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C.D.

Spielberger: Cro ss-Cultural Assessment of Emotional


European States
Psychologist
© 2006 andVol.
Hogrefe
2006; &Personality
Huber Traits
11(4):297–303
Publishers

Cross-Cultural Assessment
of Emotional States
and Personality Traits
Charles D. Spielberger
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

Center for Research in Behavioral Medicine and Health Psychology,


This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Abstract. Biographical information regarding Wilhelm Wundt and William James is briefly described, and the contributions of these
founders of psychology in Europe and the US to the understanding of emotions and personality are reviewed. Important theoretical
contributions of Darwin and Freud to the historical evolution of emotions and personality as psychological constructs are also examined.
Critical issues and sources of error in the cross-cultural adaptation of psychological tests of emotional states and personality traits are
evaluated, emphasizing the importance of construct equivalence in the languages of the tests that are being translated and adapted. The
nature of anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity as fundamental psychological concepts is discussed, and the importance of measuring
these vital signs in diagnosis and treatment is emphasized.

Keywords: emotions, personality, assessment, anxiety, anger, depression, curiosity

It was, indeed, a great honor to receive the Wilhelm


Wundt-William James Award for contributions to interna-
Contributions of Wundt and James
tional psychology from the European Federation of Psy- to Understanding Emotions and
chologists’ Associations (EFPA) and the American Psy- Personality
chological Foundation (APF) at the 9th European Con-
gress of Psychology in Granada. I also greatly appreciate Wilhelm Wundt and William James are generally consid-
the invitation from Professor Rainer Silbereisen, Editor- ered to be the founders of psychology in Europe and the
in-Chief of European Psychologist, the official journal of US. Born in 1832 in the village of Neckarau in Germany,
the EFPA, to contribute a brief article based on my award Wundt studied medicine at Tübingen, Heidelberg, and
presentation at the Granada Congress. Receiving this Berlin, but was more interested in the scientific founda-
award stimulated me to review the contributions of Wundt tion on which medicine was based than in professional
and James to our understanding of emotions and person- practice. He was appointed assistant professor at the Uni-
ality, the concepts that have been of the greatest interest versity of Heidelberg in 1864, where he established the
in my own professional work. first course in physiological psychology, which focused
In this paper, I will briefly report biographical informa- on sensory physiology and behavioral reactions. His lec-
tion about Wundt and James, and will review and com- ture notes were published in 1873 as his major work,
ment on their respective conceptions of emotions and per- Grundzüge der Physiologischen Psychologie (Principles
sonality. I will also examine some of the major theoretical of Physiological Psychology), which was subsequently re-
contributions of Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud to vised (Wundt, 1897). The establishment of Wundt’s lab at
understanding the historical evolution of the concepts of the University of Leipzig in 1879 is generally celebrated
emotion and personality. Critical issues relating to the as the founding of experimental psychology as an academ-
measurement of emotions and personality from a cross- ic discipline.
cultural perspective will also be examined. Finally, I will Wundt accepted the Spinozean idea of psychophysical
comment on the nature of anxiety, anger, depression, and parallelism, theorizing that every physical event has a
curiosity as theoretical concepts, and on the importance mental counterpart and vice versa. He developed experi-
of measuring these psychological vital signs in diagnosis mental introspection, a method in which researchers care-
and treatment. fully observed specific internal experiences in terms of
their quality, intensity, and duration. Wundt considered
humans to be “emotional creatures,” and assumed that all

© 2006 Hogrefe & Huber Publishers European Psychologist 2006; Vol. 11(4):297–303
DOI 10.1027/1016-9040.11.4.297
298 C.D. Spielberger: Cross-Cultural Assessment of Emotional States and Personality Traits

Figure 1. Portraits of Wilhelm Wundt


and Williams James, who are general-
ly regarded as the founders of psy-
chology in Europe and America.
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.

