground system.
Circuit / IS Ground Definition: Reduce the electrical Interruption being the signal transmission.
Signal / Circuit / IS Ground: G + Y (Green + Yellow)
Safety Ground: G (Green)
Comparing NEC 500 to ATEX
“II” designates the tool is approved for all non-mining areas. “2”represents a rating for Zone 1 and above. “G”
II 2 G
designates atmosphere, in this case gas vapors and mist.
EEX Explosion protection based on European ex-regulation.
ia The type of protection, the energy in a device is reduced to a safe value.
IIC Gas Group “IIC” indicates compatibility with the most dangerous gas group.
Maximum temperature of a surface that may be in contact with the ex-atmosphere under fault conditions. T4 rating is
35 C.
FM Classification: N.I. Class 1. Div 2, Groups A-D
N. I. Non-incendive apparatus, internal energy is limited so a specified atmosphere cannot be ignited by its use.
Class I For use of gases, vapors and liquids (not dust , fibers of filings)
Div 2 Certified for use division 2, explosive atmospheres not normally present, may rarely exist for short duration.
GroupsA-D Rated for use with explosive gasses asdefined y group A-D, including acetylene, hydrogen and propane
Note:European ATEX and North America NEC-505 classification are nearly identical excepting the AEx v/s EEx marking.

Hazardous Location Classifications:

NEC IEC Environment
Class I - Explosive gases or vapors are present.
Class II - Combustible dusts are present.
Class III - Ignitable fibers or flying are present.
A location where a hazardous concentration of gases or vapors exists approximately 10 ~ 100 % of the
Division 1 Zone 0
time (subject to interpretation as above).
A location where a hazardous concentration of gases or vapors exists approximately 1 ~10 % of the
Division 1 Zone 1
time (subject to interpretation as above).
A location where a hazardous concentration of gases or vapors exists approximately 0.1 ~ 1 % of the
Division 2 Zone 2
time (subject to interpretation as above).
Group A Group IIC A hazardous atmosphere containing acetylene or other similar gases or vapors.
Group B Group IIC A hazardous atmosphere containing hydrogen or other similar gases or vapors.
Group C Group IIB A hazardous atmosphere containing ethylene or other similar gases or vapors.
Group D Group IIA A hazardous atmosphere containing pentane or other similar gases or vapor.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 12

Group E - A hazardous atmosphere containing metal dust, such as aluminum.
Group F - A hazardous atmosphere containing carbon black, coal, or coke dust.

Q: What does “BASEEFA” stand for …..?

A: British approval service for electrical equipment in flammable atmospheres.

Q: Explain the meaning of: (a) Zone 0 (b) Zone 1 (c) Zone 2 (d) Non-Hazardous.
A: (a) - In which an explosive gas-air mixture is continuously present or present for long period.
(b) - In which as explosive gas air mixture is likely to occur under normal operation.
(c) - In which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation and if it occurs it exist only for short time.
(d) - An area which by implication is any area not classified as zone 0, 1 or 2.
i.e. control or switch room that is pressurized (HVAC) or an area that has no hydrocarbon inventory.

Q: Explain the type of protected equipment is required in the flowing zones: (a) Zone0 (b) Zone 1 (c) Zone 2
A: (a) – Ex-ia, Ex-s: Must be specifically certified for zone 0 use.
(b) –Any type of equipment suitable for zone 0, Ex-ib, Ex-d, Ex-p, Ex-e.
(c) – Any type of equipment suitable for zone 0 and 1, Ex-n, Ex-o, Ex-q.


Q: Explain the EEx ‘d’iiB T6

A: EEx: Electrical Explosion Proof
iiB: Gas Group (Ethan)
T6: 85 oC

Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-ia and Ex-ib.

A: Ex-ia is equipment that can withstand up to 2 faults in the circuit and still maintain is the protection.
Ex-ib is equipment that can withstand 1 fault in the circuit and still maintain protection.

Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-s.

A: Special protection (Proven by a series of approved tests to suitable for use)

Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-d.

A: Flameproof (will withstand and internal explosion out damage or allowing any flammable gasses outside the enclosure to ignite).
Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-e.
A: Equipment that has been designed to give increases security against the possibility of sparks or excessive temperatures.

Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-n.

A: Non sparking equipment.

Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-p.

A: Pressurization / Continuous dilution (Purge).

Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-o.

A: Oil Immersion.
Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-m.
A: Encapsulation / hermetically sealed.

Q: Explain the type meaning of Ex-q.

A: Sand filled.

Q: Explain the meaning of “INGRESS PROTECTION”
A: The appliances ability to keep out solids and liquids, IE Dust, Sand and Water. The first number indicates the protection against solids
and the second number indicates the protection against liquids.

Q: Is it allowable to modify an EEx “d” gland to fit and entry in an EEx “d” enclosure..?

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 13

A: No.

Q: State the minimum amount of threads needed to be installed on an Ex‘d’ cable gland..?
A: (1) – 5 full threads (minimum length 8 mm) for gas group 2B apparatus.
(2) – 6 full threads (minimum length 9.5 mm) for gas group 2C apparatus.


Q: Explain what is meant by “Temperature Classification of Equipment for use in Hazardous areas”).
A: It is the highest surface temperature that an appliance can attain under the worst condition (incl. overloads) which is able to produce
an ignition of any flammable gasses in the surrounding area.
T1 = 450 oC
T2 = 300 oC
T3 = 200 oC
T4 = 135 oC
T5 = 100 oC
T6 = 085 oC


1. What is QA/QC?
Ans: QA/QC means, “Quality Assurance / Quality Control” The purpose of this (QA/QC) is to establish the sequence of
requirement for the quality of material, quality of works, its inspection, and records.

2. What is the MMG Quality Control Management System?

Ans:ISO 9001 ~ 2000

3. What is the Quality Control?

Ans: Quality Control “Those activities and techniques used to achieve and maintain the quality of product, process or service”.

4. What is Quality Control Plan?

Ans: Quality Plan “Document Specification which procedures and associated resources shall be applied by whom and when to
specific project, product, process or contract”.

5. What is non-conformity?
Ans: Non-conformity “Non-fulfillment of requirement”. (Complete failure of a system, or controls, which result in completely
unsatisfactory goods or services being provided).

6. What is the Specification?

Ans: Governing Document Acceptance Criteria.

7. Who are the responsible for Quality?

Ans: Everybody within all organization.

8. What is the basic responsibility of a QA/QC personal?

Ans: To ensure execution of works and comply fully as per standard and approved specs.

9. What is the basic required document for a QA/QC personal?

Ans: The basic required documents for a QA/QC personal are as following.
ITP (Inspection Test Plan):To conduct the quality check (InspectionofWitness,Surveillance and Hold Point) etc.
RFI: To conduct the inspection of completed work.
QR (Quality Record): To maintain the quality records of completed works etc.
NCR: To issue warning in case of serious violation of standard.
WP (Work Procedure): Standard procedure to execute the works.
P & ID: As a reference to ensure that the work is as per standard drawing.
MTC:To ensure that material comply the PES standard specs.
Calibration Report: To ensure parameters are function checked as per IDS.
PP (Project Plan): To ensure that the instruments are installation as per P & ID and PP as per convenience.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 14

Hook-up: To ensure that the remote connection of pneumatic is done correctly.
Wiring Diagrams: To ensure that wiring is done correctly
ILD: To ensure that the sequential wiring is done correctly.
IDS/ISS: To ensure that the instruments comply with the basic requirement.
QCO: To issue a warning in case of little violation and observation.
DR:Discrepancy Report.

10. What are QA/QC’s ITP and QCP? Give brief?

Ans: ITP: This procedure informs about the kinds of quality check (surveillance, inspection, witness or hold pints) means
quality of works is being done in proper sequences.
QCP: This procedure addresses the activities and requirement in details.

11. What is NCR? Why does it need for a QA/QC personal?

Ans: NCR means Non-Compliance Report, QA/QC personal has reserve the right to issue a warning if the contractor doesn’t
comply or violate with the standard procedure.

12. What is the general procedure (WP)?

Ans: The general sequence of activities will be as follows:
Receiving Drawing and Documents.
Reproduction of Drawings
Issuing of drawing to site
New-Issuing new Revision
Shredding drawings
Transmittal of redlines to Client (As-built)
Restricted access to the DCO
Work Permit prior to starts the works
13. What is redlining? Brief its color coding?
Ans: In case of any change occur to the standard approved drawing while the project is being constructed or tested the
relevant drawing will be “redlined”. Following color coding shall be used for this purpose.
Red: If any addition required from the drawing.
Green:If any Deletion is required from the drawing.
Blue: If any comments is added.
14. What is difference between inspection (Surveillance), witness and Hold point?
Ans: Inspection: Work can be execute without client’s inspection and it can be inspected some part of them if it is required.
Witness: Work can be executed, without client inspection and then it can be inspected upon the completion of work.
Hold Point: Work can’t be executed without client inspection.

