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1) What is an ELV System?

 System that work on low voltages (50V AC or 120V DC).

 IEC and its member organization define an ELV Circuit as one in which the
electrical potential of any conductor against earth (ground) is not more than
either 50V RMS (70V peak) for alternating current, or ripple free 120V for DC.

2) Define Voltage.
 The work that has to be done in transferring unit positive charge from one point
to the other, measured in volts is known as potential difference.
 Voltage can be defined as Electrical Potential difference, Electrical pressure or

3) Define RMS value.

The Root Mean Square value of a quantity is the square root of the mean value of the
squared values of the quantity taken over an interval.
Vrms = 0.7 x Vpeak
Vpeak = 1.4 x Vrms

4) Define Ripple Voltage.

 Ripple (specifically ripple voltage) in electronics is the residual periodic variation
of the DC voltage within a power supply which has been derived from an AC
source. This ripple is due to incomplete suppression of the alternating waveform
after rectification.
 Ripple voltage originates a the output of a rectifier or from generation and
communication of DC power.

5) Define Ripple Current.

Ripple ( specifically ripple current or surge current) may also refer to the pulsed current
consumption of non-linear devices like capacitor-input rectifiers.

6) What are the categories of Power electronics converter circuit?

 AC to DC – Rectifier / Converter
 DC to DC – Choppers
 DC to AC – Inverters
 Ac to AC – AC voltage controllers
7) What is AC to DC Converters ( Diode Rectifiers)?
 A diode rectifier circuit converts AC input into a fixed DC voltage.
 The input voltage may be single phase or three phase.

8) What is AC to DC Converter ( Phase Controlled Rectifiers)?

 These circuits convert constant AC voltage to variable DC output voltage. These
rectifiers use line voltage for their communication.
 These are used in DC drives, chemical industries, synchronous machines.
 Phase controlled converters may be fed from single phase and three phase
9) What is DC to DC Converters ( DC Chopper)?
 A DC Chopper converts fixed DC input voltage to a controllable / variable DC
output voltage.
 The chopper Circuits required forced or load communication to turn-off the SCR
(Silicon Controlled Rectifier).
 For Low power circuits we can use power BJT’s Chopper are used in DC drives,
battery driven vehicles, etc…

10) What is DC to AC Converters (Inverters)?

 An Inverter converts fixed DC voltage to a variable AC voltage.
 The output may be a variable voltage and variable frequency.
 Inverters find wide use in Induction motors and Synchronous motor devices,
Induction heating, Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), High Voltage DC (HVDC)
transmission, etc.

11) What is AC to AC Converters?

 These circuits convert fixed AC input voltage into a variable AC voltage.
 These are two types of AC to AC Converts namely AC voltage controllers &

12) What is AC Voltage Controller?

 These converter circuit convert fixed AC voltage directly to a variable AC voltage at
the same frequency.
 These circuits employ two BJT’s in antiparallel or a TRIAC. Output voltage is
controlled by varying firing angle delay.
13) What is Cycloconverters?
 These circuits convert input power at one frequency to output power at a different
frequency through one stage conversion.
 These are mainly used for slow speed large AC drives like rotary kiln, etc..

14) What is JFET?

Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) has no p-n junctions but has a high resistivity
semiconductor material forming a channel of either n-type or p-type silicon for the majority
carriers to flow through with two ohmic electrical connections at either end commonly
known as Drain and Source.

15) What is Ohmic Electrical Connections?

An ohmic contact is a non-rectifying electrical junction: a junction between two conductors
that has a linear current-voltage (I-V) curve as with Ohm’s law. Low resistive ohmic contacts
are used to allow charge to flow easily on both directions between the two conductors,
without blocking due to rectification or excess power dissipation due to voltage thresholds.

16) What is Electrical Junction?

 An Electrical Junction may be either a thermoelectricity junction, a metal-
semiconductor junction or a p-n junction. Junctions are either rectifying or non-
 Non-rectifying junctions are called ohmic contacts. Electronic components employing
rectifying junctions include p-n diodes, schottky diodes and bipolar junction

17) What is Thermoelectricity?

