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Caustic Soda

(NaOH) Specification | MSDS

Caustic soda is an essential raw material and process chemical in many industrial
operations. ASC delivers Caustic Soda in 48% solution (Liquid Caustic Soda) and in solid
form (Flake Caustic Soda, 98%).

Pulp and paper is among the largest application for caustic soda worldwide, where it is
used as a raw material in the pulping and bleaching process, in de-inking of waste
paper, and in water treatment.

In textile industry, caustic soda is used to process cotton and in the dyeing process of
synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester.

In soap and detergent industry, caustic soda is used in saponification, the chemical
process that converts vegetable oils into soap. Caustic soda is used to manufacture
anionic surfactants, a crucial component in most detergent and cleaning products.

Oil and Gas industry uses caustic soda in the exploration, production and processing of
petroleum and natural gas, where it removes objectionable smells originating from
hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and mercaptans.

In aluminium production, caustic soda is used to dissolve bauxite ore, the raw material
for aluminium production.

In Chemical Processing Industries (CPI), caustic soda is used as raw materials or process
chemicals for a wide range of downstream products, such as plastics, pharmaceuticals,
solvents, synthetic fabrics, adhesives, dyes, coatings, inks, among others. It is also used
in the neutralization of acidic waste streams and the scrubbing of acidic components
from off-gases.

Small volume applications for caustic soda include household cleaning products,
water treatment, cleaners for beverage bottles, home soap making, among others.

In soap and detergent industry, caustic soda is used in saponification, the


chemical process that converts vegetable oils into soap. Caustic soda is used to
manufacture anionic surfactants, a crucial component in most detergent and
cleaning products.

Oil and Gas industry uses caustic soda in the exploration, production and
processing of petroleum and natural gas, where it removes objectionable smells
originating from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and mercaptans.

In aluminium production, caustic soda is used to dissolve bauxite ore, the raw
material for aluminium production.

In Chemical Processing Industries (CPI), caustic soda is used as raw materials or


process chemicals for a wide range of downstream products, such as plastics,
pharmaceuticals, solvents, synthetic fabrics, adhesives, dyes, coatings, inks,
among others. It is also used in the neutralization of acidic waste streams and the
scrubbing of acidic components from off-gases.

Small volume applications for caustic soda include household cleaning products,
water treatment, cleaners for beverage bottles, home soap making, among others.

Item Unit Specification


NaOH % wt 48.0 min
NaCl ppm wt 100 max
SO42- ppm wt 100 max
Na2CO3 % wt 0.12 max
Fe ppm wt 5 max
Hg ppm wt 0.01 max

F-NaOH 98%

Item Unit Specification


NaOH % wt 98.0 min
Na2CO3 % wt 0.4 max
NaCl ppm wt 300 max
Na2SO4 ppm wt 400 max
Fe ppm wt 10 max

SECTION 1 CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION

PRODUCT IDENTIFIER: SODIUM HYDROXIDE, LIQUID (L-NaOH)


RECOMMENDED USAGE: Neutralizing agent, industrial cleaner, pulping and
bleaching, catalyst

product identifier: sodium hydroxide, flake (f-naoh)

recommended usage: neutralizing agent, industrial cleaner, pulping and


bleaching, catalyst

Chlorine (Cl2) Specification | MSDS

Chlorine is widely used in making many everyday products and essential for a healthy
human life. It is vital for water disinfection for producing safe drinking water all over the
world. Chlorine is an important chemical for water purification in water treatment plants.
Chlorine in water is highly effective as a disinfectant against Escherichia coli and used to
kill bacteria and other microbes in public swimming pools.

Eighty-five percent of medicines either contain chlorine or use chlorine in the production
process.Chlorine is also extensively used in the production of paper products, dyestuffs,
textiles, petroleum products, antiseptics, insecticides, food, solvents, paints, plastics, and
many other consumer products.

Chlorine (Cl2)
Specification | MSDS

Item Unit Specification


Cl2 % vol 98.0 min
H2 % vol 0.1 max
CO2 % vol 1.0 max

Chlorine (Cl2)

SECTION 1 CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION


PRODUCT IDENTIFIER: CHLORINE GAS

RECOMMENDED USAGE:
• Manufacturing of:
- EDC (Ethylene Dichloride)
- Synthetic Rubber
- Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
- Chlorinated Paraffin Wax (CPW) , etc
• Water Purification
• Disinfectant for swimming pools
• Bleaching textiles
• Sanitation in industrial and municipal waters and sewage

Sodium Hypochlorite
(NaClO) Technical Information | Specification | MSDS

Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is formed when caustic soda (NaOH) and chlorine (Cl2) react. ASC
delivers sodium hypochlorite to customers in the form of 10% solution.

