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THE THREE DECREES

AND
1

SAMUEL SNOW’S LETTERS

THEODORE TURNER
RUNDLE’S MISSION
PIGEON LAKE ALBERTA
AUGUST 6-12, 2018
LECTURE 1 - CYRUS’ DECREE
INTRODUCTION
This series of lectures will focus upon the chronology of the decrees of Cyrus, Darius and
Artaxerxes and their relationship to the chronology of the letters of Samuel Snow that were written and
published in 1844. We believe that the understanding of the commencement of the 2300 days and the
70 weeks is essential for those Adventists who believe that the light of the midnight cry is to shine all
along the path to the celestial city. Many Adventists have little understanding of these foundational
prophecies. Those who have heard of the 2300 days may know the date 457 BC, and that it has some
connexion to the seventh year of Artaxerxes, but have little idea of the evidences to support this.
In the first three lectures, I will address the chronology of each of the decrees, while showing how
to calculate the Hebrew calendar, showing its relationship to the Julian and Gregorian calendars. We
will see how these decrees create a reform line that is parallel to that of the Millerites. We will also note
that each decree is a reform line itself.
In the last four lectures, we will look at each of Samuel Snow’s letters, understanding their
relationship to the three decrees and to our time. In today’s lecture, we will look at the Babylonian
captivity and Cyrus’ decree that ends it.

SEVENTY-YEAR CAPTIVITY
Where does the Babylonian captivity begin and end? Most chronologists interpret the Babylonian
Chronicles as referring to the events around the captivity of Daniel as being after the death of
Nabopolassar.1 If we accept this interpretation, the Babylonian captivity could have begun late in 605
BC.2 This creates many irreconcilable contradictions to the biblical chronology.3 The biggest is that this
would mean that for there to be seventy years of captivity we would have to mark the end of the
captivity in 535 BC. Since the exiles returned under Cyrus’ decree in 536 BC, some chronologists
reconcile this by seeing the seventy years as a round number. However, both the Bible and the Spirit of 2
Prophecy see the 70 years as “complete”.

To fulfil the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed
her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, to fulfil threescore and
ten years. 2 Chronicles 36:21

Upon his death, within about two years of the fall of Babylon, Cyrus succeeded to
the throne, and the beginning of his reign marked the completion of the seventy years
since the first company of Hebrews had been taken by Nebuchadnezzar from their
Judean home to Babylon. Prophets and Kings, 556.

Not only does Ellen White mark a completion of seventy years (something we cannot say is less
than seventy years), she also marks the end with the accession of Cyrus and not with the return of the
exiles. This accession she marks as being “within about two years” from the fall of Babylon.4 This event
occurred on October 13, 539 BC5. Cyrus’ accession would have occurred in the fall of 537 BC. This

1
http://www.livius.org/sources/content/mesopotamian-chronicles-content/abc-5-jerusalem-chronicle/
2
“In the accession year Nebuchadnezzar went back again to the Hatti-land [Palestine] and until the month of Šabatu marched
unopposed through the Hatti-land; in the month of Šabatu he took the heavy tribute of the Hatti-territory to Babylon.” ABC 5, line
12,13.
3
One of which is that it would place the fourth year of Jehoiakim as being the fall of 605 to the fall of 604 BC – one year too late.
4
We find that Ellen White’s language agrees with other chronologists, “…Cyrus… inherited the position of the last Median king
(Cyaxares II/Darius the Mede) ca. 537 BC, within about two years after the fall of Babylon.” Steven David Anderson, Darius the
Mede: A Reappraisal; A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Bible Exposition Dallas Theological Seminary,
(May 2014), 13.
5
The Hebrew year 538 BC (fall to fall) began on September 28, 539. Both the 1843 and 1850 charts mark the fall of Babylon as 538
would agree with marking the events in Daniel 1:1 as being in the fall of 607 BC. That is, the first
company of Hebrews being taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar (this includes Daniel) must have occurred
early in the third year of Jehoiakim (in the fall of 607 BC) and not later in his reign.

So then, the seventy years of the captivity must have run from the fall of 607 to the fall of 537 BC.

SEVENTY YEARS FOR BABYLON


A common assumption is that Jeremiah 25:11-12 refers to this same period of seventy years.

And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations
shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. And it shall come to pass, when
seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and that
nation, saith the LORD, for their iniquity, and the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it
perpetual desolations. (Jeremiah 25:11-12)

One observation is that this period of seventy years ends with Babylon being punished and not
with the accession of Cyrus that occurred two years later. It cannot then refer to the same period as the
captivity proper but must start and end two years earlier. Since Assyria’s fall in October of 609 BC is
exactly 70 years prior to Babylon being punished, it is clear that this period of seventy years refers to
the supremacy of Babylon over the surrounding nations and not the captivity itself.
3

THE TIME OF THE END


The period of darkness for literal Israel is the period of 70 years. How and where do we mark the
time of the end that commences this reform line? Our initial determination was that the time of the end
was marked by Cyrus’ decree in 536 BC. Once we noticed that it was Cyrus’ accession to the throne of
Babylon that marked the end of the seventy years in Babylon, it was then understood that this marked
the time of the end. Further study led us to consider the fall of Babylon itself as the time of the end. We
finally concluded that the time of the end of the Babylonian captivity is two-fold. It commences with the
fall of Babylon and is paired with Cyrus’ accession.

BC. We see no contradiction between this and the October 539 BC date, since this occurs 16 days into the Hebrew year 538. Just as
the date 1843, which is seen on the 1843 chart, was understood to go from the spring of 1843 to the spring of 1844, so too, we see the
date 538 as going from the fall of 539 to the fall of 538.
THE REFORM LINE OF THE DECREES
If we are to begin placing the decrees upon a reform line, we must quickly review the basic
structure of a reform line. A reform line is a chronological expression of the everlasting gospel that is a
three step testing prophetic message that prepares and demonstrates two classes of worshippers.
In the first step, there is an increase of light, following the time of the end of a period of darkness.
There is a messenger who gives a message and who lays the foundation for the second and third
messages. In the case of the decrees, this foundation is literal. Cyrus is God chosen messenger. Cyrus is
first marked at the fall of Babylon, since he is the one prophesied who will enter into the city. 6 It is his
decree that allows for the laying of the foundation of the temple and its later completion under the
decree of Darius.

That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even
saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.
Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue
nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved
gates; and the gates shall not be shut; I will go before thee, and make the crooked places
straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron: And I
will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou
mayest know that I, the LORD, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel. For
Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I
have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me. I am the LORD, and there is none
else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me: (Isaiah
44:28; 45:1-5)

Without the work of the first two decrees, Artaxerxes’ decree could not have commenced the 70 4
weeks and the 2300 days. Adventists make a mistake in picking Artaxerxes’ decree as the
commencement of the 2300 days out of the three decrees. We must see these decrees as a unit. When
we get to Artaxerxes’ decree, we will see why this is important.
After the foundation is laid, there is the work of the enemies, the arrival of the second message, a
tarrying time that precedes the empowerment of the message, a revival and then the arrival of the third
message.

UNDERSTANDING THE BIBLICAL CALENDAR


There is a common assumption that there is a choice of two Jewish calendars – the Rabbinic and
the Karaite calendar, when establishing biblical dates. It is further believed that that the Millerite’s used
the latter in establishing October 22, 1844 as the tenth day of the seventh Jewish month. However, we
6
Technically, Darius the Mede is the king. In addition, it is Ugbaru, governor of Gutium, who first enters the city with Cyrus’ army,
followed by Cyrus on the third day of the following month. “On the sixteenth day [of Tashritu], Ugbaru, governor of Gutium, and the
army of Cyrus, without battle they entered Babylon…. On the third day of the month Arahsamna, Cyrus entered Babylon.” ABC 7,
column iii.
find, by an examination of the Karaite calendar, that it cannot possibly provide the dates needed for
October 22, 1844. We can all agree that modern Judaism uses a calendar not endorsed by the
Scriptures. This is a calendar that is based upon the Metonic cycle and was instituted by Rabbi Hillel
about 360 AD. Based upon this calendar, the tenth day of the seventh month would have been
September 23, in 1844. The 1D 1M would have been March 21, instead of April 19. It was not until 1843
that the Millerites, in trying to refine their dates, came to even address the question of the Karaite
calendar. In December of 1842, Miller, for the first time, revised his prediction. Instead of the year 1843
being the Gregorian year, January 1, 1843 to December 31, 1843, he determined it to be the Jewish year
ending on March 21, 1844. This adjustment was made a full seven months after the publication of the
1843 chart. It is clear that when the chart was published that they understood the year 1843 to be the
Gregorian year. This new idea of Miller’s – that the year was to be reckoned on the Hebrew calendar –
opened the door to new study. That new study focused upon determining the correct calendar for the
calculation of the prophetic periods.

Now there is at dispute between the Rabinical [sic], and the Caraite [sic] Jews, as to
the correct time of commencing the year. The former are scattered all over the world,
and cannot observe the time of the ripening of that harvest in Judea. They therefore
regulate the commencement of the year by astronomical calculations, and commence
with the first day of the new moon nearest the vernal equinox, when the sun is in Aries.
The Caraite Jews on the contrary, still adhere to the letter of the Mosiac [sic] law, and
commence with the new moon nearest the barley harvest in Judea; and which is one
moon later than the Rabinical year. The Jewish year of A D 1843, as the Caraites reckon it
in accordance with the Mosaic law, therefore commenced this year with the new moon
on the 29th, day of April and the Jewish year 1844, will commence with the new moon in
next April, when 1843 and 2300 days, according to their computation, will expire. But 5
according to the Rabinical Jews, it began with the new moon the first of last April,7 and
will expire with the new moon in the month of March next.8

This was the first introduction that the Millerite movement had to the Karaite calendar. However,
their understanding of the Karaite calendar is fraught with difficulties. First, it is not true that the
Karaite Jews commence the year one moon later than the Rabbinical year. This can happen but only
rarely, and never as late in the year as April 19. Also, the Karaite’s, in 1843 did not begin the year with
the new moon on April 29; they began the year on April 2 in 1843. Neither did they commence the year
in 1844 on April 19 but on March 21. They observed the Day of Atonement on September 23 in 1844.
Based upon the barley harvest in 1844, the year would have commenced in March and not April. That
is, by April 5, 1844 (the day of the wave sheaf offering) there would have been plenty of ripe grain.
As noted, the Karaite’s never commenced the year as late as it was by the Millerites in 1844, since
they tied the start of the year to the barley harvest and not the equinox. The connexion of the barley
harvest to the start of the year is a Karaite notion but it is not a biblical one. The Karaites depart from
the Bible in many other areas, as well. As an example, they always have the day of Pentecost on the
Sunday. This is in direct opposition to Inspiration that tells us that, “Fifty days from the offering of first
fruits, came the Pentecost, called also the feast of harvest and the feast of weeks.”9 On the Biblical
calendar Pentecost is always the sixth day of Sivan (6D 3M). For the Karaites, Pentecost can be
anywhere from the sixth to the twelfth day of Sivan.
More importantly, though the Millerites failed to understand the biblical calendar, they still arrived
7
It is interesting to note that according to the Rabbinic calendar Nisan 1 was April 1 in 1843. However, based upon observance of the
visible crescent, it would have been April 2. This is an example where using the Metonic cycle will give dates that do not agree with
observation.
8
Joshua V. Himes, Signs of the Times, June 21, 1843, 123.
9
Patriarchs and Prophets, 540.
at the correct date. None of the Millerites had the correct date for the crucifixion. Prior to Snow, the
Millerites believed that Jesus was crucified in 33 AD. Samuel Snow came to understand that Jesus was
crucified in the midst of the seventieth week in 31 AD. He came to this conclusion in a roundabout way
and by using a suspect source. First, he chose William Hales chronology, placing Christ’s crucifixion in
31 AD. The exact date that Hales gives for the crucifixion is Tuesday, March 27, 31 AD. Snow also uses
the spurious Death Warrant of Jesus Christ.10 In this document the year is not explicitly stated but it
does give the date March 25.11 Just as there was a thirteenth month added in 1844, so too would there
have been a thirteenth month in 31 AD, since a March 25 Passover date would mean the year
commenced on March 11,12 much too early for a barley harvest. However, these details were not
worked out by the Millerites. They worked under a time constraint and without the resources and
access to information that we now have.
Another point that they failed to take into account is that they believed that the biblical calendar,
like that of the Karaites, observed the first crescent for each month of the year. In calculating the tenth
day of the seventh month in 1844, they believed that this was determined by the new moon in October.
This is why some initially chose October 23, recognising that October 22 would only be the ninth day of
the seventh Jewish month, if the moon was observed correctly. However they settled on the October 22
date by believing that the day after the astronomical new moon would be the first day of the seventh
month. They then marked October 13 as the first day of the seventh month. However, the first crescent
would not have been visible until the evening of October 13. This would mean that the fourteenth
would have been the first day of the seventh month, based upon the observance of the moon. What they
did not know is that, according the biblical calendar, the tenth day of the seventh month is always 187
days from the first day of the first month. That is, for the first six months on the biblical calendar the
months alternate 30 and 29 days. For the rest of the year, the start of each month is based upon the
observance of the first visible crescent. If the Millerites had followed Karaite practice correctly, in
regards to the commencement of the seventh month, they would not have chosen October 22 as the 6
tenth day of the seventh month.
Simply, the Karaite calendar is not the correct calendar to use. Even though the Millerites believed
that they were using the Karaite reckoning, they were not. However, we now can reverse engineer the
correct calendar, knowing that God gave the correct dates. The understanding of the biblical calendar
comes from a reconciling of all the chronological information in the Bible. We have not used any
authority, other than the Bible, to come to understand the biblical calendar. We have found that there is
external testimony that agrees with our assessment, such as that documented in the writings of Grace
Amadon.13 However, the conclusions listed below come from the study of the Bible and the Spirit of
Prophecy alone.

