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International Journal on Organic Electronics (IJOE) Vol.7, No.3, July 2018

ON OPTIMIZATION OF MANUFACTURING OF FIELD-EFFECT HETEROTRANSISTORS FRA- MEWORK A VOLTAGE REFERENCE TO IN- CREASE THEIR DENSITY. INFLUENCE OF MISS-MATCH INDUCED STRESS AND POROSITY OF MATERIALS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

E.L. Pankratov

Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin avenue, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia

ABSTRACT

In this paper we introduce an approach to increase density of field-effect transistors framework a voltage reference. Framework the approach we consider manufacturing the inverter in heterostructure with specific configuration. Several required areas of the heterostructure should be doped by diffusion or ion implanta- tion. After that dopant and radiation defects should by annealed framework optimized scheme. We also consider an approach to decrease value of mismatch-induced stress in the considered heterostructure. We introduce an analytical approach to analyze mass and heat transport in heterostructures during manufactur- ing of integrated circuits with account mismatch-induced stress.

KEYWORDS

Field-effect heterotransystors, voltage reference, decreasing of dimensions, optimization of manufacturing, miss-match induced stress, porosity of materials.

1. INTRODUCTION

In the present time several actual problems of the solid state electronics (such as increasing of performance, reliability and density of elements of integrated circuits: diodes, field-effect and bipolar transistors) are intensively solving [1-6]. To increase the performance of these devices it is attracted an interest determination of materials with higher values of charge carriers mobility [7-10]. One way to decrease dimensions of elements of integrated circuits is manufacturing them in thin film heterostructures [3-5,11]. In this case it is possible to use inhomogeneity of hetero- structure and necessary optimization of doping of electronic materials [12] and development of epitaxial technology to improve these materials (including analysis of mismatch induced stress) [14-16]. An alternative approaches to increase dimensions of integrated circuits are using of laser and microwave types of annealing [17-19].

Framework the paper we introduce an approach to manufacture field-effect transistors. The ap- proach gives a possibility to decrease their dimensions with increasing their density framework a voltage reference [20]. We also consider possibility to decrease mismatch-induced stress to de- crease quantity of defects, generated due to the stress. In this paper we consider a heterostructure, which consist of a substrate and an epitaxial layer (see Fig. 1). We also consider a porous buffer layer between the substrate and the epitaxial layer. The epitaxial layer includes into itself several

International Journal on Organic Electronics (IJOE) Vol.7, No.3, July 2018

sections, which were manufactured by using other materials. These sections have been doped by diffusion or ion implantation to manufacture the required types of conductivity (p or n). These areas became sources, drains and gates (see Fig. 1). After this doping it is required annealing of dopant and/or radiation defects. Main aim of the present paper is analysis of redistribution of do- pant and radiation defects to determine conditions, which correspond to decreasing of elements of the considered voltage reference and at the same time to increase their density. At the same time we consider a possibility to decrease mismatch-induced stress.

consider a possibility to decrease mismatch-induced stress. Fig. 1 a . Structure of the considered voltage

Fig. 1a. Structure of the considered voltage reference [20]

1 a . Structure of the considered voltage reference [20] Fig. 1 b . Heterostructure with

Fig. 1b. Heterostructure with a substrate, epitaxial layers and buffer layer (view from side)

International Journal on Organic Electronics (IJOE) Vol.7, No.3, July 2018

2. METHOD OF SOLUTION

To solve our aim we determine and analyzed spatio-temporal distribution of concentration of do- pant in the considered heterostructure. We determine the distribution by solving the second Fick's law in the following form [1,21-24]

 

C

(

x, y, z,t

)

=

 

D

C

(

x

,

y

,

,

z t

)

+

 

D

C

(

x

,

y

,

,

z t

)

+

D

C

(

x

,

y

,

,

z t

)

+

 

t

     

 

x

 

   

 

   

z

 

x

y

   

y

z

   
 

D

 

L

z

 

D

 

S

µ

1

+

(

 

L

z

(1)