mental activities involved emotion, which preceded cog- ested in a career in medicine. Like Wundt, he preferred to
nition. He distinguished between feelings as short-lived study the science that was related to medicine. In 1872,
experiences, and emotions as more complex experiences James was appointed instructor of physiology at Harvard,
that generally involved several related feelings. Conse- and taught what is considered the first U.S. course on psy-
quently, he concluded that it was not possible to identify chology in 1875. His title at Harvard was changed in 1880
specific emotions because they tended to blend into each to assistant professor of philosophy; he became a full pro-
other. Wundt disagreed with the James-Lange Theory, fessor in 1885. In 1889 James’ title was changed to pro-
which assumed that a person first responded to a situation fessor of psychology; his classic book (James, 1890), The
and then experienced an emotion. According to Wundt, Principles of Psychology (2 volumes), was published the
introspection demonstrated that emotions and physiolog- following year. A shorter version, published in 1892 with
ical arousal came first, followed by cognition and behav- the subtitle The Briefer Course, was referred to by stu-
ioral consequences. dents as “The Jimmy” for the next 50 years. James’ books
In early studies of human emotions, introspective re- were extremely popular among psychology students and
ports were used in efforts to discover and measure the laypersons alike. He also raised money for a new lab at
qualitative feeling states (“mental elements”) that were as- Harvard, and arranged to hire one of Wundt’s students,
sociated with different emotions (Titchner, 1879; Wundt, Hugo Münsterberg, as its director.
1897). However, the findings that resulted from this phe- In his books, James devoted an entire chapter to “The
nomenological approach were inconsistent and generally Emotions,” which he considered to be similar to instincts.
unrelated to other behaviors (Plutchik, 1962; Young, In describing emotions, James quotes extensively from
1943). Consequently, self-reports came to be viewed with Darwin and gives considerable attention to fear, which
extreme suspicion because they were unverifiable and he defined as “a genuine instinct.” Symptoms of fear in-
easily falsified (Duffy, 1941). The validity of verbal self- cluded perspiration (cold sweat), hurried breathing, and
reports was further challenged by psychoanalytic formu- increased heart rate and blood pressure. The importance
lations that emphasized the distortions produced by the of anger was also recognized by James, who observed
effects of unconscious mental processes on mood and that when an individual experienced intense anger or
thought. rage, “he strikes, kicks, and throttles whomever he can
William James was born in New York City in 1842. He lay his hands on.” Similar to fear and anger, James also
entered Harvard in 1861 to study chemistry, but soon considered curiosity to be an instinct, which contributed
changed to medicine. He went to Germany in 1867 to to resolving puzzles and stimulating reactions to novel
study physiology under Helmholtz, returning to Harvard situations. Portraits of Wundt and James are shown in
in 1869 to complete his M.D. degree, but was not inter- Figure 1.

European Psychologist 2006; Vol. 11(4):297–303 © 2006 Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
C.D. Spielberger: Cross-Cultural Assessment of Emotional States and Personality Traits 299

Historical Evolution of Emotions and back to the 5th century B.C. writings of Hippocrates, the
father of modern medicine (Jackson, 1986, 1995). The
Personality as Theoretical Concepts Greek term, melancholia, which had the connotation of
both anxiety and depression, was used by Hippocrates to
Fear and rage were considered by Darwin (1965/1872) to describe a “black mood” that involved prolonged fear and
be universal characteristics of both humans and animals sadness (Jackson, 1995). Depression (melancholia), fear
that were clearly reflected in facial expressions. He theo- (anxiety), and anger (hostility, rage) were considered by
rized that these emotions evolved over time through a pro- Darwin and Freud to be fundamental emotional states that
cess of natural selection because they facilitated successful had powerful effects on thoughts and behavior. Both Dar-
adaptation and survival (Plutchik, 2001). According to win and Freud also recognized that depression resulted
Darwin (1965/1872, p. 176), “If we expect to suffer, we are from the interaction of anxiety and anger. Like anxiety and
anxious; if we have no hope of relief, we despair.” Thus, anger, symptoms of depression vary in severity (intensity)
Darwin explicitly related anxiety to fear and depression. and frequency, from feeling sad or gloomy for a relatively
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

He regarded fear as “. . . the most depressing of all the emo- short period of time to the frequent experience of deep de-
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.