LIST OF “RULES” FOR THE BIBLICAL CALENDAR

1. The first day of the first month commences on the evening that the first visible crescent can be
sighted, following the spring equinox.
2. The equinox, as with the full moon, is determined to have started at sunset after it has already
occurred.
3. The first crescent is only looked for on the evening of the twenty-ninth day of Adar or Ve’Adar.
4. If the first crescent is sighted, the following day is the first day of the year. If it is not, the next
10
I have addressed this in detail in a paper entitled, The Death Warrant of Jesus Christ: A Review.
11
March 25, 31 AD would be a Sunday. Later versions of the story, after 1844, change it to March 27 (a Tuesday).
12
The correct Julian date for a Passover in 31 AD (if the Jewish calendar is followed) is March 24, if we place the Passover on the 14.
This is recognising that March 25 is the proleptic Gregorian date for the Passover in 31 AD, if the Passover occurs on Nisan 15. What
Snow fails to address is why the Passover would be on a Tuesday, or even a Sunday, based upon these dates, instead of a Friday.
13
For Miss Amadon’s description of the biblical calendar see the various articles in Ministry Magazine
https://www.ministrymagazine.org/archive/1944/03/ancient-jewish-calendar-constructionno.-1
day is the thirtieth, with the day after being the first day of the year.
5. The length of the first sixth months of the year follow the pattern 30, 29 days. The seventh to
twelfth months (or thirteenth if needed) can be either 30 or 29 days.
6. The months are always numbered from the spring with the new moon after the spring equinox
always being the start of the first month.
7. The beginning of the year in the spring is called Teshuva14 Hashanah the “return of the year”.
8. The civil year that begins in the fall is called Rosh Hashanah or the “head of the year” and
begins with the seventh month.
9. The Jews also observe the anomaly of the moon. That is, on rare occasions the start of the year
is delayed to allow for the full moon to precede the Passover. That is, the Passover is always the
day after the full moon. If the moon is in apogee at the “correct” time of the month, there will be
a longer transition between the visible crescent and the full moon. This occurs about 6% of the
time. That is, even in years where it appears there should be only 29 days in the last day of the
year, a thirtieth day will be added so the full moon is not “too late”. In fact, this is what probably
occurred in 31 AD.15 It should also be noted that moon is only considered full when it is full by
sunset. We, however, determine a moon to be full, at the point where it is directly on the
opposite side of the earth from the sun. That is, our full moon is one of calculation, whereas the
Hebrews full moon is determined by observation.

THE CHRONOLOGY OF CYRUS’ DECREE


As we look at the chronology of the Cyrus’ decree, we can place these upon the Julian calendar by
observing the rules mentioned above. The tools I use to do this are the Torah Calendar and Skyview
Café. I also double check my results with Fourmilab’s Calendar Converter.16

Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia [March 31, 536 to April 18, 535 BC.], 7
that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred
up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his
kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying, (2) Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, The
LORD God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged
me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah. (3) Who is there among you of
all his people? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah,
and build the house of the LORD God of Israel, (he is the God,) which is in Jerusalem.
(Ezra 1:1-3)

The “first year of Cyrus” can include his accession year, though Persian kings, as with the
Babylonian kings, count the years of their reign spring to spring. Cyrus’ first year would have begun in
the of 536, after his accession to the throne began in the fall of the previous year. Daniel, chapter
10, refers to this “first year” as the “third year”, marking it as the third year since Cyrus overthrew
Babylon.

In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel, whose

14
Literally, Teshuva means the returning. The Jews apply this term to the period of repentance between Rosh Hashanah and Yom
Kippur.
15
One of the reasons that most scholars reject 31 AD as a possible year for a Friday crucifixion is that the astronomical new moon
occurred at 2:00 pm on Tuesday, April 10. The first visible crescent would have been seen on the evening of Thursday April 12,
making the Friday the 1D 1M and the fourteenth of Nisan a Thursday and not a Friday. However, there are at least two solutions to
this problem. The first is to recognise that the full moon would have occurred after sunset, about 10:30 pm, on the night of Wednesday
April 25. This would mean that it would not be until the evening of April 26, that the lamb could be slain. Another, different, solution
is to recognise that it would merely be the result of poor weather that the commencement of the year was delayed by one day.
16
TorahCalendar.com; skyviewcafe.com and fourmilab.ch
name was called Belteshazzar; and the thing was true, but the time appointed was long:
and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision. (Daniel 10:1)

In the vision of Daniel 10, we learn that Cyrus’ decision to allow the Jews to return to Jerusalem
was not an easy one. He was, perhaps unwittingly, a participant in the great controversy between Christ
and Satan. We learn that Daniel’s fasting and prayer occurred while Cyrus struggled with his decision.
The prince of the kingdom of Persia [Satan] and Michael [Christ] were the main combatants over the
mind of Cyrus. The decree for the return to Jerusalem would have occurred on the 24D 1M [April 23,
536 BC], or shortly thereafter.

The journey from Babylon would take about four months, for a group of returnees to Jerusalem.
According to Ezra 3:1, 6, an altar was built on the 1D 7M (September 4, 536 BC]. Considering that
there would have been some time needed to organise those returning to Jerusalem, the period of five
months and six days that span the giving of the decree and the building of the altar would be sufficient 8
time for the journey.
The commencement of the laying of the foundation of the temple occurs in the second month
[April 18 – May 17] of the second year [535 BC] of Cyrus’ reign as king of Babylon.
In our next lecture, we will look at Darius’ decree and its relationship to Cyrus’ decree.
LECTURE 2 - DARIUS’ DECREE
THE WORK OF THE ENEMIES
After the laying of the foundation of the temple under Cyrus’ decree, the Bible describes a setback
that is the result of forces seeking to undermine the work of reform. This is detailed in Ezra 4.

Now when the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin heard that the children of the
captivity builded the temple unto the LORD God of Israel; Then they came to Zerubbabel,
and to the chief of the fathers, and said unto them, Let us build with you: for we seek
your God, as ye do; and we do sacrifice unto him since the days of Esarhaddon king of
Assur, which brought us up hither. (Ezra 4:1-2)

The first group that opposes the work of the building of the temple are a group later known as the
Samaritans. These are those that Esarhaddon used to repopulate northern Israel, after Sargon II and his
father, Sennacherib, had carried away the ten tribes.

Then the people of the land weakened the hands of the people of Judah, and
troubled them in building, And hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their
purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia.
(Ezra 4:4-5)

It is interesting to note that the group that opposes the rebuilding of the temple is a group that has
replaced the northern ten tribes. These are not Jews but Gentiles who want to be Jews. In the reform
line of the Millerites, the group that replaces literal northern Israel is the Protestants of the United
States. From the captivity of Hoshea in 723 BC to the captivity of the pope in 1798 is 2520 years. Much 9
could be said here but that must wait for another time.
We will see that the rest of Ezra 4 outlines the opposition that occurs under Cambyses and False
Smerdis.

And in the reign of Ahasuerus [Cambyses], in the beginning of his reign, wrote they
unto him an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem. And in the days
of Artaxerxes [False Smerdis] wrote Bishlam, Mithredath, Tabeel, and the rest of their
companions, unto Artaxerxes king of Persia; and the writing of the letter was written in
the Syrian tongue, and interpreted in the Syrian tongue. (Ezra 4:6-7)

In a surface reading of the Bible, some try to attribute this opposition to the time of Xerxes (the
Ahasuerus of Esther) and Artaxerxes, since these names appear to match those recorded elsewhere.
This creates insuperable contradictions in Scripture and does not accord with history. Ellen White
plainly tells us, though we can discern this from the Bible itself, who these kings are.

During the reign of Cambyses the work on the temple progressed slowly. And
during the reign of the false Smerdis (called Artaxerxes in Ezra 4:7) the Samaritans
induced the unscrupulous impostor to issue a decree forbidding the Jews to rebuild their
temple and city. (Prophets and Kings, 572.)

In addressing the chronology of Darius’ decree, it is important to note that once Darius comes to
the throne there is a searching of the records for Cyrus’ original decree. This takes some time. As noted
earlier, most scholars place Darius’ decree in his second year or 520 BC. As far as I know, the only one
who places the decree in his sixth year is Ellen White.
“Nearly twenty years passed by. Many of the remnant who returned to Judea, had
fallen into a backslidden condition, and were doing no more to restore the house of God
than were their brethren living elsewhere in the Medo-Persian realm. But as the result of
the appeals of Haggai and Zechariah, the returned exiles repented before God, and
labored diligently to complete the temple. The Lord blessed them, and they were greatly
prospered. Their efforts were brought to the notice of Darius Hystaspes, who was
the monarch ruling at that time; and he was impressed to issue a second decree, fully
as favorable as the one issued by Cyrus over twenty years before.” (Review and
Herald, January 23, 1908)

The reason for the delay from the time that the Jews commence the rebuilding of the temple in the
second year of Darius, under the prophesying of Haggai and Zechariah, is that the record of the decree
of Cyrus is hard to find. The search of record that occurs under False Smerdis, and that causes the
rebuilding of the temple to cease, appears only to have looked at the records of the Jews interactions
with Babylon.
10
Rehum the chancellor and Shimshai the scribe wrote a letter against Jerusalem to
Artaxerxes [False Smerdis] the king in this sort…, Be it known unto the king, that the
Jews which came up from thee to us are come unto Jerusalem, building the rebellious
and the bad city, and have set up the walls thereof, and joined the foundations. Be it
known now unto the king, that, if this city be builded, and the walls set up again, then
will they not pay toll, tribute, and custom, and so thou shalt endamage the revenue of the
kings. That search may be made in the book of the records of thy fathers: so shalt
thou find in the book of the records, and know that this city is a rebellious city, and
hurtful unto kings and provinces, and that they have moved sedition within the same of
old time: for which cause was this city destroyed… Then sent the king an answer unto
Rehum the chancellor, and to Shimshai the scribe, and to the rest of their companions
that dwell in Samaria, and unto the rest beyond the river, Peace, and at such a time. The
letter which ye sent unto us hath been plainly read before me. And I commanded, and
search hath been made, and it is found that this city of old time hath made
insurrection against kings, and that rebellion and sedition have been made
therein. There have been mighty kings also over Jerusalem, which have ruled over all
countries beyond the river; and toll, tribute, and custom, was paid unto them. Give ye
now commandment to cause these men to cease, and that this city be not builded, until
another commandment shall be given from me. Then ceased the work of the house of
God which is at Jerusalem. So it ceased unto the second year of the reign of Darius king of
Persia. (Ezra 4:8, 12, 13, 15, 17-21, 24)

SEVENTY YEARS OF THE DESOLATION OF THE TEMPLE


Darius’ decree marks the termination of the fourth seven times, which is a period of seventy years.
This period, directly mentioned in Scripture but often mistaken as referring to the seventy years
captivity, is the seventy years of the desolation of the temple. A careful reading of the two places where
Zechariah refers to a period of seventy years allows us to see that they do not refer to the seventy years
of the Babylonian captivity but to another period of seventy years. We should note that the following
statements were given in the second and fourth years of Darius’ reign respectively and cannot then be
referring to a period of 70 years that has been completed but to a period of seventy years that is about
to be completed.

Upon the four and twentieth day of the eleventh month, which is the month Sebat,
in the second year of Darius [February 16, 519 BC], came the word of the LORD unto
Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet, saying…. Then the angel of
the LORD answered and said, O LORD of hosts, how long wilt thou not have mercy on
Jerusalem and on the cities of Judah, against which thou hast had indignation these
threescore and ten years? Zechariah 1:7, 12.

And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Darius, that the word of the LORD
came unto Zechariah in the fourth day of the ninth month [December 7, 518 BC], even
in Chisleu… Speak unto all the people of the land, and to the priests, saying, When ye
fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh month, even those [these] seventy years, did
ye at all fast unto me, even to me? Zechariah 7:1, 5.

The fast of the fifth month and the seventh month commemorated the destruction of the temple
and the death of Gedaliah17, their governor, respectively. These both occurred in 586 BC. The seventy
years of Zechariah 1:12 is mentioned 66 years and 6 months after the destruction of Solomon’s temple,
while the seventy years in 7:5 is mentioned 68 years and 4 months after the event. The second temple 11
was fully completed and was dedicated on March 12, 515 BC, 70 years and 7 months after the
destruction of Solomon’s temple.
We ask, would not this period of seventy years end in the summer of 516 BC, since it began in the
summer of 586 BC? If this were the case, what event would mark its termination, if it is not the
completion and dedication of the temple itself? We know that the Babylonian captivity ends with the
events leading to Cyrus’ decree. As we noted, Sister White places Darius’ decree as being more than
twenty years after Cyrus’ decree.
We see that in the account of Darius’ search, the actual decree of Cyrus is found in the city of
Achmetha. Not only is Darius’ search more thorough than that of False Smerdis, it looks for the actual
decree.

Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the rolls,
where the treasures were laid up in Babylon. And there was found at Achmetha, in the
palace that is in the province of the Medes, a roll, and therein was a record thus
written: In the first year of Cyrus the king the same Cyrus the king made a decree
concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, Let the house be builded, the place where
they offered sacrifices, and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height
thereof threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof threescore cubits; With three rows of
great stones, and a row of new timber: and let the expenses be given out of the king's
house: And also let the golden and silver vessels of the house of God, which
Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the temple which is at Jerusalem, and brought unto

17
But it came to pass in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, came, and ten
men with him, and smote Gedaliah, that he died, and the Jews and the Chaldees that were with him at Mizpah. 2Kings 25:25
Babylon, be restored, and brought again unto the temple which is at Jerusalem, every one
to his place, and place them in the house of God. (Ezra 6:1-5)

In looking at the timing of these events, it must be noted that the preaching of Haggai and
Zechariah that commence the rebuilding of the temple are later in the year 520 and extend into 519 BC.
It is probable that the opposition may not have taken note of the rebuilding until 519 BC. It is also
probable that the sending of letters to Darius to oppose the rebuilding may not have reached him until
518 BC, at the earliest. The amount of time taken for search of the decree of Cyrus would have been at
least a year or longer. As noted, according to Sister White there are more than 20 years between the
decree of Cyrus and Darius’ decree, while there are less than twenty years from the return of the exiles
and the said decree. This places the decree of Darius squarely in the summer of 516 BC. The temple was
completed in the early spring of 515 BC, 490 years after the dedication of Solomon’s temple.

