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STABILITY THEORY .

PHASG -

CHIEF MATES
INTACT STABILITY
CRITERIA

o.ro -
-
- - - -

M .

GZ

→ area .

> 0.03mmol

#¥tEd¥*f'÷
00
Heel .
So to .

Cargo ships .

Q Area under GZ calve should not be less an


0.055 rad
for angle of heel
up
to Zoe .

m -

@ i

Area under GZ curve should not be less than


mrrad heel
0.09
for angle of updo angle
of flooding or
48 whichever is least
3 Area under 92 delve should noted less then
0.03 in -
Saddam for angle ofat heel
bµ 35840°
4
GZ levee shall be least o room
Righting
.

heel of 38
5
at
the
angle of
medium
or
greater
levee shall
righting Oceul
i

Zoe but not less than no


preferably after
.

6
The initial shall
melnacatnichllght be 0 ism
-
for Passenger step Additionally
's

of passengers .

F. for of

crowding
Passenger ship on account on one

slide the heel should not emceed 10° .

The heel account


8
angle of on
of turning
.

the vessel shall not emceed it


using
.

this
formed .

Mr [ dzfxw
0.02
=

Vqohx RG -

TIMBER DECK CARGO


tuayhouttneuoyage
qnsbouldsetve .

acoomffor wet cargo


iaaaeanon
.

.me#I
? HM
for
or
the
ships aeeyty timed
-

that
X° angle of
cargo provided
deck

Heralded
.

the timber hooded shell 0in


- -

'
'
- - -

be entended
mi
fbodg
longitudinally
METTLE
transversely
and full on been l 1

then addition So 35 400


length criteria
the
.

cargo felony points so .

@ . Aree under the curve shall not be less


than 0 .

o8m-rad.foragleofheelwfsfoieooorayleoffwodg.ulncheveeiskast@Themauinnunmghkigleiclshellbeo.zsrmatleast.Q

The initial Gmf shall be 0 . Iom


ondeparlwd .
GRAIN STABILITY CRITERIA

do =
VHM

p
-

SF W
Xo ×

flu
Ayo
1

G 2 = 0.8 ×
Xo

jape
=I
heehg arm '

' Xuo
l
do to '

no
heel
angle of due
Hell →

to
shift of grain

The
angle of
keel assumed
shift of obtained
1 due to
grain ,

bythe plotting of heeling Gzauve


arm on
.

not ended to forth ships built


shall
after
'

1st Jan 1994


, angle of lied shell not be
greater
deck
angle at edge
than to or the Inch

immerses whichever is least .

@ The residual alla between

ao°
GZ
Shellingcurve aim

upto the
angle of or the
angle of fhoody
at which meninum
angle
or the there is

separation blw GZ curve an


badly ootsmrad aim which

ever 's least shall be leese men .

3 The initial Gmt shall not be less than 0.3mi .

@ sheep shall be
upright on to
sea .
proceeding
HEEL DUE To WIND

grind
=
Lwz = l . 5 LW
,

it
[
b w "

ftp.eadyheeeaugk

Miah
'
qw , " !

) )
For a
gust of
wind .

it is taken C. 5 times
oz
l°° factors which normal
Volley
on into more than

wind
dependent
is areas
follows .

Cs Roll blw G A
,
peliod distance
,
waterline .

arleofbilgeked .

Now
suppose ,
the
angle of
roll is no Cqeoz )
If the vessel rolls Ho
steadily ononesnde slid rolls are

to other side with co Ccuo ) and wind


a
guest of
that then heel
is
coming from side at
angle of
.

of 4° GZ is LW
,
S at 10° Lwa ( Lwz -
1.5 LWD
then residual area under auve
(a) up to
angle
58 at ohvhevu
of flooding ,or CID is
angle
or

Least shall than Cb


be
greater )
a
> b

All ships MUST SATISFY This


WHY STABILITY CURVE is MORE IMPORTANT
THAN GM .

when a

heeling
moment is
applied to a vessel It starts
to heel and her back level developed
righting
is
buy
.
a .

for posing bringing her back conditions


following
shall be
satisfied .

is Lever should be
greater clan heeling lace
Righting shall
liij .
Dynamical stability of
that vessel be
large
enough to overcome the kinetic
developed
energy
by
the heel
of the vessel .

since kinetic = lkmve where miscue mass


of
energy .

the ship therefore it develops great a amount

of kinetic
energy .

whereas the
dynamic stability is the aeea
of wave
multiplied at
by displacement
under 92
any ayle
of heel .

welfare the
function
the
,
dynamical
and
stability
under
is
the
of displacement
area curve .

the
large enough
should
which be to overcome

energy developed
kinetic duel to
heeling
.

than
Therefore much It is more important
GM alone criteria
in
stability of ship
. .
.
a
STATICAL STABILITY form of ashep
governed by CG S Form
of a
ship . means The under
water volume

GZ

Exam
and
N@chagaygn.di.rB
A→ Heel .