15. What is difference between hazardous and non-hazardous Areas?

Ans: Hazardous: A hazardous location is defined as an area where a potential for fire or explosion exists due to the presence
of flammable gases, liquids or vapors, combustible dusts or fibers and flying in sufficient quantities to produce an
explosion or ignitable mixture.
Non-hazardous: An area where non risk of presence of any kinds exposition.
16. What are different kinds of certification?
Ans: Weather Proof.
Dust Proof
Water Tight
Explosion Proof
Flame Proof
Intrinsic Safety Proof etc
17. What is ISO? Explain some of its standards?
Ans: ISO means International Standard Organization, Some are them they are as below;
ISO:9001, ISO:9002, ISO:9003, etc.

18. What are zone classifications? Give a brief?

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 15

Ans: Zone classification is to define the area of hazards, they are as below;
Zone–0: A zone in which explosions gas/air mixture is continuously present or present for extended periods,
during normal operation.
Zone – 1: A zone in which an explosive gas/air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation.
Zone – 2: A zone in which an explosive gas/air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation.
Zone – 10: A zone in which an explosive dust atmosphere is present continuously or for extended periods of time.
Zone – 11: A zone in which there is a likelihood that explosive atmospheres my occur for shortperiods due to
unsettled to unsettled dust layers.

19. What are areas Classification? Give a brief?

Ans: As per NEC and NACA, following are the hazard classification?
Class I: Location in which flammable gases or vapors may be present in the atmosphere in quantities sufficient to
produce explosive or ignitable mixture.
Class I gases/Vapors are divided into four following groups:
Group A:Presence of Acetylene.
Group B:Presence of Hydrogen, Butadiene, Ethylene oxide etc.
Group C:Presence of Ethylene, Glycol-propane, Carbon Mono-oxide etc.
GroupD: Presence of gasoline, acetone. Butane, Propane, alcohol, Natural gas (Methane), etc

Class II: Location in which the presence of combustible dust are in the air in sufficient quantity to ignite or explode.
Class II conductive/non-conductive dust is divided into three below.
Group E: Presence of metal dusts (aluminum, magnesium and chemical dust etc)
Group F: Presence of black carbon, charcoal, coal or coke dust etc.
GroupG: presence of non-conductive dust (foam, starch, combustible plastics etc.)

Class III: Location in which easily ignitable fiber / flying are present but are not likely to be in suspension in air in
quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixture.
Division – 1: The hazards are present continuously or periodically under normal operation condition.
Division – 2: The Hazards are only presents during accidental or abnormal condition.

20. What is the standard height to install the instruments?

Ans: Standard height to install the instrument is 1.4 meter, but it can vary less or more as per location’s convenience.

21. What is loop check?

Ans: To ensure that the system wiring from field to control consol console functioning fine.

22. What is the logic gate?

Ans: A digital logic circuit with one or more input voltage but only one output voltage.

23. What is the foundation fieldbus system?

Ans: A fully digital control system is called foundation fieldbus system.

24. What are meant by FAT, SAT, RAT?

Ans: FAT: Factory Acceptance Test.
SAT: Site Acceptance Test.
RAT: Run Acceptance Test.

25. What is Microprocessor control system? Give a brief of PLC, DCS and SCADA?
Ans: Computer based control process system is called microprocessor control system. The brief of PLC, DCS and SCADA
are as following:
PLC: Programmable Logic Control System.PLC’s are used in practice with the aim of achieving a higher degree of
availability or fault tolerance. The types are as follow.
Fault Tolerant:1 out of 2 system objective:Reduce the probability of losses of production by switching to a standby
Fail Safe: 2 out of 2 system objective: Protect life, the environment and investment by safely disconnecting to a
secure “off” position.
DCS: Distribute Control System.
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 16
SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.

26. What are inspection points for a cable tray installation?

Ans: Material check as per approved spec, size and type, tray’s hook-up, proper distance structure, tray to tray i.e.
power/control/and signal/low voltage and high voltage, support and fixed strongly not shaking.

27. What are inspection points for field instruments with impulse tubing?
Ans: Materials inspection as per approved spec material, type and size, Installation as per Hook-up, check line route to avoid
any obstruction, check tube bending, and check tube support, compression fitting or ferrules, and then pressure test
(hydrostatic test) shall be done.

28. What are inspection points for a cable laying?

Ans: Material inspection as per approved materials, types and size, meggering, cable routing drawing, completion of cable
route ( tray, conduit or trench etc ) and cable numbering (Tag), cable bending, use or proper tools and equipment for
cable pulling.

29. What are inspection points for Junction Box and Marshalling cabinets?
Ans: Material Inspection, type, size as per approved specification, installation hook up for frame, bracket or stands, fixed
properly means shaking free, Name Plate, and tag no.

30. What are standards methods or ferrules addressing to and from a Junction Box?
Ans: For to side only terminal’s address required which shall be close to terminal either side and complete information shall be
of from side after or before as per left and right side.

31. What is final RFI? When it shall be raised up?

Ans: When the QA/QC department of contractor is satisfied that the work detailed in the construction RFI is completed, then
request shall be submitted for inspection to the client QA/AC department.

32. What is schedule Q?

Ans: Schedule Q is an attachment to the contract, which is the provision of Quality Assurance and Control, Inspection and test

33. What are the various levels of Inspection? Explain?

Ans: They are as following.
Level of Inspection for Materials:
A: Level 0 – Documents requirements only, no Inspection.
B: Level 1 – Inspection prior to shipping.
C: Level2 – Minimum requirements, pre-inspection meetings, one or more unspecified “in progress” surveillance visits.
D: Level 3 – Same as level 2, except that “in progress”surveillance inspection shall be in regular basis.
E: Level 4 – Resident Inspection Continuously monitor the work.
Level of Inspection for construction phase:
A: Hold Point (H): The inspection activities will not proceed without the presence of inspection.
B: Witness Point (W): Inspection activities can be proceeding after issuing RFI.
C: Review (R): Verification of documentation (NMR) on its correctness as per spec and approved drawings.
D: Surveillance (S): Inspection has right to conduct random inspection of works.
E: Inspection (I) / Perform (P) / Test (T): construction can be proceeding to next phase without client inspection.
34. What is ITP’s? What are Hold and Witness Point?
Ans: ITP mean Inspection and Test Plan, details of work scope and required types of inspections.
Hold Point (H): is the level of inspection that client inspection must require through RFI and can’t be preceded until
inspection is done by client.
Witness Point (W): is the level of inspection that inspection activity can be preceded without client inspection or if client
is not available as per RFI Timing.

35. What is RFI? When an RFI will be raised?

Ans: Request for inspection (RFI), RFI shall be raised only when the status of the preliminary inspection is satisfactory, and
the works (items) are Hold or Witness Point.
36. What is Cable tray and how is it identified separately for Electrical and Instrumentation?
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 17
Ans: Cable tray is the device used to provide support and protection to the laid cable in side the building or outside pipe rack.

37. What is Calibration and what is process calibration?

Ans: Checking / testing the equipment for its accuracy and serviceability are known as calibration. Process calibration means
carrying out calibration activity by following the adopted authorized method linked with standardization.
38. What is the loop and how is the loop folder made?
Ans: Loop is the electro-mechanical presentation of the circuit concerning to flow of liquid or gas, alarm system, control valve
operation and other specific for which field installation instrument involvement is considered.
There are certain condition and requirements to be fulfilled to complete the loop check. The list of attachments including
drawing, check list and punch list and other listed documents are arrange in folder (loop wise) for having an easy access
to carry out the loop check and final hand over of the project. That folder with all possible documents is known as loop

39. What is the specialty rather characteristics of loop check? How do you come to know that loop check is completed
Ans: a. Loop check is a clear blue print of a successful system functioning (activity wise),
b. This emphasis the serviceability of each instrument installed either in field or inside the building,
c. This exposes also the limitation of some systems functioning as per the attached filled punch list,
d. One of the ready documents for final hand over of a project on completion,
e. It is always two team’s operation-one will be on field and the other will be in the control room, After every successful
completion of loop check it is marked with Red Colored Label bearing the date of the loop check and the witnessing
parties initial.

40. What is the standard and what is the Standardization?

Ans: The standard means the authenticated documented instruction to be followed during execution of any specific project for
which it is made.
Standardization means the method of execution of certain standard which is specific to the one or more related activities
in a project execution process.
41. What is Inspection?
Ans: This is a process of verifying the method application by means of following certain documented and authenticated
instruction i.e. standardization is known as inspection.
42. What are the responsibilities of QC Inspector?
Ans: The following are the phenomenal responsibilities which any QC Inspector is supposed to execute at the time of carrying
out any inspection.
a. Well versed with the technology for which the inspection is carried out.
b. Should have the reasoning capability to analysis the method.
c. Should have thorough knowledge about the procedure to be adopted for inspection i.e. adopted standards.
d. Should be able to convey the irregularities found to the concerned authorities.
e. Should be absolute sincere about the job execution.
f. Should be vigilant all the time.

