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# MA1200 Calculus and Basic Linear Algebra I

## 1 Differentiability and Differentiation

We say that a function y  f  x  is differentiable at x  a if the limit
f a  h  f  a
lim
h h0

exists. If it exists, we denote it by f '  a  . Now, if we consider all those points x at which f is
differentiable, then we can establish a function f ' which gives the value of the limit (that is, f '  x  ) at
each x. This function is called the derivative of f with respect to x (or the first derivative of f
dy df  x  dy
with respect to x ), and is denoted by , y ', f '  x  , or Df  x  . Note that f '  a  , ,
dx dx dx x  a
Df  a  are representing the same thing. We will establish techniques which help us to find the derivative
of a function.

## 1.1 Differentiation from the first principle (p.283 – p.284)

A natural way to find the derivative of a function is to evaluate the limit directly. It is called
differentiation from the first principle. The following examples illustrate the procedure.

Example 1
Let f  x   x n where n is a positive integer. Now,
 x  h  xn
n

f ' x  lim .
h 0 h
By the Binomial Theorem for a positive index n ,
 x  h  x n  n C1 x n 1h  n C2 x n  2 h 2    n Cr x n  r h r    h n
n

## Hence f '  x   lim  n C1 x n 1  n C2 x n  2 h    h n 1   n C1 x n 1  nx n 1 .

h 0

Example 2
Let f  x   sin x .
 sin( x  h)  sin x  2 h  h  CD CD
f '( x)  lim    lim  sin cos  x    , since sin C  sin D  2 cos sin .
h 0
 h  h 0  h 2  2  2 2
 h  h
 sin 2  h 
sin
2 lim cos  x  h   1 cos x   cos x.
 lim  cos  x     lim  
h0

h  2   h 0 h h  0  2
 2  2

1
1.2 Simple differentiation rules (p.294 – p.303, p.318 – p.323, p.325 – p.330, p.344 – p.346)
In order to speed up the calculations of derivatives, the following rules are set up.

## (1) Differentiate a constant function:

If f  x   k where k is a constant, then f '  x   0 .

## (2) Differentiate a linear combination of functions:

If f  x   u  x    v  x  where  and  are real numbers and u  x  ,   x  are differentiable
functions of x, then f '  x    u '  x    v '  x  .

## (3) Differentiate a product of functions:

If f  x   u  x  v  x  where u  x  ,  x  are both differentiable functions of x, then
f ' x   u ' x v  x  u  x v ' x.

## (4) Differentiable a quotient of functions:

u  x
If f  x   where u  x  ,  x  are both differentiable functions of x, then
v  x
v  x  u '( x)  u  x  v '  x 
f ' x  , provided v  x   0 .
v2  x 

## (5) Differentiate a composite function f  u  x   f  u  x   (Chain Rule):

If f  u  x   f  u  x   where f is differentiable at u and u is differentiable at x, then
df du
f ' x  .
du dx

## The following examples illustrate how to apply these rules.

Example 3
Let f  x   an x n  an 1 x n 1    a1 x  a0 where a0 , a1 , , an are real numbers. Then,

f '  x   an x n  an 1 x n 1    a1 x  a0 ' 
  a x  '  a
n
n
n 1 x n 1
 '    a x  ' a
1 0 ' , from 6.2(2).
 nan x n 1   n  1 an 1 x n  2    a1 .

Example 4
sin x
If f  x   , find f '  x  .
x2  1
Solution:

f ' x 
x 2
 
 1  sin x  '  sin x  x 2  1 '   x 2

 1 cos x  2 x sin x
.
  x 
2 2
x2  1 2
1

2
Example 5
 
Let f  x   sin 5 x 5 . Find f '  x  .
Solution:
   
f '  x   5sin 4 x5 sin x 5  '  5sin 4 x5 cos x5    x  '  5sin  x  cos  x  5x
5 4 5 5 4
   
 25 x 4 sin 4 x5 cos x5 .

Example 6
dy ax  b
If y  ax 2  2bx  c , where a, b, c are constants, prove that  .
dx y
Proof:

  d  2  1
1 1

     2ax  2b 
dy d 
 ax 2  2bx  c   ax  2bx  c 2 
 ax 2  2bx  c 2
dx dx dx   2
ax  b ax  b
 1
 .
 ax 2
 2bx  c  2
y

## 1.3 Implicit functions and their derivatives (p.340 – p.344)

Most functions that we have encountered are expressed explicitly as
y  f  x .
However, the dependence between two variables x and y can also be described by writing
F  x, y   0 .
A typical example of such a relationship is
x 2  y 2  1  0.
Observe that there are two continuous functions (both with domain  1,1 )
y  1 x2
y   1 x2
defined by this equation implicitly.