And the elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered through the prophesying of
Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. And they builded, and finished it,
according to the commandment of the God of Israel, and according to the commandment
of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia. And this house was finished on the
third day of the month Adar [Sabbath, March 12, 515 BC], which was in the sixth year
of the reign of Darius the king. And the children of Israel, the priests, and the Levites, and
the rest of the children of the captivity, kept the dedication of this house of God with joy,
And offered at the dedication of this house of God an hundred bullocks, two hundred
rams, four hundred lambs; and for a sin offering for all Israel, twelve he goats, according
to the number of the tribes of Israel. And they set the priests in their divisions, and the
Levites in their courses, for the service of God, which is at Jerusalem; as it is written in
the book of Moses. And the children of the captivity kept the passover upon the 12
fourteenth day of the first month [Thursday, April 21, 515 BC]. (Ezra 6:14-19)

The dedication of the temple occurred on Sabbath, March 12, 515 BC. It was followed forty days
later by the Passover on Thursday, April 21, 515 BC. Keep these dates in mind, as we will address then
in the chronology of Samuel Snow’s letters. It was noted back in 2015 that the date of the dedication of
the second temple is the 3D 12M on the Hebrew calendar, while it is the 3M 12D on the Julian calendar.
We will see later the significance of these inversions and the relationship between dates on the biblical
calendar and dates on our calendar.

THE REFORM LINE OF THE SECOND DECREE


It should be obvious that the second decree aligns with the second step of the reform line. For one,
the work of rebuilding the temple is specifically said to be complete by Zerubbabel, whose name means
from Babylon, there is a doubling of the two prophets, Haggai and Zechariah and the work is the
rebuilding of the second temple, besides the simple fact it is the second decree, etc. This is all pretty
obvious. Where the difficulty lies is aligning this second step with the reform line of the Millerites. We
could simply say that the empowerment of the message is the decree itself. However, it is under Xerxes
that we see the type of the Sunday law, with the death decree. Do we work this into the whole reform
line of the decrees or see it as a separate illustration?
Some initial attempts at looking at the reform line of the decrees is illustrated below.

There are some obvious problems. For one, the arrival of the second message with Haggai and
Zechariah does have a tarrying time, though I could place the revival prior to Darius’ decree.
The decree itself could be seen as a reform line. The darkness being false Smerdis, the time of the
end the arrival of Darius and the death of False Smerdis, the increase of light under the preaching of
Haggai and Zechariah, the commencing of the work the laying of the foundation, the work of the
enemies that that follows, the second message begin Darius’ decree, the completion of the temple and
the Passover the arrival of the third message, etc.
Where we will find even more to examine is in the decree of Artaxerxes, especially as it applies to 13
the chronology. As we noted earlier the decrees of these “three kings, in originating, reaffirming, and
completing the decree, brought it to the perfection required by the prophecy [of Daniel 9] to mark the
beginning of the 2300 years.” (Great Controversy, 326) that there are three steps that commence the
2300 days should be carefully noted, in that there are three steps that end the 2300 days, known as the
three angels’ messages. As well, we will see that in the third decree itself that there are three steps that
are clearly marked.
It is this light upon the commencement of the 2300 days that should recommend Seventh-day
Adventists to this message. In the next presentation, we will look at one of the most powerful ways to
introduce this message to Seventh-day Adventists.
LECTURE 3 - ARTAXERXES’ DECREE
THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE 70 WEEKS AND THE 2300 DAYS
Most Seventh-day Adventists know that both the seventy weeks of Daniel 9:24 and the 2300 days
of Daniel 8:14 begin together with the commandment of Artaxerxes to restore and to build Jerusalem in
457 BC. What is less known is how to this is proved.
William Miller first saw that the going forth of the commandment was in the spring of 457 BC.
According to Ezra 7:9, they left Babylon on the 1st day of the 1st month and arrived in Jerusalem on the
1st day of the 5th month in Artaxerxes’ seventh year. They mistakenly believed that the seventh year of
Artaxerxes began in the spring of 457 BC and ended in the spring of 456. Miller believed that the
seventy weeks ended in the spring of 33 AD with the crucifixion of Christ, “exactly” 490 years from their
commencement.18 The point being that Miller believed the 2300 days to commence in the seventh year
of Artaxerxes and end, after 2300 years had passed, about the year 1843. There was a great deal of
uncertainty, at first, exactly when the 2300 days would end. Many disappointments followed
expectations. The disappointment of April 19, 1844 was the point from where they were forced to fully
and frankly admit that, “all our expected and published time, has passed: the Jewish year, civil and
ecclesiastical, in the which we expected the Lord, has expired, and the Savior has not been revealed; and
we would not disguise the fact at all, that we were mistaken in the precise time of the termination of the
prophetic periods.”19 They did not give up hope but believed that they were experiencing the tarrying of
the Bridegroom spoken of in the parable of the ten virgins.

SCHOLARLY ARGUMENTS
In its reevaluation of the calculation of the 2300 days, Seventh-day Adventist scholarship has tried
to find a basis that can convince the scholars of other denominations. In doing so, they find fault with
both the work of Miller and of Snow. They pattern their arguments around those of Protestant 14
scholarship, setting aside the simplicity of Miller’s methods and his appeal to biblical authority. If one
was to read the scholarly articles that attempt to given support for 457 as being Artaxerxes’ seventh
year, we find only sparse biblical evidence. Since almost all scholarship recognises that Artaxerxes’
seventh year began in the spring of 458 and ended in the spring of 457 BC, our reasons for accepting
some other dating for his seventh year must be founded upon solid biblical reasoning. The scholarly
reasoning used by Seventh-day Adventists might appeal to those who have a vested interest in 1844 but
is unconvincing to those who are seeking to be more objective.
We have two lines of reasoning that attempt to nail down 457 as being Artaxerxes’ seventh year.
The first is biblical and considers the fact that the chronology of Nehemiah indicates that he counted
the years of Artaxerxes’ reign fall to fall.

The words of Nehemiah the son of Hachaliah. And it came to pass in the month
Chisleu [Kislev, the ninth month], in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the palace,
(Nehemiah 1:1)

And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king,
that wine was before him: and I took up the wine, and gave it unto the king. Now I had
not been beforetime sad in his presence. (Nehemiah 2:1)

18
“Exactly 490 years, from the decree given in the seventh year of Artaxerxes, 457 years before Christ, unto his death, 33 years after
the birth of Christ, making exactly 490 years, or seventy sevens of years of the vision.” William Miller, 1842, Miller’s Reply to Stuart,
22. It should be noted that Miller failed, at first, to take into account that there was no zero year between 1 BC and 1AD (though there
was a zero in the math used for the calculation).
19
Himes’ Signs of the Times, April 24, 1844, 92.
The reasoning here is sound but still gives no basis for starting the reign in the fall of 458, rather
than the fall of 459. Is Nehemiah counting fall to fall or simply counting the years from the time
Artaxerxes took the throne?
The second line of reasoning comes from an analysis of the Elephantine Papyri. These are Egyptian
Jewish documents that are contemporary with the time of Ezra and Nehemiah and utilise dates on both
the Egyptian and Babylonian [or Hebrew] calendars. Debate exists as to whether or not these
documents are a good example of how Nehemiah, who was in Jerusalem, would have dated the reign of
the Persian kings. The point is that the arguments are technical and not biblical arguments. They
require highly specialised training and remove the means to determine the truth from the common man
to “experts” who may or may not agree. In fact, it is almost solely Adventist scholars who interpret
these documents to support a 457 BC date for the journey of Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem in
Artaxerxes’ seventh year.
If we are to find support for the prophetic periods, it must come from the Bible itself. It is a
mistake to use the methods of apostate Protestantism. History shows that it only leads to apostasy. If
we are to find support for the prophecies upon which Adventism is founded, we must use the methods
of study that were used by those who first established these prophecies.
The solution lies in a solid understanding of Millerite history. There is special light that shines on
our history. It is no less than the light of the midnight cry.

After these seven thunders uttered their voices, the injunction comes to John as to
Daniel in regard to the little book: “Seal up those things which the seven thunders
uttered.” These relate to future events which will be disclosed [unsealed] in their
order. Daniel shall stand in his lot at the end of the days. John sees the little book
unsealed. Then Daniel’s prophecies have their proper place in the first, second, and third
angels’ messages to be given to the world. The unsealing of the little book was the 15
message in relation to time.
The books of Daniel and the Revelation are one. One is a prophecy, the other a
revelation; one a book sealed, the other a book opened. John heard the mysteries which
the thunders uttered, but he was commanded not to write them.
The special light given to John which was expressed in the seven thunders was a
delineation of events which would transpire under the first and second angels’
messages. It was not best for the people to know these things, for their faith must
necessarily be tested. In the order of God most wonderful and advanced truths would be
proclaimed. The first and second angels’ messages were to be proclaimed, but no
further light was to be revealed before these messages had done their specific
work. This is represented by the angel standing with one foot on the sea, proclaiming
with a most solemn oath that time should be no longer.
This time, which the angel declares with a solemn oath, is not the end of this
world’s history, neither of probationary time, but of prophetic time, which should
precede the advent of our Lord. That is, the people will not have another message upon
definite time. After this period of time, reaching from 1842 to 1844, there can be no
definite tracing of the prophetic time. The longest reckoning reaches to the autumn of
1844.
The angel’s position, with one foot on the sea, the other on the land, signifies the
wide extent of the proclamation of the message. It will cross the broad waters and be
proclaimed in other countries, even to all the world. The comprehension of truth, the
glad reception of the message, is represented in the eating of the little book. The truth in
regard to the time of the advent of our Lord was a precious message to our souls.20

20
SDA Bible Commentary, volume 7, 971. The author gives a detailed analysis of this passage in a paper entitled The Seven Thunders
CRITICISMS OF ADVENTIST METHODS
While there is a myriad of sources that I could use to show the paucity of support these scholarly
arguments have, I have chosen a sympathetic source that seeks to resolve the various problems. Juarez
Rodriguez de Oliveira is a Brazilian Adventist Scholar who expresses support for 457 BC and 1844. He
is critical of modern Adventist scholarship that overstates the support for these dates and seeks to find
other arguments for them. While we find weakness in his approach as well, we recognise his correct
assessment of the problem.21
He outlines the specific problems thus:

“There are three main problems related to the beginning of the prophetic periods:
“(1) the impossibility of proving conclusively the date 457 B.C. as the year for Ezra’s trip;
“(2) the problem involved in incorrectly placing the tenth day of the seventh month in 457 B.C. in
September, and not in October, as required;
“(3) the lack of a specific Julian date for the beginning.”22

We will address these problems in more detail later. What we will note now is that Artaxerxes’
seventh year, according to the Egyptian calendar was from Dec. 16, 459 to Dec. 15, 458 B. C., while
according to the Persian calendar, it was from April 8, 458 to March 26, 457 B. C. For Seventh day
Adventists, we must consider Artaxerxes’ seventh year as being reckoned from October 2, 458 to
October 19, 457 BC.
Oliveira shows that many of the statements by Adventist scholars (Horn, Hasel, Olson, et al.) are
overstated. They later admit this.23 For one, the support for the counting of Artaxerxes’ reign as
commencing in December of 465 BC was based upon a tablet that has now been reinterpreted. Most
scholars see the death of Xerxes, and this the commencement of Artaxerxes’ reign as being prior to the
start of the Jewish year 465 BC (October 8, 465 BC). That is, Artaxerxes must have succeeded to the 16
throne after October 8, 465 BC, for the trip of Ezra to have occurred in the spring of 457 BC, with
Artaxerxes’ seventh year being from the fall of 458 to the fall of 457 BC. For another, many scholars do
not see a solid basis for counting the reign of Persian kings fall to fall. They see Ezra’s trip as
commencing in the spring of 458 BC, or starting on Nisan 1, it being the first day of the seventh year of
Artaxerxes’ reign.
While we agree with Oliveira that the tenth day of the seventh month in 457 is in October,
specifically October 29, his arguments to place this date as the commencement for the 70 weeks and
the 2300 days falls short. We believe that it is an understanding of the dates given in Ezra 7 – 10, which
place the 10D 7M in the centre of a chiasm as a solid biblical argument. These chiasms tie 457 to 1844,
in ways that the Millerites could never have imagined. It is these chiasms that we will later flesh out.

and Their Unsealing.


21
He States, as the definition of the problem, “The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the dates traditionally held by the SDA
Church as the fulfillment of the prophetic periods of Daniel 8:14 and 9:24-27 (457 B.C. – A.D. 31 – A.D. 1844) have biblical,
typological, historical, chronological, astronomical and mathematical support, provided we consider that these periods start precisely
in the autumn of 457 B.C., on the date of the cleansing of the sanctuary, the tenth day of the seventh Jewish month in 457 B.C. (Tishri
10 = October 28/29, Julian), the middle of the seventieth week coincides with the fifteenth of the first Jewish month in A.D. 31 (Nisan
15 = April 26/27, Julian), and the whole period ends on the tenth day of the seventh Jewish month in 1844 (Tishri 10 = October 22/23,
Gregorian), sunset to sunset, Jerusalem time. The problem is that these consistencies and precisions of the prophetic structure have
been gradually distorted and overlooked.” Chronological Studies Related to Daniel 8:14 and 9:24-27, 1.
22
Ibid. 5.
23
“September 14, 1990. Dear Brother Oliveira: I want to thank you for calling my attention to an incorrect statement I made in the
pamphlet, One Hundred and One Questions. I there stated, on page 16: ‘Drs. Lynn Wood and Siegfried Horn have established with
absolute certainty the date 457 B.C. as the year when Artaxerxes issued his decree.’ You have pointed out to me that Drs. Horn and
Wood have indicated that there remains ‘a certain degree’ of ‘uncertainty’ in their computations (The Chronology of Ezra 7, page 125).
Your careful work is very helpful to me, and I want you to know that I appreciate this reminder that I need to be more careful myself.
God bless you in your research. We need people like you in our church. Sincerely, (signed) Robert W. Olson”.
THE END OF THE 2300 DAYS
While, after the first disappointment of April 19, 1844, the Millerites found themselves in the
tarrying time, with all of their hopes seemingly dashed, the key to their disappointment lay in the
understanding of the biblical calendar.