Vessel depth draft


Horn Moulded km 8
length
=
=
, ,

A : Normal conditions a basic vessel with above


portraits

B :
Added 2 m .

of freeboard to the above vessel ,

initial but later the


stability
is same on

and
stability increases also
range of stability
and
vanishing angle man G 2

C : Added Zm of beam to the above vessel .

the into increased


stability ts with
along
.

range of stability
and Manor
vanishing stability ,

D: The Centre
of gravity ishfted i.

GM in return G2(G2=G Mano


up
)
reducing
reduction in
Man
contd .

range of stability ,
GZ
,
van
sung stability
Contd .

E :
lf the COG is raised
by
1.5 mrthln the GM MU
it will The vessel all
negative about
be cause to
and
thereafter
°

angle of
8
redeuig
at

Man
the
range of stability ,
GZ
Sramshg
stability
F :
lf we take vessel E and enclose the
vessel will
freeboard8° by Zmhs . then
when
the
loll at
only
but in
positive
have
sage of stability
more
Stability
man GZ fvamshy ayh .

CONCLUSIONS
i. luuease in Freeboard has no
effects
littleeffect on initial
stability but dnueeses
and
range of stability vamshgthe angle of stwhnwy
2. increase
in beam increases iemtealr
but
stability hes
very
and
little
effedm
range of stability vameshg ayh of stably
3
of COG upwards overall reduces
thftiy and
.

the reduces the


GZ
therefore rage
of stability
4. vessel initial not
hang negative GM
may
aaphre but become stable at some .

angle of hulifhave the freeboard


better
Es increased .

they may range of stability


before they cepku -
EFFECT Of BEAM ON STABILITY

lauease leads GMSGZ


of beam to an increase in values

KG = KM -
GM
KM = K Be BM

BM
LBY 13-2
Tg
= = =

,z✓
l2d

B N .
MB Lets take two vessel with

.
.mn two Breadths ,
Ci, N Ci ) B .

a N is narrower than B .

provided draft
B the

is same

and have underwater volume

then this we can see that

on in dead
of beam the
GMB
is
greatellhan
the vessel loaded
GMN therefore if
is
equally
i. e. KG is same in both then GZ values
B' arrtn
'

for vessel
'
MU also be more *
then GZ values as
follows graph


B

qzz sin @ ( Gmt IKBM #m8


)
GMSBM
p
we can see

a
FEE
.EE?fmEdodgTt:uImpointofinfumon

. but

57.3
overall
gives a
better

Heel stability range fdynamc


stability

EFFECT OF FREEBOARD ON STABILITY

.
m L we take two vessel with same

(Ef
*'
s
KG and
therefore KMSGM
values are same
for both
G vessels have same
drafts
.

long different depths


but
B
.

c. e.
hang different freeboards .

'sS
' ' '

ek L ships for both


.
the
initial but
stability
vessel have same later on
'
have
S vessel will
first deck immersion than
'

that
i vessel
therefore after the mammon
-

'
but L'
GZ for both vessel will be more
ship
will have more
of man a2 and
range of stability
vessel the vessels
'
is
hang
than
if
even
.

leave
negative stability Also
enitial shall a

ship L' has


'
better of stability
range
.

's '
more
dynamical stability
than at
larger angles
but smaller have Identical
dynamic
at
angles
stability

ya
of
point of interim
q

1. !
Heel - 57.3°
EFFECT
' '
OF A MOVEMENT OF G
VERTICALLY & HORIZONTALLY
M

WEIGHT SHIFTED UPWARDS

weight if shifted upwards then


a

G it results En reduction Gmt



enrettuln GZ ( GZ -
GMSNO )
G this reduction Is man @ 90° .

the corrected
therefore '
GZ
K is = CGZ GG
GZ -

,snO whereas

If
the
weights are
shifted downwards .

or loaded below the EG


'
then enoeaslstbo

GM fin turn the GZ .

ay Prior H
shifting of

to

#
weights
.

YEW
Hsfoamsmltigwpwoda
.

a.
upwards
Shifted weight
.

reduces dlamhuem Gz

range of stability
b. Reduces .

angle of vanishing stability


and Heel . →

A better
dynamic
c.
m
uno
atauayles
stability mundi
forts ) .

a. .

