0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

1 Aufrufe6 SeitenAug 13, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

1 Aufrufe

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Wimax
- 200706201530230
- 4224440
- Advanced telecommunication systems
- Pisal Siddharth
- 6. Eng -Dispersion Compensation in Optical-r k Sethi_2
- P-OFDM
- Cyclic Prefixing or Zero Padding for Wireless
- Performance Evaluation of CE-OFDM in PLC Channel
- OFDM System Based on Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT)
- 3G LTE
- DYNAMIC CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR MIMO-CONSTANT ENVELOPE MODULATION
- Can VLC Action Provide Gbs Service
- Multiple Carrier Modulation Technique OFDM for High Data Rate Next Generation Wireless Systems
- IJIRAE:: Efficient use of null subcarriers to reduce PAPR in OFDM System
- 2014 - Channel Estimation and Equalization for 5G Wireless Communication Systems (UFMC)
- 6.OFDM Principle 40
- DVB-T intro
- Lte Tdd User Guide
- Forward Error Correction

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Han: Robust LS Channel Estimation with Phase Rotation for Single Frequency Network in OFDM 1173

for Single Frequency Network in OFDM

Chae-Hyun Lim and Dong Seog Han, Member, IEEE

Abstract — A Channel estimation technique has been the delay spread does not exceed the CP length. In practical

proposed with the least square (LS) based on comb-type pilots systems such as digital broadcasting systems, a single

for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). An frequency network (SFN) is a challengeable channel condition

interpolator should be used to obtain the channel information for equalization. In SFN channels, there are several long delay

between adjacent pilots for a comb-type pattern. However, an paths with similar powers. The performance of the equalizer

interpolation method causes additional errors due to the will be rapidly degraded due to the severe frequency selective

interpolation properties of not detecting long delayed paths fading in SFN channels even the delay spread is less than the

and generating fictitious paths. OFDM has its strength in CP length.

realistic possibility of constructing the single frequency In general, comb-type pilots are more robust for fast fading

network (SFN). However, synchronization and channel over block-type pilots [2]. Even though block-type pilots have

estimation errors are revealed by multi-path fading with long a wider tracking range, they cannot estimate the channel delay

delayed paths in SFN channels. We propose a robust channel profile during data transmission. To obtain channel

estimator overcoming the adverse effects of long delayed information, most OFDM systems adopt interpolation

signals in SFNs. A new channel estimator is proposed with the techniques in conjunction with the comb-type pilots. Among

interpolated LS by applying phase shifted samples in the various interpolation techniques, linear interpolation is general

frequency-domain. In particular, the proposed channel because of acceptable computational complexity [3].

estimator is more robust to the single frequency network Kim et al. [4] analyzed the performance of the linear

(SFN) whenever the delay spread is less than the cyclic prefix interpolation mathematically for OFDM systems. However,

length. For a Rayleigh channel, the proposed estimator has an they did not analyze the effect of interpolation in long delay

almost 3 dB gain comparing to conventional estimator. 1 spread as in SFN channels. Heieh and Wei [3] proposed a

phase compensated interpolation method for channel

Index Terms — Least square, channel estimation, OFDM, estimation with imperfect frame synchronization. It shows

interpolation, frame synchronization. reasonable performance in short delay spread channels. On the

other hand, the performance of channel estimation is rapidly

I. INTRODUCTION degraded for long delay spread channels usually happened in

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is SFN channels because of the effect from the interpolation

well known as one of the most effective transmission error. Mostofi et al. [5] studied the effect of frame

schemes. It has robustness to multi-path fading and capability synchronization errors in channel estimation and the proposed

to control the data rate according to the transmission channel channel estimation method with a small fast Fourier transform

[1]. Currently, various wireless and wired systems have (FFT) block size. It contributes for reducing the computational

adopted OFDM as their physical layer. Among these, there are complexity. However, it introduces energy leakage and

digital video broadcasting (DVB), digital audio broadcasting performance degradation in channel estimation.