As our time has thus passed by--the civil year having terminated last October, and
the ecclesiastical, with the new moon in April [this being on the evening of the 18th], we
are now prepared to tell the world what we shall do--a question which has often been
asked. We intend to hold fast the integrity of our faith without wavering; and not cast
away our confidence which hath great recompense of reward. We intend to continue to
comfort one another with the words of the coming of Christ, who will come and will not
tarry. We shall continue to believe God's word, in its literal acceptation: for not one jot or
tittle of all that is written therein will fail.24

It was in this tarrying time that Samuel S. Snow, through his personal diligent Bible study came to
recognise that the 2520 years must end in the fall of 1844, rather than in the spring, since, he believed,
they must have commenced in the fall. Just as William Miller first saw the 2520 years ending in 1843
prior to his discovering the 2300 days, Snow first saw the end of the prophetic periods using the 2520
years. He first expressed this in a letter sent to the editor of the Midnight Cry! dated February 16, 1844
and published on the 22nd. This letter was again republished in The Signs of the Times, on April 3, 1844
by Himes. Snow’s letter, though published, was pretty much ignored and came with a disclaimer. 25 It
was not until August 15, 1844, at the Exeter camp meeting, that the midnight cry was empowered.26
We say this all to make a point. The light unfolded as they approached the event. The light of the
midnight cry is still shining and it is still unfolding, even in regards to the commencement of the 2300
days. For one, with no one’s intent, the message was empowered exactly 2300 years to the day, from 17
when Ezra arrived in Jerusalem. Since the 1st day of the 1st month in 1844 was April 19, this means
that the 1st day of the 5th month was August 15. This light was not recognised until the summer of
2013. We further came to understand that Snow’s first presentation of the midnight cry, which was
given on July 21, at the Boston tabernacle, was exactly midnight. This he partly understood.

Brother Snow thus questioned them; "Where are we in our Advent experience?"
Answer from the audience: "In the tarrying time."
Question: "How long was the vision to tarry?"
Answer: "Until midnight"
Question: "What is a day in prophecy?"
Answer: "A year."
Question: "Then what would a night be?"
Answer: "Six months."
Question: "Then what would Midnight be?"
Answer: "Three months."
Question: "How long have we been in the tarrying time?"
Answer: "Just three months."

24
Joshua V. Times, Signs of the Times, April 24, 1844, 93.
25
The following article from the pen of Bro. Snow, we re-publish at his request from the Midnight Cry. We can find no period for the
termination of the prophetic times, but the Jewish year 1843…. Our Bro. has made a mistake of one year in his reference to Dr. Hales;
and may have been misled by the diagram in Bro. Hale s Watchman's last warning, in which the same mistake was made. Also, the
1335 days have not been shown to commence later than A. D. 508. We therefore can find no time beyond the Jewish year 1843; and if
there is any time beyond that, we can only wait for the vision the little while, that chronology may vary from the time appointed.
While we therefore insert the article, we must dissent from our Bro. conclusions.” Himes’ Signs of the Times, April 3, 1844, 68.
26
Snow also presented the midnight cry in Boston, on July 21. Though well received, it was not attended with power.
He said, "Then it is just the midnight now, and I am here with the midnight cry." In a
few sentences he explained that it was the fall of 457 that the decree went forth, and so
they were short six months in their reckoning, showing them that the 2300 days would
terminate Oct. 22, 1844, instead of the spring as they had previously supposed. Then, in
a strong voice he said, "Behold the Bridegroom cometh on the tenth day of the seventh
month, Oct. 22, 1844. Go ye out to meet Him."27, 28

We note here a distinction in the waymarks. It had always been assumed that midnight and the
midnight cry were the same waymark. In a sense they are. The way mark of the midnight cry is the
empowerment of the second angel’s message which is doubled, “Babylon is fallen! is fallen!” but we
have come to recognise that midnight preceded the midnight cry.

DANIEL 9:25
We now turn our attention back to the verse that is the basis for the commencement of the seventy
weeks and the 2300 days. “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the
commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks,
and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.” For
most Adventists, this can be fulfilled by none other than Artaxerxes’ decree in 457 BC. We will see that
the issue is much more complex. For one, most Adventists seem to believe that the subject is the
rebuilding of the city and the temple. However, we have seen that the temple was completed in 515 BC,
some 59 years previous to Artaxerxes’ decree.29
To understand this more fully, we propose that the verse is fulfilled in three steps. As noted earlier,
Miller understood that the going forth of the commandment occurred when Ezra left Babylon on the 1st
day of the 1st month. We have seen that the 1st day of the 1st month marks the first disappointment in
1844. The second step occurred, when Ezra arrived in Jerusalem on the 1st day of the 5th month in 457 18
BC. The Hebrew word that is translated in the KJV as “restore” means “return”.30 This is marked in 1844
with the empowerment of the midnight cry at Exeter. The third step is the building of Jerusalem. Can we
also mark this in 457 BC? When Ezra arrives in Jerusalem on a Thursday, he waits for three days before
bringing the gold to the temple on the first day of the week.31 The next date that is given in Ezra is when
he calls all of the people to Jerusalem for confession, giving them three days to arrive. The three days
ends on the 20th day of the 9th month.32 Nothing is specifically marked between these two dates. It is
our contention that this is a chiasm, or prophetic mirror. The date that lies exactly in the middle of the
1st day of the 5th month and the 20th day of the 9th month is the 10th day of the 7th month.
What is meant by, “to build”? If we examine the commandment of Artaxerxes, there is not really

27
1905 J.N. Loughborough, The Great Second Advent Movement: Its Rise and Progress, 523.
28
Loughborough mistakenly places this message at Exeter; however it would not have been three months that they had been in the
tarrying time. Bates places this message at about July 20. Froom provides the detail. “During January and February he [Snow] had
been preaching on the fall of Babylon and the coming of the Lord, as the Bridegroom to the "marriage," on the tenth day of the
seventh (Jewish) month, 1844. However, there was but little interest or response at the time. In April he located his family in
Worcester and went to New York, where hostility had lessened concerning the preaching of the seventh month of 1844— Miller's
"Jewish year 1843" having then expired. After three weeks in New York, Brooklyn, and Newark he went on to Philadelphia upon
request of George Storrs. In May he returned to Worcester, remaining until July 21. Then, by invitation, Snow preached that day in the
large Boston Tabernacle on the text, "Behold, the Bridegroom cometh (on the tenth day of the seventh month), go ye out to meet
him!"” 1954 L. E. Froom, The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers, 802.
29
We are often fooled into thinking this by reference to Ezra 6:14 that says, “And they builded, and finished it [the Temple], according
to the commandment of the God of Israel, and according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia.”
There is no doubt that the furnishing of the temple occurred under Artaxerxes but this was not the main intent of the decree.
30
Most translations recognise this. The King James translators also recognised that Hebrew word shuv, used in the text, translated as
“restore”, means to “return”, since that is what the word “restore” meant to them. The word did not then have the meaning of “repair”.
Even the word “repair” used to mean “return” (i.e. “I will repair to my room”).
31
Ezra 8:32-33.
32
Ezra 10:7-9
anything about the “building” of the city. This work occurs thirteen years later in 444 BC, under
Artaxerxes’ twentieth year, with his second decree that addresses the rebuilding of the streets and
walls. If we examine the decree and what occurs from Ezra’s arrival to Jerusalem and the confession
that takes place in the 20th day of the 9th month, we can see what the building is really about and why
this points to the 10th day of the 7th month as the commencement of the 2300 days.

Also we certify you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, singers, porters,
Nethinims, or ministers of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose toll, tribute,
or custom, upon them. And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God, that is in thine hand,
set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are beyond the
river, all such as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye them that know them not.
And whosoever will not do the law of thy God, and the law of the king, let judgment
be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to
confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment. (Ezra 7:24-26)

This is really the heart of the decree. It is the setting up of the civil authority and returning this to
the control of the Jews themselves that fulfills the command to build Jerusalem. Moreover, if we observe
Ezra’s actions during this period, it is evident that this is what he is doing. In chapter 8 he sets up the
civil and religious administration. In chapter 9 he personally confesses the sins of Judah, especially in
regards to intermarriage. When he makes his call to the people to come to Jerusalem, it is with the
authority to confiscate the goods of those or even banish those who will not come. Also, the
divorcements are to be “done according to the law.”
We cannot accept these chiasms as the result of mere coincidence. The mirror in 457 BC points to
the commencement of the 2300 days as being on the 10th day of the 7th month. The mirror in 1844,
points to midnight, the 5th day of the 4th month, in Millerite history. We represent this in the chart 19
below.33

MORE LIGHT FROM 457 BC


As we have continued to examine the chronology of 457 BC, greater light continues to unfold. The
prophetic mirror that marks the Day of Atonement in 457, commencing the 2300 days, is mirrored in
the first part of the year, with a mirror pointing to Pentecost.
Just as we have three days the follow Ezra’s arrival to Jerusalem, there are three days the precede
his departing from the river Ahava. It is there that he divides the gold and silver provided in Artaxerxes

33
This chart is a simplification of the dates, using a 30-day month. In reality, the months alternate 30 and 29 days. It is merely simpler
to do the math. From the 1st day of the 1st month to the 10th day of the 7th month, it is always 187 days. Each period is actually 69
days, which is symbolically 70 days. The Day of Atonement is exactly in the middle. It does not change the nature of the chiasms.
decree to the priests. On the twelfth day of the first month, they depart, after they have tarried.

So took the priests and the Levites the weight of the silver, and the gold, and the
vessels, to bring them to Jerusalem unto the house of our God. Then we departed from
the river of Ahava on the twelfth day of the first month, to go unto Jerusalem: and the
hand of our God was upon us, and he delivered us from the hand of the enemy, and of
such as lay in wait by the way. And we came to Jerusalem, and abode there three days.
Now on the fourth day was the silver and the gold and the vessels weighed in the house
of our God by the hand of Meremoth the son of Uriah the priest; and with him was
Eleazar the son of Phinehas; and with them was Jozabad the son of Jeshua, and Noadiah
the son of Binnui, Levites; (Ezra 8:30-33)

If we use the twelfth day of the first month that follows these three days and find what lies exactly
between the three days that commence with the first day of the fifth month, we have the sixth day of the
third month marked. We may remember this from Exodus. This is fifty days after the sixteenth day of
the first month. It is the Day of Pentecost, the day upon which the Ten Commandments were spoken
from Mount Sinai.
As well, the middle of the seventieth week of the seventy weeks prophecy is marked by the events
of Christ’s crucifixion resurrection and accession, as well as the Holy Spirit being poured out on the
disciples on the Day of Pentecost, as Christ inaugurated His ministry in the holy place of the heavenly
sanctuary. “His enthronement in His mediatorial kingdom was signalized by the outpouring of the Holy
Spirit. On the day of Pentecost the Spirit was given.” (Christ’s Object Lessons, 118.)

20

THREE PROPHETIC MIRRORS, YEA FOUR


These three prophetic mirrors, pointing to midnight or July 21, 1844, Pentecost or 6D 3M in 457
BC and the Day or Atonement or the 10D 7M in 457 BC, are all part of a more significant structure.
Without an understanding of these mirrors that commence and end the 2300 days, we would not be
able to see the significance of the chronology of the letters of Samuel Snow. In our next four lectures, we
will see that there is a fourth mirror. This mirror speaks to our time. Before we slowly piece through the
significance of Snow’s letters, written and published in 1844, we will look at topic that was the main
theme of his letters.
LECTURE 4 - MIDST OF THE WEEK
CONFIRMING THE COVENANT
The covenant that is confirmed by the death of Christ is the midst of his personal 2520 curse is one
that is confirmed “for many”. “And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the
midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease…” (Daniel 9:27a) There is only
one covenant that is being spoken of. This everlasting covenant was given in Eden and unfolded
throughout history. The centre of this covenant is Christ hanging upon the cross between heaven and
earth. The Seed of the woman, the Prince of the covenant, the Lamb of God, etc. must suffer for man’s
sin, if man is to be redeemed. He must be made a curse, to redeem those who are under the curse.
There may truly be only one covenant but there are many dispensations of God’s promises. The
“many” then is not referring to individuals but is referring to the various dispensations under which
God’s purposes and promises were unfolded. These include the various “curses”. The cross marks the
movement from one dispensation to another. It marks the transition from literal to spiritual Israel. In
fact, without the 70 week prophecy, there would be no way to have the 2300 days apply to the heavenly
sanctuary. Without the transition from literal to spiritual, we cannot have the spiritual.
The question is what does spiritual mean? What do we mean by spiritual Israel? What do we
inherit from literal Israel? Sister White answers this in Prophets and Kings, 713-715.

That which God purposed to do for the world through Israel, the chosen
nation, He will finally accomplish through His church on earth today. He has “let out
His vineyard unto other husbandmen,” even to His covenant-keeping people, who
faithfully “render Him the fruits in their seasons.” Never has the Lord been without true
representatives on this earth who have made His interests their own. These witnesses
for God are numbered among the spiritual Israel, and to them will be fulfilled all the 21
covenant promises made by Jehovah to His ancient people.
Today the church of God is free to carry forward to completion the divine plan for
the salvation of a lost race. For many centuries God’s people suffered a restriction of
their liberties. The preaching of the gospel in its purity was prohibited, and the severest
of penalties were visited upon those who dared disobey the mandates of men. As a
consequence, the Lord’s great moral vineyard was almost wholly unoccupied. The people
were deprived of the light of God’s word. The darkness of error and superstition
threatened to blot out a knowledge of true religion. God’s church on earth was as verily
in captivity during this long period of relentless persecution as were the children of
Israel held captive in Babylon during the period of the exile.
But, thank God, His church is no longer in bondage. To spiritual Israel have
been restored the privileges accorded the people of God at the time of their
deliverance from Babylon. In every part of the earth, men and women are responding
to the Heaven-sent message which John the revelator prophesied would be proclaimed
prior to the second coming of Christ: “Fear God, and give glory to Him; for the hour of His
judgment is come.” Revelation 14:7.
No longer have the hosts of evil power to keep the church captive; for “Babylon is
fallen, is fallen, that great city,” which hath “made all nations drink of the wine of the
wrath of her fornication;” and to spiritual Israel is given the message, “Come out of her,
My people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.”
Verse 8; 18:4. As the captive exiles heeded the message, “Flee out of the midst of
Babylon” ( Jeremiah 51:6), and were restored to the Land of Promise, so those who fear
God today are heeding the message to withdraw from spiritual Babylon, and soon they
are to stand as trophies of divine grace in the earth made new, the heavenly Canaan.
To understand this simply, we could say that ancient Israel is typical of spiritual Israel. If we are to
understand the anti-typical, we must have a correct appreciation of the typical. If we are to understand
the confirming of the covenant, we must understand what that covenant is and how Christ’s death upon
the cross confirms it.

