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proposed installation it should be possible to check if the heat balance is favourable by estimating heating

requirements and losses, and heating efficiencies. Heating Requirements

Assuming for practical purposes that 1 kg of sludge has a volume of 1 litre and has the same heat
capacity as water, then 1 litre of sludge will require 4.2 kJ/ºC rise in temperature (1 kl of sludge will
require 4.2 MJ/ºC). It is therefore readily possible to calculate the heat requirements for raising the sludge
temperature to 35ºC.

The heat losses should be based on heat transfer coefficients for the various materials, their thicknesses,
and the mean temperature differences and should be within the scope of most chemical engineers.
However for rough heat balance calculations it may be adequate to assume that heat losses add an extra
35% to 45% to the requirements for sludge heating. Higher losses may be applicable in colder climates,
or where the installation is poorly insulated.



Multiple tanks are recommended. Where a single digestion tank is used, an alternate method of sludge
processing or emergency storage to maintain continuity of service should be considered. Depth

For those units proposed to serve as supernatant separation tanks, the depth should be sufficient to allow
for the formation of a reasonable depth of supernatant liquor. A minimum side-water depth of 6 m is
recommended on adequately sized plants. On smaller plants, tanks should be made as deep as is
possible taking into consideration the geometric factors. Maintenance Provisions

To facilitate draining, cleaning, and maintenance, the following features are desirable:
1. Slope: The tank bottom should slope to drain toward the withdrawal pipe. For tanks equipped with a
suction mechanism for withdrawal of sludge, a bottom slope not less than 1:12 is recommended.
Where the sludge is to be removed by gravity alone a 1:4 slope is recommended.
2. Access Manholes: At least two 900 mm diameter access manholes should be provided in the top of
the tank in addition to the gas dome. There should be stairways to the access manholes.
3. Sludge Inlets and Outlets: Multiple recirculation withdrawal and return points, to enhance flexible
operation and effective mixing, should be provided, unless mixing facilities are incorporated within the