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TEACHING EXPOSITORY TEXT STRUCTURE: A STRATEGY TO IMPROVE

READING COMPREHENSION OF GRADE VI - AIR PUPILS OF HIBAO-AN


ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

An Action Research Proposal

By

ALEX B. BRIGOLI

I. CONTEXT AND RATIONALE

Reading comprehension is the ability to process text, understand its meaning,

and to integrate it with what the reader already knows (Grabe, 2009). Because reading

is an integral part of education, teachers spend hours of instructional review every day to

improve reading comprehension of pupils. Studies have shown that reading

comprehension level has a positive correlation on the academic performance of pupils

on other subjects (Chege, 1999) (Cimmiyoti, 2013).

Researchers determined that the ability to comprehend a text or construct

meaning from a passage is a practice of a highly complex and highly developed set of

skills and abilities (Texas Educational Agency, 2002). In other words, reading

comprehension is a skill that can be learned and developed overtime. The teacher as

reading instructor is a role model of a reader for students, demonstrating what it means

to be an effective reader and the rewards of being one (Day and Bramford, 1998).

Educators have a wide range of teaching strategies to improve reading

comprehension.

Because reading comprehension is a crucial factor in academic success, poor

reading comprehension can be a hindrance to pupils.


In a study conducted among elementary students in the UK, researchers have

found out that 1 out of 10 students have memory deficiencies and thus performed poorly

in school (Alloway, 2009). Poor memory and poor comprehension skills has an

implication on student achievement in schools. In order for learning to be effective for

these students, teachers must employ different strategies to improve their memory and

comprehension.

Various strategies are available for teachers to employ to improve short-term and

long-term memory of students. Metacognition or the process of thinking about your own

thinking is a powerful strategy to improve learning through a deepened understanding of

the subject matter and retention of the learned material.

Although rubrics is a tool used in grading performance task such as reading, it

can also be used to improve memory retention and comprehension in reading. Rubrics

serves as scoring guides, consisting of specific pre-established performance criteria,

used in evaluating student work on performance assessments (Mertler, 2001). Studies

conducted by Jonsson and Svingby (2007) have shown that rubrics has the potential to

promote learning and/or improve instruction.

Reading comprehension rubrics has been widely used by teachers to assess the

reading comprehension of students. The rubric contains set of objectives that teachers

want their students to display or exhibit and are graded accordingly based on whether

such criteria is met or not. They are often administered after the reading has been done

by asking the students targeted questions to elicit information of their mastery of the

reading material.

Rubrics-guided reading is the conscious use of the rubrics guide while reading a

passage. Criteria are made explicit to the students and what are being expected of them

after reading an article or a story. Through the use of a ready-made rubric, students are
guided through the article by the constant reminder of the criteria that has to be met.

The rubrics help to ensure that the learning targets become clear so that students must

be able to understand the learning target in order to develop superior outcomes

(Mijušković, 2014).

This year, Hibao-an Elementary School has adopted a mixed-ability class which

is composed of

At an early age, children are confronted with various information they need to

understand in order to succeed in school. From the basics of counting numbers, the

sounding of the alphabet and learning new words or phrases, pupils progresses to more

complex tasks requiring memory and comprehension such as the formula for a

mathematical concept or the steps in writing an essay. Indeed, because children are

exposed to myriad experiences at school at home that requires

II. ACTION RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This is a research manuscript that tries to assess the impact of rubrics on

the content retention of Grade VI-Air pupils of Hibao-an Elementary School. Specifically,

the researcher seeks answers to the following questions:

1. What is the level of content retention and reading comprehension of Grade VI –Air

pupils before rubrics-guided reading was introduced?

2. Is rubrics-guided reading effective in improving the content retention and reading

comprehension of Grade VI-Air pupils of Hibao-an Elementary School?


3. Is rubrics-guided reading activity effective in improving content retention and reading

comprehension of pupils at the frustration level?

4. Is rubrics-guided reading activity effective in improving content retention and reading

comprehension of pupils at the instructional level?