THE “ONE WEEK”


Why does Christ confirm the covenant in “one week”? First, God created this world in one week.
The work of recreation after sin is also “one week”. There are six thousand years of this work and a
thousand years of rest from this work. The week is a symbol of God’s restoration from sin. The Sabbath,
a memorial of God’s creative work becomes a symbol of God’s re-creative work. This is pretty
straightforward and well understood by Seventh-day Adventists.
God utilised the sabbatical cycle for the children of Israel, as they inherited the land that He had
promised to Abraham. The land was to work for six “days” and rest on the seventh “day” - the seventh
year of that sabbatical cycle. “Seven times seven years” were also used in the Jubilee cycle. God has set
the pattern of His work of restoration. When God’s people failed to observed these cycles that are
presented in Leviticus 25, we find corrective periods of “seven times” given in Leviticus 26 to correct
and chastise God’s people. The four “seven times” are fulfilled in four periods of time over a period of
220 years, as we have seen.
When we look at the “one week” of Christ, what is its connexion to the prophetic periods and their
role in reforming God’s people?

THE MIDST OF THE WEEK


Why in the midst of the week is Messiah cut off? Why is Christ’s personal week of seven years
(2520 days) divided into two periods of 3 ½ years (1260 days)? We know that when Abram asked for a
visible sign of God’s covenant promise, it was confirmed by the figure of a burning lamp and a smoking 22
furnace passing between the carcasses that God had Abram prepare. We have shown elsewhere that
this was symbolic of the period of 430 years that was equally divided into two periods of 215 years. We
must then understand that Christ’s personal period of 2520 days is a visible sign given to confirm
Christ’s covenant to us.
The understanding of Christ’s week was light that came during the midnight cry. Miller initially
understood that the 70 weeks ended with Christ’s crucifixion in 33 AD. Samuel Snow came to
understand that Christ was crucified in 31 AD, after he applied the Karaite calendar to the problem.
Those who criticise Adventism for placing Christ’s crucifixion in 31 AD, fail to understand how the
Hebrew calendar works.34

UNDERSTANDING THE PASSOVER IN THE TIME OF CHRIST


Much of the problem in placing the date for Christ’s crucifixion lies in our lack of understanding, or
misunderstanding, in how the events of the Passover week unfolded. The setting aside of the Passover
lamb was done on the 10th day of the 1st month. Christ entered the temple just after the setting of the
sun on the Sunday evening, just as the 10th day had commenced. The lamb was slain at the
commencement of the 14th of Nisan between the two evenings. The last Supper was the Passover meal.
Many people think that Jesus died at the time of the Passover lamb. However, this is impossible, in that
they had already had the Passover meal. According to the Spirit of Prophecy Christ died at the time of
the evening sacrifice. It was this sacrifice that escaped from the hands of the priest.

In the temple the morning and the evening sacrifice daily pointed to the Lamb
of God…. When the loud cry, “It is finished,” came from the lips of Christ, the priests were

34
See 27 to 34 AD calendar in the Appendix
officiating in the temple. It was the hour of the evening sacrifice. The lamb representing
Christ had been brought to be slain. Clothed in his significant and beautiful dress, the
priest stood with lifted knife, as did Abraham when he was about to slay his son. With
intense interest the people were looking on. But the earth trembles and quakes; for the
Lord Himself draws near. With a rending noise the inner veil of the temple is torn from
top to bottom by an unseen hand, throwing open to the gaze of the multitude a place
once filled with the presence of God. In this place the Shekinah had dwelt. Here God had
manifested His glory above the mercy seat. No one but the high priest ever lifted the veil
separating this apartment from the rest of the temple. He entered in once a year to make
an atonement for the sins of the people. But lo, this veil is rent in twain. The most holy
place of the earthly sanctuary is no longer sacred. { DA 756.5}
All is terror and confusion. The priest is about to slay the victim; but the knife drops
from his nerveless hand, and the lamb escapes. Type has met antitype in the death of
God’s Son. The great sacrifice has been made. The way into the holiest is laid open. A
new and living way is prepared for all. No longer need sinful, sorrowing humanity await
the coming of the high priest. Henceforth the Saviour was to officiate as priest and
advocate in the heaven of heavens. It was as if a living voice had spoken to the
worshipers: There is now an end to all sacrifices and offerings for sin. The Son of God is
come according to His word, “Lo, I come (in the volume of the Book it is written of Me,)
to do Thy will, O God.” “By His own blood” He entereth “in once into the holy place,
having obtained eternal redemption for us.” Hebrews 10:7; 9:12. Desire of Ages, 45, 756,
757.

One of the arguments for the Passover lamb being slain on the Friday evening, at the same time
Christ was slain, is that the Jews had not yet eaten the Passover, which was to be eaten before morning. 23
This would have been about sunrise that they came to Pilate’s judgment hall.

Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and
they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that
they might eat the Passover. (John 18:28)

The Jewish priests were strict in observing their own traditions. They would not
enter the Roman judgment-hall, for fear of defilement. But their hearts were already
defiled by sin. They were seeking the death of Him who was represented by the Passover,
and who passed over the houses of the Israelites, and slew the Egyptians. Through their
own evil work the priests and rulers had already separated themselves from God, and
were confederating with the synagog of Satan. By cherishing envy and jealousy, they
were transgressing every precept of the law of God. They were acting out the attributes
of the enemy of God. Signs of the Times, January 24, 1900.

There can be two arguments against this point. One, the Jews had already disobeyed the law by the
nighttime trial. They were not above transgressing lesser laws. That they had already not eaten the
lamb may not have mattered as much as the defilement. Second, this may have been one of their
traditions regarding the observance of the Hagigah, or first day of the feast of unleavened bread, which
was on the 15th of the month. Whatever the case, Christ could not have had the Passover with his
disciples, if the Passover lamb was slain at the time He was crucified. The events and timing of the
Passover were fulfilled by Christ. The wave sheaf was fulfilled in His resurrection. Pentecost, the 6th
day of the 3rd month was fulfilled by Christ’s inauguration of His heavenly ministry.
24

THE 2604 YEAR PROPHETIC MIRROR


If we stretch the line of Samaria over the line of Jerusalem, as suggested in 2 Kings 21:13, we can
see the two 46 year periods, mentioned above, at both ends of this prophetic mirror.

No prophetic periods extend beyond 1844. That is, we cannot predict events that are to occur after
1844. We can only recognise events, as they unfold. However, there is no reason that we cannot see a
structure in the prophetic periods that can extend beyond 1844 that can be recognised after the fact,
such as that that we have seen in the chronology of the story of Joseph. In fact, the prophecy in Isaiah 7-
8 suggests a prophetic mirror that begins with the giving of the prophecy. We also note that the
prophecy regarding Mahershalalhashbaz was written on a mirror. Also, many scholars have noted the
chiastic literary structure of Isaiah 7-9, as well as chiastic structure with the prophecy itself.35 Of course
the strongest argument is the fact that there is an obvious chronological chiasm. The events that begin
the chiasm are mirrored in the events of 1863. In 742 BC the prophecy is given or revealed at a time
that there is a civil war between the north and the south, the north being confederate. The prophecy

35
Peter J. Leithart, David Dorsey, William Shea, et al.
declares that they will not be a people and not established. The prophecy is given in regards to literal
Israel and Judah and addresses the literal land of Israel. In 1863, we see the reverse. The prophecy is
hidden on the 1863 chart, as we will examine shortly, at a time when there is a civil war between the
north and the south with, this time, the south being confederate. God’s people are established and
denominated as the Seventh-day Adventist Church. At the end of the chiasm it is not the literal people
or land of Israel but their spiritual counterparts. Further the nineteen years that begin the chiasm are
reflected in the nineteen years at the end, just as the two periods of forty-six years are.

Further evidence that this mirror is not a coincidence exists on the 1863 chart itself and is hidden
in the final week of Christ. It is divided into two periods of 3 ½ years, just as the 2520 for Israel is, with
the cross in the middle – a classical chronological chiasm. The verse in Daniel that addresses this week
gives us further evidence to see this as something hidden to be seen later. First, we are told that the
seventy weeks will “seal up [conceal] the vision and prophecy.” Verse 27 says, “And he shall confirm the
covenant [12] with many for one week [7]: and in the midst of the week [31 AD] he shall cause the
sacrifice and the oblation to cease.” If we take this as a mathematical formula, 7 x 12 x 31 = 2604, we
come to the same number of years from when the prophecy is first counted to when it is hidden. This 25
formula is not without precedent and is on the 1843 chart. Indeed, it is the only other place where it
can be found in all of the Millerite writings. There, it is 7 x 12 x 30 = 2520.

FURTHER DIVIDING THE WEEK


One thing that is obvious to anyone familiar with the Hebrew calendar is that there are not literally
2520 days in a period of seven years. Any period of seven years would contain two extra months that
have been added to correct the lunar calendar to align it with the solar year. If we were to count 1260
days back from the crucifixion on Friday, April 27, 31 AD, we would arrive at November 15, 27 AD. Some
might argue that this would have been when Jesus was baptized. However, it is interesting to note that if
we add 46 days, the number of years that span both the start and end of the two 2520’s we arrive at
September 30, 27 AD, which happens to correspond to the 10D 7M on the biblical calendar. If we add a
further 19 days, to correspond to the 19 years of the prophetic mirror, we arrive at September 11, 27
AD. If we move forward 2604 days, for the entire 2604 years of the prophetic mirror, we come to
October 27, 34 AD or the 25D 7M. From the 10D 7m of 27 AD to the 10D 7M of 34 AD (in fact, from any
date in 27 AD to any date in 34 AD) is 2570 days (not 2520 days).

CONCLUSIONS
The understanding of the midst of the week has been little examined by Seventh-day Adventists.
We believe that it is in the light of the midnight cry, in which Samuel Snow first expounded the correct
understanding of the seventieth week, that we can find the unfolding of light, in regards to the
seventieth week.
The pattern of the week, it being divided into two periods of 3 ½ years, sheds light upon all of the
prophecies of Scripture. The cross becomes the thematic centre of the structure of prophetic
chronology. The cross ties together the various dispensations in ways we are just beginning to
understand. 26
The Passover, at the time of Christ’s crucifixion, is more than just a symbol of the work of Christ. It
speaks to our time. As we examine Samuel Snow’s letters, we will see that the Passover plays an
important role is the separation of the two classes. This was true in Christ’s day, in the time of the
Millerites and in our day.
LECTURE 5 - SAMUEL SNOW’S FIRST AND SECOND LETTERS
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SAMUEL SNOW’S LETTERS
If we are to understand Samuel Snow’s letters, we must see that these reveal a progressive
unfolding of light that led to the declaration that Jesus was to return on October 22, 1844. We will
examine the contents of each letter, in the next three presentations, and specifically focus upon the
significance of the timing of both their writing and publication.
There are four letters that Snow had published in 1844 that relate to the timing of the end of the
prophetic periods and that were published before midnight that we will consider. These are (1) the
letter to Bro. Southard written February 16 and published in The Midnight Cry! On February 22, and
republished on April 3, 1844; (2) an undated letter addressed to the Brethren of the Advent Faith and
published in The Midnight Cry! May 2; (3) a letter to Bro. Southard written on June 22 and published in
The Midnight Cry! June 27; and finally (4) an article entitled Confirming the Covenant written on June 29
and published in The Midnight Cry! on July 18.

RECENT HISTORY
The first examination of Samuel Snow’s letters began at the beginning of 2017, in the recognition
of their relationship to the Prediction Before Midnight (PBM). Initially, it was Snow’s letter, published in
The Midnight Cry! on May 2, known as his second letter,36 which was marked as the PBM. Some
suggested we should consider the last letter published on July 18, rather than the May 2 letter, as being
the prediction. While sorting through the various letters and the discussion over which might be the
PBM, there arose an error that suggested that 9/11 was not symbolised by April 19 (1D 1M). In the
debate, attention was drawn away from the letters themselves, something we see as a mistake, since the
answers to our dilemma lies in a correct understanding of the content and chronology of these letters.
As many know, the PBM, in our history, relates to the role that Russia plays in the final events. 27
Specifically, the antitypical battles of Raphia and Panium which were between the king of the north and
the king of the south typify events in our history, which are marked at midnight and the midnight cry,
respectively. Just as Miller foresaw the role that the tenth day of the seventh Jewish month would play
in the end of the prophetic periods, as seen in his Miller’s May 3, 1843 letter Concerning the 7th Jewish
Month37, Elder Jeff’s reference to Russia in the summer of 2016 anticipates the light that was later to
unfold in regard to Russia. The problem being that Miller’s comments occur before April 19, 1844,
while Jeff’s comments are after 9/11, which is typified by April 19. We believe that there is a solution to
this dilemma.
It was established by Elder Thabo that three days are symbolic of the PBM. This he shows in the
story of the butler and baker, Ezra’s trip from Babylon, etc. That the last letter of Snow’s is published
three days before his presentation of the midnight cry at the Boston Tabernacle on July 21, 1844, should
not, for us, lose its significance. However, it is wrong to dismiss the entire structure of the four letters
and simply see it as choosing which letter fits the bill for the PBM.
A prayerful examination of all the dates for the writing and publication of these four letters
revealed the underlying chiastic structure. Snow’s February 16 letter was published on the date for the
dedication of the temple in 515 BC. That is, it was published in The Midnight Cry! on the 3D 12M,
according to the biblical calendar. Its republication in the Signs of the Times was on April 3, the date that
was kept by both Rabbinic and Karaite Jews as the Passover in 1844. With the May 2 letter, we have
seen that this letter was published on Passover, this being the correct date for the Passover, according to
the biblical calendar, with the 10D 7M falling on October 22. The third letter is written on June 22,

36
Technically, it is his third letter, as there is a May 1 letter that does not address the prophetic periods, though it content and timing
are significant.
37
Published in Signs of the Times, May 17, 1844.
1844 and published in the Midnight Cry of June 27, 1844. The date of its writing accords with the 6D
3M and is the day of Pentecost. Its publication date is 11D 3M. I know of no significance to this date on
the biblical calendar. However, a doubling of the date yields 22D 6M, which we would interpret on our
calendar as June 22, pointing back to the date it was written. This Gordian knot is highly unlikely to
have occurred by chance, especially as it is a prominent feature within the structure of Snow’s letters.
This principal of doubling dates was actually discovered earlier, and was discovered while puzzling
over the date of the writing of the first letter. What was the significance of February 16? On the biblical
calendar its date of 26D 11M held no special significance that could be determined. After puzzling over
this for days, the solution was given in a dream. The suggestion was that February 16 should be
doubled. The date can be represented as 2M 16D. If we add two months to February 16, we get April 16.
If we add the 16 days to that, we arrive at May 2, the date that Elder Thabo promoted as the PBM. We
can then add 2M 16D to May 2. This gives us the date of the publication of Snow’s final letter on July 18,
1844.
It was then concluded that the whole of Snow’s four letters make up the PBM, it being a
progressive unfolding of light. To try to single out any one letter is a mistake. May 2, Elder Thabo’s
choice for the PBM, is seen as the centre of this chiasm.

