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!

" # $ $ $ $ $"$%
& $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ '

( & ) $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ *

" " $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ +

, & $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ -

. & $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ '/

0 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ '1

2 3 & $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ *4

& $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ *4

3 & ) , $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ *4

3 & $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ *-

! & $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 45

2 3 & $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 46

& $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ //

) , 3 & $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ /7

8 ! $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 6'

9 2! $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 64

! & $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 6+
Introducción

; <= !
, , & & , &$ = = <= ,
, , & # , & % ! &
. ,
& $
, , , ! <
, & , , > ,
! ? !
& , ! "
# "%$

) ; , . !
. , $ 0 ! &
& , , $

@, & . A

: , . , & ,
! & ( #!& ! %< , @ &
# , , & . & %$

:2 &< @, & <,


, & ! &$

:':
Lenguaje Formal de la Lógica de Predicados

! & = (<! ,
! , < , $ ;
, & $

, . ! &
= & <, < ! & ! $
) @ & ; . .
! A & , , & , $

! , , , . . ! .
, & & ,

! <
, , $?
= ( $ < A

: ! " #, &%

:# $ !" # ( %

2 & ! ( ! . &
, $ ? ! ( . ,
! # ! %$ ? ! &
!& $

# ! 'A ! & , ! ,
( %
• ( & '% ! , ;
! ; $ < ,
( , A L ∈

• ( & '% ) !
; # %<, ( , A L ∈

• ( ! & '% ! , L $
, , ! ! A
L ∈

' , $ 2 , ( ,
∈ ! & $

' ! & , ! ;
. $

:*:
• ( & '% ? ,
; ( K∈

! < , ,
, <, ( , A ∈ , $

? %? A
¬

! %? A

? A) () $

# ! )A " , , (
%
: $

:? L ! & L !
$

: , , ;
$

# ! 4A * " ) ! A
!

, $

*" . , ( < .
B ; , &$

:4:
# ! +% # ! ( !
! " ! " &! !' , " %

: !& ! # ! " " %

:? !& ! A

¬
¬
? !& !




:? !& ! 4 ∀ ! ∃ !
!& ! $

" 'A ! - ! "* - .


! " / " ! =" # " , ! =" "
" %

∀ →

D E! !

!!

# ! 6A @, & , ∀ <∃ <


! ( !& *"
! &$
# ! +A !& ! <
! . ! & $$
$

4C ! , & .

:/:
" *A 0 %∀ !!
#

: , ! .
! & <, < $

1 , ! <,
! & <, < $

# ! -A ? . !& ! ! "
$
! , , , ,
! $) ( , < !& ∃ !→∀ !! <
! $) ! $ ! & !& ! <
& , . . A

F 0 ∀ ∃
G

:6:
Otros Ordenes

= <@ & , $

? & & ,
. ( , # , , B <
=. & , , %$ ) .
< <! ! $ ?
< @ . & , , ,
! ! <, ( , < &A

! "# " $#

& , ! , ,
%"
& , !& H ∧ → H $

" , ! &
$ ! < ! A

∀ !" ! → "# !! ∧ !" $% !! → "# $% !

< , , !& #
, %$

? < , & , ! . <


<@ , ( ! . . ! &
, $

" 4A ! ! A ' & % &


& != ! ! @
! %
∃∀ ∃ % & ! !

" +% ! $ % ( /

! A∃ ∀ ∀ !→ !!
( , , !& ! ,
, ! &< , @ ,
! $ & . , , ! &
2

, ! !& 6 & , ,
#" %< , & , ) "
& " ?, $

/? . & ) ) , ) , $

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Interpretación

, & . , B #V%
#F % !& $ ) !
. , !& $ !
! !(< . ! < ! &
, , $

, &< ! "
< ! ! &
, ! , $ ? <, <
!& $

# ! 1A , & !& %
: ( < # " , &

:2 ∈ ∈ $

:2 ! & , & !
× × × → $

:2 , * , & !
× × × →{ }

6 , , , &$ ,
& , , <
& ; $

:-:
" 6A ? =∀ ( ( ) ∧ ( ) → ( ( ))) ∧ ! , A

# " % 0; )

= = '%

!= !=

% != $ != % &

!= >' != #

!= $ ( !=

8( , & !& . A

H ; , . ; , 7 * .
H

C . ( , & A

H ! . ( ,&I (
! H$

# ! 7A , & ! !& ( <


, !+ ! -A

:? , ! ' K !
!= ' K ! " ,
, & " $

#" (! =
:? ! ¬( !=
#" (! =
+ ! & , . !& $? <,
( , < ' K < & !& ( ! &
, . , ' K $ @, &
! ' K $ 0 = & , ,
@, $
-" . ! <. , B $

:1:
#" (! = )! =
:? ! (∧) !=

#" (! = )! =
:? ! (∨) !=

#" (! = )! =
:? ! (→) !=

#" (! = )!
:? ! (↔) !=

:? ! ∀ ( !