5. Is rubrics-guided reading activity effective in improving content retention and reading

comprehension of pupils at the proficient level?

6. Is there a significant difference in the content retention and reading comprehension of

Grade VI-Air pupils before and after rubrics-guided reading was used?

III. PROPOSED INNOVATION , INTERVENTION AND STRATEGY

This study offers important insights concerning the use of rubrics to improve

students’ content retention. In many other studies what is emphasized is the usefulness

of rubrics in classroom assessment. There is, unfortunately, a dearth of studies which

takes into account the use of rubrics as part of classroom instruction and as a meta-

cognitive tool to improve memory. Understanding the effect rubrics-guided reading in

the content retention of students will provide us with vital information on what still needs

to be accomplished.
This study aims to address the problem of Grade VI – Air students of Hibao-an

Elementary School in retaining vital information in reading passages and articles. The

subjects in these studies are under the advisory of the researcher who conducts their

remedial reading classes at 11 o’clock in the morning. Content retention check will be

evaluated after reading fictional passages.

The data in this study can be used as a reference tool for our school planning

team to incorporate rubrics-guided reading in every grade-level to improve student

memory and retention. Teachers must orient students on the use of rubrics as a guide to

reading. Remedial reading sessions will be constantly evaluated as to the performance

of pupils in reading comprehension and information retention. The use of rubrics-guided

reading should be extended to not only fiction stories but informational articles such as

textbooks and news articles.

IV.ACTION RESEARCH METHODS

A. Participants and/or other sources of data

Purposive sampling will be employed in this study. The subjects chosen are the

34 Grade VI – Air pupils of Hibao-an Elementary School. Their English and Filipino

academic performance for the first grading period range from poor (75-79), to proficient

(90 and above). A teacher-made rubrics will be used in guided-reading passages culled

from K to 12 aligned Grade 6 English and Filipino textbooks.

B. Data Gathering Methods


This study will employ the A-B-A research design. The A in this design will be

establishing a series of baseline prior to the intervention. A baseline data will be

collected through a teacher-made test after students read an English passage without

the assistance of rubrics. The English passage will be read at 11:00 to 11:30 am during

their Remedial Class. The following day will be the administration of a teacher-

constructed test to determine retention of facts. The same process will be observed in

the administration of test for the Filipino passage. This process of reading and testing

will be repeated five times. Twenty days will be allotted on this stage, the establishment

of baselines.

After the baseline has been established, the researcher will orient the pupils

about the use rubrics and how it is used to grade their performance. The researcher will

give a walk-through to the participants of all the basics of rubrics and the criteria for

grading. After a thorough orientation, the researcher will then administer to the students

to read the English passage with the rubrics as guide for reading. A teacher-constructed

test will be administered a day after reading the passage. This process of reading

passages guided with rubrics will be repeated for five times as well. Another 20 days will

be set for this stage. This is B part of the design which is the intervention stage. The last

A is the result stage when the intervention is removed and the students will be reading

the passages without the rubrics as a guide. The teacher-constructed test will be

administered a day after. This cycle will also be repeated for five times which will last for

20 days.

C. Ethical Issues

In the conduct of this study, two steps shall be taken to ensure that the rights of

the participants will be respected:


1. The result of this study will not have any bearing on the grades of the participants.

2. Anonymity of the scores of the students to other parties will be observed. Test papers

will be checked by the researcher.

D. Data Analysis Plan

The study is delimited to the 34 pupils of Grade Six – Air chosen through

purposive sampling. The rubrics-based reading will be done daily for 20 days at their

remedial class at eleven o’clock in the morning. The researcher will adopt a quantitative

approach to the study. The scores of the pupils will undergo a Wilcoxon signed rank test

to determine any significant difference from the baseline and end result.