28

A FURTHER LOOK AT SNOW’S FIRST LETTER


In Snow’s first letter, he puts forward his initial arguments for seeing the completion of the
prophetic periods in the fall, instead of the spring, based upon several lines of argument.
The first is the suggestion that since the world was created in the fall it should end in the fall. Each
one of his arguments is based upon assumptions, some of which are suspect.38 He appeals to the idea
that the 6000 years from the creation of the world ends in the fall of 1843. This chronology does not
accord with Ussher and is the creation of Miller. 153 years are added to Ussher’s dates, to complete the
6000 years. We have shown in other places that Miller’s calculations fail on many biblical accounts. For
one, he fails to sufficiently account for the 480 years from the crossing of the Jordan to the laying of the
foundation of Solomon’s temple and misinterprets Acts 13:20 as showing 490 years from the Exodus to
King Saul. The laying of the foundation of Solomon’s temple, which is in his fourth year, he places in
1022 BC. This would make the dividing of the kingdom occur 986 BC, rather than 977 BC. We know not
where he found the extra nine years of the kings of Judah, to arrive at this number. This being said, the
6000 years, in our understanding, should be reckoned from the fall of man and not from creation. The
date for this event is not known.

38
That year commences in the fall he uses three arguments. (1) “it has been the concurrent opinion of chronologers, both
Jewish and Christian.” (2) Since “man at his creation was to subsist upon the fruits and seeds. Gen. 1: 29. It does not appear
reasonable that these were ripe at any other season than autumn.” (3) “at the Exodus… a change was made in the
commencement of the year… the month called Ethanim or Tishri, in autumn” to “the other with Abib or Nisan, in the spring.”
We would argue that the tradition says the year began in the fall is none other than the opinion of man, that fruits would be
available all year in Eden and the change was from no numbering for the start of the year to numbering the months. That is,
there was no start to the year until the Exodus.
Snow’s second argument is that the 2520 years would have begun with Manasseh’s captivity in the
fall. Again, his reasoning is speculative. From what we now know regarding Manasseh’s captivity, it is
more likely that it was in the spring, since he was conscripted by Esarhaddon, along with 21 other
kings, to haul timber to Nineveh.39 This would not have occurred in the winter months.
His third argument is in regards to the 2300 days commencing in the fall before Ezra’s arrival to
Jerusalem is once again a faulty argument. He places the seventh year of Artaxerxes as commencing in
the fall of 457 BC, with the decree being issued at that time. He then has the journey of Ezra as
occurring the following spring. Further, he mistakenly sees Artaxerxes as the Ahasuerus of Esther,
rather than Xerxes.
Oddly, almost all of his arguments fall flat, in proving his point. It is little wonder that his
arguments were not well accepted. To his credit, Snow refined his arguments by August of 1844.
Though not free from error, he had removed many of these errors and presented a sound argument for
the prophetic periods to end in the fall of 1844.

THE CHRONOLOGY OF SNOW’S FIRST LETTER


We have already shown that the dates for the writing and publication of Snow’s February 16 letter
are significant. The date for the writing allows for the chiasm, with the May 2 letter in the middle. The
publication on February 22, it being the 3D 12M of the Jewish year 1843, ties this letter to the second
decree and the completion of the second temple in 515 BC on the 3D 12M of the Jewish year 516 BC.
What follows 40 days later is the Passover on the 14D 1M, which was the first Passover that was
celebrated in the second temple. In 1844, what follows the publication of the first letter on the 3D 12M
is the republication of this letter on the Passover, which was the 14D 1M (April 3), according to the
Rabbinic and Karaite reckoning. Interestingly, this republication includes a disclaimer, in that the
publishers of the Signs of the Times were unable to accept any reckoning of the prophetic periods that
extended past the spring of the year.40 29

THE MAY 2 LETTER


The topic of this letter is a further exposition of the 70 weeks. Specifically, Snow presents his
argument for Jesus’ crucifixion as occurring in the spring of 31 AD and not the spring of 33 AD, as per
Miller. As noted, this dating is partially based upon a spurious document that Snow found published in

39
2 Chronicles 33:11; Prism B v(ANET 291). I [Esarhaddon] mustered [adkema] the kings of the country Hatti [Palestine] and (of the
region) on the other side of the river (Euphrates) (to wit): Ba'lu. king of Tyre, Manasseh (Me-na-si-i), king of Judah (Ia-u-di)
Qaushgabri, king of Edom, Musuri, king of Moab, Sil-Bel, king of Gaza, Metinti, king of Ashekelon, Ikausu, king of Ekron,
Milkiashapa, king of Byblos. Matanba'al, king of Arvad. Abiba'al, king of Samsimuruna, Puduil, king of Beth-Ammon, Ahimilki, king
of Ashdod - 12 kings from the seacoast...10 kings from Cyprus (Iadnana) amidst the sea. together 22 kings of Hatti, the seashore and
the islands; all these I sent out [from Babylon?] and made them transport under terrible difficulties, to Nineveh. the town (where I
exercise) my rulership, as building material for my palace: big logs, long beams (and) thin boards from cedar and pine trees, products
of the Sirara and Lebanon (Lab-na-na) mountains, which had grown for a long time into tall and strong timber, (also) from their
quarries (lit.: place of creation) in the mountains, statues of protective deities (lit.: of Lamassu and Shedu)... square brackets supplied.
40
“Note: The following article from the pen of Bro. Snow, we re-publish at his request from the Midnight Cry [Feb. 22, 1844]. We can
find no period for the termination of the prophetic times, but the Jewish year 1843, reckoning from the dates where the best
chronologists have placed their commencement. The 6000 years cannot be shown to require any additional time for their fulfillment.
The captivity of Manasseh, at which we begin the seven times, is placed by chronologists in the Julian period 4037; from this point
2520 years bring us down to the year of that period 6557 which commenced Jan. 1st, A. D. 1844, but there is nothing to show the time
in the year of Manasseh's captivity. The 7th year of Artaxerxes from which we date the 2300 days, began, ac-cording to Dr. Hales, B.
C. 458, and ended B. C 457, (See Anal. Chro. Vol. 1. 277) being pinned down to the 4256 year of the Julian period. 2300 years from
this point, only extends to the year of that period 6556 which ended Jan. 1st, 1844.
Our Bro. has made a mistake of one year in his reference to Dr. Hales; and may have been misled by the diagram in Bro. Hale s
Watchman's last warning, in which the same mistake was made. Also, the 1335 days have not been shown to commence later than A.
D. 508. We therefore can find no time beyond the Jewish year 1843; and if there is any time beyond that, we can only wait for the
vision the little while, that chronology may vary from the time appointed. While we therefore insert the article, we must dissent from
our Bro. conclusions.” April 3, 1844 JVHe, HST 68.25
local paper. For further details on this document, we refer you to the article The Death Warrant of Jesus
Christ: A Review. The fascinating point is that Snow argues for the seventieth week being divided into
two equal 3 ½ year periods – creating a chiasm. That this article is published on the date that is the
middle of the chiasm of Snow’s letters is remarkable.
If this letter itself is to be considered the PBM it would be based upon Snow’s first sound argument
for placing the end of the 2300 days in the fall of 1844.

Then let us sum up the argument. John's ministry began in the latter part, of A.D. 26,
and ended with the autumn of A.D. 27. Here commenced the week of the Confirmation of
the covenant i.e., the establishment, of the gospel as a divine system, by the mighty
works of Christ. Three years and a half from this point brings us to the spring of A.D. 31,
when our Lord was crucified in the "MIDST, i. e. middle of the week." Three years and a
half more, (the last half of the week,) during which the word or covenant was confirmed
by them who had heard the Lord, (Heb. 2: 3.) brings us down to the autumn of A. D. 34,
when Paul, the last of the witnesses, was converted and qualified to testify to the great
fundamental truth of the resurrection of Christ. See 1 Cor. 15: 8. Thus was the gospel
established, or the covenant confirmed, A. D. 34.
I believe this argument to be based on correct premises, and to be perfectly sound.
What then is the conclusion? It must certainly be this: That as the 70 weeks ended in the
autumn of A. D. 34, the remaining part of the 2300 days, i. e., 1810, being added, brings
us to the autumn of A. D. 1844.

One thing that must be noted, by this time, the Jewish year 1843 had fully ended. During this
period of tarrying, after the first disappointment, people were ready to reconsider the reckoning of the
prophetic periods. For this to be fully accepted required an impetus that was beyond human power or 30
devising. Samuel Snow was not one of the leading preachers in the Millerite movement. Most of his
letters were published in The Midnight Cry!, a minor paper of Himes. The events that led to the
empowerment of this message on August 15, 1844 were under God’s direct providence and timing. We
should have such confidence in God’s providence and timing, even now. There is no point running
ahead of the angel.
LECTURE 6 – SAMUEL SNOW’S THIRD AND FOURTH LETTERS
PENTECOST
The writing of the third letter occurred on the 6D 3M of the biblical calendar or June 22, 1844.
That this day is Pentecost holds great significance. First, we have already seen that there is a chiasm in
457 BC to points to Pentecost. This centre of this chiasm exists between the three days of the river
Ahava and the three days wait to deliver the gold and silver to the temple. Between the 12D 1M and the
1D 5M is 107 days. This period of 107 days is equally divided into two periods of 54 days. In a
juxtaposition of the numbers we can see 107 days as representing the 10D 7M and the two periods of
54 days as representing the 5D 4M or midnight. This brings us back to the chiasm in 1844 that goes
from the 1D 1M to the 10D 7M with the 5D 4M in the middle.
One odd thing is that the Millerites never considered the date on the Hebrew calendar beyond
their use in reckoning the end of the prophetic periods. Of course, they were not Jews and were not
observing the feasts. Snow would not have thought, “Hey! I am writing this letter on Pentecost,” or “I
will get my letter published on Passover.” There could have been no human devising in the publication
of these letters. The dates for the publication of The Midnight Cry! and the Signs of the Times were fixed
long before, in that the former was published every Thursday and the latter every Wednesday.

A REVIEW OF HIS STORY


A few salient points can be noticed in the reading of Snow’s June 22 letter.
First, He recounts his involvement in the giving of the message, first with his former
understanding and then with his recognition that the prophetic periods were to end in the fall. He
specifically marks January 1, 1844 as the point from which he says, “I felt it my imperative duty to
impart to the world, and especially to the Advent band, the light which my heavenly Father had given
me, concerning the termination of the prophetic periods.” This is of special note, since he had preached 31
his testimony on December 31, 1843 at the Boston Tabernacle.41
Second, Snow is the first to recognise the necessity of the failure of the reckoning of the prophetic
periods to test God’s people and connects it with Habakkuk 2:1-4.

It was necessary that a mistake should be made in regard to the ending of the days,
and that this mistake should be general among the expectants of the kingdom, in order
that their faith might be tried; and that a wicked world and a world-loving church might
have ample opportunity to manifest their hatred to our blessed Lord’s appearing – to
mock, and scoff, and harden themselves in their sin, and ripen for their coming
destruction. Had not such a mistake been made, there are some prophecies which could
never have been completely fulfilled. Such for instance as Ezek. 12: 22, “Son of man, what
is that proverb that ye have in the land of Israel, saying, The days are prolonged, and
every vision faileth?” Also, Hab. 2: 2, 3, “And the Lord answered me and said, Write the
vision, and make it plain upon tables, that he may run that readeth it. For the vision is yet
for an appointed time; but at the end it shall speak and not lie: though it tarry, wait for it;
be-cause it will surely come, it will not tarry.”

What is amazing about this letter from Bro. Snow is that he has recognised the Lord’s allowing this
mistake to occur as a test, a number of years before he messenger of the Lord was shown this truth in
vision.

I saw the people of God, joyful in expectation, looking for their Lord. But God

41
The account of his testimony is given in The Signs of the Times, February 28, 1844 and also in The Midnight Cry!, March 7, 1844.
designed to prove them. His hand covered a mistake in the reckoning of the prophetic
periods. Those who were looking for their Lord did not discover it, and the most learned
men who opposed the time also failed to see the mistake. God designed that his people
should meet with a disappointment. The time passed, and those who had looked with
joyful expectation for their Saviour were sad and disheartened, while those who had not
loved the appearing of Jesus, but embraced the message through fear, were pleased that
he did not come at the time of expectation. Their profession had not affected their
hearts, and purified their lives. The passing of the time was well calculated to reveal such
hearts. They were the first to turn and ridicule the sorrowful, disappointed ones, who
really loved the appearing of their Saviour. I saw the wisdom of God in proving his
people, and giving them a searching test to discover those who would shrink and turn
back in the hour of trial.” 1SG 137.1

Further, he connects this delay and tarrying with the call to come out of Babylon that includes
being “entirely separate from all connection and fellowship with corrupt, apostate Christendom.” He
includes the fact that these things were revealed to him “who am least of all the saints”.
He closes the letter thus, “I could not rest unless I proclaimed this truth. I therefore prepared a
brief article, setting forth some of the reasons for these views, which was published in the Cry of the
22d of last February; and subsequently in the Advent Herald [or Signs of the Times, April 3].

SNOW’S JULY 18 LETTER

THREE DAYS BEFORE MIDNIGHT


This letter, which was written on June 2942, was not published until three days before his 32
declaration at the Boston Tabernacle that it was midnight. We saw the significance of the three days in
creating the two chiasms in 457 BC. As a symbol, three days represents the PBM. To simply take this
final letter and try to make it the PBM makes little sense, since there is little in this letter that is
pointing to the 10D 7M in 1844. In fact, his article has little to do directly with the end of the prophetic
periods. Where this letter is important is in it tying the end of the gospel to our being witnesses to it, at
the end of three days.
This letter is the first part of a letter of which a second part was published in The Midnight Cry! on
August 22, 1844, which is often mistaken for the paper entitled The True Midnight Cry, which was
published on the same date. The August 22 article was entitled Prophetic Chronology. A further article
expounding on the same topic was also published on September 19, also entitled Prophetic Chronology.
It is recommended that serious students study and understand these articles. Though they contain
mistakes, they shed light upon where Snow began to stray.
It is important to note that Snow was not without error, even in his The True Midnight Cry article.43
There are some who claim that since the light of the midnight cry is to shine all along the path, it must
have been without error. As we have seen, the errors were providential, in many respects. What we
need to do is understand where the errors were made and distinguish them from the true light.

