Dr Bijan O Aalami
Professor Emeritus,
San Francisco State University
Principal, ADAPT Corporation; bijan@PT-structures.com
301 Mission Street
San Francisco, California
High Seismic Force Region
www.adaptsoft.com
PT-
PT-Structures copyright 2015
CORROSION PLASTIC
WIRE INHIBITING SHEATHING
COATING
NOTE: * NOMINAL DIAMETER
SHEATH TUBE
STRAND
An example of a grouted
system hardware with flat duct
Dimensions (sizing)
¾ Optimum spans; optimum thickness
)P
L
-a
(1
aP
(a) ONE-WAY SKELETAL SYSTEM
2
4)
(ii)
L/
B C
(P
F
A D
P
C B A,C B,D
(iii)
PL/4
(b) BEAMS ON FOUR COLUMNS
(b) TWO-WAY SKELETAL SYSTEM Capacity required is for 100% of load in each
direction, if reinforcement is placed along AD,
Skeletal System and AC
Preliminary Considerations
Design of Post-Tensioned Floors
Structural system
¾ One-way/two-way; slab band
b
h < 2t b > 3h
SLAB BAND
1 2 3 4 5
F
Y
X
An important aspect subdivision of slab into
design strips is that every point of the slab
should be covered by a design strip. No portion
of the slab should be left unassigned.
10- Steps
Design of Post Tensioned Floors
Design values
¾ Actions, such as moments at each design
section are reduced to a “single” 1. Geometry and Structural System
representative value to be used for design
2. Material Properties
3. Loads
4. Design Parameters
5. Actions due to Dead and Live Loads
6. Post-Tensioning
7. Code Check for Serviceability
8. Code Check for Strength
9. Check for Transfer of Prestressing
10. Detailing
Select design strip and Idealize Select design strip and Idealize
¾ Extract; straighten the support line; ¾Model the slab frame with a row of
square the boundary supports above and below. This
represents an upper level of multi-story
concrete frame.
Assume rotational fixity at the far
ends;
Assume roller support at the far
ends
Step 2 Step 3
Material Properties Dead and Live Loads
Selfweight
Concrete ¾ Based on member volume
¾ Weight 150 pcf
¾ 28 day cylinder 4000 – 6000 psi Superimposed dead load
¾ Elastic modulus 3,605 – 5,700 ksi ¾ Min (partitions) 20 psf
¾ Long-term deflection factor 2
Live load
Non-Prestressed reinforcement ¾ Residential 40 psf
¾ fy 60 ksi ¾ Office 50 psf
¾ Elastic modulus 29,000 ksi ¾ Shopping mall 75 psf
¾ Parking structure 40 psf
Prestressing
¾ Strand diameter 0.5 in Lateral loads
¾ Strand area 0.153 in2 ¾ Wind
¾ Ultimate strength 270 ksi ¾ Earthquake
¾ Effective stress 175 ksi
¾ Elastic modulus 28,000 ksi
Step 4 Step 4
Design Parameters Design Parameters
Cover to tendon
¾ Not exposed to weather 0.75 in. For 2-hour fire resistivity
¾ Exposed to weather 1 in. ¾ Restrained 0.75 in.
¾ Unrestrained 1.50 in
Step 4 Step 4
Design Parameters Design Parameters
Step 5 Step 5
Actions due to Dead and Live Loads Actions due to Dead and Live Loads
Analyze the design strip as a single Analyze the design strip as a single level
level frame structure with one row of frame structure with one row of supports
supports above and below, using above and below.
In-house simple frame program
(Simple Frame Method; SFM); or
in-house Equivalent Frame Program (EFM);
Specialty commercial software
Step 6 Step 6
Post-Tensioning Post-Tensioning
balanced
Assume P/A =150psi[1MPa] F121_ACI_2-way_PT_force_082012
Other Spans
Select max drape
Yes No
%DL < 50%?
No Yes
%DL > 80%?
No
P /A<300ps i [2MP a]? %DL > 80%?