43. What should be the attitude of a QC Inspector while carrying out an Inspection activity?
Ans: Following are the characteristics of a perfect inspector:
a. Should never compromise with the quality at the time of performing inspection.
b. Should be sincere towards performing the responsibilities.
c. Should be punctual.
d. Should be exemplary in approach while carrying out inspection.
e. Should have the capabilities to convince the authorities about the irregularities with knowledgeable representation.

44. What are the requirements for carrying out installation inspection of any instruments and receiving inspection of the said
Ans: Following are the requirements at the time of execution of an inspection.
a. Instrument data sheet.
b. Test Instrument Certificate.
c. Vendor instruction manual.
d. Test Instrument instruction manual.

45. What is the CCTV System?

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 18
Ans: Close Circuit Television system used for establishing the alarm notification in case of any unforeseen hazard takes place.
It is a digitally controlled system which enables the automatic notification of the happening in and around the plant and
plant premises.

46. What are the differences between QA & QC activities?

Ans: The QA activity means adopted method for verification of the execution of QC activity in turn it focuses towards the
importance of implementation of QC role in the industrial and other sectors related to maintenance, production and
construction specially.
The QC activity means the direct involvement in maintaining quality standard as per the adopted method/standard by the
way of carrying out inspection (activity wise) and making the documentation related to that. It also involves the activity
involving for the project’s quality maintainability and process execution.

47. What is Schedule ‘Q’and how many appendices are there in schedule ‘Q’?
Ans: Schedule ‘Q’ is the guidelines for the method application related to quality including the distribution of manpower (quality
field oriented) and the quality process execution including quality control and quality assurance.
It has got six appendices covering all the process implementations related to execution of project performance with the
focus towards maintainability of quality control and quality assurance.

48. What are the linked documentations carried out related to QC activity for oil & gas construction project?
Ans: a. Application for inspection from construction department after completion of every activity.
b. Production of drawing based on the planning.
c. Method application priority wise.
d. Procurement of item and equipments required for the execution of the project.

49. What is process control system?

Ans: It is the system adopted for the proper execution of the activity by maintaining the adopted standards and other specific.
It involves surveillance on day to day activities performed by the production unit on operation.

50. What are QCP, QMP and ITP?

Ans: QCP – Quality Control Procedure, QMP – Quality Management Procedure, ITP – Inspection and Test Plan.

51. Explain procedure related to Quality Control?

Ans: The quality procedure is the series of steps taken to maintain the quality standard as per the adopted standard and other

52. What do you know about NEC, NEMA VE1, NEMA VE2, NEMA RN?
Ans: NEC – National Electrical Code earlier used to be published under the statutory body of NFPA since 1897, from 2005
edition it is categorized as an internationally accepted method inspection procedure guidelines covering all most all the
field related to Electrical, Instrumentation and Communication Engineering.
NEMA VE1 – National electrical manufacture association VE1
NEMA VE2– Deals with cable tray installation specification

53. What are the articles refereed during carrying out the following activities?
(1) Grounding. (2) Installation of cable Tray. (3) Fire alarm System Installation. (4) Installation Instrument Cable Tray etc,
Ans: (1) Grounding Article 250 (Chapter IX for instrumentation), (2) Installation of cable tray Article 392, (3) Fire Alarm System
Art 760 (4) Installation of instrument cable tray art 727.

54. What is Duct bank?

Ans: It is concrete poured structure with conduits laid inside by maintaining certain specified elevation as per the requirements
for the laying of cable through this enabling protection, support and safety to the cable.
55. What would be the thickness of the top layer of a Duct Bank and color?
Ans: 5mmand Red Dye.
56. What is the purpose of using paint/dye on top layer?
Ans: To give an anticorrosive protection, top layer painting is provided.

57. What are types of conduits used in electrical and instrumentation wiring circuits?
Ans: Rigid Metallic Conduit (RMC), Intermediate Metallic Conduit (IMC), Rigid Nonmetallic Conduit (RNC).

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 19

58. What are the differences between a JB(Junction Box) and Terminal Box?
Ans: The purpose of JB (Junction Box) is used as a linkage between one or more inlet and one or more outlet. Whether
terminal box has inlet on or more but out let may be one for earthen or it may not be. JB can be used in between the
routing for providing support and extra opening but TB is used as Termination means at the end of the routing.

59. What is ‘termination’ related to construction industry?

Ans: Termination is widely used term in case of construction industry. For electrical and instrumentation work this is used for
make the routing as a complete one.

60. What is the impulse line?

Ans: It is line rather tubing connection made from the source (flow pipeline or vessel) to the transmitter (sensing device) to
create the feasibility to the transmitter to sense the flow and to generate equivalent electrical signal to get the indication
of the status of the system working.
61. What is the check list?
Ans: It is the list of sequential activities to be performed by any QC Inspector during inspection of any activity performed by
construction. It is made separated with distinguished activities for each construction activity.

62. What is punch list? What is requirement of making a punch list?

Ans: It the list generally identified as RA 60B, which is used at the time of finalization of any activity. Means every activity
should be stamped with a final and foolproof documentation which shows the clear evidence of the all completed job. It is
always signed by QC to ensure the maintainability of the quality aspect of the job performed.

63. What is the role of QC during shut down?

Ans: QC has the major role to be played at the time of shut down. It is the responsibility of QC to officially hand over any
completed project to the client with all the documentations to be provided with the real completed project. This including
the records of completion (activity wise) areas with limitations as shown in punch list, the processing and final inspection
test report of the actual functioning of the project by making it operational.

64. What do mean by Hazardous and Non Hazardous area?

Ans: The area classification is done as per area wise risk involvement (environmental). The area with maximum percentage of
risk in function any system is known as hazardous area (NEC Art 500 – 510).

65. How are the hazardous and non-hazardous areas classified?

Ans: Hazardous and non-hazardous areas are classified according to the classifications and zones.

66. What is the Expansion joint? What should be the standard gap maintained in expansion joint?
Ans: It I the breathing space provided to accommodate the expansion of horizontal cable tray to suit with different climatic
condition by maintaining a standard length wise distribution.
According to NEMA VE2 it is after every 20 meter with a spacing (expansion joint) of 25mm to be maintained. It
sometimes differs, but should not be more for the horizontal length of the cable try.

67. How the metallic cable trays grounded?

Ans: Metallic cable tray shall be bonded at both end points and minimum of every 25meter local ground grid or ground
electrode or to structural steel bonded to local ground grid or ground electrode.

68. How the metallic conduit grounded?

Ans: grounded at both end points by bonding to grounding conductor, grounded metal enclosure or to grounded metal cable
tray by using approved grounding clamps.
A grounding bushing must be used with PVC coated conduit.

69. How many connection points required for equipment ground?

a) For equipment’s like (motor, generators and transformers) which operated at 1000 v or greater shall have two connections
to supplementary electrode.
b) If the motors, generators and transformers operating at nominal voltage 480 v shall have a minimum of one connections to
supplementary grounding electrode.
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 20
70. What type of conduit is used in duct bank?
Ans:Duct bank consists of either hot-dip galvanized rigid steel with PVC coated or PVC conduit, encased in concrete.

71. What is the minimum thickness of concrete from outside surface of the duct bank to any conduit or reinforcing steel?

72. What is mean by Guwat and Guwa, where it is applicable for use?
Ans:You can use in conduit installation for lighting purpose.
Guwat: With terminal block.
Guwa:Withought Terminal block.

73. How the Metallic and PVC conduit entering from below of any equipment like switchgear control cabinets and similar enclosures
Ans: The metallic conduit shall be cut and threaded 50mm above finished grade level and a threaded insulated grounding
bushing shall installed, also PVC conduit shall be cut flush with finished grade level and shall have its inner edge filed to
a smooth radius.

74. What type of sealing is used for all ducts inside all manholes and hands holes where permitted inside hydrocarbon handling
Ans: All ducts shall be sealed with 3M scotch cast brand 4416 cable duct sealing kits or other methods approved by the
electrical standards committee chairman.

75. What is a Mandrel testing?

Ans: Testing of underground duct bank or sharp bend.

76. What should be done, when union cannot be avoided in underground conduit installation?
Ans: Unions shall be protected with heat-shrinkable sleeves.

77. What shall be provided on each duct where it terminates?

Ans: Bell end fitting or protective bushings.

78. How many spare ducts in duct banks?

Ans: Duct bank shall have 20% spare ducts (minimum one), unless this number is decreased by the facility proponent.

79. What is the minimum conduit size excepted for instrumentation wiring inside building?
Ans: ¾ Inch.

80. What is the minimum conduit size excepted for prefabricated skids and in-industrial area?
Ans: ½ Inch.

81. What the meaning of (EMT) and for what used?

Ans: Electrical Metal Conduit (EMT), you can use only indoor.