(DAB), IEEE 802.11a and asymmetric digital subscribe line The goal of this paper is to solve the problem of incorrect

(ADSL). channel estimation due to the frame misalignment and the

Although OFDM can easily mitigate multi-path effects due interpolation done in the frequency domain. A long delayed

to a cyclic prefix (CP), densely spaced pilot tones are required path in SFN channels causes the frame synchronization error

to estimate the channel characteristics for fading channels which can be also treated as the sampling timing offset. The

with a small coherence bandwidth. In most OFDM frame synchronization error leads to the time shift of the

applications, they use comb-type pilot patterns to estimate and channel impulse response. To estimate the channel response

track channel responses. By the way, the number of pilot tones with the pilot tones, an interpolation filter should be applied in

cannot be increased due to the required data rate. Because of the frequency domain. When the channel impulse response is

the restricted number of pilots, there may be an estimation estimated with the least square (LS) including interpolation,

error at the bands where the pilots are not sent even though the estimated impulse response is the repeated real impulse

response in the time-domain. The repetition rate is

proportional to the interpolation rate in the frequency-domain.

Therefore, a higher interpolation rate leads to more frequent

1 This work was supported by the Brain Korea 21 project.. repetition of the channel impulse response within a narrower

Chae-Hyun Lim and Dong Seog Han are with the School of Electrical delay spread region. As a result, if the channel delay spread is

Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu long, the interpolation filter cannot detect long delayed paths.

702-701, Korea (e-mail: {chlim, dshan}@ee.knu.ac.kr). We apply the LS after intentionally rotating the phase

Contributed Paper

Manuscript received September 9, 2006 0098 3063/06/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE

1174 IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 4, NOVEMBER 2006

information of the received sample in the frequency-domain to where ⊗ denotes the convolution and w ( n ) is AWGN. The

overcome these two weak points of the conventional LS transfer function of the channel, h ( n ) , is expressed as

channel estimation usually appeared in SFN channels.

The system model is described in section II. Then the

L −1

effects of interpolation and imperfect frame synchronization h ( n ) = ∑ hiδ ( n − τ i ) (4)

are analyzed in section III. In section IV, a new channel i =0

conjunction with LS estimator. The performance of the where L is the number of paths, h i denotes a complex gain

proposed algorithm is evaluated in section V. Some

of the i th path, and τ i is the delay time for the i th path. In

concluding remarks are shown in section VI.

this paper, τ i is assumed not to exceed the CP length. Signals

to be put into the FFT process is described as

II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

A baseband model for an OFDM system is shown in Fig. (

y ( n ) = yr n + N g , ) n = 0,1,..., Nt − 1 . (5)

1. Among Nt OFDM subcarriers, N d subcarriers are used

for data transmission while Nt − N d subcarriers are allocated The FFT processing performs to reconstruct the transmitted

for the guard band. P pilot subcarriers are evenly located in information in the frequency-domain as

the whole bandwidth for each symbol. The distance between

two adjacent pilot subcarriers, D, is N d / P. The data N t −1

Y (k ) = ∑ y ( n ) e− j 2π kn / N ,

t

k = 0,1,..., N t − 1

allocated at the k th subcarrier, X (k ) , is represented with a n=0 (6)

binary phase shift keying (BPSK) constellation. The time- = X (k ) H (k ) + W (k )

domain sequence of length Nt , can be expressed by applying

an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) such as

where H ( k ) and W ( k ) are the channel response and AWGN

N t −1 in the frequency-domain, respectively.