Thermoelectricity also called as peltier-seebeck effect, direct conversion of heat into
electricity or electricity into heat through two related mechanisms, the Seebeck Effect and
the Peltier Effect.

18) What is Seebeck Effect?

 Seebeck Effect, production of an electromotive force (EMF) and consequently an
electrical current in a loop of material consisting of at least two dissimilar conductors
when two junctions are maintained at different temperatures. The conductors are
commonly metals, though they need not even be solids.
 The German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered (1821) the effect. The
Seebeck effect is used to measure temperature with great sensitivity and accuracy
and to generate electric power for special applications.

19) What is Peltier Effect?

Peltier Effect, the cooling of one junction and the heating of the other when electric current
is maintained in a circuit of material consisting of two dissimilar conductors; the effect is
stronger in circuits containing dissimilar semiconductors. In a circuit consisting of battery
joined by two pieces of copper wire to a length of bismuth wire , a temperature rise occurs
at the junction where the current passes from copper to bismuth, and a temperature drop
occurs at the junction where the current passes from bismuth to copper. This effect was
discovered in 1834 by the French physicist Jean-Charles-Athanase Peltier.

20) What does IP mean on a light?

IP rating stands for Ingress Protection or International Protection. This is a standard rating
that determines how water proof and dust / solid proof a light fitting is. The first digit in an
IP rating refers to how dust proof a light fitting is and the second digit refers to how water
proof a fitting is.

21) What are the technical characteristics of Isolator?

 Polarity - 1P – 2P – 3P – 4P
 Rated Current - 20A – 32A – 40A – 63A – 80A – 100A – 125A – 160A
 Protection degree - IP55 – IP66
 Opt. temp according to reference standard - -5°C to +40°C
 Max. opt. temp - 60°C
 Glow wire test - 650°C (Engineering Plastic)
 Material - Engineering plastic / Metal
 IK degree at 20°C - Engineering plastic versions:
 20A - 32A - 40A : IK07
 63A – 80A – 100A : IK 08
 Cable Inlet - Metric
 Color - Grey RAL 7035 (Eng. Plastic), Grey RAL 7015 (Metal)
22) What is IK rating?
IK stands for Impact Protection, Degree of protection provided by enclosures for electrical
equipment against external mechanical impacts in accordance with IEC 62262:2002 and IEC

23) IK ratings and their definitions.

 IK01 Protection against 0.14 joules impact. Equivalent to impact of 0.25kg mass
dropped from 56mm above impacted surface.
 IK02 Protection against 0.2 joules impact. Equivalent to 0.25 kg of mass dropped
from 80mm above impacted surface.
 IK03 Protection against 0.35 joules impact. Equivalent to 0.25kg mass dropped from
140mm above impacted surface.
 IK04 Protection against 0.5 joules impact. Equivalent to 0.25kg mass dropped from
200mm above impacted surface.
 IK05 Protection against 0.7 joules impact. Equivalent to 0.25kg mass dropped from
280mm above impacted surface.
 IK06 Protection against 1 joules impact. Equivalent to 0.25kg mass dropped from
400mm above impacted surface.
 IK07 Protection against 2 joules impact. Equivalent to 0.5kg mass dropped from
400mm above impacted surface.
 IK08 Protection against 5 joules impact. Equivalent to 0.5kg mass dropped from
300mm above impacted surface.
 IK09 Protection against 10 joules impact. Equivalent to 5kg mass dropped from
200mm above impacted surface.
 IK10 Protection against 20 joules impact. Equivalent to 5kg mass dropped from
400mm above impacted surface.

25) List the ratings of Isolator.

The ratings of isolators are 20A, 32A, 40A, 63A, 80A, 100A, 125A, 160A, 200A, 250A, 315A,
400A, 500A, 630A, 800A, 1000A, 1250A, 1600A.
25) ELV Legends.

26) Formula for calculating voltage drop.

Vd = mV x I x L or mV = Vd x 1000
1000 IxL

where I = Current in amperes, L = route length in meters, mV = approximate voltage


Assume maximum permissible voltage drop = 4 per cent of 415 volts = 16.6 volts

By substituting the values,

mV = 16.6 x 1000 = 0.83

200 x 100

27) Cable Lugs Sizes.

