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HOW TO INTEGRATE ACTIVE DIRECTORY AND DNS

Whitepaper
ii | BlueCat Networks

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How to Integrate Active Directory and DNS | iii

Executive Summary
Windows® 2000 Server was a pivotal point for Microsoft in central-
izing and consolidating directory services. Active Directory® (AD) is
based on well known network services such as Lightweight Direc-
tory Access Protocol (LDAP) and Kerberos. AD utilizes DNS for its
location mechanism. DNS has grown to become not only the cor-
nerstone of the Internet, but a crucial fabric to connect Windows
clients with their Domain Controllers. This document outlines how
AD utilizes DNS and how the Adonis DNS Appliance integrates into
this environment. The integration of the Adonis Server can be per-
formed easily while providing a robust, secure, and highly main-
tainable DNS management platform.
iv | BlueCat Networks

Contents

Executive Summary �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii

Active Directory and DNS��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1

Dynamic DomainController Registration���������������������������������������������������������������� 1

Integrating Adonis into Active Directory���������������������������������������������������������������� 2

DNS Replication����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3

Advantages Of Adonis For ActiveDirectory DNS Services���������������������������������������� 4


Interoperability with Existing DNS Architecture ���������������������������������4
Quick Migration�������������������������������������������������������������������������4
Superior Configuration Management�����������������������������������������������4
Controlled Deployment����������������������������������������������������������������4
Improved Security�����������������������������������������������������������������������5
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)��������������������������������������������������������5

Summary��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5

Active Directory DNS Records��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5


SRV Records������������������������������������������������������������������������������5

A Records��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7

CNAME Records������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7

About BlueCat Networks���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8

BlueCat Networks White Papers����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9


Slave DNS Server

Master DNS Server


Domain Controller 2
How to Integrate Active Directory and Slave
DNSDNS Server
| 1
2
1

1 Update locator records

Active Directory and DNS Dynamic Domain 2 Send updates to slave servers

Active Directory is an essential element of the Windows server Controller Registration


architecture that provides a centrally managed directory service Without the proper DNS information, a client cannot discover
for distributed computing environments. The directory is a central which server to contact for authentication. Each Domain Controller
authority for network security, resources, users and services. AD registers and maintains its own Active Directory DNS integration
is based upon LDAP and uses security based on MIT’s Kerberos records consisting of several A (Address), CNAME (Canonical Name)
project. AD was first available in Windows 2000 Server. Microsoft and SRV (Service) records. These records are initially registered by
chose to change its Windows Domain discovery process to use the DC’s NetLogon service. This is performed via a standard DNS
DNS instead of its legacy discovery protocol. This acts like a boot zone transfer (AXFR) and updated Dynamic DNS (DDNS) by the DC
strapping mechanism for client systems to find the closest or most (RFC 2136).
appropriate Domain Controller (DC). This information is stored in a
series of DNS records specifying the following information:
▪▪
Slave DNS Server
LDAP Servers
▪▪ Kerberos Domain Controllers Master DNS Server
3
▪▪ Addresses of the Domain Controllers
1 3
Slave DNS Server

▪▪ Global Catalog Servers Domain Controller 2

▪▪ Kerberos Password Change Servers 1 Perform transfer of Active Directory Zone


2 Send Dynamic Updates to add/update controller’s records
Before a client can connect to the Windows Domain, a suitable 3 Send updates to slave via Incremental Zone Transfer (IXFR)