∑ X (k )e (

j 2π kn / N )

x (n) = , n = 0,1, 2,..., N t − 1 (1)

k =0

where n represents the sample index. III. ANALYSIS OF LS ESTIMATION IN LONG DELAYED

PATH: PROBLEM FORMULATION

After the IFFT, the CP whose length is longer than the

maximum delay spread is added to avoid inter-symbol

interference (ISI) at every symbol. As a result, the following In this section, the negative effects to the estimation of the

transmitted signal including the CP can be expressed as channel impulse response are considered because of the

interpolation in the frequency-domain and the imperfect frame

⎧⎪ x ( N t + n ) , n = − N g , − N g + 1,..., −1 synchronization.

xt ( n ) = ⎨ (2) After the FFT, pilots are extracted from the received

⎪⎩ x ( n ) , n = 0,1,..., N t − 1

OFDM symbols. With the received pilot signals, Y ( pD ) , and

where N g is the CP length. Signals described in (2) can be the expected pilot signals, X ( pD ) , at the same subcarriers,

received at the receiver after passing through the channel, the estimated channel responses at pilot subcarriers based on

and then additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is added. the LS are expressed as [4]

So, the received signal can be expressed as

Y ( pD )

yr ( n ) = xt ( n ) ⊗ h ( n ) + w ( n ) (3) Hˆ ( pD ) = , p = 0,1,..., P − 1 (7)

X ( pD )

C.-H. Lim and D. S. Han: Robust LS Channel Estimation with Phase Rotation for Single Frequency Network in OFDM 1175

looks like a kind of window functions in the time-domain

because the convolution in the frequency-domain is

represented as the multiplication in the time-domain.

To show this windowing property of the interpolator, we

pD ( p + 1) D consider an SFN channel with three paths having same power

D level. To observe only the interpolation effect, we do not

consider AWGN. The first path, the second and the third

Fig. 2. Linear interpolation in comb-type OFDM.

paths are delayed by 0, 200 and 450 samples, respectively. A

2048-point FFT is considered and D is set at 3. The CP

To get channel responses at payload data subcarriers, the length is set at 512, which is longer than the longest delayed

OFDM system with comb-type pilots needs interpolation path. The frame synchronization is assumed to be exactly

between two adjacent pilot subcarriers in the frequency- matched to the first path. It means that there is no ISI and no

domain as [4] phase rotation due to the imperfect frame synchronization.

Therefore, we may consider the OFDM system perfectly

Hˆ ( pD + l ) =

D −l ˆ

H ( pD ) +

lHˆ {( p + 1) D} , 1 ≤ l ≤ D − 1. (8) recover the transmitted information. However, because of the

D D interpolation effect with comb-type pilot patterns, we cannot

recover the channel response perfectly. It can be explained

with Fig. 3.

By using (7) and (8), the estimated channel is generally

When (7) is applied for the estimation of the channel

response in the frequency-domain, we get

1.4 ⎣ ( ⎦)

⎡ Hˆ ( 0 ) ,0,0, Hˆ ( D ) ,0,L, Hˆ D ( P − 1) ⎤ , where 2 ( = D − 1) zeros

1.2 domain response of this vector is shown in Fig. 3(a) where

the impulse response is repeated three times as

1 Region 1 Region 2 Region 3

D −1 L −1

0.8

h ( n ) = ∑∑ hiδ ( n − τ i − l ⋅ N t D ), 0 ≤ n ≤ Nt − 1 (9)

l =0 i =0

0.6

and 3 are the repeated responses of the response in region 1.

0.2

It is because of the zeros between pilot subcarriers.

0 When the zeros are replaced by interpolated values with

0 200 400 600 800 100012001400160018002000

Delay [Number of samples] (8) such as ⎡⎣ Hˆ ( 0 ) , Hˆ (1) , Hˆ ( 2 ) ,L, Hˆ ( D ( P − 1) )⎤⎦ , the time-

(a)

domain impulse response results in a weighted impulse

response of (9) as shown in Fig. 3(b). The weight depends on

the transfer function of the interpolator in the frequency-

domain. The weight function causes two types of distortions.

One is the reduced gain as the delay increases. Long delay

T T Next Symbol

g

(b)

ISI

Fig. 3. Channel impulse response: (a) before the interpolation, (b) after

the interpolation.