#" ( * !! = *∈
!=

:? ! ∃ ( ! A

#" ( * !! = $ *∈
!=

# , <( * ! ! ,
, !& + %

, ! &$?
! <, !& =. ! <
$ 0& ! , & , , &
5< ? , , , ,
. , , , , & #, -%$ ! &
, ; , !< = = < < @
$

" 3% !& =∀ ∃ ( ( ) ∧ ( ( ))) → ¬ ( ( ! )) <


, & , !& A

A ={ }
A = =

A ! = )−

!= + + ! *+, +

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) A ! =" ≤ "

! =" = = "

) !& , , & =. ,
@ . , ( ( )∧ ( ( ))) → ¬ ( ( ! ))

? , 045%

% ? < <, ( , < J'$ ,


. < . FA

( ( ) ∧ ( ( ))) → ¬ ( ( ! ))
' ' ' ' 4 '
4 4

% ) . , J' , < $) J* A

( ( ) ∧ ( ( ))) → ¬ ( ( ! ))

' * ' ' 4 *

4 *

'

2 V =. # =
% $

:'5:
% ) 04)%

,45%

( ( ) ∧ ( ( ))) → ¬ ( ( ! ))
* ' * ' 4 '

* 4
*

# = < =. ; %

% ) 046%

,45%

( ( ) ∧ ( ( ))) → ¬ ( ( ! ))

4 ' 4 ' 4 '

' 4

= , . = V !& <
!& ( , & !=V

:'':
" 7% !& =∀ ∃ !! ∧ ! , & A

A ={ }
A =

. !

/ 0

0 1

1 /

) A ={ ! !}< ={ }
? , , . < <, = @ ; .
= V !& $) < ! = F$

# ! 58% , & !& " , ! = V$

# ! 55% !& * & , &


$

" . @ ! , < , =.
!& $

# ! 5)% !& ! @ , & .

# ! 56% !& ! @
, & . $

:'*:
!& , A ! ! $ , , !&
! < . . , V # %$ ) < !&
( ! $

" 5A !& * & & ¬ ! $


# "A ? . . !=V , , & $) <
¬ !=F, , &< @ , & . ! = V$

:'4:
-. % { } /.
% # !
0 /

1 + #,
!= != = != !=V 2 3
" "/ , +
V
V !/

4 { }
, { } % /

. 5
/

" )A & ∧ ∧ ∧ →
# "% & , A

5$: ? ∧ ∧ ∧ → $

→ @ , & . ,
. ∧ ∧ ∧ != . ! = F$ .
!= != = != ! = F$ , .

) 1? ∧ ∧ ∧ →

2 ∧ ∧ ∧ → *
!= != = != $ ! = V(

:'/:
# ! 59A ? . !& $ " #
, ≡ & ⇔ % , , & < , . != !

6 # #
/

. /

2 " A → ≡¬ ∨

2 # " A ↔ ≡( → )∧ ( → )

6 ∧( ∨ )≡ ∨( ∧ )≡
∧ F≡ F ∨V≡ V

1 ∧V≡ ∨ F≡

1/ ∧¬ ≡ F ∨¬ ≡ V

2 ∧ ≡ ∨ ≡

7 / ∨ ≡ ∨ ∧ ≡ ∧

7 /6 ∧( ∧ )≡ ( ∧ )∧ ∨( ∨ )≡ ( ∨ )∨
7 /, ∨( ∧ )≡ ( ∨ )∧ ( ∨ ) ∧( ∨ )≡ ( ∧ )∨ ( ∧

8 , * ¬( ∨ )≡ ¬ ∧¬ ¬( ∧ )≡ ¬ ∨¬

, ¬¬ ≡

2 !

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, # : ! %

¬∃ ( )≡∀ ¬ () ¬∀ ( )≡ ∃ ¬ ( )
" ;% ! 2 & %
! A ¬∃ -, ! ∧ ¬ %,& !!

2, . A

∀ ¬( -, ! ∧ ¬ %,& ! ) ≡ ∀ (¬ -, ! ∨ %,& !) ≡ ∀ ( -, ! → %,& !)

. , AH H$

" ! A

∀ ∀ !≡∀ ∀ ! ∃ ∃ !≡∃ ∃ !

∃ ∀ ! ∀ ∃ !

< % , ; < .
∀ ∃ ! / ∃ ∀ !$

? , &A3 4* < "4

, ! A

% $ $ &
%

∃ ( ( ) ∨ ( )) ≡ (∃ ( ) ∨ ∃ ( )) ∀ ( ( ) ∧ ( )) ≡ (∀ ( ) ∧ ∀ ( ))

< %0 , , " A

∃ ( ( ) ∧ ( )) ≡/ (∃ ( ) ∧ ∃ ( )) <, ( , <, , & 4


4 5 0 A ' 5 . '
5

! A∀ ( ( ) ∨ ( )) ≡/ (∀ ( ) ∨ ∀ ( )) < ( , A

3 6 4 $ 4

! ! $ . !
$

:'+:
= %

∨∃ ( )≡ ∃ ( ∨ ( )) ∨∀ ( )≡ ∀ ( ∨ ( ))
∧∃ ( )≡ ∃ ( ∧ ( )) ∧∀ ( )≡ ∀ ( ∧ ( ))
# , %

:'-:
Formas Normales

# ! 53% ? . !& " < " 0 & < '


!