DC needs to be found. The Windows client contains a service


called NetLogon which uses a DC locating algorithm to find the
appropriate server.
When examining these records in the Microsoft DNS server, one
This algorithm works in the following manner: is led to believe that this data must reside in sub zones of the
1. A List of DCs is obtained via a DNS query using the domain parent domain. This is not necessarily the case, since Dynamic DNS
name, domain Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) and/or site (DDNS) updates have no way of creating additional zones. The
name. records are simply added as resource records with label separators
2. The locator pings each controller in random order and uses (“.”) into the parent domain’s zone file. Additionally, one will notice
that several of the records contain underscore (“_”) characters
the weighting factor discovered while getting the list of
as part of the names. This technique is common practice used
DCs. It waits up to one tenth of a second for a reply from
in Microsoft development tools and was borrowed for the DNS
the DC. The pinging continues until all controllers are tried
naming technique for Active Directory. The following list contains
or until a successful response is received.
the naming conventions used in the records:
3. After a DC responds successfully to a ping, the results from
the response are compared to the parameters required by DNS Label Description
the client. If there is a match, then the DC is used. Otherwise, _ldap LDAP service
the pinging of other DCs resumes. _tcp Service uses TCP connections
_udp Service uses UDP connections
_kerberos Record contains information about a Kerberos
Slave DNS Server Key Distribution Center (KDC)
_msdcs Service is running on a Domain Controller
Master DNS Server
Domain Controller 2
Slave DNS Server _kpasswd Kerberos Password Change service
2 _gc Global Catalog service
1

_sites Record contains information on a specific site


1 Update locator records
2 Send updates to slave servers dc Domain Controller (DC)
gc Global Catalog (GC)

A registered DNS record can contain one or more of the above


names to describe a service that can be queried.
2 | BlueCat Networks

For example, the following record locates an LDAP service, on 4. For each slave zone, allow update forwarding using the
server1.bluecatnetworks.com in bluecatnetworks.com: ACL. This forwards dynamic updates to the master zone.
_ldap._tcp.bluecatnetworks.com SRV 0 0
389 server1.bluecatnetworks.com Once the configuration has been deployed, it takes anywhere from
a few minutes to an hour for the DCs to register their records. This
An alternative form of this record that indicates that the LDAP
time interval is dependent on the DC’s registration settings that
service is on a DC would have the following syntax:
can be changed to suit an organization’s requirements. Domain
_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.bluecatnetworks.
com SRV 0 0 389 server1.bluecatnetworks.com Controllers usually inspect their records after the interval has
expired. After the DCs have registered their records, a simple refresh
For a detailed list of these records see the “Active Directory DNS
of the master server’s configuration in the Adonis Management
Records” section of this document.
Console reveals the Active Directory records.

Windows 2000 type networks also enable clients to register their


own Address (A) and Pointer (PTR) records with their local DNS
Integrating Adonis into Active Directory server. In most cases, organizations use DHCP servers that can

The Adonis DNS Appliance easily integrates into the Active perform the registration directly on the DNS server, which is a
Directory environment. The simplest way to perform this operation more secure method. However, if desired, clients can still register
is to use the “Active Directory Wizard” for each zone that requires themselves directly with the DNS server by allowing those specific
AD integration. The wizard asks for the IP addresses of each clients to make dynamic updates. In either case, an ACL should be
Domain Controller that will register their records. Once complete, used to secure these updates.
the configuration is deployed and the Active Directory servers
are informed that their primary DNS server is now an Adonis DNS
Appliance. Once this is performed, the DC’s register their records
and client machines, then use the information to gain access to
the AD domain.

Manually performing the integration without the Wizard involves


a few simple steps:
1. Create an Access Control List (ACL) that contains the ad-
dresses of all the Domain Controllers. Add this ACL to each
DNS server.
2. For the master DNS server, allow zone transfers.
3. For each master zone, allow dynamic updates using the
ACL.
How to Integrate Active Directory and DNS | 3

