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PH102 LAB REPORT 2018

NAME: Wallace Kito


ID#: s11152653
PARTNER’S NAME: Tokoia Ruoikabuti
DATE: 03/09/2018
WEEK: 5
EXPERIMENT#: 3

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TITLE: USES OF A BALANCED METER RULE
AIM
In this experiment, we use the principle of moments (also known as torques) to determine:
i) mass of a meter rule, and
ii) density of a rock applying Archimedes' principle
APPARATUS
A metre rule, a cork, a rock, a long pin, a stand with a clamp, one 100 g mass, some thread and
a beaker of water.
PROCEDURE
The procedure followed in this experiment can be seen on the PH1O2 laboratory manual pages
11-12.
INTRODUCTION
“The centre of gravity of a body is a point through which the weight of the body acts, or appears to act.
A metre rule has a uniform shape and a constant density and so the centre of gravity will be a point
exactly in the middle of the rule (at the 50 cm mark). The principle of moments states that an object is in
equilibrium if the sum of all anticlockwise moments about the pivot is equal to the sum of all clockwise
moments about the same pivot.” (www.theallpapers.com) If a metre rule is balanced horizontally at any
point, this means that the clockwise moments and the anticlockwise moments must be equal. The
theoretical value of the meter rule is 50 ± 0.1 g. Its experimental value will be obtained from the
gradient of the graph of 𝑙 𝑉𝑠 𝑥.

For the second part of the experiment, Archimedes discovered that an object fully immense in water
will experience an up trust force acting equally- opposite to the weight force, this means that the weight
of any one object measured in air and then in water will not be same because of an apparent loss of
weight (Air to water) . Using the definition of density as the ratio of mass to volume, i.e., 𝜌 = M/V,
and the fact that the density of water is 1.0 g cm-3 or 1000 kg m-3, it could be shown that the relative
𝑚1
density of the rock r is given by 𝜌𝑟=
𝑚 −𝑚
1 2

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Experiment I: To find the mass of the given meter rule


1) Distance AG = 50± 0.01 cm
2)
𝑙 (cm) ± …. 2.5 5.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0

X (cm) ±… 22.8 21.5 19.1 14.6 9.6 4.2

3) Plot a graph of 𝒍 against 𝒙, showing error bars for both 𝒍 and 𝒙. Use a graph paper.

The graph of 𝒍 Vs 𝑥 of a balanced ruler


60

50

40

30
𝒍 (cm)

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

-10
𝑥 (cm)

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Slope of best fit slope of error bar (standard error)
4) Calculate the slope and its error.
𝑙 (6−0)
𝐵𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑓𝑖𝑡 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 (𝑀1 ) = = = −1.5 ;
𝑥 (21−25)

(48.5−42)
𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 (𝑀2 ) = (0−3.5)
= −1.86

Taking absolute value for the two slopes to find the standard error.

𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑢𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑦 = |𝑀2 | − |𝑀1 | = |1.86| − |1.5| = 0.36

Slope of the graph = -1.5 ± 0.36

5) Find from the graph the value of 𝒍 for which 𝒙 = 0.


When x = 0, 𝒍 = 48.5 ± 0.1 cm

6) Use the principle of moments and show that:


−𝒙(𝟏𝟎𝟎+𝒎)
𝒍= + 𝑨𝑮 ; Where 𝒍, 𝒙 and 𝑨𝑮 are in cm and the mass of the ruler m
𝒎
is in g.

𝐹1 𝑑1 = 𝐹2 𝑑2
𝑚(𝐴𝐺 − (𝑙 + 𝑥)) = (100)𝑥

𝑚(𝐴𝐺 − 𝑙 − 𝑥) = 100𝑥
100𝑥
𝐴𝐺 − 𝑙 − 𝑥 = 𝑚
100𝑥
−𝑙 = - 𝐴𝐺 + 𝑥
𝑚
𝑚𝑥+100𝑥
−𝑙 = – 𝐴𝐺
𝑚
100+𝑚
−𝑙 = 𝑥 ( ) − 𝐴𝐺
𝑚

𝟏𝟎𝟎+𝒎
𝒍 = −𝒙 ( ) + 𝑨𝑮
𝒎

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7) Obtain the mass of the meter rule from your graph
−𝑥(100+𝑚)
𝑙= + 𝐴𝐺 ; Where 𝑙 = 48.5𝑐𝑚, 𝑥 = 1.5𝑐𝑚, 𝐴𝐺 = 50 ± 0.1𝑐𝑚
𝑚
−𝑥(100 + 𝑚)
(𝑙 − 𝐴𝐺) =
𝑚
𝑚(𝑙 − 𝐴𝐺) = −𝑥(100 + 𝑚)
𝑚(𝑙 − 𝐴𝐺) = −100𝑥 − 𝑚𝑥
𝑚𝑥 + 𝑚(𝑙 − 𝐴𝐺) = −100𝑥
𝑚(𝑙 − 𝐴𝐺 + 𝑥) = −100𝑥
−100𝑥
𝑚=
(𝑙−𝐴𝐺+𝑥)
−100(−1.5) 150
𝑚= = = −50 = 𝟓𝟎 ± 𝟎. 𝟑𝐠
((48.5)−(50)+(−1.5)) −3