Fig. 4. ISI caused by a frame synchronization error.

1176 IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 4, NOVEMBER 2006

addition, the impulse response of the interpolator is h1

symmetric with respect to the half of the FFT size in the

h2

time-domain. Therefore, additional fictitious delays

around the end of the impulse response are added

because of this symmetric property. Therefore, the

repetition of the impulse response and the interpolation

effect make difficult to reject the impulse response in (a)

region 3 as in Fig. 3(b). So to get the actual channel h0

impulse response, the whole subcarriers should be used h1

for the transmission of pilot tones. However, it is not a

h2

realistic solution because of reduced data rate or already

specified standards such as DVB-T and DVB-H. The

only way is to reconstruct the channel response from Fig.

3(b) without increasing the number of pilot subcarriers.

Another crucial point for affecting the estimation of (b)

Fig. 5. Channel impulse response: (a) original channel impulse

the channel impulse response is the frame response, (b) channel impulse response with frame synchronization

synchronization. If the frame synchronization is not error.

perfect, there may be some distortion in the received

signal. According to [5] and [7], there are two kinds of

features in the FFT output due to the imperfect frame IV. LS CHANNEL ESTIMATION WITH CHANNEL PHASE

synchronization. One is the distortion caused by the ISI ROTATOR

from the next symbol as shown in Fig. 4. Even though

the channel is perfectly estimated, the ISI caused by the A new channel estimation algorithm is proposed as shown

frame offset degrades the performance of the receiver. in Fig. 6. Exact frame synchronization is assumed in the

To avoid the ISI, exact frame synchronization should be receiver. With locally generated pilot signals, the channel can

acquired. Through the synchronization algorithms in [6] be estimated as (7). Then, the phase of the estimated channel

and [8], the accurate start position of a symbol frame can is intentionally rotated as follows:

be obtained. A time-domain equalizer is proposed to

mitigate the ISI in [9]. However, a time-domain equalizer Hˆ ′ ( pD ) = Hˆ ( pD ) e− j 2π pDβ / Nt , p = 0,1,..., P − 1 (12)

increases computational complexity. The other distortion

caused by the frame error is the phase rotation of the where the amount of phase rotation, β , is determined as the

demodulated signal in the frequency-domain as half of the delay spread by

τ 0 + τ L −1

N t −1 β= . (13)

Y (k ) = ∑ y ( n) e j 2π kn / Nt

e j 2π k Δ / N t

, k = 0,1,..., N t − 1 (10) 2

n=0

β can be easily obtained through the correlation property

[6]. By doing so, the channel impulse response can be located

where Δ is the frame offset. in the regions with large weights in the time-domain response

The phase rotation in the frequency-domain is equivalent of the interpolator when the amount of phase rotation is a

to the time shift in the time-domain. Accordingly, if a half of delay spread. The channel impulse response of (11) is

receiver has the frame synchronization error, the the time shifted version of (7) as shown in Fig. 5 (b). The

estimated channel impulse response is shown as the time rotated channel in (11) is interpolated by using (8). That is to

shifted form of the original by Δ samples as say, the rotated channel impulse response shown in Fig. 5(b)

is passed through the interpolator in Fig. 3(b). From these

L −1 figures, the proposed phase rotator can avoid the distortion

h (n) = ∑ hiδ ( λ − τ i + Δ ) . (11) caused by the interpolation filter. Accordingly, the

i =0

Hˆ final (k )

The effect of the frame synchronization error is shown y (n)

LS Phase Phase

FFT Interpolator

in Fig. 5. As in (10), the original channel impulse estimation rotator re-rotator

synchronization error as shown in Fig. 5(b).

Fig. 6. Proposed channel estimation algorithm.