DNS Replication Master — Master When Microsoft introduced Active Directory with
Windows 2000, it changed its DNS implementation. The changes
There are two schools of thought about DNS record replication: included the ability to allow special characters in DNS labels and
Master — Slave and Master — Master. to store the entire DNS configuration inside the Active Directory.
Since Active Directory had its own replication scheme, a different
Master — Slave The current industry standard outlined in RFC DNS architecture known as Master - Master was developed. The
1034 and 1035, states that a secondary zone (slave) replicates its recommended Microsoft architecture for Active Directory specifies
contents from a primary (master) zone on a given internal network. that the DNS servers should reside on the domain controller, thus
This was enhanced by the DNS Notify mechanism (RFC 1996) eliminating the need to perform zone transfers.
that lets master servers notify their slaves when their contents
have changed. With the advent of Dynamic DNS (DDNS), faster The following table lists the pros and cons of the Master - Master
incremental zone transfers (IXFR) were developed. Slave servers method of replication:
could then accept and forward updates to their respective master
servers. The Master - Slave architecture works on Windows, UNIX®, Master-Master Replication System
and other operating systems. It is the recommended method for Pros Cons
managing DNS. The following table lists some of the pros and cons
• A central repository for all • Microsoft-only imple-
of a Master-Slave replication system:
zone data mentations
• Zone serial numbers can
Master-Slave Replication System • Editing the DNS in one zone
be inconsistent in SOA
replicates to all others
Pros Cons data
• Saves bandwidth and • Non-standard architec-
• An industry standard • Master server updates
processing power by using ture
method for maintaining are required to make
existing LDAP replication to • Not favored in heteroge-
zone data changes on other servers
replicate DNS data neous environments.
• If a slave server is
• The master server always • Relies on LDAP for rep-
updated, a small delay
contains most up-to-date lication
exists before the update
information • LDAP replication may
is propagated
• A central repository for • It requires latest version not be acceptable for
zone data of BIND software to take external zone data

• It does not require other advantage of update-


services to replicate data forwarding

Slave DNS Server

Master DNS Server


Domain Controller 2
Slave DNS Server
2
1

1 Update locator records


2 Send updates to slave servers

The Adonis DNS Appliance uses the BIND 9.x name server
software. Therefore all architectures are Master - Slave based. If
this technique becomes more widely accepted with other vendors,
future releases of the Adonis DNS Appliance may contain a Master
- Master replication system.

Slave DNS Server

Master DNS Server


3
Slave DNS Server
1 3
Domain Controller 2

1 Perform transfer of Active Directory Zone


4 | BlueCat Networks

Advantages Of Adonis For Active Directory Worm viruses can unload payloads that attack internal systems and
replicate while bringing a network to its knees. The SQL Slammer
DNS Services worm that exploited a known vulnerability in the Microsoft Data
Engine (MSDE) attacked available root servers by generating
Although Windows Server ships with the Microsoft DNS service, bogus queries. These queries resulted in a large number of ICMP
many network administrators use a non-Microsoft implementation packets being sent out which eventually rendered some of the
of DNS. A non-Microsoft DNS-based solution such as the Adonis DNS root servers to be off line. Many organizations also discovered that
Appliance integrates well into an Active Directory Environment. their own internal DNS servers were being attacked in a similar
manner. The Adonis DNS Appliance contains an integrated firewall,
Interoperability with Existing DNS Architecture IP packet spoofing, and a hardened Linux operating system that
resists these types of attacks. Indeed, it is common knowledge that
The Adonis Server is based upon ISC’s BIND, the most widely used heterogeneous networks are more resilient to effective attacks
DNS service implementation and the international benchmark for since only some of the servers will be vulnerable to system-specific
DNS. Existing BIND architectures can interoperate easily with the exploits.
Adonis Server, while maintaining a similar architecture.
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
Quick Migration
The total cost of the Adonis DNS Appliance is considerably lower
Existing BIND-based configurations can be quickly imported than that of a Microsoft DNS server solution. Considering the
and deployed to Adonis Servers. Current Windows DNS volume of Windows updates, vulnerabilities, and scheduled
implementations (NT 4.0, 2000, and 2003) can be imported via maintenance combined with the simplistic management
BlueCat Networks’ DNS extraction tool. The current Microsoft DNS surrounding the Windows solution, the Adonis solution offers a
management application requires low level scripting or manual lower cost of total ownership, even in the first year of deployment.
import via zone transfers to migrate from BIND to Windows DNS. For more detailed information about the TCO, see the BlueCat
The Adonis Server performs additional data checking on the Networks documentation on the Adonis Server’s Return on
imported data to isolate and assist with the resolution of issues Investment (ROI).
before deployment. MS DNS Server

Superior Configuration Management MS DNS Server Active Directory MS DNS Server

The Adonis Server contains an elegant and user-friendly interface Domain Controller

for manipulating DNS configurations and record data. Powerful


features found in most applications include multi-level undo/redo, Update zone data
cut/copy/paste and data checking functionality that is absent from Update locator records

the Microsoft DNS application.