## The derivative of an implicit function can be calculated in a completely straightforward fashion.

Example 7
Curve: x 2  y 2  1  0  (*)
Differentiating both sides of (*) with respect to x
d 2
dx
x 
d 2
dx
d
 
y  (1)  0
dx
 
dy
2x  2 y 0
dx
dy x
It follows that   .
dx y

3
Example 8
dy
Find from the implicit relationship
dx
y
xy 2  3 x3  .
x
Solution:
d  y
d
dx
 
xy 2  3 x3   
dx  x 
dy
x y
dy
2 xy  y 2  9 x 2  dx2
dx x
dy 1 dy y
2 xy  y 2  9 x 2   2
dx x dx x
dy 1 dy y
2 xy    2  y 2  9x2
dx x dx x
y
 2  y2  9x2
dy
  x .
dx 1
2 xy 
x

1.4 Inverse functions and their derivatives (p.618 – p.624, p.669 – p.680)
Review
A function f takes a number x from its domain D and assigns to it a single value y from its range R. For
some functions, say, for example, f  x   2 x  3 , we can reverse f . That is, for any given y in R, we can
unambiguously go back and find the x from which it came. This new function (takes y and assigns x to
it) is denoted by f 1 and is called the inverse of f.

Recall from Chapter 2 that, the criterion that a function f possesses an inverse function f 1 is that it
must be one-to-one.
In practice, the inverse function f 1 is calculated from f by the following procedure:
1) check whether the function y  f  x  is one-to-one,
2) solve x in terms of y (if possible),
3) rewrite the independent variable as x and the dependent variable as y.

Example 9
(a) Let f  x   2 x  4 for x  2 . Note that f  x   2 x  4 for x  2 .
The function f  x  is one-to-one.
y  2x  4
x   y  4
1

2
The inverse function is f 1
x   1 x  4 for x  0 .
2

4
(b) Let f  x   2 x  4 for all x  R.
f  x  takes the same value twice for x  2 . (e.g. f 6   8  f  2  )
Therefore f  x  has no inverse.

## Derivative of an Inverse Function

The derivative of a function and the derivative of its inverse have the following relationship:

## Theorem (Inverse function theorem)

Let f be differentiable and strictly monotonic on an interval I. If f '  x   0 at a certain x in I, then f 1

## is differentiable at the corresponding point y  f  x  in the range of f and

 f  '  y   f '1 x  .
1

It is customarily written as
dx 1
 .
dy dy
dx
This theorem will be applied frequently in the following sections.

## Example 10 (Inverse trigonometric functions)

We know that the function sin x (with domain R) has no inverse. However, by restricting the domain,
the function sin x can have well-defined inverses. For example, the following function has inverse:
  
f :   ,   R, f  x   sin x
 2 2
To be definite, we define the inverse sine function by
  
sin 1 :  1,1    ,  ,
 2 2
1
where sin y  x for y  sin x .

  
The interval   ,  is called the principal range of sin 1 y .
 2 2

Similarly, the inverse cosine function and inverse tangent function can be defined by choosing [0,  ] and
  
  ,  as their corresponding principal ranges.
 2 2

Now, we can apply the inverse function theorem to find the derivatives for the functions sin 1 y, cos 1 y
dy
and tan 1 y . Since y  sin x   cos x . Hence,
dx
dx dy 1 1 1 1
y  sin 1 x  x  sin y   cos y      ,  1  x  1.
dy dx dx cos y 1  sin y
2
1  x2
dy

5
Similarly, we can show
1
 cos x  ' 
1
, 1  x  1 and  tan x  '  1 1x
1
2
.
1 x 2

Example 11
Differentiate x sin 1  2 x  with respect to x.
Solution:
d
 x sin 1  2 x    x  sin 1  2 x    sin 1  2 x   x  
d d 2x
 sin 1  2 x  .
dx dx dx 1 4x 2

Example 12
Differentiate tan 1  x  1 with respect to x .
Solution:
d
dx
 
tan 1  x  1 
1
1   x  1
2 
x  1 '  2
1
x  2x  2
.

Example 13
2x
Differentiate cos 1 with respect to x .
1 x2
Solution:
2x
Let y  cos 1 .
1 x2
1  x  2  2 x  2 x 
2

1  x 
2
2
dy 1 d  2x  2x2  2
  
2 dx  1  x 2 
.
dx  2x     2x 
2
 2x 
2

1  x 
2
1  2 
1  2 
2
1  2 
 1 x   1 x   1 x 

1.5 Logarithmic functions, exponential functions and their derivatives (p.628 – p.652)
Exponential functions arise in many real life problems. For example, in an ideal environment, the mass m
of a cell will grow according to the following equation:
dm
 km , where k is a constant.
dt
In words, it means that the cell’s growth rate is proportional to its mass at each instance of time. The
solution of the above equation is given by:
m  m0 e kt ,
where m0 is the initial mass of the cell.