82. What are the conduit fittings for outdoor rigid steel conduit and liquid tight flexible metal (LFMC)?
Ans: Shall be cast or forged steel, cast iron or malleable iron either hot-dip galvanized (preferably) electroplated.

83. Can be use the aluminum fitting in outdoor?

Ans: No aluminum fitting or fitting accessories such as covers, sealing fitting plugs shall be used outdoor only malleable iron
sealing fitting shall be used.

84. What is the minimum distance from main door to marshaling panel?
Ans: Minimum shall be 3 meter from main door to marshaling panel.

85. What shall be the slop for impulse line?

Ans:A minimum of a 1mm, for every 12 mm towards tapping point.

86. What shall be having extra length for unistrut support?

Ans: 40mm should be extra.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 21

87. What shall be the test pressure of instrument impulse line?
Ans: 1.5 times of the working pressure.

88. What shall be minimum acceptable insulation resistance of instrument cable during MeggerTest?
Ans: 100 Mega ohms

89. Name some testing equipments used for instrument calibration?

Ans: Deadweight tester, Digital multimetter, Megger, Digital pressure calibrator, Temperature calibrator, Temperature bath,
Field communicator, Vibration meter.

90. What shall be the maximum acceptable attention value of fiber during OTDR test?
Ans: 0.5Db/Km or less for wave length of 1310 nm and 0.3Db/Km or less .for wave length of 1550nm.
91. What shall be the maximum pulling tension of FOC?
Ans: 600 Pounds.
92. What is name of fieldbus communicator?
Ans: FBT6 (Fieldbus Transducer 6)
93. What is the Principle of Bimetal Thermometer?
Ans: Different Metal of Different Coefficient.

94. What is the color coding for accepted instrument or rejected instruments?
Blue - Pre-installation Test (Calibrated)
White - Test Fail (written message may be added giving reason failure)
Red - Pre-commissioned
Green - Cable Test (Megger)
Yellow - Pressure Test

95. How do you calculate new factor from new range using old factor and old range?

96. What is the effect of weep hole on calculation of orifice bore?

Ans: D = dm {1 + 0.55 (dm) 2 / dh}
Where:dm = Measured diameter of orifice
dh = Drain hole diameter
d = Corrected diameter orifice size

97. How to calculate the Accuracy of Instrument?


98. Definition of Instrument Range and Span?

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 22

99. Calculation of Resistance or Pt100?

Ans: Ro= 100Ω
X for platinum = 0.00385 / C
To calculate resistance at 100 oC
R100=100[1+ (.385 x100)]
= 100 + (100x 0.385)
Resistance at 100oC = 138.5 Ω

100. Calculation of oC to oF?


101. Calculation of oFtooC?


102. What is CV of a valve?

Ans: CV is the capacity of a valve and is defined as:
“No of gallons per minute of water which passes through a fully open valve at a pressure drop of 1PSI”
CV=q(▲P / G)
Where:CV=Valve co-efficient
Q =Volumetric flow rate(gallons/minute)
▲P=Pressure drop across the valve in psi.
G=Specific gravity of flowing fluid.

103. Why does control valve operate at is PSI?

Ans: On higher pressure the actuator sizes becomes bigger in area. The actual force produced by the actuator.
= 15 psix Area,If Area = 15"
Force produced = 15 psix25 in2 = 375 pounds.
Actual force acting on a control valve=375pounds.

104. How to calculate the Resistance of Cable?

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 23

Ans: Generally voltage drop calculation is done for selecting the cable size for particular motor and the distance involved. As
distance increases voltage drop occurs due to increase in resistance of cables for reason we should find the voltage

105. How to calculate the Level Calculation?

Elevation& Suppression:
LRV = Elevation – Suppuration
URV = Range – Suppuration + Elevation

Suppuration Calculation:
Span =Range – Suppuration = 100% {Range = 27.422}
LRV = Suppuration = 0% {Suppuration = 30.316}
URV = Span = 100 % Span / 4 = 25 %
0% -30.316
25% -23.460
50% -16.605
75% -9.749
100% -2.894

Elevation Calculation:
Span = Range + Elevation = 100% {Range = 5.814}
LVR = Span = 100% {Elevation = .971}
URV = Elevation = 0% Span / 4 = 25%
0% 0.971
25% 2.424
50% 3.878
75% 5.331
100% 6.785


What is the Transformer?

Transformer is one kinds of electro static device which transformer energy from winding to another winding by electromagnetic induction
effect without changing frequency.

H. T. Motors?
Motors working with voltage with voltage 3.3KV and above are HT motors. This motor normally used for high loads are the operating
current can be reduced. Normally these motors are connected. These motors are having some special cooling arrangements like forced air
cooling, condenser type cooling in which water is circulated to cool the temperature inside. Instead of a ball bearing, sleeve bearing are
also used. For cooling the bearing, separate oil is used.
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 24
The Following protection normally used:
1. Instantaneous over current: Settled normally 10 times the rated current. Operates only during short circuit.
2. Thermal overload relay: Set normally at 110% rated operates at motor overload.
3. Locked rotor prolonged start protection: Set normally at 125% the rated operates when the load got jammed. Set at normal
starting time 2 Seconds.
4. Negative phase sequence: Set normally at 25% the rated operates when phase unbalance occurs and single phasing. (One phase
5. Earth Fault: Set normally at 20% the rated operates when fault occurs between phase and earth.

Over Current relay, Ground fault relay:These are intended for detecting faults in the electric system connected with the Transformer. A
fault in the Transformer results in the function of these relays, which is always accompanied by the actuation of protective devices of the

Illumination: The illumination is defined as the luminous flux received per unit area.

Overload Relay Setting: Overload protection given for almost all motors. The overload relay setting will be of 110% in general.

Starting Current: Starting current of a induction motor generally will be 6 times the rated current.

Single Phase: One of the supply lines gates disconnected due to rupturing of fuse or open circuit in one of the three supply connection. In
such cases the motor continues to run on a single phase supply of 440V. If the rotor is locked to its rated full load, it will draw excessive
currents on single phasing. The windings get overheated and damage is caused.

Megger Value: The insulation resistance value of the winding of the motor shall be checked periodically during preventive maintenance.
For 3.3 KV motor the IR value shall be checked with 1 KV Megger.
For 11 KV motor the IR value shall be checked with 5 KV Megger.

Winding Resistance: The winding resistance of the motor shall be checked during preventive maintenance with the bridge. The winding
resistance of the three windings should be equal.

Generally earthing means non-current carrying metallic part of electrical equips should be earthed to avoid danger to human fife.

Grid Resistance:Grid resistance means in a industry or building the no. of earth pits joined parallel together to get a minimum earth
resistance value and the value should be less than 1.0 Ohms acceptable in the industry.

Pit Resistance: Individual pit resistance can vary according to the solid resistance and the value can be 5 Ohms or more than that. But to
get a minimum value all the pits should connect in parallel as grid.

Earth Pits: Earth pits are generally used by using charcoal, salt and G. I. pipe of 3 meters in length and 40 mm diameter.
Another type of earth pits is plate earth electrode and mesh type electrode with copper or GI strip brought out.
Another type in gulf generally used is the solid rod of copper driven straightway into to earth to get minimum value by driving to a depth of
max 6 meters.

Earth Megger: For measuring the earth resistance earth Megger is used and the diagram given below how to measure the earth

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 25

Safe Earth Resistance: Generally earth resistance of the total grid should be less than 1.0 Ohms which is acceptable for safe operation in

Ammeter: Load current is measured through ammeter only. In AC lower range are directly can be read through ammeter kept in series.
For larger current transformer are uses for measuring the current.
In DC Power current is measured through a shunt resistance.

Wattmeter: For measuring the power consumed by the circuit (any type of feeder) wattmeter is used and the unit is in KWH.

Avometer: This AVO meter is used for checking the electrical circuits measuring voltage, current, resistance and electronic components

Shunt Resistance: In DC circuit is measured through this shunt resistance.

Transducer: They are used to change one varying parameter into other form energy. Like voltage to current to pneumatic signals etc.

Bus Coupler: Where two different bus sections connected through an breaker (ACB or VCB or OCB) so that both bus section supply can
have an alternative feeding arrangement.

1. What the accessories of transformers?

Ans: Fans, Radiators, Oil Pumps, Pressure Relief device, Oil Level gauge, Temperature Gauges, Tap Charger, Bushings,
Current Transformers, Voltage Transformers, Surge arrestors, Surge Capacitors, Dust filter bar, Post insulators.

2. Why the oil samples test shall be taken from the transformer?
Ans: To check the conductivity, analyses and characteristics of the oil.

3. What the factory tests shall be performed on the transformers?

Ans: 1. Ratio tests at the rated voltage connection and at all tap connections.
2. Polarity and phase relation tests on the rated voltage connection.
3. Applied potential tests.
4. No load and excitation current at rated voltage connection.
5. Impedance tests.