! #∀ ∃% . !& ! $

L ! < . .
" / !& $

2 & . . !& ,
! !& . 0 ) @$ ? !&
! # % , 0
> , , !& ! @ , $

" 6% ) . !& , ,
!& . 0 ) @$

# "% & & ! !&


. & < !&
0 ) @$

, A

:3 ! $

: , & # ↔ %< ↔(≡ → (! ∧ ( → !

: , &A → ( ≡ ¬ ∨(

:2, C ! ! .
& ! !& & $

: ) ! , , !& ,
! $

2 & ! 0 ( 0
$) < &A

:'1:
∧ /" !& / ∧ / ∧L ∧ / ∨ /" !& / ∨ / ∨L ∨ /
"= "=

# ! 57% !& & K ! #


% !& & ¬ K !# %

# ! 5;% !& " < " & < '


"

( & ! ! ∧ ∨ "' < "' $


"= '=

# ! 5>% !& " < " # , & <#'


"

& ! ! ∨ ∧ "' < "' $


"= '=

" +% ) . !& , !& .


0 ( # %$

# "% . !& , ! !& 0


( # % . C , ,
$

# ! )8% !& " < " & , ' 0 (


0 ) # 0 )%< 0 ( # %
0 ) @$

" 9% . !& , ! !& &


. 0 )

# "% ? ! !& 0) 4 !&


0) < / ! 0

# ! )5% !& " < " 2? " & <2'


0 ) ! $

) !& 0 ?I ,
! @ $ !& & .
< . . ! $

2 & I & , , !
@ !& $

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@ " & ? "/ '

'$: ? , ! @ , . $

*$: ? &<! $

4$: ? ! @ , , # ! ∃ ! %< ,
! , #. ! %$

B , '$

/$: ? @ ! ! @
! A ∀ ∀ ∀ ∃ ! , !
@ #% , ! &
# %$ K ! A∀ ∀ ∀ !! $

B , '$

" 3% . !& & , ,


!& & 0 ?I $

# "% C < , !& .


0 ( ) @ # 0 )%$ ) !& 0?
, ! @ ; , 4 / $

? , 4< !& ! ∃ ! ! @
. ! $) .
< . ! < ! ! $

? , /< . ! ,
<
$ ? ! & <. !$
< !& ∀ ∀ ∀ !!
! $

& $

" ! ∀ ∃ ! ∃ ∀ !$ ?
, & A H7 " J H A

∀ ∃ ! J H! $ . ! 7 "
= ! & , .

∃ ∀ ! JH' $ & $
. ! 7 " , .
$

:*5:
# ! ))% !& " 0? ,
! ( , ;$

" >% , ! A ! & 5 8"


% $ & % 9 $$

) ! ! < A

:: J@ = :- J@ ! ! : J@

: 2#@<%J @ , :7 "J@ :+ J@ , (

K !& A

∀ (() !∨ ! ) → (∃ ( !∧ ! ) ∧ ∀ (( ( )→ ! )))

) ! !& < , A

'$: 3 A

∀ (() !∨ ! ) → (∃ ( !∧ ! ) ∧ ∀ (( ( ) → ! )))

'$: →

∀ (¬() !∨ ! ) ∨ (∃ ( !∧ ! ) ∧ ∀ (¬( ( ) ∨ ! )))

*$: $

∀ ((¬) !∧¬ ! ) ∨ (∃ ( !∧ ! ) ∧ ∀ (¬( ( ) ∨ ! )))

4$: ) ! , , !& $? 0)$

∀ ∃ ∀ ((¬) !∧¬ ! ) ∨ (( !∧ ! ) ∧ (¬( ( ) ∨ ! )))

/$: ) 0 <, , , $? 0 )$

¬: ∨ ∧
¬: ∨ " ∧
∀ ∃ ∀; ¬: ∨¬+ ; ∨ 7 " ; ∧
¬- ∨ ∧
¬- ∨ " ∧
¬- ∨¬+ ; ∨ 7 "
;

1 . 0?< , (
$

:*':
6$: K ! @ $? 0?

¬: ∨ ∧
¬: ∨ " ∧
∀ ∀; ¬: ∨¬+ ; ∨ 7 " ; ∧
¬- ∨ ∧
¬- ∨ " ∧
¬- ∨¬+ ; ∨ 7 " ;

+$: ? , ! ( <
< $

¬) !∨ !! ¬) !∨ !! ¬) ! ∨ ¬( ( ) ∨ !
¬ !∨ !! ¬ !∨ !! ¬ ! ∨ ¬( ( ) ∨ !