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Experiment II
8) Record your observations as follows

𝑙 (cm) ±…. 2.5 5.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0

X1 (cm) ±… 27.1 25.5 22.8 17.2 11.5 5.8

X2 (cm) ±… 32.2 30.6 27.3 20.5 13.7 7.0

9) Graph 2

A G RA PH O F A ( 𝑙 V S 𝑥 1 ) VS B ( 𝑙 V S 𝑥 2 ) O F A BALANCED M ETRE
RU LE
60

50

40

30
AXIS TITLE

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

-10
AXIS TITLE

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10) The Point of intersection of graph A and B is
(0, 48.5).

11) Calculate the slopes and absolute errors of curves A and B.


(𝟑𝟎 − 𝟏𝟔) (𝟐𝟐 − 𝟏𝟎)
𝑴𝑨 = − 𝟏. 𝟕𝟓 𝑴𝑪 = = −𝟏. 𝟕𝟏
(𝟏𝟏 − 𝟏𝟗) (𝟏𝟔 − 𝟐𝟑)

Slope of best fit line slope of error bar

The standard or absolute error = |𝑚𝐴 |− |𝑚𝐶 | = |−1.75| − |−1.71| = ±0.04

Therefore, the overall slope of curve A is : -1.75 ± 0.04

(𝟏𝟔 − 𝟔) (𝟑𝟒 − 𝟐𝟖)


𝑴𝑩 = − 𝟏. 𝟒𝟎 𝑴𝑫 = = −𝟏. 𝟓𝟎
(𝟐𝟒 − 𝟑𝟏) (𝟏𝟏 − 𝟏𝟓)

Slope of best fit line slope of error bar

The standard or absolute error = |𝑚𝐵 |− |𝑚𝐷 | = |−1.40| − |−1.50| = ±0.1

Therefore, the overall slope of curve A is : -1.40 ± 0.1

−𝒙(𝟏𝟎𝟎+𝒎)
12) 𝒍= + 𝑨𝑮
𝒎
Given in the equation are: 𝒎 - mass of the meter rule, - 𝒙𝟏 slope of curve A, 𝑨𝑮-
center of mass of the meter rule.
A). unknown: We denote 𝑀1 = 𝑆1 for the mass of stone measured in air?
−𝑆𝑥1 𝑚(𝑙−𝐴𝐺+𝑥1 ) 50 (48.5−50+(−1.75)) −162.5
𝑆1 = = 𝑆1 = = = = 92.9
(𝑙−𝐴𝐺+𝑥1 ) 𝑥1 −1.75 −1.75

𝑺𝟏 = 𝟗𝟐. 𝟗𝒈

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Calculating absolute error for mass of the stone in air.

𝟎.𝟎𝟒
- 𝒙𝟏= × 𝟏𝟎𝟎% = 𝟐. 𝟐𝟗%
𝟏.𝟕𝟓

𝟎.𝟏
- 𝒍 = 𝟒𝟖.𝟓 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎% = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟏%

𝟎.𝟏
- 𝑨𝑮 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟎% = 𝟎. 𝟐%
𝟓𝟎

- 𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 = 𝟐. 𝟕%

𝟐.𝟕
- 𝑨𝒃𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 = × 𝟗𝟐. 𝟗 = ±𝟐. 𝟓
𝟏𝟎𝟎

𝑺𝟏 = (𝟗𝟐. 𝟗 ± 𝟐. 𝟓) × 𝟏𝟎−𝟏

𝑺𝟏 = (𝟗. 𝟐𝟗 ± 𝟎. 𝟐𝟓) × 𝟏𝟎𝟏 𝒈 ; Since absolute errors cannot be greater than 1

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Given in the equation are: 𝒎 - mass of the meter rule, - 𝒙𝟐 slope of curve A, 𝑨𝑮- center of
mass of the meter rule.
B). unknown: We denote 𝑀2 = 𝑆2 for the mass of stone measured in water?
−𝑆𝑥2 𝑚(𝑙−𝐴𝐺+𝑥2 ) 50 (48.5−50+(−1.4)) −145
𝑆2 = = 𝑆2 = = = = 103.57
(𝑙−𝐴𝐺+𝑥2 ) 𝑥2 −1.4 −1.4

𝑺𝟐 = 𝟏𝟎𝟑. 𝟓𝟕𝒈

Calculating absolute error for mass of the stone in water.