It is widely used bleaching, disinfecting and oxidizing agents.Sodium hypochlorite is widely used
in swimming pools to disinfect the water and to oxidize pollutants in the water.

Sodium hypochlorite is also commonly used in the pretreatment of cooling water to prevent
biofouling in a cooling water system which involves piping, heat exchangers, cooling towers, etc.
Drinking water and process water are produced from ground water or surface water, which can
contain large amounts of micro-organisms. The water needs to be disinfected to prevent the
spreading of pathogenic micro-organisms and to prevent biofouling in general. In many
developed countries sodium hypochlorite is used for the disinfection of drinking water.Sodium
hypochlorite is also widely used in waste water treatment. After most impurities in waste water
have been removed by other technical means such as biofiltration, just before being discharged,
wastewater is treated with sodium hypochlorite.Cleaning and disinfection procedures using
sodium hypochlorite is a well known practice in the food, beverage, and dairy industry.

Sodium hypochlorite is used in many products for household cleaning and disinfection. Other
uses are industrial cleaning (food and beverage industry, kitchens and catering), and industrial
laundry cleaning (washing of clothing for hospitals and in some factories).In the textile and pulp
& paper industries, sodium hypochlorite is often used for bleaching purposes.

Hypochlorite oxidation of starch is one of the most useful reactions developed for the
modification of starch. Oxidation introduces an increasing number of carbonyl and carboxyl
groups into the starch molecules, which in turn cause changes in the chemical and physical
properties.

Hydrochloric Acid
(HCl) Specification | MSDS

Hydrochloric acid is a co-product in the process of EDC cracking. Some of


hydrochloric acid is used in Oxy-Chlorination process to produce EDC while the rest
is delivered to customers in the form of 33% solution.

ASC produce high quality hydrochloric acid with applications ranging from highly
demanding applications such as pharmaceutical and food industry, for preparation of
drinking water, as a raw material for consumable products, down to more general
industrial applications such as for metal pickling, ion-exchange regeneration, raw
material for the production of numerous inorganic and organic compounds, pH-
regulation and neutralisation of process streams.

Hydrochloric Acid
(HCl) Specification | MSDS

Item Unit Specification


HCl % wt 33.0 min
Fe ppm wt 5 max
Appearance Transparent

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Specification | MSDS

SECTION 1 CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION

PRODUCT IDENTIFIER: HYDROCHLORIC ACID 33% SOLUTION

RECOMMENDED USAGE:

 Steel pickling and Scale Removal


 Ore Refining
 Hydrolyzing Agent
 Food Processing
 Activation of Petroleum Wells
 Catalyst in Organic Process
 Removal of Heavy metal from Carbon Black and Activated Carbon
 Leaching alumina from Crystalline Zeolities
 Manufacturing of Chlorine Dioxide
 Water Treatment

Ethylene Dichloride (EDC) Specification | MSDS

Ethylene dichloride or 1,2-dichloroethane was once called Dutch oil in honor of


the Dutch scientists who first synthesized this compound from ethylene and
chlorine gases in the late 18th century. Nowadays it is mainly used to produce
vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), the major raw material for PVC production. It is
also used as an intermediate for other organic chemical compounds and as a
solvent.

Ethylene Dichloride
(EDC) Specification | MSDS

Item Unit Specification


Color APHA 20 max
EDC % wt 99.80 min
ppm
H2O 200 max
wt
ppm
F-Cl2 1.0 max
wt
ppm
HCl 10 max
wt
ppm
NaOH 10 max
wt
ppm
S-Fe 1.0 max
wt
ppm
LBC 500 max
wt
HBC ppm 500 max
wt
Appearance Clear & No Suspended
Matter

PRODUCT IDENTIFIER: ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE

RECOMMENDED USAGE: Cracking to produce Vinyl Chlorine Monomer


Process

ASC’s state-of-the-art integrated Chlor-Alkali to Polyvinyl Chloride production complex


consists of three main processes.

In the first process, the Chlor-Alkali Process, caustic soda is the main product along with
chlorine gas, hydrogen gas and sodium hypochlorite solution as by-products.
In the Chlor-Alkali plant, common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is dissolved in water and
purified. The purified concentrated salt solution is then electrolyzed utilizing the
sophisticated cationic exchange membrane technology developed by Asahi Glass
Company (AGC) to produce caustic soda, chlorine gas and hydrogen gas. Sodium
hypochlorite is a derivative product obtained by reacting caustic soda and chlorine. ASC
enjoys the benefit of the most environmentally friendly Chlor-Alkali technology
consuming minimum energy, producing no pollution and delivering superior product
quality.