+



+ Ω

x

S

kT

µ

S

1

(

x

,

y

+

D

C S

∂ µ

2

,

(

,

z t

)

x

,

y

0

C

,

,

z t

(

x

,

)

y W

,

,

t

)

dW

+

D

C S

+ Ω

y

∂ µ

2

(

x

,

S

kT

y

,

,

z t

)

x

,

y z t

,

,

D

)

0

C S

C

(

x

,

y W

,

∂ µ

2

(

x

,

,

t

)

y

,

dW

,

z t

)

 

x


V kT

 

x

 


y


V kT

 

y

 


z


V kT

 

z

 

with boundary and initial conditions

∂ C ( x , y , z t , ) ∂ x
∂ C
(
x
,
y
,
z t
,
)
∂ x

x= 0

∂ C ( x , y z t , , ) = 0 , =
∂ C
(
x
,
y z t
,
,
)
= 0
,
= 0 ,
∂ x
x
=
L
x
∂ C ( x , y , z t , ) ∂ y
∂ C
(
x
,
y
,
z t
,
)
∂ y

= 0 , C(x,y,z,0)=f C (x,y,z),

y= 0

∂ C ( x , y z t , , ) ∂ y x
∂ C
(
x
,
y z t
,
,
)
∂ y
x

=

L

y

= 0

,

∂ C ( x , y , z , t ) ∂ z
∂ C
(
x
,
y , z , t
)
∂ z

z= 0

= 0

,

∂ C ( x , y , z , t ) ∂ z x
∂ C
(
x
,
y , z , t
)
∂ z
x

= 0 .

=

L

z

Here C(x,y,z,t) is the spatio-temporal distribution of concentration of dopant; is the atomic vo-

lume of dopant; s is the symbol of surficial gradient;

tion of dopant on interface between layers of heterostructure (in this situation we assume, that Z- axis is perpendicular to interface between layers of heterostructure); µ 1 (x,y,z,t) and µ 2 (x,y,z,t) are the chemical potential due to the presence of mismatch-induced stress and porosity of material; D and D S are the coefficients of volumetric and surficial diffusions. Values of dopant diffusions coefficients depends on properties of materials of heterostructure, speed of heating and cooling of materials during annealing and spatio-temporal distribution of concentration of dopant. Depen- dences of dopant diffusions coefficients on parameters could be approximated by the following relations [25-27]

L

z

0

C

(

)

x y z t d z

,

,

,

is the surficial concentra-

D

C

D

S

=

=

D

D

L

(

S L

x

,

(

x

y z T

,

,

)

,

y z T

,

,



)

1



+

C

γ

( x

)

y z t

ξ

,

,

,

P

γ ( y

x

,

,

z T

,

)

 

 

1 +

ς

1

V

(

x

,

,

,

)

y z t

V

*

+

1

+

ξ

S

C

γ (

P

x

,

,

,

,

x

P x , , , , x , , γ ( y z T

,

,

γ ( y z T

)

 

y z t

)

 

1 +

ς

1

V

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

V

*

V

2

(

x

,

y z t

,

,

)


y z t

ς

+

2

( V

* )

2

,

2

(

)

V

x

,

,

,

ς

2

( V

* )

2


.

(2)

Here D L (x,y,z,T) and D LS (x,y,z,T) are the spatial (due to accounting all layers of heterostruicture) and temperature (due to Arrhenius law) dependences of dopant diffusion coefficients; T is the temperature of annealing; P (x,y,z,T) is the limit of solubility of dopant; parameter γ depends on properties of materials and could be integer in the following interval γ [1,3] [25]; V (x,y,z,t) is the spatio-temporal distribution of concentration of radiation vacancies; V * is the equilibrium dis- tribution of vacancies. Concentrational dependence of dopant diffusion coefficient has been de- scribed in details in [25]. Spatio-temporal distributions of concentration of point radiation defects have been determined by solving the following system of equations [21-24,26,27]

I

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

=

t

x

D

I

(

x

,

y , z , T

)

I

(

y z t x

x

,

,

,

)

y

+

D

I

(

x

,

y , z , T

)