4. What are the transformers ratings?

1. Primary and secondary KVA.
2. Voltage.
3. Taps.
4. Primary and secondary continuous current
5. Basic impulse level for equipment over 600 V
6. Impedance.
7. Insulation class and temperature rise.
8. Sound level.

5. What is the standard secondary rating of the CT?

Ans: 5 Amperes.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 26

6. What is the symmetrical interrupting current rating fuse on the HV –side of transformers?
Ans:The symmetrical interrupting current rating of a fuse shall not be less than max symmetrical sub transient fault current.

7. Find out the full load current of a Single Phase motor 220 volt 600 watts?
Ans: I = P/V = 600/220= 2.727 Ans.

8. What are the main protections is required for a motor?

Ans: Over Current (Inst.), Thermal Over Load, Stalling Relay (Armature Jam), Earth Fault, Negative Sequence, Temperature.

9. Why do you use a thermal relay in a starter?

Ans: When winding temperature high then thermal relay active.

10. How do you check whether the winding of a motor is good or bad?
Ans: WR (Winding Resistance), IR (Insulation Resistance).

11. Why should ground all electrical equipment?

Ans: To prevent the earth fault.

12. What are the two method of winding connection in 3-Phase motors?
Ans: Star Winding & Delta Winding.

13. What is the liquid in the battery called?

Ans: Lead Acid (H2S04) & Alkaline.

14. What is the paint name which is the used in grounding cable?
Ans:Vetomens Paints.

15. What is the RPM of a 2 pole 60 HZ motor?

Ans: N = 120f/P = 120 x 60/2 = 3600 RPM

16. If the IR value of the motor winding is very low what would you do to improve it?
Ans: Motor need over hauling.

17. What is the name of the test equipment used to measure the following?
Current: Ammeter
Voltage: Voltmeter
Resistance: Ohm
Insulation Resistance: Megger
18. What is the different between primary and secondary cell?
Ans: Primary Cell is Anode (+)
Secondary cell cathode (-)

19. If the current is 15A what will be the size of the cable?
Ans: 6 mm2 or 10 mm2

20. What is the max speed obtained by 3 phase induction motor with normal state supply?

21. How to find the motor speed and write equation?


Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 27

22. Transformers Transformation Ration?

23. What is the PI and how can found the PI value?

PI = Polarity Index

PI = Current Value ten minute / Current Value one minute

24. Which kind of motor it’s required to check the PI value?

Ans: It’s required more than 100 KW motor.

25. What is the breather, Details about the Silica Get?

Ans: It is a small container, contains silica gel and oil. It absorbs the moisture from the atmospheric air and allows the fresh air to
the conservator.
26. What is the meant by short circuit braking current?
Ans: The rated short circuit breaking current of a circuit breaker is the highest value of short circuit current which a circuit
breaker is capable of breaking under specified condition of transient recovery voltage and power frequency voltage.
Expressed in K. A. RMS at contact separation

27. What is meant by short circuit making current?

Ans: Rated Making Current = 1.8 x root 2 x rated short circuit breaking current.
= 2.5 x rated short circuit breaking current

28. What is range of low voltage and medium voltage and high voltage?
Ans: Low Voltage: 110 ~ 380 VAC
Medium Voltage: 489 ~13.8 KV
High Voltage: 14.6 ~115 KV

29. What is the different between star and delta connection with types of motor?

30. Star Delta connection with 3 Phase Induction Motor?

Ans: Star Delta Starter: If the starter winding is directly connected with the supply it will draw high current to reduce
this high current (to control starting current) Star/Delta starter is used.

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 28

31. Why does control valve operate at IS psi?
Ans:On higher pressure the actuator sizes becomes bigger in area. The actual force produced by the actuator.
Force = Pressure x Area.
= 15 psi x Area, If Area = 15"
Force produced = 15 psi x 25 in2 = 375 pounds.
Actual force acting on a control valve = 375 pounds.

Pressure Conversions:

1 PSI = 27.74”H2O
1Kg/cm2 = 14.223 PSI
1 Bar = 0.145 PSI
Kg/cm2 = 10000 mm of H2O
1 Bar = 1.0197 Kg/cm2
1 Kg/cm2 = 0.98 Bar
1 Torr = 1 mm of Hg


What is EMF?

What is Faraday Low?


Power Calculation Equation?

P = 3 VI COS ϕ
V=480V, I-35A
COS ϕ = 0.9
P = 480 x 1.732 x 35 x 0.9 = 200 Kw

Common Things:
Type of Lugs: (1) Shanap Type (2) Pin Type (3) Ring Type (4) U Type
Gland Size: ½” ¾” 1”1½” 2”
Thread Type: ET (Equal Thread), BSP (British Standard Pitch), NPT (National Pipe Pitch).

LT – (Low Tension) – 50VAC ~ 230VAC
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 29
HT – (High Tension) – 320VAC ~460VAC
MCC – (Main Control Connection) or (Motor Control Center)
PCC – Power Control Connection

Equipment used for no Load Run:

Tacho Hi-Tester (Hioki Model 3403) for motor speed.
True RAS Multimeter (John Fluke Model 87V)
Infrared Thermometer (John Fluke Model 66) Using to get the Temperature of.
1. Ambient Temperature
2. Bearing Drive End
3. Winding Temperature
4. Bearing non Drive End

Vibration Meter (Monarch instrument Model Examiner 1000) Using to get the Vibration (mm/s)
Motor in Two Locations:
1. Drive End (Horizontal-Vertical and Axial)
2. Non Drive End (Horizontal-Vertical and Axial)
Sound Level Meter (Extech Instrument Model 407703) Using to get the noise (dB) of motor in 3 locations:
1. Drive end.
2. Non drive end.
3. Winding.

NB: The Duration of the no load run is 4 Hrs, Every 30mm needed to get a reading.

Equipment using for testing the panel board:

Michroohmeter (Model: Programma MOM200A).

Used to test the contact resistance of bas bars, breakers etc..?

Digital Earth Tester (Model: 4105A).
Portable Double Bridge (Model: 2769).

Using for winding resistance tests of voltage transformer, current transformer, etc..?
DC Dielectric Test Set (Biddle Model 220123).

Used to hi pot the medium voltage cables?

Insulation Tester (Megger Model: BM11D)

Used to test the insulation resistance of cables, bus bars, breakers, VT’s, ct’s, etc…?
Digital Multimeter Model: 77iii
Programma (Freja 300)

Relay test unit for: (transformer management relay, feeder management relay, motor management relay, also used to test the ATS of switchgear,
ammeters and voltmeters
Torque wrench (model 64-046).
Power Clamp Meter (Model: Unites 93510).
True RMS AC/DC clamp meter (Tektronix Model: DCM910)
Relay Test Unit (Programma Model Sverker 750)

Voltage injections exp: test the lock out relay

Breaker Analyzer System (Programmed Model TM1600)

How to calculate the accuracy of Instrument

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 30

Accuracy = Actual Value – Measured Value/Full Span x 100

Additional Question from daelim:

1. Please explain the required equipments, Tools and Consumables for Cable Pulling?
Ans:Wench (Motor) or Tagger (Motor), Lubricant Compound, Rop

2. Please write full description of the following abbreviations?

1) GIB
2) GIS
3) IPB

3. Please choose and fill related item from the Illustration?

1) Mark 87 a) Frequency Protection
2) Mark 50/51 b) Under Voltage Protection
3) Mark 64 c) Over Current Protection
4) Mark 27 d) Earth Fault Protection
5) Mark 81G e) Differential Protection
Ans: 1 = e, 2 = c, 3=? , 4 = b, 5=?

4. Please choose and fill related item from the Illustration?

1) Chico Compound a) MIG Welding
2) EXP – D b) EYS, EYD
3) Stress-Cone, 3M, Raychem c) Arc Welding
4) Aluminum Bus d) Cable Termination Kit
5) Carbon Steel Bracket e) Flame Proof Type

5. Please fill the applicable material to the following work?

1) Cable Entry Hole or conduit Stub-up shall be sealed with …………………. After completion of cable work?
2) Explosion proof seal fitting to be filled with…………………………………………..?