C.-H. Lim and D. S. Han: Robust LS Channel Estimation with Phase Rotation for Single Frequency Network in OFDM 1177

10

LS without sampling offset

LS with sampling offset

Hˆ ′ ( k ) = Hˆ ( k ) e− j 2π k β / Nt , k = 0,1,..., Lt − 1 . (14) LS with proposed method

-1

10

After the interpolation, the estimated channel should be re-

rotated as

Hˆ final ( k ) = Hˆ ′ ( k ) e j 2π k β / Nt ,

-2

BER

k = 0,1,..., Lt − 1 . (15) 10

10

the repeated impulse responses in regions 2 and 3.

Accordingly, the estimated channel is more accurate than the

response obtained with the conventional LS estimator. -4

10

Especially, the proposed channel estimator is much robust in 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Path delay [samples]

the SFN environments having long delayed paths.

Fig. 7. BER performance according to delay time.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

0

10

LS without sampling offset

The considered OFDM system parameters are listed in LS with sampling offset

Table I. In this paper, the proposed and conventional LS LS with proposed method

interpolation. The frequency synchronization is assumed to

be perfectly acquired. There are two kinds of channel models

for the performance evaluation. One is the SFN that has a

BER

to that of the main path with a delay varying from 50 to 500

samples, which is a test environment for Nordig requirements

-1

[10]. According to the delay time, the system performance is 10

channel model is Brazilian test channel D [11] that is a

popular channel model for the performance evaluation of 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

digital television receivers. The maximum delay spread is Path delay [samples]

channel denotes a Rayleigh channel model. For the Fig. 8. BER performance according to delay time at SNR=10 dB.

performance comparison, we also evaluated the receiver

position of the symbol is correctly acquired. On the other

performance in perfect and imperfect frame synchronization.

hand, the LS with sampling offset means the frame starting

TABLE I.

poison is incorrect. The diamond denotes the conventional

SYSTEM PARAMETERS. algorithm with a sampling offset. In case of the LS with

Parameters Specifications sampling offset, the ISI is revealed due to the mismatch of

FFT points 2,048 the symbol timing. The square in Fig. 7 denotes the proposed

Active carriers 1,705 method. For any delay spread falls in the CP, the proposed

Pilot ratio 3

method shows the best performance regardless of delay time.

Guard interval 512

For short delay spread, the LS with sampling offset shows

Guard type Cyclic extension

the worst performance because of ISI. However, the LS

without sampling offset has the worst performance for long

Bandwidth 6 MHz

delay spread. The reason is that the channel estimation

Constellation QPSK

distortion of the LS without sampling offset by the

Channel model SFN, Brazil D (Rayleigh channel)

interpolator filter is dominant for long delay spread

conditions. Fig. 8 shows the BER performance when a

Fig. 7 shows the bit error rate (BER) performance of the

signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is equal to 10 dB. The

two algorithms in a noise free condition. The circle denotes

performance of the proposed method is best in all path delay

the performance of the conventional LS without sampling

time. As the delay time goes to larger, performance

offset. Without sampling offset means that the starting

1178 IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 4, NOVEMBER 2006

enhancement goes to large because the proposed method is [4] J. Kim, J. Park, and D. Hong, “Performance analysis of channel

estimation in OFDM systems,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 12,

not affected by ISI and interpolation. Between two conventional no. 1, pp. 60-62. Jan. 2005.

methods, LS with sampling offset has better performance [5] Y. Mostofi, D. Cox, and A. Bahai, “Effect of frame synchronization

because the distortion by ISI is dominant. However, the errors on pilot-aided channel estimation in OFDM: analysis and

solution,” 5th WPMC, pp. 1309-1313, Aug. 1998.

distortion by the interpolator is dominant for long delay spread, [6] J. J. V. D. Beek,. M. Sandell,.and P.O. Borjesson, ” ML estimation of

so the difference is becoming larger as the delay longer. time and frequency offset in OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Signal

Fig. 9 shows the BER performance in the Brazilian D Processing, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1800-1805, Jul. 1997.

[7] J. J. Kim and D. S. Han, “Adaptive frame selection algorithm for DVB-

channel in terms of SNRs. The maximum delay spread of the T,’’ IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, vol. 48, pp. 617-623, Aug.