The Lugs Sizes for cables are as follows 1.5x5mm, 2.5x5mm, 4.0x4mm, 4.0x5mm, 2.5x6mm,
6.0x6mm, 10x6mm, 10x8mm, 16x10mm, 25x8mm, 25x10mm, 35x8mm, 35x10mm,
50x12mm, 70x10mm, 70x12mm, 95x10mm, 95x12mm, 120x10mm, 120x12mm,
150x12mm, 185x12mm, 240x12mm,240x16mm, 300x16mm.
28) Coding Key for DB.

29) Size of DB.

30) What is IP44?

 Protection against contact with live or moving parts inside the enclosure by tools,
wires or such object of thickness greater than 1mm. Protection against ingress of
small solid foreign bodies (diameter greater than 1mm) excluding the ventilation
opening (intake and discharge of external fans) and the drain hole of enclosed
machine, which may have degree 2 protection.
 Water splashed against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful
31) What is IP54?
Water splashed against the machine from any direction shall have no harmful effect.
32) What is IP55?
 Complete protection against contact with live or moving parts inside the enclosure.
Protection against harmful deposits of dust. The ingress of dust is not totally
prevented, but cannot enter in an amount sufficient to interface with satisfactory
operation of the machine.
 Water projected from the nozzle from any direction shall have no harmful effect.

33) What is IP56?

Water from heavy seas or water projected from jets shall not enter the machine in any
harmful quantity.

34) What is IP65?

 Complete protection against contact with live or moving parts inside the enclosure
and against the ingress of dust.
 Water projected by a nozzle against the machine from any direction shall have no
harmful effect.
35) What is IP66?
 Complete protection against contact with live or moving parts inside the enclosure
and against the ingress of dust.
 Water from heavy seas or water projected from jets shall not enter the machine in
any harmful quantity.
36) What is AC motor?
An AC motor is an electric motor driven by an alternating current (AC). The AC motor
commonly consists of two basic parts, an outside stator having two coils supplied with
alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the
output shaft producing a second rotating magnetic field. The rotor magnetic field may be
produced by permanent magnets, reluctance saliency, or DC or AC electrical windings.

37) Formula to convert KW into KVA

The apparent power S in kilovolt-amps(KVA) is equal to the real power P in kilowatts (KW),
divided by the power factor PF:
S = P/ PF or KVA = KW/PF

38) Formula to convert Watts into Joules

We can calculate joules from watts and seconds, but we can’t convert watts to joules since
watt and joule ubirs represent different quantities.
The energy E in joules(J) is equal to the power P in watts (W), times the time period t in
seconds (s):
E = P x t or joules = watts x seconds
39) Formula to calculate power consumption.
The electricity bills are nothing but energy consumption bills and not power consumption
Energy in Joules (Units) = Power in watts * time in hours / 1000
Consumption part1: 1800*5/1000 = 9 units
Consumption part 2: 100*8/1000 = 0.8 units
Cost/unit = Rs.6
Bill for a single day,
Consumption part 1: 9 x 6 = 54
Consumption part 2: 0.8 x 6 = 4.8
Bill / day = 58.8
Bill / month = 1764

40) Why most of home appliances were not run with AC?
Most of the home appliances were not run with AC because, Electronics cannot run directly
on AC, it needs to be rectified and filtered to provide a smooth DC to power the electronic
circuitry within the device with a constant voltage.

41) What is meant by Dual Voltage device?

 A dual voltage device can accept both 110-120V and 220-240V. Luckily many travel
gadgets are dual voltage, so you will only need a plug adapter, also called as a travel
 Plug adapters do not convert electricity; Converters do that, but you won’t need one
for a dual voltage device. These devices should read something like 100/240V or
110~220V AC. Many digital dual voltage devices adjust automatically.
 If you see something on the power label that looks more like 110V AC or 120V AC, it’s
a single voltage device. Single voltage devices require a plug adapter and a voltage
converter and or a transformer for international travel.

41) What is an Relay?