tions; and it soon induces utter, helpless prostration” (Dar- spair, extreme guilt, hopelessness, and thoughts of death
win, 1965/1872, p. 81). that could result in suicide. Persistent depression may also
Rage was also considered by Darwin (1965/1872, p. 74) contribute to physical and behavioral symptoms such as
to be a powerful emotion that motivated “. . . animals of all fatigue, insomnia, frequent crying, chronic aches and pain,
kinds, and their progenitors before them, when attacked or and excessive gain or loss in weight (Rosenfeld, 1999).
threatened by an enemy” to fight and defend themselves. In theory and research on psychopathology, anxiety and
He observed that rage was reflected in facial expressions, anger have been recognized as major contributors to de-
clenched teeth, dilated nostrils, accelerated heart-rate, and pression and other emotional disorders for the last 100
muscular tension, and often resulted in violent behavior. years (Freud, 1924, 1936; May, 1977/1950). The measure-
For Darwin (1965/1872, p. 244), anger was a state of mind ment of anxiety in psychological testing and treatment
that differed “. . . from rage only in degree, and there is no planning has also received significant attention for more
marked distinction in their characteristic signs.” Thus, Dar- than half a century (Spielberger, 1983; Taylor, 1953).
win implicitly defined anger as an emotional state that var- While the assessment of anger has been relatively neglect-
ies in intensity, from mild irritation or annoyance to intense ed, evidence from research on Type A behavior and heart
fury and rage. disease (Spielberger, 1976; Spielberger & London, 1982),
Freud (1924) emphasized the importance of anxiety, demonstrating that anger was the lethal component of the
which he defined as “something felt,” a specific unpleasant Type A syndrome, has stimulated the development of mea-
emotional state or condition that included apprehension, sures of the experience, expression, and control of anger
tension, worry, and physiological arousal. He equated fear (Spielberger, 1980, 1988, 1999; Spielberger et al., 1985).
with objective anxiety, which he considered to be an emo- Freud (1936, 1959) viewed the insecurity caused by anx-
tional reaction proportional in its intensity to a real danger iety as the major instigator of exploratory behavior, thus
in the external world (Freud, 1936). Objective anxiety was implicitly linking curiosity to anxiety. Although Freud did
generally beneficial because it served to warn the individ- not directly address the nature of curiosity, he considered
ual of a danger to which some form of adjustment was nec- exploratory behavior to be determined by instinctive bio-
essary. Consistent with Darwin’s evolutionary perspective, logical urges and ego mechanisms that served to reduce
Freud’s “danger signal” theory emphasized the adaptive threat and insecurity (Aronoff, 1962). Strongly influenced
utility of anxiety in motivating behavior that helped a per- by Darwin’s (1965/1872) views on evolution, William
son to cope more effectively with potentially harmful situ- James (1890) also proposed an instinct theory of curiosity.
ations. James considered attraction to novel stimuli to be adaptive
Aggression was considered by Freud to be an instinctual because it facilitated survival, but fear (anxiety) aroused by
drive that motivated anger and aggressive behavior. Ag- novel situations was also adaptive because the novel stim-
gressive impulses, accompanied by anger and rage, were ulus might prove to be dangerous. Like Freud, James rec-
conceptualized by Freud (1959/1933) as resulting from a ognized a potentially antagonistic relationship between cu-
biologically determined “death instinct” (thanatos) that riosity and fear, which often resulted in the simultaneous
motivated people to destroy themselves. However, because arousal of these emotions.
thanatos was inhibited by a more powerful life instinct (li- Broadly defined, curiosity involves the motivation to ac-
bido), the aggressive energy of this self-destructive drive quire new knowledge and experience, which motivates ex-
was directed toward other persons or objects in the envi- ploratory behavior (James 1890; Loewenstein, 1994; Mc-
ronment. Aggression that could not be expressed against Dougall, 1921). Although scientific interest in curiosity has
external objects was turned back onto the self, resulting in been reflected in the history of the discipline of psychology
depression and other psychosomatic manifestations (Alex- for more than 100 years, research on curiosity has received
ander & French, 1948; Freud, 1936). only passing attention (Spielberger & Starr, 1994). Daniel
The origin of the concept of depression can be traced Berlyne (1949, 1950), clearly the most influential contrib-