Yes No
Yes
STEP 6 STEP 6
Post-Tensioning Post-Tensioning
Span 1
Force = (26.77x12x9.5)x150/1000 =
448.88 k
No of tendons = 448.88/26.77 = 16.77
assume 17 strands
STEP 6 STEP 6
Post-Tensioning Post-Tensioning
Calculation of balanced loads Calculation of balanced loads up to here
¾ Lateral force from terminated tendons ¾ Lateral forced from continuous tendons
¾ Lateral force from terminated tendons
¾ Moments from change in centroid of member
STEP 7 STEP 6
Code Check for Serviceability Post-Tensioning
ACI 318-14 requirements for serviceability ACI 318-14 Minimum Reinforcement
¾ Stress check
¾ Minimum reinforcement F114_041112
¾ Sustained (frequent)
At supports
1.00DL + 0.30LL + 1.00PT 3
As = 0.0075Acf
` Calculate the cracking
moment Mcr at 10
supports and spans
In span calculate 11
Stress check 4 hypothetical tension
stress ft
Does Mcr exceeed
1.2xmoment capacity?
As = 0.00075*Acf
As = Area of steel required
Acf = Larger of cross-sectional area of the strip
in direction of analysis and orthogonal to it. h = member thickness; b = design section width
STEP 7 STEP 8
Deflection Check Strength Check
Read deflections from the frame analysis of the Steps in strength check
design strip for dead, live and PT; (ΔDL , ΔLL , and ΔPT ). ¾ Load combinations
. Make the following load combinations and ¾ Determination of hyperstatic actions
check against the allowable values for each case ¾ Calculation of design moments (Mu)
¾ Calculate capacity/rebar for design moment Mu
¾ Total Deflection ¾ Check for punching shear
(1 + 2)(ΔDL + ΔPT + 0.3 ΔLL ) + 0.7 ΔLL < span/240 ¾ Check/detail for unbalanced moment at support
This is on the premise of sustained load being 0.3
time the design live load. It is for visual effects; Load combinations
Provide camber to reduce value, where needed and U1 = 1.2DL + 1.6LL + 1.0HYP
practical U2 = 1.4DL + 1.0HYP
where, HYP is moment due to hyperstatic actions
¾ Immediate deflection from live load from prestressing
Δimmediate = 1.00ΔL < span/480
This check is applicable, where non-structural Determination of Hyperstatic actions
members are likely to be damaged. Otherwise, ¾ Direct Method – based on reactions from balanced
span/240 applies loads
¾ Indirect Method – Using primary and post-tensioning
¾ Presence of members likely to be damaged from moments
sustained deflection
(1+ 2)(0.3 ΔLL ) + 0.7 ΔLL < span/360
STEP 8 STEP 8
Strength Check Strength Check
¾ For capacity calculation use the simplified
relationship applicable to common building structures Check for ductility
reinforced with unbonded tendons ¾ Ductility is adequate, if c/dt <= 0.345 dt
This condition guarantees that steel will yield,
before concrete in compression crushes.
¾ Add compression rebar if c/dt > 0.345 dt
MOMENTS
Mc
SLAB/BEAM COLUMN
LINE
CENTER- LINE Place the reinforcement within the narrow
band identified as rebar strip
STEP 9
Punching Shear Design
Check for Transfer of Prestressing
PUNCHED OUT
At stressing:
Tendon has its maximum force;
COLUMN REGION SHEAR STRESS
DUE TO kM u
Mu
Concrete is at its weakest strength; and
Live load to counteract prestressing is absent
D108/SLIDES/060591
SHEAR STRESS
DUE TO Vu
Vu
CRITICAL SURFACE
TWO-WAY SLAB
STEP 10
Detailing
Position of rebar
MID-SPAN
SUPPORT SUPPORT
SEE PLAN
EQ. EQ. EQ. EQ.
EQ. EQ.
STAGGER
STAGGER
TOP REBAR AT
SUPPORT TYP.
ELEVATION