V. ACTION RESEARCH WORK PLAN AND TIMELINE

Research Procedure Time Frame Inclusive Dates Outcomes


INITIAL STAGE
Formulating research problem 2 weeks September 1 to Completed
Gathering related literature 14, 2018 research
Drafting of Proposal proposal
Identification of participants 1 week September 17 to List of Pupils
Orientation of pupils 21, 2018
Selection of books 3 weeks September 24 to Books,
Crafting of questions and October 12, 2018 English
rubrics Passages
Validation of instruments Filipino
Passages,
Rubrics
IMPLEMENTATION STAGE
Establishing baseline data 12 weeks October 15, 2018 Reading session
Conduct of reading passages to January 15, Testing
- guided with rubrics 2019
- comprehension test

FINAL STAGE
Gathering of results 4 weeks January 15 to Completed
Interpretation through statistics February 15, 2019 action research
Drafting of summary and
conclusion
Printing of Final Report 3 weeks February 18 to Submission of
Submission of Final Report March 18, 2019 research

VI. COST ESTIMATES

Cost Estimates
QTY UNIT PARTICULARS Unit Total Cost
Cost
10 ream Bond paper short 180.00 1,800.00
1 cartridge Epson Ink, Black 300.00 300.00
1 cartridge Epson Ink, Yellow 300.00 300.00
1 cartridge Epson Ink, Cyan 300.00 300.00
1 cartridge Epson Ink, Red 300.00 300.00
40 set Photocopy of Reading Passages (English) 1.00 600.00
40 set Photocopy of Reading Passages (Filipino) 1.00 600.00
40 set Photocopy of Test Paper (English) 1.00 600.00
40 set Photocopy of Test Paper (Filipino) 1.00 600.00
3 pax Snacks for validators of instrument 100.00 300.00
34 pax Snacks/incentives for participants 200.00 6,800.00
3 pax Snacks for editors 100.00 300.00
1 pax Statistician fee 1000.00 1000.00
1 pc USB Flash Drive 300.00 300.00
6 pcs Pocket wifi load 300.00 200.00
Notarial Fee 200.00 200.00
Travel Expenses 3,0000.00
TOTAL 17,500.00

VII. PLANS FOR DISSEMINATION AND UTILIZATION


The primary concern of this study is to improve the reading comprehension and

content retention of Hibao-an Elementary School pupils through the conscious use of

rubrics as a guide to reading. Rubrics-guided reading can help pupils learn to focus their

attention on the salient points of the passage they are reading subsequently leading to

better reading comprehension and content retention.


The table shows the action plan on how to utilize this research for a school-wide

reading program.

ACTION PLAN PROGRAM ON DISSEMINATION OF RUBRICS-GUIDED READING


TO IMPROVE CONTENT RETENTION AND READING COMPREHENSION 0F
HIBAO-AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS.

Objectives Strategies Persons Target Dates MOV


Involved

1. Obtain initial Use of Phil- Teachers June - July Phil-IRRI


scores of pupils IRRI materials results
in reading
comprehension.
2. Use of Meeting with Teachers July Scheduled
rubrics in teacher- Researcher rubrics-guided
reading advisers reading
passages SLAC sessions sessions
3. Conduct of
Rubrics-guided
Reading per
classroom

-Orientation of -Crafted rubrics


pupils on per grade level Pupils,
rubrics-guided Teachers August Result of
reading - Accessible comprehension
graded-readers check
-Finding
suitable graded - Regular
readers for comprehension
grade level check

- Regular
conduct of
rubrics-guided
reading
VIII. REFERENCES

Lauralee Sherwood (1 January 2015). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Cengage Learning.
pp. 157–162. ISBN 978-1-305-44551-2.

Mertler, C. A. (2001). Designing Scoring Rubrics for your classroom. Practical


Assessment Research and Evaluation, 7(25).
William Grabe (2009). Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-72974-1. Archived from the original on 2018-05-04. Koda, 2005:4

Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., Adams, A. M., Willis, C., Eaglen, R., & Lamont, E.
(2005). Working memory and other cognitive skills as predictors of progress towards
early learning goals at school entry. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23,
417–426.

Richard R. Day; Julian Bamford (1998). Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56829-6.

IX. APPENDICES

Table 1.

Instrument to determine attitudes of teachers in using rubrics.