I

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

y

+

International Journal on Organic Electronics (IJOE) Vol.7, No.3, July 2018

+

z

D

I

(

x

,

y

,

z T

,

)

I

(

x

y

, ,

z t

,

)

z

k

I

,

I

(

x

y

, ,

z T

,

)

I

2

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

k

I

,

V

(

x

,

y

,

z T

,

)

I

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

) ×

+

×

V

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

+ Ω

x

D

IS

k T

S

µ

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

L

z

0

I

(

x

,

y W

,

,

t

)

D

I S

µ

2

(

x y z t

,

,

,

)

D

+ (

I S

µ

2

,

x y z t

,

,

)

y

V kT

y

 

z

V kT

z

 

+ Ω

d W

+

x

D

I S

µ

2

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

V

k T

x

y

D

IS

kT

S

µ

(

x y z t

,

,

,

)

L

z

0

I

(

x y W t

,

,

,

)

+

(3)

dW

+

V (

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

=

t

x


D V

(

x

,

y z T

,

,

)

z

D

V (

x

,

y

,

z T

,

)

V

( x

, y

,

z t

,

)

z



V

(

x

,

y z t

,

,

)


)



D

y

(

k

V

,

V

x

( x

, y

,

z T

,

,

V

z t

,

,

)

k

I

, V

(

x

+ x

y

V

2 (

x

,

y z T

,

,

)

V

(

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

y

,

y

,

z T

,

)

I

(

x

,

y

,

+

z t

,

)×

×

V

( x

,

y

,

z , t

)

+ Ω

x

D

VS

k T

S

µ (

x

,

y

,

z , t

)

L z

V

0

(

x

,

y , W

,

t

)

dW

V S

+

x

k T

µ

2

(

x

,

y

,

D


V

z , t

)

x


+

y

D


VS

k T

S

µ ( x

,

y

,


D ∂ µ ( x , y , z t , ) V S 2
D
µ
(
x
,
y
,
z t
,
)
V S
2
V k T
∂ y
I
(
x
,
y , z , t
)
= 0 ,
y
y
=
L
y

z t

,

)

L

z


0

V

(

x

,

y W

,

,

t

)

d W

+

y

+

z

D


µ

2

(

x

, y

,

V S

z t

,

)

V k T

z


∂ I ( x , y , z , t ) ∂ y y= 0
∂ I
(
x
, y , z , t
)
y
y= 0
∂ V
(
x
,
y z t
,
,
)
x
x=
0
∂ V
(
x , y , z , t
)
,
z
z=
0

= 0 ,

= 0 ,

= 0

= 0

= 0

,

,

∂ V ( x , y z t , , ) ∂ x x =
∂ V
( x
,
y z t
,
,
)
x
x
= L
x
V
( x
, y
,
z , t
)
z
z
= L
z
  2 lω   1 +  2 2  kT x +
2
1
+
2
2
kT
x
+
y
z
1
1 2 +
1

+

=

=

=

+ Ω

with boundary and initial conditions

V (

∂ I ( x y z t , , , ) ∂ x x= 0
I (
x y z t
,
,
,
)
x
x= 0
∂ I
(
x
,
y z t
,
,
)
z
z=
0
V
(
x
,
y , z , t
)
y
y=
x
+
V t y
,
+
V t z
,
1
n
1
n
1
∂ I ( x , y , z , t ) = 0 , ∂
∂ I
( x
, y , z , t
)
= 0 ,
x
x
= L
x
∂ I
(
x y z t
,
,
,
)
= 0
,
z
z
= L
z
∂ V
(
x , y , z , t
)
= 0 ,
0
y
y
= L
y

+

V t t

n

,

)

=

V

0 ,

0 ,

0 ,

, I(x,y,z,0)=f I (x,y,z), V(x,y,z,0)=f V (x,y,z). (4)

