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# Lutz Modification

One of the major assumptions in the Process Equipment Method is that the center of pressure is
coincident with the steel bolt ring. Should the compression ring extend inside the pole and the bolt
circle is not centered on the outstanding leg of the base plate or, based upon the relative stiffness of
the base plate, it is deemed that the center of compression will be at or near the pole diameter, then
the results will be in error.
Lutz(20) extended the theory to account for the fact that the compression ring may have a different
diameter than the steel tension ring.

ts

α1
δθ

α
tc
θ
Ft Fc
rc=
Dc
/2
d/2
r= ro
Neutral axis

(d-Dc)/2

kd
Ft
jd

zd Fc

Fig. 2- 3

Lutz observed that a simple correction using two values of k would yield the correct result.

## Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 29

1 − rc r r
kt = +k c
2 r
" jd" = ( j − 21 ) d + rc

M wind − Pzd
Ft =
( j − 12 ) d + rc
Fc
fc =
 
t + nt r  r C
 rc 
c s c c

 
1 1 + r 
 r 
2
c
k=
1+ ( f nf )
s
c

The peak bearing stress, at the outer edge of the base plate, with radius ro , is

 2kd + ro − rc 
fcmax = fc  
 2kd 
The value C c is calculated using k while the values for C t , z and j are then calculated using the
value of k t . Note that when rc = r then k t = k and the results are identical to the Process
Equipment Method.

## Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 30

Example 2.2
Analyze a grouted base plate with an inner diameter of 48” and an outer diameter of 73”. The bolt
circle is 64” with (20) 2-1/4” bolts. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kip-ft (42780
in-kips). The thickness of the base plate is 2-1/4”. The concrete has a strength of 3000 psi.

Es 29000
n= = = 9.29
E c 57 3000

A s = 20 (3.25) = 65 in 2
64
r= = 32 in
2
(73 + 48) 2
rc = = 30.25 in
2

65
ts = = .323 in
64π

73 − 48
tc = − .323 = 12.177
2

## Assuming a trial value of k of 0.2773…

α = cos−1 (1 − 2×.2773) = 1.109 rad
 (sin (1.109) − 1.109 cos (1.109)) 
C c = 2   = 1.447

 1 − cos (1 .109 ) 
1 − 30.25 32 30.25
kt = + .2773 = .2895
2 32
α1 = cos−1 (1 − 2×.2895) = 1.1362 rad
2 (π− 1.1362) cos (1.1362) + sin (1.1362) = 2.4482
Ct =
1 + cos (1.1362)  

##   1 1.1362 − 3 sin (1.1362) cos (1.1362) + 1.1362 cos (1.1362)2 

 
z =  cos (1.1362) +  2
1 2  = .4399


2
 
 sin (1. 1362 ) − 1. 1362 cos (1. 1362 )

## Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases Grouted Base Plates • 31

 (π− 1.1362) cos2 (1.1362) + 21 (π− 1.1362) + 23 sin (1.1362) cos (1.1362) 
j = 21  +

 (π− 1 . 1362 ) cos (1 .1362 ) + sin (1 .1362 ) 
 1 1.1362 − 23 sin (1.1362) cos (1.1362) + 1.1362 cos2 (1.1362) 
1 2  = .7807
2  
 sin (1 . 1362 ) − 1 . 1362 cos (1 .1362 ) 
42780 − 46×.4399×64
Ft = = 860.42 kips
(.7807 − .5) 64 + 30.25
Fc = 860.42 + 46 = 906.42 kips
860.42
fs = = 33.97 ksi
.323× 32×2.4482
906.42
fc = = 1.349 ksi
 
12.177 + 9.29×.323 32  30.25×1.447
 30.25 
 
1 + 32 
1
 30.25 
2
k calc = = .277
33.77
1+
9.29×1.349
Which is sufficiently accurate to proceed to final calculations
Pbolt = fsA bolt = 33.97 × 3.25 = 110.4 kips
1.349×2×.2773× 32 + 36.5 − 30.25
fcmax = = 1.70 ksi
2×.2773× 32