Controlled Deployment
Changes are not visible on the DNS server until the user has
deployed the configuration. The current implementation of the
Microsoft DNS application applies the changes to the DNS server as
they are made. This can create issues for applications when simple
typos are introduced into a configuration because records can be
cached for a defined duration. This can lead to network application/
service outages and stability issues. This issue is compounded by
the fact that some applications do not respect DNS Time to Live
(TTL) values and will hold onto invalid data until restarted.

Improved Security
DNS security is often overlooked for private networks because an
internal network is seen as secure and separate from the outside
world. The real problem lies with the sheer volume of exploits in the
Windows operating system that plague network administrators.
How to Integrate Active Directory and DNS | 5

Summary Active Directory DNS Records


Active Directory is the back bone of the Windows Server The following section lists Active Directory-specific records that
architecture and is centered on the LDAP service. DNS plays an are registered by the NetLogon service.
important role in providing the information used by the Windows
Domain locator service to connect and authenticate with Active SRV Records
Directory. The Adonis DNS Appliance provides features that allow _ldap._tcp.<DomainName>
easy integration with Active Directory, while providing BIND- SRV record that identifies an LDAP server in the domain named
based DNS services throughout an organization. Organizations by <DomainName>. The LDAP server is not necessarily a Domain
with existing DNS configurations that utilize BIND can be rest Controller (DC). This record is registered by all DCs. For example:
assured that migration to the Adonis DNS Appliance will yield
a compatible, reliable and dependable DNS solution. For more _ldap._tcp.bluecatnetworks.com
information about the Adonis DNS Appliance, visit the BlueCat
Networks website at http://www.bluecatnetworks.com. _ldap._tcp.<SiteName>._sites.<DomainName>
Enables a client to find an LDAP server in the domain named by
<DomainName>. This record is registered by all DCs. For example:

_ldap._tcp.richmondhill.bluecatnetworks.com

_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.<DomainName>
Used by clients to locate a Domain Controller (DC) in the domain
named by <DomainName>. This record is registered by all DCs. For
example:

_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.bluecatnetworks.com

_ldap._tcp.<SiteName>._sites.dc._msdcs.<DomainName>
Enables a client to locate a DC for the given site and domain named
by <SiteName> and <DomainName> respectively. For example:

_ldap.tcp.richmondhill._sites.dc._msdcs.
bluecatnetworks.com

_ldap._tcp.pdc._msdcs.<DomainName>
Enables a client to locate the Primary Domain Controller (PDC) for
a domain named by <DomainName>. This record is registered only
by the PDC of the domain. For example:

_ldap._tcp.pdc._mscdcs.bluecatnetworks.com

_ldap._tcp.gc._msdcs.<DomainName>
Enables a client to find the Global Catalog (GC) server for the forest
named by <ForestName>. Only the DC for the GC will register this
record. For example:

_ldap._tcp.gc._msdcs.bluecatnetworks.com

_ldap._tcp.<SiteName>._sites.gc._msdcs.<ForestName>
Enables a client to find a GC for the forest named by <ForestName>.
Only an LDAP server responsible for the GC will register this record.
For example:

_ldap._tcp.richmondhill._sites.gc._msdcs.
bluecatnetworks.com
6 | BlueCat Networks

_gc._tcp.<ForestName> _kerberos._tcp.<SiteName>._sites.dc._msdcs.<DomainName>
Enables a client to locate a GC for the forest named by <Forest- Used by clients to locate the DC running a Kerberos KDC for the
Name>. Only an LDAP server responsible for the GC will register site and domain named by <SiteName> and <DomainName> re-
this record. The LDAP server is not necessarily a DC. For example: spectively. For example:
_kerberos._tcp.richmondhill._sites.dc._msdcs.
_gc._tcp.bluecatnetworks.com bluecatnetworks.com