Here I(x,y,z,t) is the spatio-temporal distribution of concentration of radiation interstitials; I * is the equilibrium distribution of interstitials; D I (x,y,z,T), D V (x,y,z,T), D IS (x,y, z,T), D VS (x,y,z,T) are the coefficients of volumetric and surficial diffusions of interstitials and vacancies, respectively; terms V 2 (x,y,z,t) and I 2 (x,y,z,t) correspond to generation of divacancies and diinterstitials, respec- tively (see, for example, [27] and appropriate references in this book); k I,V (x,y,z,T), k I,I (x,y,z,T) and k V,V (x,y,z,T) are the parameters of recombination of point radiation defects and generation of their complexes; k is the Boltzmann constant; ω = a 3 , a is the interatomic distance; l is the specific surface energy. To account porosity of buffer layers we assume, that porous are approximately

cylindrical with average values

r = x + y and z 1 before annealing [24]. With time small pores

2 2 1 1
2
2
1
1

decomposing on vacancies. The vacancies absorbing by larger pores [28]. With time large pores became larger due to absorbing the vacancies and became more spherical [28]. Distribution of concentration of vacancies in heterostructure, existing due to porosity, could be determined by summing on all pores, i.e.

International Journal on Organic Electronics (IJOE) Vol.7, No.3, July 2018

V

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)=

l

m

n

∑∑∑

i =

0

j

=

0

k

=

0

V

p

(

x

+

i

α,

y

+

2 2 β, ) 2 j z + k χ, t , R = x
2
2
β,
)
2
j
z
+
k
χ,
t
,
R =
x
+ y
+ z
.

Here α, β and χ are the average distances between centers of pores in directions x, y and z; l, m and n are the quantity of pores inappropriate directions. Spatio-temporal distributions of divacancies Φ V (x,y,z,t) and diinterstitials Φ I (x,y,z,t) could be de- termined by solving the following system of equations [26,27]

Φ I (

x

,

y , z , t

)

=

 

Φ

D

(

I

Φ

   

)

Φ

I

(

x

,

y , z , t

)

+

 

D

(

)

Φ I (

x

,

y , z , t

)

+

 

t

 

x

x

,

y z T

,

,

(

x

y

z t

)

 

x

D

y

Φ

I

x

,

y z T

,

,

L

z

 

y

 

+

z

D

Φ

I

(

x

,

y z T

,

,

)

I

,

z

,

,

+ Ω

x

Φ

I

S

kT

S

µ

1

(

x

,

 

y z t

,

,

)

0

Φ

I

(

x

,

y W

,

,

t

)

dW

+

 

 

D

L

z

 

+

+ Ω

y

D

Φ

I

S

Φ

I

S

k T

µ

2

(

x

S

,

µ

1

(

x , y

y z t

,

,

)

,

z t

,

)

+

0

Φ

I

(

x

D

Φ

I

,

S

y W

,

µ

2

,

)

t dW

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

+

)

k

I

,

I

(

x

,

y

,

z T

,

D

+ Φ

I

S

)

I

2

(

x

,

y

µ

2

(

x

,

,

,

z t

)+

y

,

,

z t

)

+

x

 

V kT

 

x

 

y

V kT

 

y

 

z

V kT

 

z

 

x y z t

=

,

Φ

V

(

,

,

)

t

x


D Φ

V

(

+

k

I

,

)

(x ,

Φ

y

V (

z T

,

x y z t

,

,

,

,

)I (x

)


,

+

y

,

z t)

,


D Φ

V

x y z T

,

,

x

y

+


z

D

Φ

V

(

x

,

y

,

z T

,

)

Φ V

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

z


+ Ω

D


Φ V

kT

S

S

x

µ

1

(

x

,

y

(

,

x

,

y z T

,

,

)

z t

,

)

L

z

Φ

0

V

Φ

V (

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

(

x

,

y

y W

,

,

t

)

dW




+

+

(5)

+ Ω


D

Φ V

S

y

kT

S µ

1

(

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

L

z

Φ

0

V (

x

,

y W

,

,

)

t dW


+ k

V

, V

( x

,

y

,

z T

,

)

V

2

(

x

,

y z t

,

,

)+

x

Φ

S

µ

y

D

(

z t

,

)


D

Φ

V

S

µ

2

(

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)


D

µ

2

(

x

,

y

,

+ ,

V

2

x

V k T

x

,

Φ

V S

z t

,

)