6. Please write the name of termination tools for cable (more than 5 items)?

7. Please draw the typical 3-wire control circuit with two start-stop push button starters?

8. Please draw the simple forward reversing starter control circuit using “Either-or” Interlock?

9. What is the free space in one conduit?

Ans: As per NEC chapter 9
1 Cable should be 53 %
2 Cable should be 31 %
3 Cable should be 40 %

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 31

10. Illumination Test as per which standard?
Ans:As per SAES-P-123 articles.

11. Torque Value as which standard?


12. What is the different between guide clamp and holding clamp?

Inspector Question from NEC:

1. Differentiate Class 1 Division 1 with Class 2 Division 2 Location?

a) Class 1 Division 1, in which ignitable concentrations of flammable gasses can exist under normal operation condition.
Class 1 Division 2, in which volatile flammable liquid or gasses are handle, processed used by which gases & vapors can be
escaped under abnormal operation or any equipment.
b) Class 1 Division 1, in which volatile flammable liquids of flammable gases are present under abnormal condition of any
Class 1 Division 2, In which ignitable concentrations of flammable gasses can exit under normal operation.
c) Bothe a) & b) be applied.
d) None of the above.
Ans.: a) Per NEC-500 (b) (1 & 2)
2. In Class 1. Division locations, conduit seal fitting shall be installed within?
a) 18” from the enclosure.
b) 24” from the enclosure.
c) 30” from the en closure.
d) None of the above.
Ans.: d) Per NEC-501

3. What is the standard wire fill requirement for conduit sealing fittings?
a) 30%
b) 25%
c) 40%
d) 35%
Ans.: b) Per NEC-501.C-6

4. What is the maximum percentage of cross section a conduit raceway can be filled containing three (3) or more conductors?
a) 100%
b) 50%
c) 40%
d) Not Required.
Ans.: c) Per NEC Chapter 9

5. What is the maximum distance between supports for rigid metal conduit (RMC) on horizontal straight run?
a) Shall be supported @ intervals not exceeding 4 meter (12 ft.)
b) Shall be supported @ intervals not exceeding 5 meters (15 ft.)
c) Shall be supported @ intervals not exceeding 3 meters (10 ft.)
d) None of above.
Ans.: c) Per NEC-344.30

6. Per NEC, How many degrees bend permitted in a conduit run?

a) 180°
b) 270°
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 32
c) 360°
d) None of above.
Ans.: c) Per NEC-346.11

7. Per NEC, What is the minimum number of conduit threads should be engages @ hazardous locations?
a) At list minimum of 5 threads.
b) 4 threads
c) 3 threads
d) None of above
Ans.: a) Per NEC-501.4

8. Per NEC, What is the maximum number of over current devices allowed in branch circuit panel board?
a) 45 over current devices
b) 50
c) 55
d) 42
Ans.: d) Per NEC-408.15

9. Per NEC, What is the minimum working clearance requirement in front of low voltage electrical equipment?
a) 900 mm (3 ft.)
b) 800 mm (2.5 ft.)
c) 700 mm (2.25 ft.)
d) 600 mm (2 ft.)
Ans.: a) Per NEC-110.26 (Table 26 (A) (1)

10. Per NEC, which of the following listed below are or maybe present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or
ignitable mixture?
a) Flammable gases or vapor.
b) Combustible gas.
c) Easily ignitable fibers or flying by which are not likely to suspension in the air.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: b) Per NEC-100

11. What article in NEC you can find grounding system?

a) 300
b) 350
c) 400
d) 250
Ans.: d) Per NEC-250

12. Per NEC, what is the percent ampacity of Branch circuit conductors supplying single motor-compressor?
a) 50
b) 60
c) 100
d) 125
Ans.: d) Per NEC-440-32

13) Per NEC, All 125 volts, single phase, 15, 20 amps receptacles installed in location specified in bathrooms & Kitchens shall be?
a) Single receptacle
b) Duplex receptacle
c) Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)
d) None of the above
Ans.: c) Per NEC-210.8 A (1)

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 33

14) Per NEC, Open conductor for outside branch circuit run between building shall be separated from open conductor of the circuits
or system by not less than?
a) 100 mm (4 inch)
b) 150 mm (6 inch)
c) 50 mm (2 inch)
d) 300 mm (12 inch)
Ans.: a) Per NEC-225.14 ( c )

15) Which type of enclosure can be installed in hazardous indoor location?

a) NEMA 4x
b) NEMA 3 & 4
c) NEMA 3R
d) NEMA 7, 8
Ans.: d) Per NEMA Standard.

16) What is the required color code for neutral conductor?

a) Black
b) White
c) Gray
d) White / Gray Both
Ans.: d) Per NEC-200.6

17) What is the method is permitted to be utilized for splicing direct buried cable.
a) Splice Box
b) Not Permitted
c) Materials suitable for the application
d) A &C
Ans.: d) Per NEC-30.50

18) Chapter five of the NEC deals with …………………… occupancies?

a) Hazardous
b) Non-Hazardous
c) Dwelling Unit
d) None of the above
Ans.: a) Per NEC-500.

19) What is the minimum length of free conductors shall be left at each Outlet, Junction & Switch point for splices or connection of
fixtures or devices?
a) 6 inches
b) 4 inches
c) 2 inches
d) None of the above
Ans.: a) Per NEC-300.14 & Ans.: b) Per NEC-310.16 (table)

20) How many hours the maximum current is expected to continue on a continuous load?
a) 3 Hrs or More
b) 2 Hrs or More
c) 3 Hrs or More
d) 5 Hrs or More
Ans.: c) Per NEC-100

21) NEMA VE-1 & 2 are standards reference for?

a) Cable Tray System
b) Conduit System

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 34

c) Panel Boards
d) None of the above
Ans.: a) Per NEC 392

22) In hazardous classified locations, seals are needed in the following instances?
a) Where conduit leaves a division 1 of division 2 area to a less or non-hazardous location.
b) Where conduit enters an explosion proof type enclosure with arcing devices or high temperature equipment.
c) Where conduit enters an enclosure with terminal splices or tap (If the conduit is 2 inches or more in diameter)
d) All the above.
Ans.: d) Per NEC 501

23) Where the voltage exceeds 600 volts, Nominal, Permanent & conspicuous warning signs shall be provide reading as follows?
a) Careful – Low voltage – keep out
b) Danger – high voltage – keeps out
c) Danger – high voltage – out
d) Danger – high speed – keep out
Ans.: b) Per NEC-110-34

24) A service drop conductors & service entrances conductors shall be arranges so that water ….. service raceway or equipment?
a) Will slide
b) Will not enter
c) Will enter
d) Will transfer
Ans.: b) Per NEC-230.54(g)

25) In case of appliance receptacle/outlets installed in dwelling unit for specific appliances, such as Kitchen Equipment. It shall be
installed within ……….. of the intended location of the appliance?
a) 1.8 m
b) 2.3 m
c) 3.5 m
d) 4.5 m
Ans.: a) Per NEC-210.50 ( c )

26) What is the reference table from NEC that requires the maximum number of conductors permitted in standard boxes?
a) NEC 110
b) NEC 240
c) NEC 250.66 (Table-1)
d) NEC 314.16 (A)
Ans.: NEC 314.16

27) UL Standards for what?

a) Underwritten Laboratories
b) United Laboratories
c) Under Ground Laboratories
d) None of the above
Ans.: a)

28) What is the mere fact of mounting Electrical Equipment?

a) Loosely secured to the surface on which it is mounted.
b) Firmly secured to the surface on which it is mounted.
c) Securely Unfastened in place.
d) All the above.
Ans.: b) Per NEC 110.13 (A)

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 35

29) Which of the following is not applicable in EMT installation?
a) Where protected from corrosion solely by coating.
b) Exposed & concealed installation.
c) Where during & after installation shall be subject to physical damage.
d) All of above
Ans.: a) & c) Per NEC-358.12

30) Which of the following is true about Panel boards?

a) Snap switches rated @ 30 AMPS or less shall have over current protection not in excess of 200 Amps.
b) Panel boards can be used to medium voltage.
c) Shall have minimum 900 mm clearance in front
d) None of the above
Ans.: a) Per NEC-408.16 (b)

31) What are the basic reasons for grounding system?

a) To limit the voltages caused by lighting or by accidental contact of the supply conductors.
b) To stabilize the voltage under normal operating conditions (Which maintains the voltage @ one level relative to ground)
c) To facilitate the operation of over current devices, such as Fuses, Circuit Breakers or Relays. Underground fault conditions.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: d) Per NEC 250.4(B)

32) Per NEC, how grounding conductors & bonding Jumpers connected to the equipment?
a) Exothermic welding
b) Listed pressure connector
c) Listed clamps or other listed means
d) All of the above.
Ans.: d) Per NEC-250.8

33) Per NEC, what is the over current by definition?

a) Any voltage excess on the rated amender of equipment.
b) Any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor.
c) Any voltage excess on the capacity rating of equipment or current limiting factor.
d) None of above.
Ans.: b) Per NEC 100

34) Which of the following cables listed below are suitable for class 1, division 1 & Locations?
a) Armored type
b) Metal clad (MC type)
c) PLTC – Power limited tray cables
d) None of above.
Ans.: a) & b) per (NEC 320.12 & NEC 330.10)

35) A 3-Phase system has phase to phase 480V AC, What is the phase to ground to Neutral voltage?
a) 480/SQ Root of 3 = volts
b) 480/CU.Root of 3 = volts
c) 480/3 = volts
d) None of above
Ans.: a)

36) Raceways shall only be used as a means of support for other raceway on the Following condition?
a) Where the raceway or means of support is identified for the purpose.
b) Where the raceway contains power supply conductor for electrically controlled equipment.
c) Where the raceway is used to support boxes or conduit bodies in accordance with 314.23
d) All of above.
Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 36
Ans.: d) Per NEC-300.11 (B)