_gc._tcp.<SiteName>._sites.<ForestName> _kpasswd._tcp.<DomainName>
Enables a client to find a GC for the site and forest named by <Site- Enables a client to find a Kerberos Password Change Server for the
Name> and <ForestName> respectively. Only an LDAP server re- domain named by <DomainName>. The server is not necessarily a
sponsible for the GC will register this record. For example: DC. All DC running the Kerberos KDC will register this record. For
_gc._tcp.richmondhill._sites.bluecatnetworks.com example:

_kpasswd._tcp.bluecatnetworks.com
_ldap._tcp.<DomainGuid>.domains._msdcs.< ForestName>
Used by clients to find a DC given the domain GUID of <Domain- _kpasswd._udp.<DomainName>
Guid> in the forest named by <ForestName>. This lookup can used Enables a client to find a Kerberos Password Change Server for the
to resolve the DC if the domain name has changed. This record is domain named by <DomainName>. The server is not necessarily a
used infrequently and will not work if the <ForestName> has been DC. All DC running the Kerberos KDC will register this record. For
changed. For example: example:
_ldap._tcp.01693484-b5c4-4b31-8608-80e77ccc78b8. _kpasswd._udp.bluecatnetworks.com
domains._msdcs.bluecatnetworks.com

_kerberos._tcp.<DomainName>
Enables a client to find a Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC)
for the domain named by <DomainName>. This record will be
A Records
<ServerName>.<DomainName>
registered by all DCs providing the Kerberos service. This service is
The server name named by <ServerName> is registered in the do-
RFC-1510 compliant with Kerberos 5 KDC. The server is not neces-
main named by <DomainName>. This record is used by referral
sarily a DC. For example:
lookups to SRV and CNAME records. For example:
_kerberos._tcp.bluecatnetworks.com
dc1.bluecatnetworks.com

_kerberos._udp.<DomainName>
gc._msdcs.<ForestName>
Enables a client to find a Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC)
Enables a client to find a GC for a given forest named by
for the domain named by <DomainName>. This record will be
<ForestName>. This record is used by referral from SRVrecords. For
registered by all DCs providing the Kerberos service. This service is
example:
RFC-1510 compliant with Kerberos 5 KDC. The server is not neces- gc._msdcs.bluecatnetworks.com
sarily a DC. This service supports UDP.For example:

_kerberos._tcp.bluecatnetworks.com

_kerberos._tcp.<SiteName>._sites.<DomainName> CNAME Records


Enables a client to locate a server running the Kerberos KDC for a <DSAGuid>._msdcs.<ForestName>
site and domain named by <SiteName> and <DomainName> re- Enables a client to locate any DC in the forest named by <Forest-
spectively. The server is not necessarily a DC. For example: Name> by the GUID of the MSFT-DSA (Directory Services) object.
For example:
_kerberos._tcp.richmondhill._sites.
bluecatnetworks.com 01693484-b5c4-4b31-8608-80e77ccc78b8._msdcs.
bluecatnetworks.com
About BlueCat Networks
Founded in 2001, BlueCat Networks – the IPAM Intelligence Company is a leader in providing
enterprise-class IP Address Management (IPAM) platforms and secure DNS/DHCP network
appliances. BlueCat services an account base of over 1000 accounts with thousands of units
sold worldwide. Our award-winning ProteusTM IPAM platforms and AdonisTM family of DNS/
DHCP appliances has successfully garnered end-user acceptance by meeting the rising IP
management demands of healthcare, government, financial services, education, retail, and
manufacturing organizations.

BlueCat Networks, a worldwide market leader in IPAM innovation and thought leadership, is
benchmarking IPAM excellence in the networking industry. BlueCat Networks experiences
overwhelming marketplace acceptance of its networking solutions, resulting in high double
digit growth, year over year, since the company’s inception.

BlueCat Networks is headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada with offices in the United
States, Europe and the Asia Pacific region. It sells networking appliances and services
worldwide through direct and indirect sales channels in over 50 countries.

To Learn More
For more information on BlueCat Networks, and our award winning Proteus IPAM solutions,
please visit our website at www.bluecatnetworks.com or call us at 1-866-895-6931.

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