© 2006 Hogrefe & Huber Publishers European Psychologist 2006; Vol. 11(4):297–303
300 C.D. Spielberger: Cross-Cultural Assessment of Emotional States and Personality Traits

utor to experimental research on curiosity, identified two of emotion terms available in any given language is unique
types of curiosity; perceptual curiosity defined as “the cu- and reflects a culture’s unique perspective on peoples’
riosity which leads to increased perception of stimuli” ways of feeling.” Examples of subcultural differences in
(Berlyne, 1954, p. 180), and epistemic curiosity as “the the meaning of Spanish words are noted in Table 1, which
drive to know” (p. 187). Berlyne (1960) also differentiated clearly indicate that culture can have a profound impact on
between two types of exploratory behavior, which he la- key words even in the same language (Cabrera, 1998).
beled diversive and specific. Feelings of boredom motivate The process of “back-translation” is traditionally used
diversive exploration; specific exploration is motivated by to facilitate adapting psychological tests from one language
the desire to acquire information about novel stimuli. to another (Brislin, 1970, 1986). In the back-translation of
test items, the literal translation of words is emphasized.
However, back-translation of an original item for measur-
ing emotions and personality is often less adequate than
Cross-Cultural Assessment of constructing a new item based on the equivalent cross-cul-
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

Emotional States and Personality tural conceptual definition of the emotional state or person-
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.

ality dimension that is being measured (Spielberger &


Traits Diaz-Guerrero, 1983). This is especially true in adapting
items that contain idiomatic expressions. Given the diffi-
Hambleton (1994; Hambleton & Patsula, 1999) has re- culties encountered in translating key words and idiomatic
viewed a wide range of general issues and sources of error expressions in the cross-cultural adaptation of measures of
that are encountered in the cross-cultural adaptation of psy- emotions and personality, a substantially larger pool of
chological tests. These included cultural and language dif- items should be constructed than will eventually be needed.
ferences, technical and methodological problems, and fac- Statistical procedures can then be used to determine which
tors that influence the interpretation of test results. Cultural items have the best psychometric properties for measuring
differences have a greater influence on the assessment of the specified construct.
emotions than they do on abilities and achievement because In developing adaptations of the STAI State (S-Anxiety)
emotions are more subjective and less clearly defined and Trait (T-Anxiety) Scales (Spielberger, 1983; Spielberger
(Anastasi, 1988). While construct equivalence in different et al., 1970), the unique psycholinguistic properties of differ-
cultures is an essential requirement in the adaptation of ent languages have been utilized. In Spanish, for example,
tests, it is especially important for measures of emotion and there are two forms of the verb “to be,” ser and estar. Ser
personality because there is, as yet, relatively little agree- denotes a relatively stable or permanent characteristic of a
ment regarding the criteria for defining these dimensions. person or situation, whereas estar has the connotation of a
Special attention must also be given to the state-trait dis- transitory state or temporary condition (Spielberger, Gonza-
tinction (Cattell & Scheier, 1960; Spielberger, 1966), and lez-Reigosa, Martinez-Urrutia, Natalicio, & Natalicio, 1971).
the concept of item-intensity specificity (Anastasi, 1988; The Portuguese distinction between the two verbs is very
Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970). similar to Spanish, but with a greater emphasis on temporary
In the cross-cultural adaptation of psychological tests, and relatively persistent psychological concepts (Wikipedia,
the key words for an item in the original language may have 2005). Verbs in the Hindi language also correspond to de-
several different translations that are equally acceptable in scribing transitory states and relatively stable personality
the target language. Different key words for two or more traits (Spielberger, Sharma, & Singh, 1973).
items in the source language may also be represented by a The fact that the state-trait distinction is intrinsic to the
single word in the target language. Where the literal trans- Spanish/Portuguese and Hindi languages, as indicated by
lation of a test item is not possible, it is essential to retain the psycholinguistic structure of these very different lan-
the meaning of the key words by selecting synonyms in the
target language. For test items that contain idiomatic ex- Table 1. Examples of differences in the meaning of Spanish
pressions, special care must be given to translating the feel- words in different cultures
ing connotation of an idiom, rather than the literal meaning
of individual words (Guthrie & Lonner, 1986). Identifying – In Caribbean countries, “guagua” means bus, but this same
word refers to a baby or child in Peru and Chile.
comparable idiomatic expressions in the target language is
generally preferable to the literal translation of the original – “Verraco” is a pig in Cuba, but has the connotation of a tough
person in Colombia.
idiom. Clearly, the cross-cultural equivalence of the theo-
retical concepts that are being measured is essential. – In Spain, “coger” means to take or to seize, but refers to having
sex in Mexico and Venezuela.
The words used in different languages to describe emo-
– In Cuba, “bicho” is an insect, but this same word refers to a pe-
tional states and personality traits generally have a wide
nis in Puerto Rico.
range of connotations (Rogler, 1999; Wierzbiecka, 1994).
Note: These examples, from Cabrera (1998), indicate the need for the
Even within a particular language, the same word may have careful selection of key words (or idioms) that have essentially the
a variety of meanings in different subcultures (Anastasi, same meaning in both the original (source) and second (target) lan-
1988). As noted by Wierzbiecka (1994, p. 135), “The set guages, and in the subcultures of a particular language.