Brazilian D channel is relatively short compared with the CP 2002.

length. Therefore, the performance difference is not revealed. [8] D. Landstrom, and S. K. Wilson, J. van de Beek, P. Odling , and O.

Borjesson, “Symbol time offset estimation in coherent OFDM systems,”

However, in case of the LS with sampling offset, the difference IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 545-549, April, 2002.

is becoming larger as increasing the SNR. This is due to the ISI [9] H. Jafarian, H. Khoshbin, and S. Pasupathy, “Time-domain equalizer for

caused by the sampling offset. OFDM systems based on SINR maximization,” IEEE Trans. Commun.,

vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 924-929, June, 2005.

[10] The NorDig group, Nordig-unified ver 1.0.1, Jan. 2003.

without sampling offset

-1

10 with sampling offset

[11] ABERT/SET, VSB/COFDM Comparison Report, May 2000.M. Young,

with proposed method The Technical Writer’s Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science,

1989.

BER

-2

10 Kyungpook National university, Deagu, Korea in 2000

and 2002, respectively. He is currently working towards

the Ph.D. degree at Kyungpook National University,

Daegu, Korea. His main research interests are smart

antenna, digital communications, and digital television

system..

5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25

SNR [dB]

Dong Seog Han received his B.S. degree in electronic engineering from

Fig. 9. BER performance according to SNR in Brazil D channel. Kyungpook National University (KNU), Daegu, Korea, in

1998, his M.S and Ph.D degrees in electrical engineering

form the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and

VI. CONCLUSION Technology (KAIST), Daejon, Korea, 1n 1989 and 1993,

The effects of the interpolation filter and frame error in LS respectively. From October 1987 to August 1996, he was

with Samsung Electronics, Co. Ltd., where he developed

channel estimator have been studied. To remove these negative the transmission systems for QAM HDTV and Grand

effects, a new channel estimation method was proposed. The Alliance HDTV receivers. Since September 1996, he has

proposed method is very robust to any delay spread confined in been with the School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Kyungpook

National University. Currently he is an Associate Professor in the school of

the CP length. In addition, the increase in computational Electronic and Electrical Engineering, KNU. He worked as a courtesy

complexity is ignorable in the proposed method. Associate Professor in the electrical and computer engineering, University of

Florida in 2004. His main research interests are digital communications and

REFERENCES array signal processing.

[1] W. Y. Zou and Y. Wu, “COFDM : An overview,” IEEE Trans.

Broadcasting, vol. 41, pp. 1-8, Mar. 1995.

[2] R. V. Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for wireless multimedia

communications, Boston, MA: Artech house, 2000.

[3] M.-H. Hsieh and C.-H. Wei, “Channel estimation for OFDM systems

based on comb-type pilot arrangement in frequency selective fading

channels,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 217-225,

Feb. 1998.

