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Learning Objectives:

Study the states of stress and strain at points located

on oblique or inclined planes using transformation of

stresses and strains

Determine principal stresses & strains and maximum

in-plane shear stress & strains

The cracks in this concrete beam were

Determine the absolute maximum shear stress and These turbine blades are subjected caused by tension stress though the beam

was subjected to both an internal moment

strain in 2D cases to a complex pattern of stress. For

and shear. The stress-transformation

design it is necessary to determine

Applications to thin-walled pressure vessels where and in what direction the equation can be used to predict the

maximum stress occurs. direction of the cracks and principal normal

stresses that cased them.

an angle 500 about the longitudinal axis and supported by two cradles as

shown in the Fig. (a). The vessel has inner radius r 2 m, wall thickness

At a particular point A on the t 10 mm, and is subjected to an internal pressure of p 500 kPa. Find (a)

surface of an aircraft making a The tangential and axial stresses. (b) The normal and shear stresses

landing, the stresses have the acting perpendicular and parallel to the weld, respectively.

magnitudes and directions

depicted on the stress element in

Figure. Find

(a) The normal and shear

stresses acting on an inclined y xy

plane parallel to line a-a.

x

(b) The normal and shear

stresses acting on an inclined t

plane parallel to line b-b.

a

ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 5 ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 6

• Normal stress, ij

z x i – indicates the direction of a normal to the

y plane on which the stress component acts;

yy j – indicates the direction of the stress.

Usually denoted by ij , e.g. xx

yx

yz For simplicity

xy

(a) Internal forces acting on a section of a body acted upon by external forces. xx zy xx xx is written as x

(b) Components of an internal force ΔF acting on a small area centered on point O. O zx yy is written as y

xz

Normal Stress:

Fx dFx zz x

xx x lim As dA 0, stress state is at the point O. • Shear stress

A0 A dA

Shear Stresses: yy i – indicates the direction of a normal to the

Note: Stress values depend on z plane on which the stress component

Fy dFy magnitude of dF and also the

xy lim acts;

A0 A dA direction of dF. j – indicates the direction of the stress.

F dF e.g. xy

xz lim z z

A0 A dA

y y

Stresses shown are all positive Take moment about z-axis

yy on a cube of 1 unit length yy

yx xy (11) 1 yx (11) 1

yx yz

yz xy xy yx

xy For a small isolated element xx zy

xx zy xx xx

O zx with planes perpendicular to O zx

1 xz From equilibrium (i.e. taking

1 xz coordinate axes and surrounding

zz x moment about any axis), we

zz x a point O, there are 9 stress 1

1 1 can show that

1 components:

yy xy yx

yy 3 normal stresses

z z xz zx

6 shear stresses

Hence, number of “unknown” yz zy

As the size of parallelepiped reduces, in the limit, these 9 stress stresses reduced to 6. i.e.

components will define completely, the state of stress at point O. xx x , yy y , zz z , xy , xz , yz

ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 9 ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 10

Remaining stresses x , y , xy

y

yx

x y

xy

xy

x x x

z

y

(a) Thin plate with in-plane loads

(b) Element in plane stress Q. What are the values of x , xy in terms of x , y and xy ?

(c) Two-dimensional (2D) presentation of plane stress

Consider a cut section of 1 unit of thickness on the element Resolving forces in the x-direction

y

y y

yx

x

C Ty xy x AC 1 yx AB 1 Tx BC 1

x C Ty

y x xy x 1 x

y

x Tx Divide the above equation by BC

1 x Tx

xy y xy

AC AB

1 Tx x yx

yx yx BC BC

A B x B

A x

y y

Let Tx and Ty be the stress components of x and xy in x- and y-

directions on the cut plane BC.

ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 13 ME2112 (Part 1) Chap 2 - 14

y

y y x

AC C

cos Ty

BC x

C xy

Ty Tx x cos yx sin

x AB

sin x Tx

y BC

xy 1 Ty y sin xy cos

x Tx AC AB yx

Tx x yx B x

BC BC A

xy 1 y

yx x cos yx sin

A B x Consider the equilibrium of forces on plane BC.

AB AC x Tx cos Ty sin

Likewise, we can show that Ty y xy

BC BC In the y direction: xy BC 1 Ty BC 1 cos Tx BC 1 sin

y sin xy cos xy Ty cos Tx sin

y

Substitute for Tx and Ty into Eqs. for x and xy y x

yx

x x cos2 y sin 2 2 xy sin cos x

xy

xy xy (cos2 sin 2 ) ( y x ) sin cos

x xy x

x is equivalent to y , hence, y can be found by

substituting / 2 for in the expression for x y

y

y x cos2 ( / 2) y sin 2 ( / 2)

2 xy sin( / 2) cos( / 2)

z x

y x sin 2 y cos2 2 xy sin cos

Tx x cos yx sin

Ty y sin xy cos

Q: Is y the same stress as xy ?

x Tx cos Ty sin

xy Ty cos Tx sin

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