European Psychologist 2006; Vol. 11(4):297–303 © 2006 Hogrefe & Huber Publishers
C.D. Spielberger: Cross-Cultural Assessment of Emotional States and Personality Traits 301

guage systems, strongly supports the fundamental need to considered as roughly analogous to having a fever. While
distinguish between the intensity of emotional states and fevers can usually be reduced by aspirin or acetaminophen
individual differences in personality traits. The state-trait in patients with colds or the flu, the emotional conflicts that
distinction is also clearly reflected in particular words that contribute to clinical depression are not likely to be sub-
have the connotation of anxiety and anger as transitory stantially relieved by either drugs or simple behavioral in-
states that vary in intensity, such as feeling upset or furious, terventions. Because the threshold for seeking psycholog-
and by items such as “I have disturbing thoughts,” which ical treatment tends to be higher than for using medication
imply a more persistent and frequently experienced trait to alleviate fever or pain, the problems that cause the emo-
(Spielberger, 1983). tional fever of depression are more likely to persist to a
Given the strong evidence for the state-trait distinction point of crisis before help is sought.
that is inherent in the linguistic structure of Spanish, Por- Anxiety, anger, and depression are the psychological vi-
tuguese, Hindi, and other languages, it is important to as- tal signs that are most critical to an individual’s well-being.
sess the full range of the intensity of emotional states and Variations in the intensity and duration of these emotional
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

individual differences in how often personality traits are states provide essential information about a person’s men-
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.

experienced (Spielberger & Sharma, 1976). Individual dif- tal health, and can help to identify recent events, as well as
ferences in anxiety, anger, and depression as personality long-standing conflicts, that have particular meaning and
traits can be evaluated in terms of the frequency that these impact on an individual’s life. Assessing emotional vital
emotions are experienced. Similar to the variations in mag- signs and providing timely and meaningful feedback dur-
nitude that are evaluated by physiological measures such ing treatment will enhance a patient’s awareness and un-
as heart rate and blood pressure, self-report scales for as- derstanding of her/his feelings. Helping patients to cope
sessing emotional states must be sensitive to evaluating with their feelings can also help them to deal more effec-
variations in intensity. tively with the underlying problems and contribute to a
In adapting measures of emotions and personality for more favorable treatment outcome.
cross-cultural assessment, identifying words in different Symptoms of anxiety are typically found in almost all
languages that denote varying levels of item-intensity spec- emotional disorders. Freud (1936, p. 85) regarded anxiety
ificity is an essential requirement. Clearly, feeling annoyed as the “fundamental phenomenon and the central problem
or furious reflects different levels of the intensity of anger of neurosis.” According to de la Torre (1979), helping peo-
as an emotional state. Items that describe positive feelings, ple to cope with their feelings of anxiety should be a major
such as calm and secure, and that correlate substantially priority in all forms of psychotherapy, and especially in
and inversely with items indicating the presence of anxiety, crisis intervention and dynamic treatments that focus on the
such as feeling tense and nervous, should be used for as- specific problems of a patient or client. Recent research
sessing low levels of the intensity of emotional states. In findings, as well as observations of daily life, suggest that
measuring anxiety and depression, it is also important to problems with anger are especially ubiquitous. In a series
include items that describe positive feelings, indicating the of studies, Deffenbacher (1992) and his associates (Deffen-
absence of these emotions, in order to assess the full range bacher, Demm, & Brandon, 1986; Deffenbacher, Story,
of the emotional intensity in normal populations. Stark, Hogg, & Brandon, 1987; Hogg & Deffenbacher,
1986) found that persons high in anger as a personality trait
frequently experienced angry feelings across a wide range
of situations. Consequently, careful assessment of the ex-
Measuring Psychological Vital Signs perience, expression, and control of anger is essential in
diagnosis and treatment planning (Sharkin, 1988; Spielber-
in Diagnosis and Treatment ger, 1988, 1989).
Depression has been described as “the common cold of
Emotions motivate behavior and have a significant impact on mental health problems that strikes the rich and poor as
health and psychological well-being. It is, therefore, essential well as the young and the old” (Rosenfeld, 1999, p. 10).
to evaluate and monitor emotional states in diagnosis and Depression also contributes to behavioral and physical
treatment, just as physicians in medical examinations rou- symptoms, such as fatigue, insomnia, impotence, frequent
tinely measure pulse rate, blood pressure, and temperature, crying, chronic aches and pain, and excessive gain or loss
the vital signs that provide essential information about phys- in weight (Rosenfeld, 1999). The World Health Organiza-
ical health. When a physician detects an abnormal pulse dur- tion estimates that 340 million people currently suffer from
ing a physical examination, this finding signals a potentially clinical depression. According to the WHO (2001), depres-
significant problem in the functioning of the cardiovascular sion will become “the leading cause of disability and the
system. A high fever may be symptomatic of a serious med- 2nd leading contributor to the global burden of disease by
ical condition, indicating that the immune system is not pro- the year 2020.” Clearly, depression is a complex, multifac-
tecting the person from harmful viruses. eted syndrome that is comprised of a number of underlying
Intense anxiety and anger are analogous to elevations in dimensions. Like anxiety and anger, the assessment of the
pulse rate and blood pressure, whereas depression may be intensity of depression as an emotional state and individual