# ! )6% L . =

, < ! A ,
$

? = '< A B( H H

L , ( !
H← H

# ! )+% ? , ❏ .
$) ! &< ! &

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Algoritmo de Resolución

Introducción
& ! , , , $2$
3 '7+6$ ? ( ! <
, # , %$ ? ( ! , , <
, . , , $

8 , < , , ,
& , & , ,
, $

, , & , &
, < , , ! &
$

; ! <
, A $) 5 # 5
/

Resolución Proposicional
-

2 $ " %- -, $ " - C-
$ " *- C-

" )5A ? AH ) , H H?
B B (H$ ? , . A H" ) , B (H$
< , ! A (∨ ∨ A ( → ∨ ≡ ¬( ∨ ∨
& ! A ∨ ∨ ∨
# ! 6+% . @ ! . &∈
¬& ∈ < ,
A & !=( − {&}) ∪ ( − {¬&}) $ ? . * $

" 3& '%


& $ { } ( )
# "% ? = & ∨& ∨& ∨ ∨& = ¬& ∨ & ∨& ∨ ∨&
$
, & ! =& ∨& ∨ & ∨& ∨& ∨ ∨&

:*4:
) *< , . { } ( ) . , .
∧ → ( ) $ ? ,& . @ , & . = <
& A

∨ '' ∨M ∨ ' ∧¬ ∨ *' ∨M ∨ * → '' ∨M ∨ ' ∨ *' ∨ *

D E

) . & < !& , ,


< < !& * $
" 7% ? * <
! $
# "% ? ; < * &
<, < !& A ∧ →❒ $) . ❒ <, .
, & < ∧ . $ < ! $
& =. ( ! <,
, $?
< ( ! $ < > (
, $

@ "
% ( 7
2 % 7 !
'$: 8 ∈ . @ . , . &∈ ¬& ∈

*$: ? A
4$: & ! > ( 7
/$: ? & !=❒ 2@ C . 7 !
6$: ? <2> & ! 7 B '
4$: ? A 2@ C . 7 !

" ))% ? 7 ( { ¬ ∨ ¬ ¬ ∨¬ ∨ }<


, . 7 ! , &$) A

:*/:
:? #¬ % # ¬ ∨ ¬ ∨ %< ¬ ∨¬ $
:? = #¬ ∨ % A¬
:? = , ❏
) . <7 ! $
2 & , , &
, & , , ,
! & $? , , ! N8 :2
74O$ 2 <@ ! , & ;
< N?, = 7'O
" )6% ? ( = { ¬ ∨ ¬ ¬ ∨ ¬ ∨ } <,
, 7 . ( . !&
0 ( < < ∧(¬ ∨ ) ∧(¬ ) ∧ (¬ ∨ ¬ ∨ ) $
! ,
! ! ! $ A

¬ F !

F ¬ ∨ !
¬

F ¬ ! F ¬ ∨¬ ∨ !
" 5% ? ( ! < !
, ! < < <* ! $
" )% ! ! ! ( .
*
" 6% 7 ! (
, . , .
= $
# "% ) . 7 ! ! <
, & , , $2 <
#, . 7 &% <
, $
# ! 69% ? !
=( ! $
" +% ! < . & < @
! $
# "% ) . ! ! <
; =( $

:*6:
" 9% ! , &
=( $ = ! ! , <
<, $
# "% ! . < . . A
"

! ¬ !
=V =F

' 0
F %! F &!

:) . ! !& '
; . 9 ,
%< '
¬ # , , . %$
:) & < 0
%# ,
, . %
) ' 0
, %$ . A

= ¬ ∨ ,# 9
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! = ,# 9 ∨ ,# 9
0 = ∨ ,# 9 ' 0 ' 0
0

9< '
<, ,# 9 '
<
,# 9 '
% $
! < ,# 9 0
$) < ' 0
! = ,# 9 '
∨ ,# 9 0

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' 0

<, . ! ! ,
, ! < ( , < (
{ ¬ ∨ ¬ ¬ ∨ }( <( A

¬ !
F !
¬

F ¬ ∨ !
¬

F ¬ ! F ¬ ∨ !

+ - #¬ % . ! ! /,
! ! < *$

:*+:
" ;& " @ " C '% ? (
! <, &<
$
# "% ( ! <
! # '%< @ ! # /%
, ! =( # 6% > ( $ ?
, ( <
,. > . #, . ! % <
( ! <@ ! <$$$< ,
, . ,
$
Resolución General
= < & , & ,
, & & , , .
, , ! & $ <,
< ! . & , ! & . !
$ ! , , &
, $
2

& . , ! !& $
, , < @, &<
! ( @, <= . @,
$

# ! 63A σ ( ! !
{- : - : - : } -" < "
-" - - L - $
* " $

# ! 67A 0 < ( & &


$ 0 "
# ! 6;A ? σ = {- : - : - : } @, & < !
', σ < , σ ( )< @, & .
, & -" ', " #" = K %$
? σ( ) σ( ) * '

" )+A ? = !! σ ={ : : !}
σ( )= ! !! $

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# ! 6>% ? σ ={ : : : } σ ={ :# :# :# }
< " σ oσ &A
{ :σ ( ) :σ ( ) :σ ( )} { ' : #'} '= K <

' ∉{ } " :σ ( ") . , " =σ ( " )$


!"- . σ ={ : ! : } σ ={ : : : }
σ σ ={ : ! : }7

# ! +8A & ! , (
.& & , ε$

) , , & ?