+

+

y

k

V

V k T

(x ,

y

z

V k T

z

+

+

y , z T , )V (x , y , z t) , ∂ Φ
y
,
z T
,
)V (x
,
y
,
z t)
,
Φ I (
x , y
,
z t
,
)
=
0
,
y
y=
0
Φ
(
x
,
y
,
z t
,
)
V
=
0
,
x
x=
Φ
(
x
,
y z t
,
,
)
V
= 0
,
z
z=
0

with boundary and initial conditions

∂ Φ I ( x , y z t , , ) ∂ Φ I
∂ Φ I (
x
,
y z t
,
,
)
∂ Φ I (
x ,
y
,
z t
,
)
= 0 ,
x
x
x= 0
x
= L
x
Φ I (
x
,
y
,
z t
,
)
Φ I (
x , y
,
z t
,
)
= 0
,
z
z
z=
0
z
= L
z
Φ
(
x
,
y
,
z t
,
)
Φ
(
x y z t
,
,
,
)
V
=
0 ,
V
y
y
y=
0
y
= L
y
∂ Φ ( x , y , z t , ) = 0 , I
Φ
(
x
,
y
,
z t
,
)
= 0 ,
I
y
y
=
L
y
Φ
V (
x
, y
,
z t
,
)
= 0
,
x
0
x
= L
x
Φ
(
x
,
y z t
,
,
)
=
0 ,
V
z
z
= L
z

= 0 ,

= 0 ,

= 0 , (6)

Φ I (x,y,z,0)=f ΦI (x,y,z), Φ V (x,y,z,0)=f ΦV (x,y,z).

Here D ΦI (x,y,z,T), D ΦV (x,y,z,T), D ΦIS (x,y,z,T) and D ΦVS (x,y,z,T) are the coefficients of volumetric and surficial diffusions of complexes of radiation defects; k I (x,y,z,T) and k V (x,y,z,T) are the para- meters of decay of complexes of radiation defects. Chemical potential µ 1 in Eq.(1) could be determine by the following relation [21]

µ 1 =E(z)σ ij [u ij (x,y,z,t)+u ji (x,y,z,t)]/2, (7)

International Journal on Organic Electronics (IJOE) Vol.7, No.3, July 2018

where E(z) is the Young modulus, σ ij is the stress tensor;

u ij

=

1

  u

 

i

+

u

j

2

x

j

x

i

 

is the deformation

tensor; u i , u j are the components u x (x,y,z,t), u y (x,y,z,t) and u z (x,y,z,t) of the displacement vector

u r (x, y, z,t)

; x i , x j are the coordinate x, y, z. The Eq. (3) could be transform to the following form

µ (

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

=

u

i (

x

,

y

,

z t

,

)

+

u

j (

x

)

 

y z t

,

,

,


x i  

1

 

 

u

i (

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

+

u

j

(

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

x

j

2

x

j

x

i


 

ε δ

0

ij

+

σ

(

z

)

δ

ij

u

k

(

,

y , z , t x

x

)

1

2

σ

(

z

)

k

3

ε

0

K

(z)

β

(z)[T (x

,

y

,

z t)

,

T ]

0

δ

ij

2

E(z)

,

where σ is Poisson coefficient; ε 0 = (a s -a EL )/a EL is the mismatch parameter; a s , a EL are lattice dis- tances of the substrate and the epitaxial layer; K is the modulus of uniform compression; β is the coefficient of thermal expansion; T r is the equilibrium temperature, which coincide (for our case) with room temperature. Components of displacement vector could be obtained by solution of the following equations [22]

ρ

(

z

)

2

)

u

x

x

,

y z t

,

,

(

)

σ (

= xx

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

+

σ (

xy

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

+

σ (

xz

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

z t

,

)

σ (

zz

x

z

y

,

,

z t

,

)

z

,

ρ

(

z

2

u

t

y

(

x

,

y z t

,

,

)

2 x

,

=

y

,

(

)

y z t

σ

yx

x

,

,

σ (

zx

x

,

,

y z t

x

,

)