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Oxygen Profile in Streams

Assoc. Prof. Kozet YAPSAKLI


Oxygen depletion in streams
Oxygen level in surface waters

 Two mechanisms are known to contribute oxygen to


surface waters:
 dissolution of oxygen from the atmosphere
(reaearation)
 production of oxygen by algal photosynthesis
Oxygen Deficit
 Oxygen deficit is represented mathematically by

𝐷 = 𝑐𝑠 − 𝑐
 For constant equilibrium conditions, i.e. Cs does not
change, the rate of change in the deficit:
𝑑𝐷 𝑑𝑐
=−
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
The deficit increases at the same rate that
oxygen is used
 The dissolved oxygen deficit is the main driving force for
reaeration
DO sag definitions
Streeter-Phelps Model*
Mass Balance for the Model
Not a Steady-state situation
rate O2 accum. = rate O2 in – rate O2 out + produced – consumed
rate O2 accum. = rate O2 in – 0 + 0 – rate O2 consumed

Kinetics
Both reoxygenation and deoxygenation are 1st order

* Streeter, H.W. and Phelps, E.B. Bulletin #146, USPHS (1925)


Sag Curve

 The oxygen deficit in a stream is a function of


 Oxygen utilization
 Reaeration
𝑑𝐷
= 𝑟𝐷 + 𝑟𝑅
𝑑𝑡
 rD=Rate of BOD exertion
 rR=Rate of reaeration
Kinetics for Streeter-Phelps Model
• Deoxygenation
L = BOD remaining at any time
dL/dt = Rate of deoxygenation equivalent to rate of BOD removal
dL/dt = -k1L for a first order reaction
k1 = deoxygenation constant, f’n of waste type and temp.

d [ L] C dL t

dt
 kL 
C0 L
  k  dt
0

L L kt
ln   kt or  e   L  L0 e kt
L0 L0
Developing the Streeter-Phelps
Rate of reoxygenation = k2D
D = deficit in D.O.
k2 = reoxygenation constant*
Where

k2 
3.9v
1
2
1.025 (T  20)

1
2
– T = temperature of water, ºC
– H = average depth of flow, m
3 – ν = mean stream velocity, m/s
2
H
D.O. deficit
= saturation D.O. – D.O. in the water
There are many correlations for this.
The simplest one, used here, is from
O’Connor and Dobbins, 1958
 or
Combining the kinetics
Net rate of change of
oxygen deficiency, dD/dt
dD/dt = k1L - k2D
where L = L0e-k1t

OR
dD/dt = k1L0e-k1t - k2D
Integration and substitution
The last differential equation can be integrated to:
k1 Lo  k1t  k 2t  k 2t
D (e  e )  Do e
k2  k1
It can be observed that the minimum value, Dc is achieved when dD/dt = 0:
dD
 k1 Lo e k1t  k 2 D  0
dt
k1
Dc  Lo e  k1t
k2 , since D is then Dc

Substituting this last equation in the first, when D = Dc and solving for t = tc:

1  k2  Do (k 2  k1 )  

tc  ln  1  
k 2  k1  k1  k1 Lo 