42
The date June 29 does not accord with any significant date on the Jewish calendar in 1844. However, June 29 is Pentecost, the 6D
3M, in 457 BC.
43
For instance, some have argued that the 6000 years of now must be correct, since it is in the August 22, article. There are many little
details of Snow’s that are faulty. This does not mean that the overall arguments should be set aside. We actually believe that the 153
years that Miller added to Ussher’s date for the age of the earth is significant, even though we accept neither dates as accurate. It is a
symbol of prophesying again, and is understood as a symbol expressed in 153 fishes in John 21:11.
9/11 AND APRIL 19
Since Samuel Snow’s letters fashion a structure that spans April 19, there is a significance that
goes beyond the reform line that they are contained within. The temptation of some to separate 9/11
from April 19 in our line is a mistake that comes from a misapplication of Snow’s letters. We have
shown elsewhere that each of our waymarks is expressed in Ezekiel. Ezekiel’s first recorded vision is at
midnight or on the 5D 4M. Ezekiel represents this movement or, more specifically, the priests. Samuel
Snow’s letters represent the unfolding light of the PBM that the priests are to give to the Levities. While
many people have arisen claiming to be represented by Samuel Snow, it is clear that anyone in this
movement who is involved in proclaiming the PBM is Samuel Snow.
Some have tried to use the date 2014 apply it to the PBM, marking it as sunset. While 2014 is
significant, in that it is the termination for the 126 and the 151 shekels, it is not the PBM. At the least,
we can recognise that it is the start of the separation of the wheat and the tares. That is, the dates for
Snow’s letters cannot simply be laid over our line. In Millerite history, April 19 is sunset, if Snow’s
declaration that July 21 is midnight. We should have no problem recognising that 9/11 is sunset, since
it is typified by April 19. However, the key to understanding the significance of Snow’s letters is to
recognise that these are a special case. They are symbolic of the light that is unfolding from the letters
themselves. If we want to know where we are in Snow’s letters, we must detach them from the overall
line and see them as directly relating to PBM and the PBM only. We do not need, in fact it is simply
wrong, to correct the lines. These are given to us by Inspiration. We need now to study and understand
them.

THE TWO PASSOVERS


Everything in Millerite history connected to Snow’s letters is an illustration of the separation of
two classes of worshipers. This should be the simplest thing for us to see and understand. We all know
that Passover separated Judas from the disciples. The two Passover’s in Millerite history separated 33
those who received the light of the midnight cry from those that did not. The Millerites who had only
accepted Miller’s initial understanding of the termination of the prophetic periods, but did not receive
the advancing light that extended these to the fall of 1844, were left in darkness. Their door closed prior
to April 19. Many of them left the movement on March 21, when Miller’s Jewish year 1843 had expired.
Some may have clung to the remainder of the year, until April 18 had passed but, after that, they
mocked those who continued to wait while the Bridegroom tarried.

It was not the proclamation of the second advent that created fanaticism and
division. These appeared in the summer of 1844, when Adventists were in a state of
doubt and perplexity concerning their real position. The preaching of the first angel's
message and of the “midnight cry” tended directly to repress fanaticism and dissension.
Those who participated in these solemn movements were in harmony; their hearts
were filled with love for one another, and for Jesus, whom they expected soon to see.
The one faith, the one blessed hope, lifted them above the control of any human
influence, and proved a shield against the assaults of Satan.
“While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. And at
midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet
him. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps.” [Matthew 25:5-7.] In the
summer of 1844, midway between the time when it had been first thought that the
2300 days would end, and the autumn of the same year, to which it was afterward
found that they extended, the message was proclaimed, in the very words of Scripture,
“Behold, the Bridegroom cometh!”
That which led to this movement was the discovery that the decree of
Artaxerxes for the restoration of Jerusalem, which formed the starting-point for the
period of the 2300 days, went into effect in the autumn of the year B. C. 457, and not
at the beginning of the year, as had been formerly believed. Reckoning from the
autumn of 457, the 2300 years terminate in the autumn of 1844.44

It is easy to see our parallel in the history presented above. What we can anticipate is that the next
event in the chronology of Snow’s letters is Pentecost. This history accords with the work of
organisation that we are presently engaged in. We are to be brought in harmony, with hearts filled with
love towards one another, and for Jesus. Only then will we be able to give a message able to draw those
who are bound to their Laodicean condition into a church victorious.

34

44
The Great Controversy, 398.
LECTURE 7 – A SUMMATION
WHAT DOES THIS ALL MEAN?
It is pretty evident, if one takes a good look at the data, that God has been leading this movement.
Our main waymarks 1D 1M, 5D 4M, 1D 5M and 10D 7M are firmly established. We often refer to them
as 9/11, midnight, M/C and SL, in that we see them as repeated in our history. We know that we are just
before midnight. Samuel Snow’s letters show us that the light that has been unfolding in regard to the
PBM is solid, even if we do not yet fully understand everything that is being unfolded.
Ezekiel begins his ministry at midnight. He represents this movement. He gives a prediction about
the coming siege – events leading to the Sunday law. We have our initial understanding of this
illustrated below.

We have here a series of predictions. The first is the prophecy of Josiah that is fulfilled in 627 BC. 35
The second is the PBM. This occurs from 9/11 to midnight, where the coming siege is predicted with a
time prophecy that uses the start of the prophecy and the end as the start for two time periods both
ending together in 587 BC. In 587 there is two predictions; the death of Ezekiel’s wife and of the escapé
from the destruction of Jerusalem. The details of this prophecy you can find explained elsewhere. The
point is that we are to make a prediction. Some have suggested that this prediction will have time
elements attached to it. Time, or chronology and dates, seems to be a major feature of this message. We
have, however, a strong aversion to anything that looks like time setting.

PREDICTIONS OF THE DECREES


If we are to understand the reform line of the three decrees as paralleling our own, where do we
see predictions? The predictions are in the ends of the prophetic periods and the several dates that
show the connexion between the decrees and events in 1844. For instance, the angel’s reference to the
70 years, in Zechariah 1:12 and 7:5 are predictions as to went the 70 years for the temple will end.

We can also see that the book of Esther plays a vital role in understanding the Sunday law.
We can also see that some of our understanding of the reforms lines was simplistic. Some have
argued that we should stick to a strict parallel between the various reform lines. Though reform lines
parallel one another they are not identical. For one, each reform line has features that seem out of place.
Also, there can be reform lines within reform lines.

A SUGGESTION
Since God is leading a movement, we need the Holy Ghost to work upon each member. We believe
that there is light in the chronology outlined below. We need to continue to set in order upon a line the
dates of sacred history. God will help us see the light at the time we need it. Organisation is needed, if
we are to give this message to those in the Seventh-day Adventist Church searching for light. The type of
organisation needed is that that occurred on Pentecost. No external form can replaced the heart work
needed. The power comes from the understanding of a Christ that is represented in types and symbols.
That a separation is occurring in this movement and has been since 2014 is very evident. While we
often focus upon the sad fact that many are leaving tis message, we need to also look at the fact that this
means those that are left must be doing a work of uniting. Not only are the tares bound off but so is the
wheat.

SUMMATION OF THE CHRONOLOGY


Here we have laid out the salient chronical details that we need to study.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE EXODUS


The start of the year is the first month of Hebrew year
Exodus 12:2 1st month, 1st day – Thursday, April 12, 1533 BC.
36
Passover lamb selected
Exodus 12:3 1st month, 10th day – Sabbath, April 21, 1533 BC.

Lamb slain between the two evenings


Exodus 12:6 1st month, 14th day at even (evening 13th)– Tuesday, April 24, 6:21 to 7:14 p.m. 1533 BC.

Israelites leave Ramases just prior to sunrise


Exodus 12:41; Numbers 33:3 1st month, 15th day – Thursday, April 26, 5:00 a.m. 1533 BC.

Red Sea parted and crossing


Exodus 14:20-22 1st month, 28th day – Wednesday through Thursday, May 9-10, 1533 BC.

Total solar eclipse seen over most of Egypt


6 p.m. May 9, 1533 BC. The totality lasted about 3 minutes and occurred 25 minutes before sunset.

The giving of the law at Mt. Sinai on the third day


Exodus 19:16 3rd month 6th day – Friday, June 15, 1533 BC.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH

Anointing of Saul
1 Samuel 10:1 1st year, 1st day, 1st month– Sabbath, April 22, 1097 BC.

David’s first anointing


1 Samuel 16:13 25th year, 1st month, 1st day – Wednesday April 16, 1072 BC.
David king over Judah
2 Samuel 2:4 1st year, 1st day, 1st month– Sunday, April 29, 1057 BC.

David king over all Israel


2 Samuel 5:37th year, 1st day, 1st month– Sabbath, April 13, 1050 BC.

Solomon’s first amounting


1 Kings 1:39 fall 1018 BC.

Solomon ‘s second anointing


1 Chronicles 29:22 1st year, 1st month, 1st day – April 8, 1017 BC.

Laying of the foundation of Solomon’s temple


1 Kings 6:1; 2 Chronicles 3:2 4th, years 2nd month, 2nd day - May 24, 1013, BC.

Dedication of Solomon’s temple


1 Kings 6:38 11th year, 8th month, 5th day? - Sabbath November 3, 1006 BC.

Rehoboam first year commences


1 Kings 11:43 1st year, 1st month, 1st day – Tuesday, April 15, 977 BC.

Jeroboam’s first year commences


1 Kings 12:20 1st year, 7th month, 1st day – Thursday, October 9, 977 BC.

Prophecy of Josiah
37
1 Kings 12:32; 13:1-5 1st year, 8th month, 15th day – Sabbath, November 22, 977 BC.

Prophecy of 65 years
Isaiah 7:8-17 accession year, 12 month? – c. March, 742 BC.

Hezekiah cleanses the temple


2 Chronicles 29:3, 17 1st year, 1st day 1st month to 16th day 1st month – April 20 to May 5, 725 BC.

Hezekiah’s Passover
2 Chronicles 30:1-2 1st year, 14th day, 2nd month – Monday June 2, 725 BC.

Captivity of Hoshea
2 Kings 17:3-4 7th year, 12th month – March 723 BC.

Destruction of Samaria
2 Kings 17:6 9th year, 1st month – April 721 BC.

Captivity of Manasseh
2 Chronicles 33:11 20th year, spring – April 677 BC.

Fulfillment of the prophecy of Josiah


2 Kings 23:15-18 - 13th year, spring – April 627 BC.

Passover of Josiah
2 Kings 23:23 – 18th year, 14th day, 1st month – Tuesday, May 4, 622 BC.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE CAPTIVITY

Death of Josiah
2 Kings 23:29-30 31st year, 2nd month – May, 609 BC.

Captivity of Daniel
Daniel 1:1 3rd year of Jehoiakim – fall 607 BC.

Captivity of Jehoiachin
2 Chronicles 36:10 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar, 14th day, 1st month – April 14, 597 BC.

First Vision of Ezekiel


Ezekiel 1:1-2 30th year (sabbatical cycle) 5th year captivity, 4th day, 5th month – Sabbath July 21, 592 BC.

Beginning of the siege


Ezekiel 24:1 9th year of Zedekiah 10th month 10th day – Friday, January 6, 587 B.C.

Walls of Jerusalem broken


2 Kings 25:3; Jeremiah 39:2 11th year of Zedekiah, 4th month, 9th day – Thursday, July 19, 586 BC.

Prophecy against Tyre


Ezekiel 26:1 11th year of reign 5th month, 1st day – Thursday, August 9, 586 B.C

Destruction of the city and the temple


Jeremiah 52:12 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar, 5th month, 10th day – Sabbath, August 18, 586 BC. 38

Prophecy of Egypt=Payment to Babylon for Tyre


Ezekiel 29:17 27th year 1st month 1st day – Sabbath, April 15, 570 B.C.

Last vision of Ezekiel


Ezekiel 40:1 25th year of captivity 7th(?) month 10th day – Thursday, October 22, 573 B.C.

CHRONOLOGY OF THE THREE DECREES

Fall of Babylon
Isaiah 45:1-3; Daniel 5:30-31 17th year of Nabonidus, 7th month, 16th day – October 13, 538 BC.

Accession of Cyrus
Ezra 1:1 Fall of 537 BC.

Decree of Cyrus
Daniel 10:4 3rd year (1st year), 1st month, 24th day – April 24, 536 BC.

Rebuilding of the altar in Jerusalem


Ezra 3:1, 6 1st year of Cyrus, 7th month, 1st day – Tuesday, September 4, 536 BC.

Commencement of the work of building the temple


Ezra3:8 2nd year of Cyrus, 2nd month, May 18, 535 B.C.
Reign of False Smerdis (Ahasuerus)
Ezra 4:7 False Smerdis’ reign of 7 months – March 11 to September 29, 522 B.C.

Haggai’s first vision


Haggai 1:1 2nd year of Darius, 6th month, 1st day – Tuesday, August 29, 520 B.C.

Work commences
Haggai 1:15 2nd year of Darius, 6th month, 24th day – Thursday, September 21, 520 B.C.

Haggai’s second vision


Haggai 2:1 2nd year of Darius, 7th month, 21st day – Wednesday, October 18, 520 B.C.

Prophecies concerning Zerubbabel


Haggai 2:10, 20 2nd year of Darius, 9th month, 24th day – Tuesday, December 19, 520 B.C.

Zechariah’s first vision


Zechariah 1:1 2nd year of reign of Darius, 8th month – October/November, 520 B.C.

The seventy years vision


Zechariah 1:7 2nd year of reign of Darius, 11th month, 24th day – Friday, February 16, 519 B.C.

The vision of the fast of the 5th and 7th months


Zechariah 7:1 4th year of reign of Darius, 9th month, 4th day – Sabbath, December 7, 518 B.C.

The dedication of the temple completed less than twenty years from the laying of the foundation 39
Ezra 6:15 6th year of Darius, 12th month (Adar), 3rd day – Sabbath, March 12, 515 B.C.

First Passover kept in the second temple


Ezra 6:19 6th year of Darius, 1st month, 14th day – Thursday, April 21, 515 B.C.

Xerxes third year


Esther 1:3 3rd year of Xerxes’ reign – Tuesday, April 14, 483 to Friday, April 2, 482 BC.