:@ % σ o σ oσ ! = σ oσ ! oσ , σ σ σ

, , , , , &

1 " < % & , σ oε = ε oσ = σ ,


& σ$

:< , "" $

: σ (σ ( )) = σ σ ( ) , σ σ @, $

" )3A ? σ = { : ! : } σ ={ : : }$
σ σ ={ : ! : : }/
? = !! < A

σ != ! !! σ (σ !) = ! !!

! A σ oσ != ! !!

# ! +5A @, < < . @


σ σ . =σ ( ) =σ ( )$ . '
- . - '
" )7A ! ! ! ! %! ! $ ? <
7" . , : $

:*1:
! !$

# ! +)A ? @, & , ( . , '


" " , ' & !
{ : : } . { }⊆ ' .
, ,

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Unificación

, ! & L . , &< '745<


, ! $? <
3 < '7+6<. > , , ,
, &$ 3 . , ,
@, < < = ! , ( ! $
) ! & ,
, < NP = 17O$

# ! +6A ( ! @, , ={ }
& ω$ ? . ω ! , , ,
&< ( $ < A ω( ) = ω( )= = ω( )
" );A ? ={ ! ! !}< ω ={ : : ! : }
! < . ω( ) = ω( )= ! !
? < ( { ! ! 1!!} ! , .
< ! $

# ! ++A ? . ! ω, ( ! @, ,
! "* # % , . ! ω′ @
& σ . , ω ′ = ω oσ $ ! < ! ,
! , , ! $
( , )>A ? ={ ! % !! - !!}< , , .
ω ={ : ! %:- : } ! . .
! $) ( , ! ω′ = { : ! : %:- : },
, ω , & σ = { : }$ < , . ω ′ = ω oσ $
( , < , A ω ={ : ! -:% : }
. ! ; $? , . ω
ω , {- : %} {% : -}<
. A ω =ω {% : -} ω =ω {- : %}< , < . ,
$
" >A ? ω ω ( @, 7<
@, ω ! ω ! $

:45:
2 & , " ! (.
( ! @, @, ! $
! . @, ! $

, ! $ ? ,& . . !
@, < , , .
@, $ , ( = = = .
! $ < ! @,
$ ? , ! < , ; @,
, &< < @, ! $
, ! @, < , &
$

) , & ! . (
, $

# ! +9A ( @, , ={ }< !
# , ( )<
( ! A
:? < !=∅

:? A

:? @, H H'5< < ! A

={ ! ! !}

? ! ' ={ ' ' ' } != '! , 9 .


'! ≠∅

? != $

" 68A ? ={ ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !} <, .


@, < , ( ' ,
( $? A

'5? @, < . ! , #
, ! &% ; < ≥'

:4':
={ !} <. < , ( $

={ ! }< , <. < <


@, <. != ={ ! }
9. , . '! ≠∅ * <, < != ! ={ ! }
@ " !

'$: & A 0-= ' <σ ' -= ε

*$: ? σ 0 ! !& & #QL ! , σ 0 Q%

A? σ0 .

A 0 -= (σ 0 ( ))
4$: ? 0 @ $
A

σ 0+ = σ 0 {- : }
0 =0+

B , *$

A ? . ( ! $

! & , & , 4<


. , @ , = $? <
, & . , , @, . &
! $ . < .
; ! , & , 4 $

:4*:
" 65% 2
={ ! !! !}

5% 0 = ' ( σ ' = ε
={ ! }
)% '

6% 2 -= , = ! σ ={ : !}( 0 =

)% σ !={ ! !! ! !!}( ={ ! !}

6% < . 0" ! $

" 6)% 2 ={ !!! ! !!}


5% 0 = ' ( σ ' = ε
={ }
)% '

6% 2 4/( 4 σ ={ : }( 0 =
)% σ !={ !!! ! !!} ( ={ !}

6% 2 % 40( 4B&,' σ = { : : !} ?4)

)% σ ! ={ ! !!! ! !} ={ !}

6% 2 4,( 4 & '


σ ={ : : !! : !}
( ?46
! ={ !!!}
)% σ !!
2 , σ $ *
"

, 4 ! &< =. .
$ =. H =. H# = I%$
2 & ( , $

:44:
" 66% 2 ={ ! !!}$
) 'A 0 = ' <σ ' = ε $

) *A ' ={ }
) 4A ? 4 "4 σ = { : }<0 =
) *A σ ! ={ ! !!} < ={ !}

) 4A ) . , < ( 0" ! $

3 & . " ! .
! & , ( @, !
, . ( ! $

! & , ! $ ,
< , ( & , ! & @,
$

" 6+A ? ={ ! ' ' ! ! − − !}$

:4/:
Algoritmo de Resolución General

& ) " & . , ,


! & , . $ 2 & @,
! & ! & .
, , $

# ! +3A < . & ∈


¬& ∈ . , ! , ω$ ? .
* ! , & , &
A

& & ! = {ω ! − ω & !} {ω ! − ω ¬& !}

" 69A

= ! !! ∨ !∨¬ ! =¬ !! !! ∨ ! !