 A Relay is an electromagnetic switch operated by a relatively small electric current
that can turn on or off a much larger electric current. The heart of relay is an
electromagnet (a coil of wire that becomes a temporary magnet when electricity
flows through it).
 The main usage of the Relay was seen in the history for transmitting and receiving
the information, that was called as Morse code where the input signals used to be
either 1 or 0, these change in signals were mechanically noted in terms of ON and
OFF of a light bulb or a beep sound, it means those pulses are 1s and 0s are
converted mechanical ON and OFF using electromagnets.

42) Construction of Relay.

Electromagnet: An Electromagnet plays a major role in the working of a relay. It is a metal

doesn’t have a magnetic property but it can be converted into a magnet when current
passes through it and attract within its range.

Movable Armature: Movable armature is a simple metal piece which is balanced on a pivot
or a stand. It helps in making or breaking the connection with the contacts connected to it.

Contacts: These are the conductors that exist within the device and are connected to the

Yoke: It is a small metal piece fixed on a core in order to attract and hold the armature
when the coil is energized.

Spring (Optional): Few relays don’t need any spring but if it is used, it is connected to one
end of armature to ensure its easy and free movement. Instead of a spring, a metal stand
like structure can be used.

43) What is Voltage Converter?

A Voltage Converter (also known as power converter or voltage transformer) is an electric
power conversion device which is used to change the electrical output of a power source.
The most common use for these converters is to change the voltage from 220 volts down
to 110 volts, or from 110 volts up to 220 volts.
44) What is an MCC?
A Motor Control Center (MCC) is an assembly of one or more enclosed sections having a
common power bus and principally containing a motor control units. Motor control centers
are in modern practice a factory assembly of several motor starters. A motor control center
can include variable frequency drives, programmable controllers, and metering and may
also be the electrical service entrance for the building.

45) What is VFD?

A Variable Frequency Drive (VFD also termed as adjustable frequency drive, variable
voltage / variable frequency (VVVF) drive, variable speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or
inverter drive) is a type of adjustable speed drive used in electromechanical drive systems
to control AC motor speed and torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage.

46) XLPE Cables and its Ampere ratings.

1 4Cx10mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx10mm² ECC 32A / 40A
2 4Cx16mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx16mm² ECC 63A
3 4Cx25mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx16mm² ECC 80A
4 4Cx35mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx16mm² ECC 100A
5 4Cx50mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx25mm² ECC 125A
6 4Cx70mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx35mm² ECC 160A
7 4Cx95mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx50mm² ECC 200A
8 4Cx150mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx70mm² ECC 250A
9 4Cx185mm² XLPE /SWA/PVC + 1Cx95mm² ECC 300A

47) Types of Industrial Socket by pole wise.

 2 pin Industrial socket outlets.
 4 pin Industrial socket outlets.
 5 pin Industrial socket outlets.
Ratings of industrial socket will be 16A, 32A, 63A, 125A.

48) What is a Compactor?

A compactor is a machine or mechanism used to reduce the size of material such as waste
material or bio mass through compaction. A trash compactor is often used by a home or
business to reduce the volume of trash it produces.

49) Types of AC Motor.

Major types of AC motor are as follows:
 Induction Motor
 Synchronous Motor
50) What is an Induction Motor?
An Induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric
current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction
from the magnetic field of the stator winding. An induction motor can therefore be made
without electrical connections to the rotor. An induction motor rotor can be either wound
type or squirrel-cage type.

51) What is Synchronous motor?

A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor in which, at steady state, the rotation of the
shaft is synchronized with the frequency of the supply current. The rotation period is
exactly equal to an integral number of AC cycles. Synchronous motors contain multiphase
AC electromagnets on the stator of the motor that create a magnetic field which rotates in
time with oscillations of the line current. The rotor with permanent magnets or
electromagnets turns in step with the stator field at the same rate and as a result, provides
the second synchronized rotating magnet field of any AC motor. A synchronous motor is
termed doubly fed if it is supplied with independently excited multiphase AC
electromagnets on both the rotor and stator.
Electrical Terms and Meanings in tamil:

Residual Voltage - எஞ் சிய மின் னழுத்தம்

Residual periodic variation - எஞ் சியுள் ள கால மாறுபாடு
Residual Current - எஞ் சியிருக்கும் தற் பபாததய
Consequently - அதன் விதளவாக