Xerxes 180 day feast4546


Esther 1:3-4 3rd year, 1st day, 1st month to 3rd day, 7th month – April 14, to Sabbath, October 10, 483 BC

Xerxes 7 day feast


Esther 1:5 3rd year, 4th to 10th day, 7th month – Sunday, October 11 to Sabbath47 October 17, 483 BC.

Esther taken by Xerxes


Esther 2:16 7th year, 10th month, 1st day? – Sunday, December 22, 479 BC.

45
It would be natural for Xerxes to commence the feast with the Akitu spring festival.
46
“In describing the feast, it is stated that Achashveirosh displayed his riches for “yamim rabim shemonim ume’at yom” — “many
days, — 180 days.” From the words “yamim rabim” — “many days” — which are apparently superfluous since it says “180 days,” it
is derived that the feast took place in the summer when “yamim rabim” — the days are longer (Rokei’ach). Thus, from Rosh Chodesh
Nissan till Rosh Chodesh Tishrei, with three months being twenty-nine days and the other, thirty days, there is a total of 177 days, and
the 180th day was on the third day of Tishrei. This was followed by another feast for seven days, which culminated on the tenth
ofTishrei — Yom Kippur. (See p. 43 for a different calculation.)”
http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/2833253/jewish/Chapter-Four.htm
47
The Midrash says that this was a Sabbath (Megillah 12b). It is also the Day of Atonement.
Cast Pur
Esther 3:7 12th year of Xerxes, 1st month – Wednesday, April 4, 474 BC.

Kings scribed called


Esther 3:12 12th year, 13th day, 1st month – Monday, April 16, 474 BC.

Set date for the destruction of the Jews


Esther 3:13 12th year, 13th day, 12th month – Sabbath, April 5, 473 BC.

Esther’s fast
Esther 4:16 12th year, 14th to 16th day, 1st month – Tuesday, April 17, Thursday, April 19, 474 BC.

Esther goes before Xerxes


Esther 5:1 12th year, 16th day, 1st month – Thursday, April 19, 474 BC

Mordecai’s counter decree


Esther 8:9 12th year, 3rd month, 23rd day – Sunday, June 24, 474 BC.

Counter decree in effect


Esther 9:15 12th year, 13th and 14th days, 12th month – Sabbath and Sunday, April 5-6, 473 BC.

Ezra leaves Babylon


Ezra 7:7, 9 7th year of reign of Artaxerxes, 1st month, 1st day – Friday, April 26, 457 B.C.

Ezra arrives at Jerusalem 40


Ezra 7:7-9 7th year of reign of Artaxerxes, 5th month, 1st day – Thursday, August 22, 457 B.C.

Ezra departs from the river of Ahava after three days


Ezra 8:31 7th year of reign of Artaxerxes, 1st month, 12th day – Tuesday, May 7, 457 B.C.

Silver, gold and vessels weighed in the temple


Ezra 8:33 7th year of reign of Artaxerxes, 5th month, 4th day – Sunday, August 25, 457 B.C.

Judah’s confession
Ezra 10:9 8th year of reign of Artaxerxes, 9th month, 20th day – Monday, January 6, 456 B.C.

Examination for marriage reform commences


Ezra 10:16 8th year of reign of Artaxerxes, 10th month, 1st day – Friday, January 17, 456 B.C.

Examination for marriage reform ends


Ezra 10:17 8th year of reign of Artaxerxes, 1st month, 1st day – Tuesday, April 15, 456 B.C.

Nehemiah begins his ministry


Nehemiah 1:1 20th year of Artaxerxes, 9th month (Chisleu) – December 5, 445 to January 3, 444 BC.

Nehemiah sent to Judah


Nehemiah 2:1 20th year of Artaxerxes, 1st month – April 3 to May 2, 444 BC.

Building of wall commences


Nehemiah 6:15 20th year of Artaxerxes, 5th month, 4th day – Sunday, August 2, 444 BC.
Building of wall completed after 52 days
Nehemiah 6:15 20th year of Artaxerxes, 6th month, 25th day – Monday, September 22, 444 BC.

Ezra reads the Book of the Law


Nehemiah 8:2 20th year of Artaxerxes, 7th month, 1st day – Sunday, September 27, 444 BC.

Feast of booth kept seven days


Nehemiah 8:2 21st year of Artaxerxes, 7th month, 15th day to 21st – October 11 to 17, 444 BC.

8th day of the feast


Nehemiah 9:1 21st year of Artaxerxes, 7th month, 18th day – Sunday, October 18, 444 BC.

CHRONOLOGY OF CHRIST

Announcement of John’s conception and birth


Mark 1:5-25 Days of Herod, course of Abijah, 3rd month, 1st week – May 28 – June 3, 5 BC.

Birth of John the Baptist


Mark 1:57-60 1st day, 1st month 4 BC – March 29, 4 BC.

Birth of Jesus
Luke 2:1-7 10th day, 7th month 4 BC - October 2, 4 BC.

Jesus’ first Passover


Luke 2:42 14th day, 1st month – April 28, 9 AD. 41

Jesus’ baptism
Luke 3:1-23 15th year of Tiberius, 7th month, 10th day – September 30, 27 AD.

Jesus Crucifixion
Matthew 27:35 18th year of Tiberius, 1st month, 14th day – April 27, 31 AD.

Pentecost
Acts 2 6th day, 3rd month – June 17, 31 AD.

Stoning of Stephen
Acts 7:55-56 10th day, 7th month – October 12, 34 AD.

Destruction of Jerusalem
Daniel 9:27b 10th day, 5th month – August 6, 70 AD.
APPENDIX

Legend
Day of Atonement
Passover
start and end of 2604 days
start and end of 2520 days
Cross
10D 5M 70 AD (Sept 7, 32AD)

Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
AD Ni 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Si 1 2 3 4 5 6
27 Mr 28 29 27 28 29 30 1 2 3 Ma 26 27 28 29 30 31
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
30 31 1 2 3 4 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 42
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 29 Iy 28 29 30
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 25 Ma 22 23 24
Ta 1 2 3 4 Av 1 2 3 El 1
Ju 25 26 27 28 Jl 24 25 26 Au 23
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
29 30 1 2 3 4 5 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 31 1 2 3 4 5 6
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
26 27 28 29 25 26 27 28 29 30 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
20 21 22 23 17 18 19 20 21 22 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 He 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ki 1 2 3 4
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Oc 20 21 22 23 24 25 No 19 20 21 22
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
28 29 30 1 2 3 4 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 1 2 3 4 5 6
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
29 Ti 28 29 30 He 26 27 28 29 30
19 Oc 16 17 18 No 14 15 16 17 18
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
Te 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ad 1 2 3 4 5 6
De 19 20 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Fe 16 17 18 19 20 21
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
28 29 30 31 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29 1 2 3 4 5 6
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 29 Sh AD 28 29
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 15 Fe 28 14 15
Ve 1 2 3 4 5 Ni 1 2 3 4 Iy 1 2
Mr 16 17 18 19 20 Ap 14 15 16 17 Ma 14 15
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
28 29 30 31 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 31 1 2 3 4 5
27 28 29 26 27 28 29 30 24 25 26 27 28 29
11 12 13 9 10 11 12 13 6 7 8 9 10 11
Si 1 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 Av 1 2 3 4 5
Ju 12 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Au 10 11 12 13 14
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 43
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29 30 31 1 2 3 4
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 28 29 Ta 27 28 29 30
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 8 9 Au 5 6 7 8
El 1 2 3 Ti 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Se 9 10 11 Oc 8 9 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
26 27 28 29 30 1 2 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 28 29 30 1 2 3 4
25 26 27 28 29 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 29 30 He
3 4 5 6 7 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 6 De
Ki 1 2 3 4 5 AD Te 1 2 3 Sh 1 2
De 7 8 9 10 11 29 Ja 6 7 8 Fe 4 5
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
26 27 28 29 30 31 1 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
2 3 4 5 30 31 1 2 3 27 28 1 2 3 4 5
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ni 1 2 3 4 5 6 Iy 1 2 3 4
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ap 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ma 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
27 28 29 30 31 1 2 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 Ad 28 29 30 26 27 28 29
3 Ap 1 2 3 29 30 31 1
Si 1 2 3 Ta 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Ju 2 3 4 Jl 2 31 1 2 3 4 5 6
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
25 26 27 28 29 30 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 Av
26 27 28 29 30 1 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 28 29 Au
El 1 2 3 4 5 Ti 1 2 3 4 He 1 2
Au 30 31 1 2 3 Se 28 29 30 1 Oc 28 29
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 31 1 2 3 4 5
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
44
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
27 28 29 26 27 28 29 30 24 25 26 27 28 29
25 26 27 23 24 25 26 27 20 21 22 23 24 25
Ki 1 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sh 1 2 3 4 5
No 26 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Ja 24 25 26 27 28
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
27 28 29 30 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29 30 31 1 2 3 4
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 28 29 Te AD 27 28 29 30
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 22 23 Ja 30 19 20 21 22
Ad 1 2 3 Ni 1 30 1 2 3 4 5 6
Fe 23 24 25 Mr 25 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
26 27 28 1 2 3 4 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 30 1 2 3 4 5 6
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 13 13 14 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
25 26 27 28 29 30 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 28 29 Iy
19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 21 22 Ma
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
Si 1 2 3 4 5 Ta 1 2 3 Av 1 2
Ma 23 24 25 26 27 Ju 22 23 24 Jl 21 22
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
28 29 30 31 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 31 1 2 3 4 5
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
18 19 20 21 16 17 18 19 20 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ti 1 2 3 4 5 6 He 1 2 3 4
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Se 18 19 20 21 22 23 Oc 18 19 20 21
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
27 28 29 30 31 1 2 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29 30 31 1 2 3 4
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
29 El 28 29 30 26 27 28 29
17 Se 15 16 17 12 13 14 15
Ki 1 2 3 Te 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
No 16 17 18 De 16 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 45
26 27 28 29 30 1 2 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 28 29 30 31 1 2 3
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
25 26 27 28 29 30 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 Sh AD
10 11 12 13 14 15 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 11 12 Fe 31
Ad 1 2 3 4 5 Ve 1 2 3 Ni 1
Fe 13 14 15 16 17 Ma 15 16 17 Ap 14
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
25 26 27 28 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29 30 1 2 3 4 5
27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29 30 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
11 12 13 14 8 9 10 11 12 13 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
30 1 2 3 4 5 6 Si 1 2 3 4 5 Ta 1 2 3
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Ju 12 13 14 15 16 Jl 12 13 14
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
27 28 29 30 31 1 2 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29 30 31 1 2 3 4
28 29 Iy 27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29
10 11 Ju 8 9 10 11 5 6 7 8 9
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
Av 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ti 1 2 3 4 5 6
Au 10 11 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Oc 8 9 10 11 12 13
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
26 27 28 29 30 31 1 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 29 30 31 1 2 3
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 29 El 28 29 30
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 Oc 4 5 6
He 1 2 3 4 Ki 1 2 3 AD Te 1
No 7 8 9 10 De 6 7 8 32 Ja 5
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
25 26 27 28 29 30 1 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
26 27 28 29 25 26 27 28 29 30 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
2 3 4 5 30 31 1 2 3 4 27 28 29 30 31 1 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ad 1 2 3 4 5 Ni 1 2 3 4
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mr 4 5 6 7 8 Ap 2 3 4 5
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
46
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
24 25 26 27 28 29 1 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
29 30 Sh 27 28 29 26 27 28 29 30
2 3 Mr 30 31 1 27 28 29 30 1
Iy 1 2 Si 1 30 1 2 3 4 5 6
Ma 2 3 Ma 31 29 30 1 2 3 4 5
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
24 25 26 27 28 29 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 28 29 Ta
25 26 27 28 29 30 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 27 28 Jl
Av 1 2 3 4 5 El 1 2 3 Ti 1 2
Jl 29 30 31 1 2 Au 28 29 30 Se 26 27
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 29 30 1 2 3 4
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29 24 25 26 27 28 29
24 25 26 27 21 22 23 24 25 19 20 21 22 23 24
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
He 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Te 1 2 3 4 5
Oc 25 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 De 23 24 25 26 27
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
26 27 28 29 30 31 1 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 29 30 31 1 2 3
9 10 11 13 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 Ki 27 28 29
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 21 22 De 18 19 20
AD Sh 1 2 3 4 Ad 1 2 Ve 1
33 Ja 21 22 23 24 Fe 20 21 Mr 21
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29 30 31 1 2 3 4
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
26 27 28 29 30 24 25 26 27 28 29 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
15 16 17 18 19 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
30 1 2 3 4 5 6 Iy 1 2 3 4 Si 1 2 3
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Ma 20 21 22 23 Ju 18 19 20
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
26 27 28 29 30 1 2 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 47
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 29 30 1 2 3 4
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
28 29 30 Ni 26 27 28 29 25 26 27 28 29 30
17 18 19 Ma 14 15 16 17 12 13 14 15 16 17
Ta 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 El 1 2 3 4 5
Jl 18 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Se 15 16 17 18 19
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
26 27 28 29 30 31 1 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 27 28 29 30 1 2 3
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 Av 27 28 29 30
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 13 14 Se 11 12 13 14
Ti 1 2 3 He 1 2 Ki 1
Oc 15 16 17 No 13 14 De 12
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 27 28 29 30 31 1 2
25 26 27 28 29 24 25 26 27 28 29 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
8 9 10 11 12 6 7 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
30 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sh 1 2 3 4 5 Ad 1 2 3
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Fe 9 10 11 12 13 Mr 11 12 13
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
31 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 29 30 31 1 2 3
28 29 Te AD 27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29
7 8 Fe 34 7 8 9 10 4 5 6 7 8
Ni 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Si 1 2 3 4 5 6
Ap 9 10 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Ju 7 8 9 10 11 12
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
25 26 27 28 29 30 1 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 27 28 29 30 1 2 3
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 29 Iy 28 29 30
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 Ju 4 5 6
Ta 1 2 3 4 Av 1 2 3 El 1
Jl 7 8 9 10 Au 5 6 7 Se 4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 8 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
48
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 25 26 27 28 29 30 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
1 2 3 4 29 30 31 1 2 3 26 27 28 29 30 1 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 He 1 2 3 4 5 Ki 1 2 3
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 No 2 3 4 5 6 De 2 3 4
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
29 30 Ti 27 28 29 30 25 26 27 28 29 30 AD
31 1 No 28 29 30 1 26 27 28 29 30 31 35