© 2006 Hogrefe & Huber Publishers European Psychologist 2006; Vol. 11(4):297–303
302 C.D. Spielberger: Cross-Cultural Assessment of Emotional States and Personality Traits

differences in how often depression is experienced as a per- ing Spanish, what’s acceptable in some countries could get you
sonality trait is essential in diagnosis and treatment. in trouble in others. The Tampa Tribune, Baylife Section,
What does curiosity add to the assessment of emotional pp. 1–2.
vital signs? As a motivator of creativity and exploratory Cattell, R.B., & Scheier, I.H. (1960). Stimuli related to stress,
behavior, curiosity may be considered as a positive vital neuroticism, excitation, and anxiety response patterns. Journal
of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, 195–204.
sign that contributes to personal adjustment and the suc-
Darwin, C. (1965/1872). The expression of emotions in man and
cessful adaptation to environmental stimuli. Research has animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
shown that anxiety, anger, and depression are inversely re- Deffenbacher, J.L. (1992). Trait anger: Theory, findings, and im-
lated to curiosity, indicating that negative emotions inter- plications. In C.D. Spielberger & J.N. Butcher (Eds.), Advanc-
fere with and inhibit curiosity’s positive and adaptive ef- es in personality assessment (Vol. 9, pp. 177–201.) Hillsdale,
fects. Thus, curiosity may be considered as a positive vital NJ: Erlbaum.
sign and a strong indicator of an individual’s psychological Deffenbacher, J.L., Demm, P.M., & Brandon, A.D. (1986). High
well-being. general anger: Correlates and treatment. Behavior Research
This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

In summary, substantial progress has been made in clar- and Therapy, 24, 480–489.
This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.

ifying the nature and measurement of emotional states and Deffenbacher, J.L., Story, D.A., Stark, R.S., Hogg, J.A., & Bran-
personality traits, and their use in cross-cultural research. don, A.D. (1987). Cognitive-relaxation and social skills inter-
Recognition of the major influence of anxiety, anger, de- ventions in the treatment of general anger. Journal of Coun-
seling Psychology, 34, 171–176.
pression, and curiosity in everyday life, along with the sub-
de la Torre, J. (1979). Anxiety states and short-term psychother-
stantial findings in empirical research, clearly indicate that
apy. In W.E. Fann, I. Karacan, A.D. Polorny, & R.L. Williams
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ceipt of the Wilhelm Wundt-William James Prize. For fur- and psychopathology. In W.J. Lonner & J.W. Berry (Eds.),
Field methods in cross-cultural research (Vol. 8,
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an Journal of Psychology, 48, 11–20. E-mail spielber@cas.usf.edu

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