## In fact, we can define the exponential function as follow:

The function y  f  x   e x is the solution of the differential equation
dy
 y with y  0   1
dx

6
n
 1
Note that e  lim 1    2.71828 .
n 
 n
The general properties of the function y  e x are:
 By definition, we know that
d x
dx
 e   e x and e 0  1.
 Since e is a positive number, all index laws can be applied. (For example e x1  e x2  e x1  x2 ).
 It is continuous (because it is differentiable) and is an increasing function of x .
 The domain of e x is R and its range is the set of all positive numbers.

Since e x is strictly increasing on its domain, it has an inverse. This inverse is called the natural
logarithm and is denoted by
log e x or ln x.

## The natural logarithm function has the following properties:

 (i) ln xy  ln x  ln y where x, y  0 .
x
(ii) ln  ln x  ln y .
y
(iii) ln x a  a ln x .
 Since it is the inverse of e x , by inverse function theorem, we have
d 1
 ln x  
dx x
 The domain and range of this function are:
Domain: The set of all positive real numbers. Range: The set of all real numbers.
 It is differentiable and increasing everywhere on its domain.

Example 14
Consider the following three functions:
f  x   a x  e x ln a
ln x
g  x   log a x 
ln a
h  x   x a  e a ln x
where a is a real constant. We see that
(i) y  a x 
dy d x

dx dx
 
a 
d x ln a
dx
e   d
 e x ln a  x ln a   e x ln a ln a  a x ln a .
dx
dy d  ln x  1 d 1
(ii) y  log a x      ln x   .
dx dx  ln a  ln a dx x ln a
(iii) y  x a 
dy d a ln x

dx dx
e   d
 e a ln x  a ln x  
dx
dy a a ln x a x
dx x
 e  a  ax a 1 .
x

Example 15
We can apply the natural logarithm function to find the derivatives of some functions. Find f '  x 
x
where f  x   .
 x  1 x  2  x  3

7
Solution:
x
We put y 
 x  1 x  2  x  3
dy x 1 1 1 1 
 ln y  ln x  ln  x  1  ln  x  2   ln  x  3       .
dx  x  1 x  2  x  3  x x  1 x  2 x  3 
This method simplifies the calculations.

Example 16
x
 x
If f  x   e n cos , find the value of f  0   af '  0  .
a
Solution:
x
 x
f  x   e n cos  f  0   1 .
a
 x   nx 
x d  cos  d e  x x
df ( x) 
e n  a   cos
x    e  n 1 sin x  1 e n cos x  f '(0)   1 .
dx dx a dx a a n a n
a
So f  0   af '  0   1  .
n
Example 17
ax
a dy
If y    , find .
 x dx
Solution:
Method 1:
ax
a a
ln y  ln   ln y  ax ln  .
 x  x
a
Differentiate both sides of ln y  ax ln  with respect to x, we have
 x
a
 2
  a 
ax ax
1 dy a dy a a a
  ax x  a ln     y   a  a ln      a    a   ln   .
y dx a x dx   x  x x x
x
In general for function y  u  x  , where u x   0 , we may use the above method to obtain
vx  dy
.
dx
Method 2:
ax
a
ax ax 1
d  a    a  a  d
ax   ax
a dy a x a a a
y    ax   
     
ln  
ax   ax  a   ln  
x  x  dx  x    x    x  dx x x
2
dx a x
x
ax ax
a a a
 a    a   ln  
x x x

8
2 Differentiation of parametric equations (p.330 – p.336)
A plane curve C is usually described by a pair of equations
 x  f  t 

 y  g  t 
where t  I with f and g continuous on the interval I . t is called the parameter and the above equations
are called the parametric equation for the curve C .

 f t  , g t 

curve C

Now, to determine the slope of the tangent at a given point  x  t  , y  t   , we have to calculate the value
dy
dx  x t ,y  t  
This value can be calculated by the following rule:
dy
dy dt

dx dx
dt

Example 18
 x  at 2
The parametric equation of a parabola is given by  .
 y  2at
dx dy
As  2at and  2a , we have
dt dt
dy 2a 1
 
dx 2at t
That is, the slope of the tangent at a given point  x  t  , y  t   is equal to 1/t.