37) Metal clad (type MC cables) is a factory assembly of one & more insulated circuit conductors with or without optical fiber
enclosed in an armor of interlocking metal or corrugated metallic sheath shall not be used?
a) In direct burial unless the metallic sheath shall be suitable for the condition.
b) In cable tray or any raceway.
c) In hazardous (classified) locations as permitted in Articles 501, 502, 503, 504 & 505.
d) None of the above.
Ans.: a) Per NEC-330.12

38) Luminaires (fixtures) to be installed for Damp location shall be marked?

a) Suitable for Wet location
b) Suitable for Damp location
c) Both a & b
d) None of the above.
Ans.: c) Per NEC-410.4 (A)

39) What is the temperature rating for lighting fixtures where combustible materials shall be present for such installation?
a) 90 °C
b) 80 °C
c) 85 °C
d) None of the above.
Ans.: a) Per NEC-410.5

40) Luminaires (Fixtures) shall be installed …………… so that combustible Material is not subjected to temperature excess of 90 °C
(194 °F)?
a) Equipped with shades or guards
b) Shall be rated 208 volts
c) Shall be high – pressure sodium.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: a) Per NEC-410.5

41) What is the minimum clearance height of luminaire (Fixture) lamp holder over a Highly combustible materials?
a) 3.5 mts
b) 2.5 mts
c) 1.5 mts
d) None of the above.
Ans.: c) Per NEC-410.6

42) What type of Luminaire (Fixture) installed at indoor location requires thermal Protection?
a) Ballast of Fluorescent luminaire (Fixture)
b) Incandescent Luminaire.
c) Both a. & b.
d) None of the above.
Ans.: c) Per NEC-410.73

43) What would be the type of Lamp holder to be installed in a Wet or damp location?
a) Wet or Damp location
b) GFCI type
c) Weatherproof Type.
d) All the above.
Ans.: c) per NEC-410.49

44) Per NEC series, the following letters d, e & m provides different type of protection that’s stands for?

Samir(QA/QC Engineer) | QA/QC Notes 37

a) d-Flameproof, e-increased safety, m-encapsulation.
b) d-Increased safety, e-Flameproof, m-Encapsulation.
c) d-Increased safety, e-Intrinsic safety, m-Flameproof
d) None of the above.
Ans.: a) per NEC-505.2

45) What is the purpose of having “T”rating for lighting system?

a) To suit the environment.
b) To meet the ignition temperature of hazardous gases.
c) To select for better looking.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: b) per NEC-505.9

46) What are the suitable means / method of connecting grounding conductors & bonding to electrical equipment and ground
a) Listed clamps.
b) Thermite welds.
c) Compression type connection.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: d) per NEC-250-70

47) What is the meaning of FPN stated @ ART-250-20?

a) Foot print note.
b) Fine print note.
c) Fall print note.
d) Field print note.
Ans.: b) Fine print note.

48) When it is necessary to bury more than one pipe or rod in order to lower the Resistance to ground, it should be placed …… ft
a) 70 ft.
b) 75 ft.
c) 06 ft.
d) 50 ft.
Ans.: c) 6 ft.

49) What is the maximum value in Ohms permitted for grounding equipment? In industrial area connected on a single electrode.
a) 25 Ω
b) 30 Ω
c) 10 Ω
d) 05 Ω
Ans.: a) per NEC-250.6

50) What kind of motor can be installed in Class 1, Division 1 & Class 1 Division 2 Location?
a) Shall be UL listed.
b) Shall be explosion proof type.
c) Shall be identified for Class 1 Division 1 & Class 2 Division1.
d) All of above.
Ans.: d) per NEC 340, 520.2

51) What is the required percent overload of a continuous-duty motor with 1.15 or greater service factor & marked @ 40 Deg. C
temperature rise?
a) 20

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b) 25
c) 30
d) None of the above
Ans.: b) per NEC-430.32

52) What table in NEC requires minimum bending space of 5 inches (38 mm) within motor controller enclosure for a conductor size
1/0 AWG?
a) 250 – 12A
b) 430 – 10B
c) 100 – D20A
d) Chapter – 9
Ans.: b) per NEC-430.10 (B) table.

53) What is the ampere rating for motor circuits disconnect switch rated 600 volts nominal or less?
a) 125 % of the full load current rating of the motor.
b) 120 % of the full load current rating of the motor.
c) 115 % of the full load current rating of the motor.
d) 110 % of the full load current rating of the motor.
Ans.: c) per NEC-430.110

54) Motor in Class 1 Division 1 location shall be identified in which of the following?
a) Of totally enclosed type supplied with positive pressure ventilation from a source clean air with discharge to a safe area.
b) Of a type designed to be submerged with a liquid that is flammable only when vaporized & mixed with air.
c) Shall be of listed type suitable for the ventilation.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: d) NEC-501.8

55) What type of enclosure is to be used for motors installed @ Class 1, Division 1 location?
a) Non explosion proof type.
b) Immersed oil type.
c) Explosion proof type.
d) Not applicable.
Ans.: c) NEC-501.3

56) What is the required ambient temperature in Deg C for motor to be installed @ Class 1, Division 2 Location?
a) 35 Deg. C
b) 40 Deg. C
c) 45 Deg. C
d) None of the above
Ans.: b) NEC-501-8(B)

57) Rigid non-metallic conduit shall be installed as a complete system & shall be securely fastened within?
a) 3 ft (914 mm)
b) 6 ft (828 mm)
c) 9 ft (2742 mm)
d) None of the above
Ans.: c) as per NEC-352.30

58) Surge arrester is a protective device that limits the surge voltages by discharging or bypassing surge current, it shall be used
when any of the following condition exists?
a) At a point on a circuit where it is connected to each ungrounded conductor.
b) Means to provide protection of circuits that may be disconnected from the generating bus.
c) Both a & b.
d) None of the above.

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Ans.: c) as per NEC-280.2 & 3

59) Medium voltage type MV cable shall be permitted to use in power system rated up to 35000 volts on the following condition?
a) For direct buried application.
b) In cable raceway
c) In wet & dry locations
d) All of the above
Ans.: d) as per NEC-328.10

60) The basic reason for grounding system?

a) To facilitate the operation of over current device such as fuse, circuit breaker.
b) To limit the voltage caused by lightning.
c) To stabilize the voltage under normal operating condition.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: d) as per NEC-250.4 (B) (4)

61) Flexible liquid tight metal condition can be installed in Class 1, Division 2 location provided?
a) Length shall not exceed 12”
b) Shall be of UL listed suitable for the application.
c) Shall have additional grounding conductor.
d) Both b & c.
Ans.: d) as per NEC-501.4 (B) (2).

62) Each instrument wires shall be permanently tagged and identified at both end with a method?
a) Permanently marked in block numeric or typed on tubular heat shrinkable.
b) By slip on sleeves.
c) Wrap-around, tigidsnap-on or adhesive type markers.
d) Both a & b.
Ans.: d) as per SAES-J-902/7.6.1

63) Instrument grounding bus (IGB) shall be connected in safety grounding system?
a) Shall provide greater integrity of the rest of the safety ground when a case ground instrument remove from the system.
b) Shall be connected to safety ground system grid with 25mm2 copper wire connected in a close loop configuration.
c) To minimize electrical interference in signal transmission circuits.
d) All of the above.\
Ans.: d) as per SAES-J-902/9.1

64) All techniques used to comply with area classification requirements shall comply with?
a) NEC Chapter 5
b) The authority having jurisdiction
c) NEC chapter 2
d) NEC chapter 3
Ans.: a)

65) Redundant instruments?

a) Shall be supplied from separate circuits.
b) Shall be supplied from separate branches where practical for each instrumnts.
c) Shall be supplied from one circuit.
d) a& b.
Ans.: a)

66) All electrical equipment including instrumentation shall be designed and installed in accordance with?
a) NEC
b) OSHA 1910 Subpart S

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c) Uniform Code
d) Both a & c

67) Any box, including junction boxes, containing voltages higher than …… shall have a caution sign?
a) 5 V ( AC or DC)
b) 50 V ( AC or DC)
c) 200 V ( AC or DC)
d) 1000 V ( AC or DC)
Ans.: b)

68) A circuit in which any spark or thermal effect is capable of causing ignition of a mixture of flammable or combustible material in
air under prescribed test condition is consider?
a) Intrinsically safe circuit.
b) Emergency shutdown circuit.
c) Both a & b
d) None of the above.
Ans.: a) as per NEC-504.2

69) Terminal strip for ESD wiring shall be completely separated from all other wiring including power, control & instrumentation and
shall have at least?
a) 150 % additional equipment.
b) 200 % additional equipment.
c) 100 % additional equipment.
d) 20 % additional equipment.
Ans.: d) as per SAES-J-902/7.5.3