& = ! !! & = !! !!

ω ={ : ! : }
< , & & A

& & != ! !∨¬ !! ∨ !! !

" 63A ? A = ! =¬ !$ ! ; <


ω ={ : } ! =❏ $

? . < (
< ( ! $ ( , < . (
{ !¬ !} ! . , !& ∀ !∧¬ !$

) . , # , $ /*%<
;$ ! < =
< , < <
, & , $?
. ! , !
! ( $

" 67% ? ( { !! ¬ !} $

:46:
= !! =¬ ! , . !
=. $? < <
A
- -
= !! =¬ !

ω ={ : !}<. A - -
! =❏

) . < ( { !! !}
! < ( A { !! !} ! $
< . < ( < ! &
< A

∀ !! ∧ ∀ ¬ !

( < < < ! ''$

4 5 % #
# ) ! #
# ; # 3/ 6
-

@ "
% ( 7
2 % 7 !
'$: 8 ∈

*$: ? A
4$: ! > ( 7
/$: ? !=❒ 2@ C . 7 !
6$: ? <2> ! 7 B '
4$: ? A 2@ C . 7 !

'' , < ! =.
$ , ! & A !! ∨ ¬ !$
, !& ∀ !! ∨ ¬ !! . $

:4+:
" 6;A 2 & , ( A

¬ !∨ !∨ !! ¬ !∨ !∨ !!
2 ! !¬ !∨2 ! ¬2 !∨¬ ! ¬2 !∨¬ !

':- ( $2 &
# 1 '6% , # %(
; $

' ¬ !∨ !∨ !!

* ¬ !∨ !∨ !!

4 2 !

/ !

6 ¬ !∨2 !

+ ¬2 !∨¬ !

- ¬2 !∨¬ !

1 ¬ ! { : } −<

7 !∨ !! { : } −)

'5 !! ε =−(

'' !∨ !! { : } −)

'* !! ε =−

'4 2 !! { : !} >−

'/ ¬ !! { : !} ?−

'6 ❏ ε '− )

) . , 4 .
( # !

, . .
, , & , , '*$

'*0 . ! , $ < , ,
! $

:4-:
" 58& '% ?
& $

# "% ) . & ! , @, &$


. @, & ' & '" <, .
& σ , . σ( )
, & & & ω , .

ω( )
N'O
ω( )$
2= , . ω( ) ∧ ω( )
? A =& ∨ . = ¬& ∨ #3 . & ∈ . ¬& ∈ %

, $

?ω & & ω & !=ω & !

ω ! = ω & !∨ω !

ω ! = ¬ω & ! ∨ ω ! J ¬ω & ! ∨ ω !

) , <

= & & ! = {ω ! − ω & !} {ω ! − ω ¬& !}J ω !∨ !

? ,& . & < <


A

=> / ∨ > )7/ ?∧ =¬> 0 ∨ > )70 ?→ > )7/ ∨ > )70

F F

:41:
ω &! , F< . @, & , = ! # .
V %$ ! < , , V , = ! @, &
= $) < !& , F $?
, . A

ω( )∧ ω( ) < ND E: ! O A

ω( )
ω( )
. & , ,
. < ( ! <
$

, & A

: L < ( !
@ ( ! ! $

:) . < , , ,
V : F$ ? = . , & (
, , ! # ,
, , %$

" 55 & " '% ? σ


σ . ′=σ ! ′ =σ ! ;
ω′ ′ @ #, %
ω σ .
ω ′ =σ( ) # ′ %$ B . ! A

σ σ σ σ

-
′=σ ! ′ =σ ! ′=σ ! σ ′ =σ !
ω′

′ ′

:47:
: ( @ ,
( <, , &$

A ? ,& . A

= {& ∨ & ∨ ∨& }


= {¬& + ∨ ¬& + ∨ ∨ ¬& + }
&" . ! < ,
<, . . @ >'
> '$

? , . A

′ =σ ! = {σ & ! ∨ ∨ σ & !} σ !

′ =σ ! = {σ ¬& + !∨ ∨ σ ¬& + !} σ !

ω′ A {σ & ! σ & !σ & + ! σ & + !}


A

′ = ω′ σ !! U ω ′ σ !! N*O

) . σ σ ; σ ! σ ! , <
& ω ′ (σ ∪ σ ) ! {& & & + & + } . A

(σ ∪σ ){& & & + & + }=


{σ ∪σ & ! σ ∪σ & ! σ ∪σ & + ! σ ∪σ & + !} =
{σ & ! σ & !σ & + ! σ & + !}

R ( ! , ω′ $

? @ ! <@ < ω {& & & + & + }<


<, ! & , . <, . ! #
ω ′ (σ ∪ σ )% @ & σ .