9
3 Higher Derivatives
The operation of differentiation takes a function f  x  and produces a new function f '  x  . If f '  x 
is again differentiable, we produce still another function (by differentiation f '  x  ). It is denoted by
f ''  x  and called the second derivative of f  x  . In general, we can define the n th derivative of
f  x  (written as f ( n )  x  ) by  
f ( n )  x   f ( n 1)  x  ' for n  2 , provided that f ( n 1)  x  is
differentiable.

dny
Note that the n th derivative f ( n )  x  can also be written as n
or D n y .
dx

Example 19

Solution:

## Consider separately the following 3 cases:

(a)  
n  m , D n x m  m  m  1  m  n  1 x m n

(b) n  m , D n  x m   m !

(c) n  m , Dn  xm   0

Example 20

## Find D n sin  ax  b   where a, b are constants and n is a positive integer.

Solution:

 
D sin  ax  b    a cos  ax  b   a sin  ax  b  
 2
          
D 2 sin  ax  b    D  a sin  ax  b     a  a sin  ax  b      a 2 sin  ax  b  2  
  2    2 2   2
          
D 3 sin  ax  b    D  a 2 sin  ax  b  2     a 2  a sin  ax  b  2      a 3 sin  ax  b  3  
  2    2 2   2

and in general

 n 
D n sin  ax  b    a n sin  ax  b  .
 2 

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Example 21
3
d2y  dy 
If any ay  by  c  x , show that
2
 2a   0 .
 dx 
2
dx

Solution:

dy dy
Now, ay 2  by  c  x . Differentiating with respect to x , we get 2ay b  1 . Therefore,
dx dx
dy 1 d2y 2a dy 2a
 . Differentiating again with respect to x , we get   .
dx 2ay  b  2ay  b  dx  2ay  b 
2 2 3
dx

3
2a  1 
3
d2y  dy 
So  2a     2a    0.
 dx   2ay  b   2ay  b 
2 3
dx

3.1 Leibnitz’ rule for higher derivatives of product of two differentiable functions
Leibnitz’ rule for higher derivatives of product of differentiable functions says that
dn dn f d n 1 f dg n  n  1  n  k  1 d n  k f d k g df d n 1 g dng
 fg   g  n       n  f , where
dx n dx n dx n 1 dx k! dx n  k dx k dx dx n 1 dx n
k !  k   k  1   2 1 .

Example 22

d 10  2
Evaluate
dx10 
 
x  3 sin x  .

Solution:
d 10  10  9
10   
sin x  x 2  3    sin x     
x 2  3  10  sin x  x 2  3  
 sin x  x 2  3 
(10) (9) (1) (8) (2)

dx 2!
 10  2  9   8 
 sin  x 
 2 
 
 x  3  10sin  x 
 2
  2 x   45sin  x 
 
  2
2 
 
  x 2  3 sin x  20 x cos x  90sin x

 87  x 2  sin x  20 x cos x.

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Short Table of Derivatives of y  f  u  with respect to x , where u is a function of x

## Functions, y  f  u  Derivative of y with respect to x

dy
y  c , where c is a constant. 0
dx
dy du
y  cu , where c is a constant. c
dx dx
dy du
y  u p , where p is a constant.  pu p 1
dx dx
dy du dv
y uv  
dx dx dx
y  uv dy dv du
u v
dx dx dx
du dv
u v u
y dy
v  dx 2 dx
dx v
y  f  u  , where u is a function of x .
dy df  u  du
  , the chain rule
dx du dx
dy 1 du
y  log a u , a  0 .  log a e
dx u dx
dy du
y  au , a  0 .  a u log e a
dx dx
dy du
y  eu  eu
dx dx
dy du dv
y  uv  vu v 1  u v log e u
dx dx dx
dy du
y  sin u  cos u
dx dx
y  cos u dy du
  sin u
dx dx
dy du
y  tan u  sec 2 u
dx dx
dy du
y  cot u  cosec 2u
dx dx
y  sec u dy du
 sec u tan u
dx dx
y  cosec u dy du
 cosec u cot u
dx dx
dy 1 du
y  sin 1 u 
dx 1  u 2 dx
dy 1 du
y  cos 1 u 
dx 1 u2 dx
dy 1 du
y  tan 1 u 
dx 1  u 2 dx

12
dy 1 du
y  cot 1 u 
dx 1  u 2 dx
dy 1 du
y  sec 1 u 
dx u u 2  1 dx
dy 1 du
y  cosec-1u 
dx u u 2  1 dx
dy du
y  sinh u  cosh u
dx dx
dy du
y  cosh u  sinh u
dx dx
dy 1 du
y  sinh 1 u 
dx 1 u2 dx
dy 1 du
y  cosh 1 u 
dx u2 1 dx
dy 1 du
y  tanh 1 u 
dx 1  u 2 dx
dy 1 du
y  coth 1u  2
dx u  1 dx
 sinh u    eu  eu   eu  eu
   
d d 1 1 du du
N.B.  cosh u .
dx dx  2  2 dx dx

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