- WimaxHochgeladen vonAibad Ahmed
- 200706201530230Hochgeladen vonapi-3834272
- 4224440Hochgeladen vonHarishchandra Dubey
- Advanced telecommunication systemsHochgeladen vonYoussof
- Pisal SiddharthHochgeladen vonbavar88
- 6. Eng -Dispersion Compensation in Optical-r k Sethi_2Hochgeladen vonImpact Journals
- P-OFDMHochgeladen vonKrishna Murari Sharma
- Cyclic Prefixing or Zero Padding for WirelessHochgeladen vonreza1983dm
- Performance Evaluation of CE-OFDM in PLC ChannelHochgeladen vonAI Coordinator - CSC Journals
- OFDM System Based on Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT)Hochgeladen vonloafer555
- 3G LTEHochgeladen vonRandy Chung
- DYNAMIC CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR MIMO-CONSTANT ENVELOPE MODULATIONHochgeladen vonIJDIWC
- Can VLC Action Provide Gbs ServiceHochgeladen vontieuphaps
- Multiple Carrier Modulation Technique OFDM for High Data Rate Next Generation Wireless SystemsHochgeladen vonseventhsensegroup
- IJIRAE:: Efficient use of null subcarriers to reduce PAPR in OFDM SystemHochgeladen vonIJIRAE- International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering
- 2014 - Channel Estimation and Equalization for 5G Wireless Communication Systems (UFMC)Hochgeladen vonAlexandre Ferreira
- 6.OFDM Principle 40Hochgeladen vonmehdi_mehdi
- DVB-T introHochgeladen vonpavlode
- Lte Tdd User GuideHochgeladen vonfernetzero
- Forward Error CorrectionHochgeladen vonayadman
- Comparative Performance Analysis of 4G LTE Network using Monte Carlo SimulationHochgeladen vonIJSTE
- What is OFDMHochgeladen vonRenu Pareek
- IJETR042334Hochgeladen vonerpublication
- Spreading Sequence Design for Multirelay NetworksHochgeladen vonIJIRST
- optic wirelessHochgeladen vonMohammed Al-Ansi
- Compressive Sensing Based Adaptive Channel Estimation for TDS-OFDM System using Sparsity Level of ChannelHochgeladen vonAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- SeminarHochgeladen vonابوسالم الهلالي
- A primer on 3GPP narrowband Internet of Things.pdfHochgeladen vonrayed althubiti
- NM034 Diversity Relaying for Parallel Use of Power LineHochgeladen vonsiva
- lecture14_ofdma_mimo.pdfHochgeladen vonparvej khan

- Psp511lca Nl Eng Manual1Hochgeladen vonlik
- 1MA202_1e_3G4G_voice_quality_testing_POLQA.pdfHochgeladen vonjuanvn86
- Regular ExpressionsHochgeladen vonnadapez
- ihjHochgeladen vonVibhu Sharma Joshi
- Ansys Mapping External DataHochgeladen vonPierluigiBusetto
- Taladro Percutor TB555Hochgeladen vonVicente Rodrigo Espinoza
- Mon Practical Reliability Theory - DodsonHochgeladen vonfrenchie
- Bc5 DefineHochgeladen vonMinh Tam Motoren
- week09-marquee.pptHochgeladen vonHazel Mjkristell Basallote France
- processdynamicsandcontrolseborgsolutionmanual-180131073920.pdfHochgeladen vonHuynh Cong Toai
- Ztransform ExamplesHochgeladen vonTrupti Ingle
- UNIX Shell ScriptHochgeladen vonpooja112846349
- ORNNNHochgeladen vonkarthik
- AE-100Hochgeladen vongoof
- Cotton Quality Understanding ChartHochgeladen voncottontrade
- Single Phase TransformersHochgeladen vonPantheia Dadpou
- MAST EDI SOP - Vendor EDI Processing GuideHochgeladen vonKo Benny
- Alstom SS 091216 Letter WebHochgeladen vonherbertmg
- XhtmlHochgeladen vonBarca Condal
- CloudComputing Study PaperHochgeladen vonHari Kaja
- Polarimeter-Saccharomat-engHochgeladen vonmaaws
- List of PlayStation 3 GamesHochgeladen vonIbañez Ezequiel
- 1Hochgeladen vonJayson Barte
- Laporan Buku Profil Penyelidikan FrgsHochgeladen vonAzli Nawawi
- Eu 34903907Hochgeladen vonSenthil Kumar
- Samsung Service Marketing AssignmentHochgeladen vonمحمد علي المطري
- Analytic Geometry ProblemsHochgeladen vontutorciecle123
- VMWare Certification Study and Training CoursesHochgeladen vonERPExams Com
- Vikas Mishra Rf 7 Years Umts Gsm Optimization PlanningHochgeladen vonVikas Mishra
- ENTRY OF JOURNAL VOUCHERS.docHochgeladen vonirfanahmed.dba@gmail.com

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.