The second process, the EDC/VCM Process, produces vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) as
the main product. Commercial EDC/VCM Process consists of two type of processes, the
Direct Chlorination process and the Oxy-Chlorination process. In Direct Chlorination
process, chlorine generated in the Chlor-Alkali process is reacted with ethylene to produce
ethylene dichloride (EDC), an industrial solvent used mainly to produce VCM.
In the Oxy-Chlorination process, ethylene, hydrochloric acid and oxygen are reacted to
give ethylene dichloride.
Ethylene dichloride is then subjected to “cracking” process to give VCM and hydrochloric
acid (HCl) as by-product. Some of the produced hydrochloric acid is utilized in the Oxy-
Chlorination process to produce VCM, while the rest is delivered to customers.

And in the third process, the PVC Process, VCM is polymerized to produce polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) resin in batch reactors. After polymerization, VCM is stripped from the
resin and the resin is finaly dried to produce high quality PVC resin which fulfills the
international health and hygiene standards and technically satisfies highly demanding
applications.

Chlor Alkali Process

ASC Chlor Alkali process makes use of cation exchange membrane technology, which is
the most advanced, very efficient and the most environmentally friendly chlor alkali
technology producing high quality products fulfilling a wide range of demanding
applications. The chlor alkali process involves the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride
(NaCl solution or brine) in a membrane cell producing chlorine (Cl2) and its co-products
caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2).

In the membrane cell, the anode chamber and cathode chamber are separated by a cation-
permeable membrane. Saturated brine (NaCl solution) which consists of Na+ and Cl– ions
is fed to the anode chamber.

A DC current is passed through the cell.

At the anode, the chloride ions (Cl–) in brine solution (NaCl) are oxidized to chlorine
(Cl2):
2 NaCl (aq) + 2 H2O (l) → 2 NaOH (aq) + Cl2 (g) + 2 H+ + 2 e–

And at the cathode, hydrogen ions (H+) in water is reduced to hydrogen gas (H2):
2 H+ + 2 e– → H2 (g)

The ion-permeable membrane at the center of the cell plays the important role of allowing
the sodium ions (Na+) in the anode chamber to pass to the cathod chamber where they
react with the hydroxide ions (OH–) to produce caustic soda (NaOH).

The overall reaction for the electrolysis of brine is thus:

2NaCl (aq) + 2H2O (l) → Cl2 (g) + H2 (g) + 2NaOH (aq)

Another product, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is produced when chlorine (Cl2) is reacted
with caustic soda (NaOH).

Cl2 + 2 NaOH → NaCl + NaClO + H2O

Because of the corrosive nature of the chlorine produced, the anode has to be made from a
non-reactive metal such as titanium, whereas the cathode can be made from Nickel.

EDC/VCM Process
Ethylene is currently the predominant raw material for vinyl chloride production. The
commercially practiced vinyl chloride production involves a balanced combination of
Direct Chlorination (DC) and Oxy-Chlorination (OC) processes.

In the Direct Chlorination process, ethylene is first chlorinated to produce ethylene


dichloride (CH2Cl-CH2Cl).

CH2=CH2 + Cl2 → CH2Cl-CH2Cl (1)

Ethylene dichloride is subsequently subjected to thermal cracking process (pyrolyzed) to


produce vinyl chloride (CH2=CHCl) and hydrogen chloride (HCl).

CH2Cl-CH2Cl → CH2=CHCl + HCl (2)

In the Oxy-Chlorination process, ethylene, hydrochloric acid (HCl) from Reaction (2)
and oxygen (O2) are reacted to form ethylene dichloride (CH2Cl-CH2Cl).

CH2=CH2 + Cl2 + ½ O2 → CH2Cl-CH2Cl + H2O (3)

Adding Reactions (1), (2) and (3) gives the overall reaction for balanced process:

2 CH2=CH2 + Cl2 + ½ O2 → 2 CH2=CHCl + H2O (4)

PVC Process

The majority of PVC resin production nowadays is using suspension polymerization


method. In a typical suspension polymerization, a known quantity of demineralized water is
charged into a pressure vessel and other polymerization ingredients such as initiator, buffer
and protective colloid are added. The vessel is then sealed and evacuated and vinyl chloride
(VCM) is introduced into the vessel. Protective colloid action and agitation on the reaction
mixture promote the formation of micro-droplets of VCM in water.

The vessel is heated up to the polymerization temperature, activating the initiator which
starts the polymerization reaction. Once the polymerization effectively starts, heat is
evolved. This heat is removed by cooling water in the vessel jacket. Polymerization
reaction usually runs up to a VCM to PVC conversion of more than 75%, when there is no
more free VCM phase remains.

At the end of polymerization reaction, PVC slurry (PVC resin particles in water) is
discharged out of the reaction vessel and the remaining unreacted VCM is stripped from the
PVC slurry in a highly effective stripping column. The slurry is then centrifuged to separate
most of the water, resulting in PVC resin which still contains small amount of water, which
is then introduced into the dryer to give dry PVC resin ready to be delivered to customers.