ω ′ (σ ∪ σ )=σ ω N4O

? =ω !∪ω ! , ω< A

σ( )=
σ ω !∪ω !! =

σ oω ∪ != # , N*O%

:/5:
ω ′ (σ ∪ σ )( ∪ )J
ω ′ (σ ∪ σ )( ) ∪ ω ′ (σ ∪σ )( )=
#) . ;< & σ & !
! # ! <σ ! %< , A
σ ∪σ !=σ ! σ ∪σ !=σ !%

J ω ′(σ ( )) ∪ ω ′(σ ( )) =
# , ND E: ! O%

J ′

) σ( )= ′< < ′

" 6>A ? = !∨ ! 3! ∨ ! =¬ ′! ′ !! ∨ ¬ ′ ′!
A σ ={ : ! : !} σ ={ ′: ′: }$ ? . A

:/':
= !∨ ! !∨ ! =¬ ′! ′! ∨ ¬ ′ ′!

σ = l : ! : ! : ! q σ = m′ : ′: r

′= ! !! ∨ !! ′ =¬ ! !! ∨ ¬ !

′= !! ∨ ¬ !

? &<@
ω ={ : ! : ′! : ′! ′ : }. . A

= !∨ ! !∨ ! =¬ ′! ′! ∨ ¬ ′ ′!

σ σ
= ′ !! ∨ ¬ ′!

′=σ ! σ= m′ : r ′ =σ !

′= !! ∨ ¬ !

& . , A

" 5) & " , , & %A ? (


! < <, &
$

:/*:
A ? 7 ( ! <
. A

7 !

#, L %

@ ( ! 7 !

# , & , , %

@ & ( 7 $

# &%

@ & ( 7 $

< @A ; , & <, , , &< ,


. 7 ;$

? < , < <, ( , < ( A


{ !¬ !!} ! < < ! !! !
.

:/4:
Estrategias de resolución
1 0
$ 5 # 3 % /
* ; 5 # # 3
; /

,
- @A 0 # 0 5
B/

8
% 5
# 3! /

4 % 5
# $
$ # 3/ . ;
$ / 6
# %
$ /

Estrategias de Borrado
4 # 0
# 5 /. ; #
$ # 3 # ; /

1 #

# ! +7% & @ , .
!. ( $

. % ; ;. <
, . % , &$) <
& , $
" +8% ( ={ !¬ !∨ !! ¬ !∨ !¬ !}
! < <, < , <,
. , * $
& # ! +;% . .
! $
" +5% ∨¬ ∨ ∨¬ $8$
, ( ! &
! ( $ ( , !
, . > $ ! < (
! ! .

://:
$ , <, < ( ,
. , ;. ! ( $
" . @ , ,
, , & $ 0 ,
, , . ! $
" +)% ( {¬ !∨ ! !¬ !} ! $? <
, ( ! $
1 . # ! +>% 7 "
3 @ & σ . σ !⊆ $
" +6% ( { !∨¬ ! ! ∨ ¬ -! ∨ 1! ¬ ! !} $
!∨¬ ! ! ∨ ¬ -! ∨ 1! , .
, & { : : -} , <
$ ! < , < !
( $
? , . 3 ( ,
< ( 3 ! & (
$ , <, <
! & ! ( $
. < , &< ,
. $8
=. (
&$
C
# ! 98%
, # & %$
, & &
$
" ++% ? ={ ∨ ¬ ∨ ¬ ∨ ¬ }$ 2 & ,
& <, < , .
$
'$: ∨ -$: >!
*$: ¬ ∨ 1$: % <!
4$: ¬ ∨ 7$: ?!
/$: ¬ '5$: < ?!
6$: ¬ )!
+$: ¬ )!

" . ( . ,
& $) ( , < ' *,

= , ∨ $?
, , . . $

:/6:
, & &
, < < ! $" .
< . $
! , ;. =
! $
! < , ! &
< < , $ ) ( , < (
={ ∨ ¬ ∨ ∨¬ ¬ ∨¬ } ! < < &
, . $
) < ! L #
, @ % , . ( L
! < , &
$

Resolución de Entrada
# ! 95%
, ( $
, & &
$
" +9% ? ={ ∨ ¬ ∨ ¬ ∨ ¬ }$ 2 & ,
& <, < ,
. , ( A
'$: ∨ -$: ¬ )!
*$: ¬ ∨ 1$: <!
4$: ¬ ∨ 7$: ) =!
/$: ¬
6$: ∨
!
+$: ∨ !