70) Instrument, control wire and cable system shall be designed and installed in accordance?
a) With ANSI/NFPA 70 National Electrical Code
b) With UNIFORM Code requirements.
c) With T standards
d) With S standards
Ans.: a) as per SAES-J902/7.1

71) Instrumentation signal & control cable in the field may be routed aboveground within process facility by a method?
a) In overhead cable trays.
b) In conduit system where all low spot that moisture can accumulate shall be provided by drains.
c) In fire hazardous areas where installation shall be as per SAES-B-006.
d) All of above.
Ans.: d) as per SAES-J-902/7.2.1


72) What is the Basic Saudi Aramco Industrial Facility Power Generation?
a) 6.9 kV 3, 4 wires
b) 13.8 kV 3, 4 wires
c) 4.16 kV 3, 4 wires
d) None of the above
Ans.: b) as per SAES-P-100/Para-6.1.3

73) Per S. Aramco Standard, what types of cables are to be used for security lighting or perimeter & area lighting?
a) Un armor cables
b) Armor cables
c) Metal clade cables

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d) Both b & c
Ans.: d) as per SAES-P-104, Para 5.9

74) Per S. Aramco Series, spring pressure twist-on type connectors & pressure sets screw with insulating caps are permitted?
a) In non-industrial application
b) For lighting & receptacle circuit in non-hazardous locations.
c) Both a & b
d) None of the above
Ans.: c) Per SAES-P-104. Para-6.3

75) Per S. Aramco Standard, what type of wire/ cable connector is to be used for control wiring?
a) Insulated ring tongue.
b) Locking for tongue
c) Flanged fork tongue & pin type compression
d) All of the above.
Ans.: d) per SAES-P-104, Para-6.6

76) Per Saudi Aramco Standard, A type 300 stainless steel breather & brain fittings are required for enclosure, junction boxes,
having an internal volume of?
a) Less than 1,000 cubic centimeters
b) Less than 1500 cubic centimeters
c) Exceeding 2000 cubic centimeters
d) Exceeding 5000 cubic centimeters
Ans.: c) as per SAES-P-104 Para 7.7

77) Per Saudi Aramco Standard series, what is the minimum size of conduit permitted to be installed inside building of non-industrial
a) 2 in
b) 3 in
c) ½ in
d) ¾ in
Ans.: d) as per SAES-P-107, Para-8.6

78) Per Saudi Aramco Standard, Electrical Metallic tubing (EMT) is acceptable to be installed in what location?
a) In hazardous outdoor locations
b) In non-hazardous outdoor locations
c) In hazardous in door locations
d) In non-hazardous in door locations
Ans.: d) as per SAES-P-104 Para-8.4

79) According SAES series, what type of enclosure cab be installed on severe corrosive environment?
a) Type NEMA 3R, 3 & 4
b) Type NEMA 4X, 3 & 4
c) Type NEMA 1
d) None of above
Ans.: d) as per SAES-P-104, 7.3

80) As per standard series, what is the minimum clearance for crossing or parallel between DB cable or conduit?
a) 150 mm
b) 200 mm
c) 250 mm
d) 300 mm
Ans.: d) as per SAES-P-104, Para-6.1

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81) As per Saudi Aramco Standard, what size of cable is to be used for 2-hole compression terminal connector?
a) 4/0
b) 3/0
c) 2/0
d) 1/0
Ans.: a) as per SAES-P-104, Para-6.1

82) As per Standard series, what ist he minimum maintained luminance level required inside battery room?
a) 500 Lux
b) 750 Lux
c) 300 Lux
d) 200 Lux
Ans.:c) as per SAES-P-123 articles

83) Per Saudi Aramco Standard what is the characteristics of grounding rods?
a) Be copper or copper jacketed steel or aluminum.
b) IF aluminum, only be used in areas protected by cathodic protection
c) Have a minimum length of 2 meters.
d) For copper or cooper jacketed steel rods be min of 16 mm
Ans.: d) as per SAES-P-111/5.2

84) What would be the color of insulated grounding conductor as per Saudi Aramco Standard?
a) Yellow Jacket or Yellow Jacket with Green Strips
b) Green Jacket or Green Jacket with White Stripes.
c) Green Jacket or Green jacket with Yellow Stripes.
d) None of the above.
Ans.: c) as per SAES-P-111/5.1

85) Per Saudi Aramco Standard, what is the minimum creepage distance measured between line & ground, based on the line-to-line
voltage, e.g. for 13.8 kV outdoor termination?
a) 525 mm
b) 542 mm
c) 552 mm
d) None of the above.
Ans.: c) Per SAES-P-104, Para, 6.12

86) What is the minimum grounding conductor used for equipment grounding?
a) 25 mm2 (#4 AWG)
b) 16 mm2 (#6 AWG)
c) 35 mm2 (#2 AWG)
d) None of the above
Ans.: a) as per SAES-P-111/5.1

87) What is the minimum conductor to be used for power circuit?

a) 4 mm2 (12 AWG)
b) 2.5 mm2 (14 AWG)
c) 6 mm2 (10 AWG)
d) None of the above
Ans.: a) as per SAES-P-104/5.8 (Table 1)

88) What type of conduit to be used for severe corrosive environment?

a) PVC coated
b) Hot dip cavaliered PVC coated.
c) EMT conduit

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d) All of the above
Ans.: b) as per SAES-P-108/8.3

89) What is the minimum clearance depth for direct buried low voltage cable?
a) 460 mm
b) 500 mm
c) 600 mm
d) 920 mm
Ans.: c) as per SAES-P-104, Para-10.1 (Tabel-2)

90) What is the maximum number of field splices permitted in circuit for new installation of cables rated above 1000V (excluding
submarine cables)?
a) Is the number made necessary by the use of standard size reels with full length cables?
b) Is the number made necessary by the use of standard size reels with full length cables, plus on extra spices?
c) Is the number made necessary by the use of standard size reels with full length cables, plus on extra spices?
d) None of the above.
Ans.: b) as per SAES-P-111/8.3

91) What is the minimum unobstructed space required for switchgear?

a) 2 meter (front) 1 meter side.
b) 1.5 meter (front) & 1 meter side.
c) 1 meter (front) 1 & 1 meter side.
d) None of the above.
Ans.: a) as per SAES-P-116

92) As per Aramco Standard, what is the minimum size of wire for grounding grid?
a) 240 mm2
b) 70 mm2
c) 120 mm2
d) 35 mm2
Ans.: b) as per SAES-P-111/5

93) In what Standard reference shall be used for electrical area classification?
a) SAES-B-006
b) SAES-B-014
c) SAES-B-068
d) SAES-B-086
Ans.: c)

94) What type of cable/conductor is not permitted to be installed on cable tray?

a) PLTC type.
b) Low voltage unjacketed wires
c) Armored type.
d) None of above.
Ans.: b) as per SAES-P-104/
95) Spring pressure type twist on connectors & pressure set screw connectors with insulating caps are only permitted to use for?
a) Lighting & receptacle circuits in non-hazardous location.
b) Hazardous classified location.
c) Non-industrial application.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: a) & c) as per SAES-P-104/6.3

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96) According to SAES series, what is the acceptable value in OHMS for resistance Grounded system above & ……. Below 600
a) 2 Ohms
b) 3 Ohms
c) 4 Ohms
d) 5 Ohms
Ans.: b) as per SAES-111/8.3

97) What SAES series requires minimum depth clearance for 600 volts to 35 kV direct buried cable power supply?
a) 700 mm
b) 800 mm
c) 920 mm
d) 1070 mm
Ans.: c) as per SAES-P-104/10.1 (Table-2)

98) What type of conduit can be used in concrete encased duct bank installation?
a) Hot-Dip galvanized rigid steel conduit.
b) PVC conduit
c) RGS-PSV coated conduit
d) All of the above.
Ans.: d) as per SAES-P-104/10.4

99) What is the minimum size of equipment grounding connected to a ground grid or rods?
a) 70 mm2
b) 35 mm2
c) 25 mm2
d) 16 mm2
Ans.: c) as per SAES-P-111/5.1

100) What is the normal secondary rating of current transformer?

a) 5 amps
b) 7 amps
c) 9 amps
d) None of the above
Ans.: a) SAES-P-114/4.11.2, SAES-P-121/7.2.2

101) What is the distance & height requirements on installing duplex, wire, 20A, Receptacle outlet inside substation?
a) Every 8 mts. Or wall space & 15mts.above the floor.
b) Every 6mts. Or wall space & 1 mts.above the floor.
c) Every 5 mts. Or wall space & 2 mts. above the floor.
d) All of the above.
Ans.: b) as per SAES-P-119/6.7

102) Medium voltage cables rated 5 kV to 35 kV shall have the out jacket consist of?
a) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) suitable for 90 deg C maximum rated conductor temperature.
b) Shall be sunlight & oil resistant.
c) Both a & b
d) None of above.
Ans.: c) as per 15-SAMSS-502

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