𝟎.𝟏
- 𝒙𝟐= × 𝟏𝟎𝟎% = 𝟕. 𝟏𝟒%
𝟏.𝟒

𝟎.𝟏
- 𝒍 = 𝟒𝟖.𝟓 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎% = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟏%

𝟎.𝟏
- 𝑨𝑮 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟎% = 𝟎. 𝟐%
𝟓𝟎

- 𝑻𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 = 𝟕. 𝟓𝟓%

𝟕.𝟓𝟓
- 𝑨𝒃𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 = × 𝟏𝟎𝟑. 𝟓𝟕 = ±𝟕. 𝟖
𝟏𝟎𝟎

𝑺𝟐 = (𝟏𝟎𝟑. 𝟓𝟕 ± 𝟕. 𝟖) × 𝟏𝟎−𝟏
𝑺𝟐 = (𝟏𝟎. 𝟑𝟔 ± 𝟎. 𝟕𝟖) × 𝟏𝟎𝟏 𝒈 ; Since absolute errors cannot be greater than 1

13) Find the relative density of the stone and its error.
𝑚1 (92.9𝑔)
𝜌𝑟= = = 8.71𝑔𝑐𝑚−3
𝑚1 −𝑚2 (92.9𝑔−103.57)

𝟎.𝟐𝟓
- 𝑺𝟏 % 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 = 𝟗.𝟐𝟗 × 100% = 2.69%
𝟎.𝟕𝟖
- 𝑺𝟐 % 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 = 𝟏𝟎.𝟑𝟔 × 100% = 7.53%
- Total % errors = 2.69% + 7.53% = 10.22%
𝟏𝟎.𝟐𝟐%
- 𝑨𝒃𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 = × 𝟖. 𝟕𝟏 = +0.89
𝟏𝟎𝟎%

Therefore, the overall relative density of the stone is 8.71 ± 0.89 gcm-3

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TABLE SHOWING THE OVERAL RESULTS

EXPERIMENT I
Questions variables Values Errors or
from the absolute uncertainty
lab
manual

1) AG= 50.0 ± 0.1 cm


4) Slope of graph -1.5 ± 0.36
5) When X=0, L 48.5 ± 0.1 cm
6) All the steps are done as shown above

7) Mass of the 50.0 ± 0.1 g


rule (m)

EXPERIMENT II
10) The point of
intersection of (0, 48.5)
graphs A and B
11) Slope of A -1.75 ± 0.04
Slope of B -1.40 ± 0.1

12) Mass of stone 92.9 ± 2.5, since uncertainty cannot be


in air (S1) greater than 1, this is done:
(9.29 ± 0.25) x 101 g

Mass of stone 𝑺𝟐 = (𝟏𝟎𝟑. 𝟓𝟕 ± 𝟕. 𝟖) × 𝟏𝟎−𝟏 𝒈


in water (S2) 𝑺𝟐 = (𝟏𝟎. 𝟑𝟔 ± 𝟎. 𝟕𝟖) × 𝟏𝟎𝟏 𝒈

13) Relative 8.71 ± 0.89 gcm-3


density of S2

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Discussion
The experimental value of mass for the meter rule is 50 ± 0.3g, it is obtained from the slope of
the graph of 𝑙 𝑉𝑠 𝑥 , and whereas the slope of best fit line and standard error bar gives its
uncertainty. The result is similar to its theoretical value of 50 ± 0.1g, with a slight difference of
± 0.2 uncertainty. This therefore reflects that the procedures were performed with high
accuracy. Also , it is understood that the moment of a force acting on the pin is the product of
the weight force on the 100g mass and the displacement x from the pin.
With regards to table II in the second part of the experiment, the displacement 𝑥1 from the pin
is less than 𝑥2, this figures implies that more weight force is acting on the stone when measured
in air compared to water. However, the resulting mass calculated for the measures does not
follow this law, this is because of the negative gradient obtained and used in the formula to
obtain the masses. The errors associate with the result would be from external factors like
wind. The two graphs also shows that the weight force acting on each given 𝒍 values is inversely
proportional its corresponding 𝑥 values. And the experimental value for the relative density for
𝑆2 is 8.71 ± 0.89 cm-3.

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CONCLUSION
To conclude, this experiment has enable us to apply the principles of moments (torque) and
Archimedes’ principle (density) to determine the mass of a meter rule and density of a stone
immense in water, likewise, to be able to relate such theories to our own findings comparing.
After observing and collecting of data, the mass of the meter rule is found to be 50 ± 0.3cm in
accuracy to the accepted value of 50 ± 0.1cm. On the other hand, the mass of the stone
measured in air (𝑆1 ) is (9.29 ± 0.25) X 101 g and in water (𝑆1 ) 𝑖𝑠 (10.36 ± 0.78) g, although this
result opposes Archimedes’ discovery (up trust force). And finally, the relative density of the
stone is 8.71 ± 0.89 gcm-3. And it is learnt that weight force acting on a mass is inversely
proportional to the displacement from its equilibrium point (torque).

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REFERENCE
Kumar, A. 2012, ‘PH1O2 Classical Physics Lab Manual’ THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC,
Fiji, p 12.

‘Teaching AS Physics Practical Skills’, 2006, Finding the Mass of a meter ruler,
http://www.theallpapers.com/papers/CIE/AS_and_ALevel/Physics%20(9702)/9702_nos_ps_5.pdf
Accessed on Saturday 18th, 2018

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