? , . & &
, ! . ,
< $
. & , ,
L <, , $ ( , < , ,
$

Resolución Lineal
8 0
! 5
# %
/

:/+:
# ! 9)% ? ( 7 ( $
2 *
! ' = . , 4@"
/" "A/A
#'% "+ " " #
%<
#*% " , # % ,
"$

& , . , !
$ & ( #
* /% , .
! , ( ={ ∨ ¬ ∨ ∨¬ ¬ ∨¬ }$ "
. < , , <
( , $
∨ ¬ ∨ ∨¬ ¬ ∨¬

& = ; ,
, ( $
? , . & , $2 < ,
( . (
! ∪ lq ! <
& $) < .
( ! < ,
$

Resolución Ordenada
8 *, * #,&, "-
# % /8
5 # / 8
# #
3 !
# 3 !/

:/-:
" +3% ? ={ ∨ ¬ ∨ ¬ ∨ ¬ }$ 2 & ,
& # = ,
! %A
'$: ∨ 6$: ∨ !

*$: ¬ ∨
4$: ¬ ∨ +$: >!

/$: ¬ -$: ) <!

6 ; ' /$ ' 4
, . , , $)
& , * / 4 /$
6< 4, , +<
/, , $
& ! # ( , <
, & %$ ! < & , $
? < = . & , ,
L $

, , , &< > .
, , & &
; ( L $ , <
) & & & & ?
#2 # 7 %. ! &$

:/1:
Prueba de Teoremas por Resolución

, , , "
" '4 ! & $

. ! , ( & # %.
, ( !& # @ %
! $ @ & ! !
. , , & $ ? &.
, ( @ !&
=. !& & @ $

, (! , @,
$ '755<L . , @
< ! . , & $

? < '74'< S &. . !


, ; , $
!& ! , $

0 @ <, < , , !&


& ( @ , < =
. , $? <@
& , ( , ,
< = , = , ,
$

" +7% 2 & ,


@ & ; , , $
) 5< ! & # ! =" + " , A
#% ! =" + " *% ! =" ⋅ "
'$: #% ' !

*$: ¬#% ! ∨ #% ( # ! # !) + + != + !+

4$: *% ' '!

/$: ¬ *% -! ∨ ¬#% - !∨ *% ( #( ) ) ∗ + != ∗ +

'4 , & & , , < ,


, & . . & ,
$ ( , !
! & # & !& % , ,
# & %

:/7:
2, @ < ,
; $ ) ( , <, @ ; T
, , $ ? , &A ,
A

∃ ( *% ( # (')))

) , < > & & (


< , & < . @ ; $

:65:
Bibliografía

CD E6 ( F */ D E6
. , " &+ " + + % , + ", ,
7 G 2 / (( !

N 16O
$
2 ! #'716%

CH ; =?F */ I/ H ; /J/
" &+ % * " #+ + " " " &+ ,&&" , ,
* K 7 ; 2 / (=?!

N?" 74O ?"


*) + * /"+ 7 3 2
3! A ?"E ' ? ** U '-$ 0''5$ C '774

NP = 17OP P =
6 B %
2 C , ? <B $ *' 0 $ '<C '717$ ,,$ 7*:'*/

NP V I -7O3$ P V I
$ * $
0 =L $ & ,> A & <) &
2 ! $ #'7-7%

NP 7*O? P
3 3 $* $ $
2 :U #'77*%

N 1-O = U
- $* $ $
?, B $* $ $ #'71-%

C* ==F, * , ./ L
% " +1" + " ++
M; D % : 7 ; 2 / (==!

N0 75O !0 < C I
$ "* $ $ * $
= U W? #'775%

:6':
C. ; ( FN/ . ; H/ 6
8 -6 .
6 EL 7 ; (( !

N? 1+O ? < = ?= ,
!5 * $
= C ) $ * $ $ 7/ #'71+%

:6*:
Índice Alfabético

H =. H 44 , & *1

! * " " /7

@ " 4
4+
( 4'
@ "
*/ ( , 4'

" ! 4' ! *

2 ! & 4*
4
*" /
."
* *

* " 4 ."
*
/ * **
& '/
=. 4+
& '*
0 '1
'/
* / /-
! 4
* A **
* **
# 3 4+
& /7
* . **
" -
46
. & '6
* *4
& //
, 46
@, & *-
, 47
@, & , *-
" @ "
C *- @, 4'

, , , 0 '7
& /*
< '7

:64:
0 '7 '7

<# '7 , '7

0) '1 //

0? '7 *

" *' *

0 ( '7 *

0 ( ) @
'7 +

0 ?I '7 "
+
0 '7

0 ) @ 2 +
'7
*
0 ) @ '1
" / '1
! " " /
'*
! " 6
! *6
!& ! '*
**
!& ! '*
= I 44
!& '*
! '1
!& ! /
, & & '
S /7
/ " '/
A B **
/
L 45
& *4
L /7
3 & , , *4
*-
*4<46
* *-
/+
, & -<1<'/
3 45
& /5
2 4
'7

:6/:
& *- " 4

& *- 45

& *7< ! & 45


45<46
! 45
& *1
! 45
/6
!& 1
. //
! /
,
, , 47 /

L 47 /

" ! 4/ 45

. /7 *1

:66:
Información de Contacto

* .
VVV$ $ $
! "* & '

G " = , X $ $

# * / ! X $

:6+: