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THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 1

EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA METHODS IN THE INSTRUCTION OF MUSIC


EDUCATION IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

A Research Paper

Presented to

Arch. Maria Liza Tuazon. MA, SpEd, LPT

Childhood and Adolescent Development

Philippine Women’s University-Manila

In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for Subject Offering in

Childhood and Adolescent Development

Second Trimester, SY. 2017-18

By

Spencer G. Pitoc, BMME

Kent Capistrano, BMME

July 2018

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
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Dedication

We dedicate this study to God who has given us the ability to contribute to

this and to our parents, friends, and relatives who have been supporting us.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank the Lord our God for he has been helping and

giving us unfaltering guidance and hope.

Also, to each of our parents who have understood our every late night

stays just to complete this paper.

To each one of us in the group who have helped relentlessly and have

made way to contribute, we would like to acknowledge.

Lastly, to our professor, Ms. Maria Liza Tuazon, who have given us

samples and helped us complete our study. Thank you for answering our

questions tirelessly.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 3

Table of Contents

Title Page i

Dedication ii

Acknowledgement ii

Table of Contents iii-iv

1 Introduction 4

2 Objectives 6

3 Problems 7

4 Hypothesis 7

5 Scope and Limitation 8

6 Methodology 9

7 Data Gathering Procedure 10

8 Statistical Treatments of Data 11

9 Results 11

10 Discussions 12

11 Interpretations 15

12 Recommendations 17

13 Appendices 18

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 4

Introduction

Education has always been a fluid in terms of its delivery. It is never

stagnant in its existence and it strives to flow with the tide. Those that are

employed in this profession are responsible in to ensure that efficiency is not only

met but effectiveness as well.

Teachers have numerous techniques and methods that they employ in

order to convey the idea of their instruction to their learners. The teacher has the

daunting responsibility that the idea of a topic is properly conveyed to the minds

of his learners. Failure to do this will result in the inability of the learner to fully

grasp the concepts needed for him/her to advance. Conveyance of an idea is

never easy especially to those that will perform or execute it. It can take a toll on

the people who are tasked to do it. Fatigue, listlessness and difficulty are some of

the challenges that the people assigned this task will face.

Those at the receiving end are not spared with this overwhelming

responsibility. The learners need to be able to grasp the idea convey in order to

be effective. Education is after all communication in its basest form. For

communication to be substantiated, exchange and understanding must be

implied from both parties.

From the perspective of each end, education is certainly a labor to be

dealt with finesse and elegance but with firmness and consistency.
-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 5

In the early years of education, a simple blackboard and basic visual aids such

as the Manila paper and cartolinas were employed as the major mode of

instruction and delivery for almost all subjects. Teachers are dealt with manually

illustrating concepts in order to make the students understand the concepts that

they wish to learn. Teachers employed this method since it is inexpensive, simple

and traditional. The usage of traditional methods ensures that teachers are able

to deliver lessons with a personal touch.

Many disadvantages arise from the usage of these traditional methods.

Inefficiencies may arise because of the limited capacity of these methods in

terms of logistics. Repetition in usage, more specifically in written visual aids, is

somewhat limited since updates or changes cannot be employed. Usage of

blackboards limits the educator in the confines of the physical structure of the

board. This limitation can have physical effects on the teacher since they would

have to continually erase and write repetitively. This may pose occupational

hazards to the teachers who are constantly performing this. The students are

forced to digest instructions at the pace of the blackboard and not by their own

pace.

In these modern and contemporary times, the existence of various

methodologies aids this process of delivery. The profession of education has

adapted to include various technologies such the computer and the internet in

order to aid the educator in their delivery of instruction as well as augment the

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 6

knowledge of the learners. Computers employ a virtual existence in its delivery of

instruction without the use of bulky or cumbersome written materials in order to

project a visual cue of the concepts to be discussed. A “virtual briefcase” is

extremely helpful in the part of the teacher since all assets needed for delivery is

enclosed in a simple computer. Limitation of space is but a problem of the past

because the computer is able to store all materials in its memory.

A primary disadvantage of the usage of computers is the technical issues

that come with it. Technical difficulties such as incompatibility issues, power

outages, program crashes and the like are a nightmare to manage. Since all

lessons are virtual and electronic, any technical problem may force the class to

halt. Laziness can become an issue since all mediums are virtual. Actual

conceptualization of visual aids is left to just certain manipulations in the

computer.

Objectives:

The aim of the researchers in this action research is to investigate the following:

1. To investigate the primary effects of computer-aided instruction in

education.
2. To find the correlation between the academic performance of the students

and computer-aided instruction in education.


3. To identify the subjective mood of the students in the usage of both

traditional and computer-aided discussions in education

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 7

4. To compare the performance of the students that were exposed to

traditional methods of teaching to those that were exposed in a computer-

aided teaching of education


5. To identify possible improvements in the methods of delivery in education

Problems:

The researchers aim to answer the following questions with this action research:

1. Which method, traditional or multimedia, would be the better method in the

delivery of instruction in music education?


2. Which between the two methods will make students perform better

academically?
3. Which between the two methods will the students find enjoyable and

connect with them in a more subjective level?

Hypothesis:

The researchers predict the following statements to happen after institution of

this action research:

1. The multimedia method is the better method in the delivery of instruction

in music education.
2. The students exposed to the multimedia method performed better

academically.
3. The students exposed to the multimedia method found the lessons to be

more enjoyable and connected with it in a more subjective level.

Scope of Limitations of the Study

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 8

The experiment done by the researchers for this research are as follows:

1. Students utilized in this study were from only one specific type of

background, students who are studying business courses.


2. Music is the course of choice for this experiment since the researchers

believes that this course is equally easy yet students have limited

exposure to it.
3. Only one specific lesson in music (rhythm) was chosen to demonstrate to

the students.
4. Age limit of the students were varied. No specific age range was

employed.
5. Lecture was done in just one hour due to time constraints
6. There were an unequal number of teachers demonstrating to the students,

one teacher for the traditional and two teachers in the computed-aided.
7. Extensive background screening of the students was not employed, i.e.

prior exposure to music education, actual knowledge of concepts in music.

Method

In order to investigate the effects and differences between teaching using

the traditional method and the usage of computer technology in music education,

the researchers utilized a descriptive quantitative model.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 9

The researchers organized a two classroom setup. Both classes are

separated to ensure no dilution of perceptions of the students will happen. The

classes will be about a simple lecture in the field of music education. This lesson

will be foreign enough to ensure that students will be intrigued yet easy enough

so that students with no music education background will be able to understand.

The lesson that was utilized for this comparison is about rhythm.

One of the classrooms will teach the lesson using only tradition methods

utilizing only simple visual aids such as cartolinas and whiteboard to illustrate the

concept of rhythm. In addition to this, a wooden block is utilized to demonstrate

rhythm.

The other classroom employed modern technology in its instruction of

rhythm. A laptop and LCD projector was provided to aid in the visualization of the

topic. An electronic piano is also added to simulate the sounds of rhythm.

Sample:

Data were obtained from 80 high schoo; students that were determined

through simple random sampling. The students were divided randomly into two

groups that will each comprise the classes in which the two teaching methods will

be utilized. The high schoo; students utilized in the study were from business

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 10

courses to ensure that there will be no undue influence to the results in terms of

academic proficiency in the field of music.

Data Gathering Procedure:

The researchers used a researcher-made questionnaire comprising of two

parts. The first part consists of 10 items which utilizes an objective, multiple

choice types. This first part is designed to gauge the students understanding of

the concepts that were taught during the lesson.

The second part of the questionnaire consists of 10 items in a Likert scale type

which will gauge the personal perception of the students towards the lesson.

Both tests were given at the end of the lesson to ensure full attention shall be

given in answering the test.

Statistical Treatment of the Data

A simple mathematical mean will be computed from the data that will be

obtained from the respondents. The total number of scores from the objective

part of the quiz shall be compared between the two groups. The indication of the

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 11

results will determine the affectivity of the students in terms of academic

performance.

The second part of the quiz shall be computed per item to identify the

areas in which the students felt more motivated. An overall computation of the

mean of all items will be also computed to determine the general mood and

perception of the students that were exposed in the two different teaching

methods.

Results

The results of the assessments were tabulated into two groups, the

multimedia group and the traditional group. The scores incorporated in the tables

are the scores coming from the two assessment exams given to the students

after the discussion.

The items of the subjective part are tabulated individually into separate

columns while only the total score of the objective part was tabulated. Specific

item analysis for the objective part is not a concern of the researchers rather only

the total score is needed. For ease of recording and presentation, all results from

the average were rounded off to the nearest hundredth.

Discussions:

The researchers have summarized the results and are as follows:

Objective Part:
-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 12

The objective part of the assessment was computed as a whole.

 For the objective part, the multimedia group scored a total of 302 items out

of 400 items collectively. The multimedia group has an average score of

7.19.
 For the objective part, the traditional group scored a total of 363 items out

of 400 items collectively. The traditional group has an average score of

8.64.

Based on the results of the assessment scores, it has been shown that the

traditional group outperformed the multimedia group in the objective part of the

assessment. This may signify that the traditional group is able to retain more

information about the lesson discussed to them.

Subjective Part:

The subjective part of the assessment was computed per item and as a whole.

Multimedia Group:

 For item number 1 (The topic was interesting), the multimedia group

scored a total of 149 over 168 and had an average rating of 3.55.
 For item number 2 (The activities were enjoyable), the multimedia group

score a total of 146 over 168 and had an average rating of 3.48.
 For item number 3 (The details of the lesson were clear), the multimedia

group score a total of 146 over 168 and had an average rating of 3.48.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 13

 For item number 4 (The teaching materials were useful in understanding

the lesson), the multimedia group score a total of 151 over 168 and had

an average rating of 3.6.


 For item number 5 (The lesson stirred my personal interest in the topic),

the multimedia group score a total of 133 over 168 and had an average

rating of 3.17.
 For item number 6 (It is important to learn about music), the multimedia

group score a total of 145 over 168 and had an average rating of 3.45.
 For item number 7 (The activities made me participate actively), the

multimedia group score a total of 143 over 168 and had an average rating

of 3.4.
 For item number 8 (The information on the lesson were sufficient), the

multimedia group score a total of 141 over 168 and had an average rating

of 3.36.
 For item number 9 (The teaching materials kept me in focused in class),

the multimedia group score a total of 141 over 168 and had an average

rating of 3.36.
 For item number 10 (The lessons are useful in everyday life), the

multimedia group score a total of 139 over 168 and had an average rating

of 3.31.
 Overall, the multimedia group scores a total of 1434 over 1680 and had an

average rating of 3.41.

Traditional Group:

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 14

 For item number 1 (The topic was interesting), the multimedia group

scored a total of 157 over 168 and had an average rating of 3.65.
 For item number 2 (The activities were enjoyable), the multimedia group

score a total of 150 over 168 and had an average rating of 3.49.
 For item number 3 (The details of the lesson were clear), the multimedia

group score a total of 152 over 168 and had an average rating of 3.62.
 For item number 4 (The teaching materials were useful in understanding

the lesson), the multimedia group score a total of 150 over 168 and had

an average rating of 3.48.


 For item number 5 (The lesson stirred my personal interest in the topic),

the multimedia group score a total of 138 over 168 and had an average

rating of 3.29.
 For item number 6 (It is important to learn about music), the multimedia

group score a total of 152 over 168 and had an average rating of 3.62.
 For item number 7 (The activities made me participate actively), the

multimedia group score a total of 145 over 168 and had an average rating

of 3.45.
 For item number 8 (The information on the lesson were sufficient), the

multimedia group score a total of 147 over 168 and had an average rating

of 3.5.
 For item number 9 (The teaching materials kept me in focused in class),

the multimedia group score a total of 147 over 168 and had an average

rating of 3.5.
 For item number 10 (The lessons are useful in everyday life), the

multimedia group score a total of 143 over 168 and had an average rating

of 3.4.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 15

 Overall, the multimedia group scores a total of 1471 over 1680 and had an

average rating of 3.5.

Interpretation:

Based on the results of the assessment scores, it has been showed that

the traditional group scored higher in almost all of the items except in item

number 3. The traditional group also scores higher in the overall assessment of

the discussion. This may signify that the traditional group enjoyed the lessons

and appealed to them in the subjective level as compared to their counterparts in

the multimedia section.

The results of the assessment came to be a bit of a revelation to the researchers.

As previously stated in the hypothesis, the researchers believed that the

students exposed to the multimedia method of teaching would perform better

academically and those students would find the lesson more enjoyable.

According to the data, this was not the case. Students in the traditional method

are better in almost all aspects of measurement of the action research.

Students may have felt a more desire to learn driving them to perform

better in the academic part of the exam since facilities were lacking in the

traditional method. Despite having all the necessary equipment in the multimedia

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 16

method, it seems the students didn’t enjoy the lesson as much as the traditional

group.

Other areas of concern were also found in the multimedia group in terms

of technicalities. The multimedia group started late because of some technical

difficulties experienced.

The researchers believe that even though the data shown that traditional

methods outweigh the effectiveness of teaching music education, it does not

however, devalue the contributions of using multimedia methods in the delivery of

the lessons.

Recommendations:

The researchers would like to mention these stipulations if there will be a need to

replicate this study in the future:

1. Additional lessons should be included to further test the academic

capability of students. Focusing on just one lesson may not be able to

mirror the entirety of their academic extent.


2. Usage of much younger respondents such as those in the grade school

years would be more applicable in the study to ensure that there will be

no bias since there would be added assurance that these respondents

have not been exposed in music education beforehand.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 17

3. Additional time would be more beneficial in gauging the effectiveness of

the methods. One hour seems not sufficient to fully assess their

capabilities.

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 18

Appendices

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY 19

Assessment Exam

Name: Date:

Course:

-------------------------------------Disclaimer: This paper follows the THESIS format, not the IMRaD one as these students
are expected to follow the thesis format in their actual thesis writing. This paper may not be construed as the best
manuscript; this is only an attempt to immerse them in the real world of academic writing. Thus, students’ performance
herewith, in no way, shall reflect Prof. Munalim’s competence, knowledge, and rudiments of research writing.
I. Directions: Match each column to their designated places. Write the letter only
on the space provided.

Column A Column B
A.
___ 1. Quarter note

B.
___ 2. Sixteenth note

C.
___ 3. Half note

D.
___ 4. Eight note

E.
___ 5. Whole note
II. Multiple Choices. (Encircle the correct answer)

1. A quarter note receives how many beats?

A. 4 B. 3 C. 1 D. ½

2. How many beat does a whole note receive?

A. 4 B. 3 C. 1 D. 1/2

3. There is how many beats in a half note?

A. 2 B. 4 C. 1 D. 3

4. What is the foundation of Rhythm?

A. Rhythm B. Beat C. Whole note D. Quarter note

5. What is the systematic arrangement of musical sounds?

A. Quarter note B. Whole note C. Beat D. Rhythm

STUDENT 1. The topic was interesting.


REFLECTION FORM
2. The activities were enjoyable.
Write your answers in the
corresponding boxes. Use the
numeric value that 3. The details of the lesson were represents
your thoughts on each clear. item:

4 (Excellent) 3 4. The teaching materials were


(Satisfactory) 2 (Fair) useful in understanding the 1
(Inadequate) lesson.

5. The lesson stirred my personal


interest in the topic.

6. It is important to learn about


music.

7. The activities made me


participate actively.

8. The information on the lesson


was sufficient.

9. The teaching materials kept me


focused in class.

10. The lesson is useful in daily life.


Documentation Pictures
Traditional Class
Multimedia
Class