G 21
g
GZ

Gr .

an

k
TRANVCRSE
' '

SHIFT OF G

¥k
:
GWILBGWELWGQ
→ 8 99 ,
Is L to BG ,
GAS
°

,
= 90 -
Ci)

A
IWGG ,
+ LAGG ,
= 9o° -
di)
G z
eq.li Sdi )
"

from )

O ,
LBGW 2 LAGG ,
= O ( list )
! GA 2
GG cos O
.
,
'
' '
. So the
final GZ =
GZ -

Gq ,
cos 0

B
W
ahetransversesluftcanbe

gaff
Youth
Marked
Faun

t.faa.fm#
¥4
,f^ Heel .

the vessel
Caso

is listed
0
!

list

due to
Heel

transverse
Sheff
→ 90 '

'G this reduction


of of byG9,oosO
'

then causes GZ

therefore initial and


initially negative stability
a

reduced
overall
stability
in all
aspects ierangeof
vanishing stability 'ayh
'

except
'

stability buttf it

was earlier less than 900 then it wchalso he


list
affected for . the
angles greater
than
aykof .
EFFECT OF PARAMETERS
with
change
In vessels
draft
.

KM

asqtfenrendkebingrgmtmdtm

KB is
KM

slightly
= KBTBM
more
where
than
* m
( -
and
half of ships draft .

BM =
I/V ,
c. e . BM A 1

/ u . W rd .
displacement
so ,
when
initially
the
light weight draft starts
high and
draft
the KN is as soon as the

to increase the 4W volume in clean and


therefore
BM stars to reduce
decrease
rapidly ! .
the KM
and
values
show a
sharp in values
often that
the also
at some

to
stage
balance
KB is
slowly inaeeng
KM
BM
change of
it starts the the f.

becomes almost but later


same on at
greater
drafts the KB increases
slowly
and BM MU be

Ready
i Ron increases
slowly at
greater drafts
.
.

MCTC
MCTC =
W × G M L

# MAC
as we can see
itself from T
the
formula
it
directly
is

pro potonaltoew
'
i.e.

underwater volume
therefore desp .

it increases with increase
of deft
TPC
rcpc =

A/ , •
x
density
as we can
from the formula
see .

proportional to
Trc

directly
it is

the alle
of cross section
p
increases with
therefore it
increase
of draft
'

displacement

LCB
LCB
of a vessel Is the distance
of centre of
AP
buoyancy from .
centred
of Bougancy este
centre
of utowrolume

y
Aft fwd

initially draft is 1
the
when q
Lcd
Lees then the posh of and
e

dealt
is
fwd
when
of midship
to increases then i
towards
moves
aft '

mtd
ship
length

LCF
LCF is the dist of centre of flotation from Ap .

water plane
LCF is ceuttoid
of tt
the area . acts
.

same as LCB therefore it is forward of midship


and as the
draft
increases It
shifts aft
of midships .
COMPARISON of A WELL LOADED VESSEL .

To A VESSEL AT .
ANGLE OF LOLL

for a normal vessel well M


→ 0
heel

nz
loaded there
ef is a
of
due to
°

even so then
hee positive stability
ire .

g
it creates
GM positive •
being
.

level collate
highly
a GZ .
B.
,
k

shifts Byand
actingdownwards
'
B
'
to
and with
upwards G
acting
a

level
in between it cleats a moment to

and her
correct the vessel .

being
back to
original
state .

of ofloll
,

But in vessel at aha


angle
case

qq
IG
when the vessel stars to lull .

stalls increase but


KM at
first a
after a
point at
greater angle
It stores to decrease and
it to
point it

comes a that .

B ,

coincides ioittig
'
i. e .
GM = O at
,

vessel has
this
angle no
acting cancel
levee as the both G and B
forces
each olku as are in line and the vessel
they
a . .

at that
angle
and
if the vessel
a stuck is
struck
by
an external force lteuttmuoapnge
all euiteal
.

for vessel at loll


angle of
a to be

GM bae to be small
negative very
or
DRY DOCK in G
NO CARGO ON BOARD .

when the vessel


goes for dig docking ,
its GM S
other characteristics
stability
remains
unchanged .

floating
tell it is in the dock as soon as the

touches the blocks weight


'
P '

istransf
Steen the .
,

to blocks which
the is as
equal to the
weight
discharged from place therefore
that .

Decrease
hydrostatic draft the of vessel
in
c. .

Debase in trim skin


2 .

by
3 . virtual use
of coq f. loss
of GM C virtual )
vessel
when the is
therefor furthermore hayed
down dock virtual loss of
dry
in the the GM
increases until the vessel is
folly hayed all over

to happen vessel should


the blocks so
for this
have
,
accommodate
of
to loss
big Gm sufficient
Gm therefore light weight a vessel has
greater
and accomodatetue
GM tt can loss
of GM .

CARGO ON BOARD
board W the be
With
cargo
on the of vessel will
smaller and GM thus
more
therefore GM ,

is not
sufficient to acoomadolecoes of GM .

blocks the vessel starts to


byhell
the
and she
thereforebecome unstable
can and
All Anthe
can cause
damage Isto reduced
bottoms .

aspect of stability .
DRY Docking A LOADED SHIP

I The dock has to


provide All the
.

day manager docks


for
to the
informationdocked the vessel to
the
be
plan with
loaded cargo
re

dry
.

amount
hatch
of also
cargo the
in each tank or

a .
information regarding
the
position of bulkheads and the blocks .

The vessel shall docked with


dry
2 .
be as

in well
possible even or
along
with the
dock
dry
the with
declivity
even
of
or

minimum to seduce
the trim to be
kept
thrust blocks
the at
after .

B . with the
information provided the
plan
cauied out entsa
support
mu to
give
be

to vessel of bilge beds


Including
the . use .

think
upto the bolton
plating
.

4 vessel has side shall


suffered
the
.
if damage
then the dock has to cleared till the
the
damage exposed and
removing water
is
.

help the
stability
mttr
will then .

of
rebel entra
the .

giving support .

5
After the dock is
empty for
survey
. a

wdewadu lull shall be carried out


to the done to the
sleep
damageshallIf
asses .

G .
the double bottom be deballasled
to withstand the
weight of cargo .

F An order to avoid serious condition


any
.

advisable to unload to
it is prior deydok
EFFECT ON STABILITY OF A TRIM BY
STERN

lf the vessel is in calm waters then the GM will

be atnem vessel
more
for Stern clean

keel by
.

vessel on even .
this Is because . KM

is increased As the underwater volume


increases and
therefore
and KB increases

for sloped waterline therefore


'

I greater
-

is
also increases overall
GMS
BM the
Gzof
.

the

however
vessel increases .

reduced
The
due
initial
to
stability
adverse
being
effect of reduction in
aft freeboard .

but all aspects of increases


stability
over

a
WHEN DECK IMMERSION
Takes RLALE
c .
when on even keel . the deck A 1

takes Gz
immersion place
vessel
evenly along
the a
, ,

'
B'length change ,
or
shift of : !
towards the bwesr
.

side Heel →
to (n ,
gives use curve
vessel trim then the deck
if the
initially
a. is
by
skin

immersion takes place


ofl portion getsthe immersed

first than
ford position therefore providing Ford

portion aft
bouganiyma this
more

to trimmed
get
suoyay
helps vessels
by
the Stan more
this
trimming
moment
' effects higher part of
B'
slightly
and thus the in will
aft
can
of this

comp .
towards the
higher side . and result came (2)
G2 walrus
reducing
the
therefore
.

SIMILAR EFFECTS WILL TUERG FOR ALL VESSELS

having shed . toward more


aft than
,
or the

only toward
vessels sheer #
if
even
having
. on
keel

FREE TRIM initially


even
.

the ship builders make the GZ owes for vessel


the condition ranked and assumed
of
with @

fined trim . but that is not the case


actually
the
effect lied not taken
account
of outoim is

called treetnm
effect is
into items as

The curves

into
will be

account
different if the } free trim
trim
change ofthe
B taken the
the vessel into a
,
if wosetrem
puts
adverse
overall
effect of greetrim is
.
EFFECT OF WAVES ON STABILITY

A.
crest

4L
when the vessel is
trough than
Stability
is more on

vessel on Crest .

chsoyh
when the vessel with
wavelength
the
passes
its crest
amidships ,
there is reduction in
and
ofGM
lame loss
watery area
,
this reduces BM

end
because
of end shapes a drop of waterlines mu
lessened outward movement
cause .
a .
of Bilueelfn
reduction en B S G Zcanseforttus reason .

As increase in
'
B'
diagram deduction
the
seen
from the
idnndshp
at
nullified Bs ends
the
by of
'
is almost
Also at the there Is reduced
chest
of
wave a
,

buoyancy force . because the


pressure In the crest
in less than CSMTH calculated
this causes further
hydrostatic
reduction
pressure
in
an beam the stability .

in
'

B
'
the
of but
case wave

nil the reduction change


position is in
pressure
due to SMH n correction will cause reduction of
stability .
PARAMETRIC RESONANCE
Judean in roll
period of a vessel .
due to periodic
passage of waves C
apparent loss
of stability )

MOVEMENT of DECK WATER .

.TW?Ynaeaye
sdrfwtisq
Many
a. momentum
case the
of
much
of ehingaem waterflow cease

loss
effect in
more

of stability
limit
.

travel
Heel . At the its
of .

GZ = GZ -

GG ,
cos O

when GG ,
=
wtofwaterxdist.fm#
Displacement
EFFECT ON TRIM DUE To CHANGE
in DENSITY

|
}wr
Fb .
G WLZ

; ;
B

B

Vw

from
dainty
When to lower
vessel
goes higher
and LCB > LCF
when the vessel lighter density of
from d , goes
to
and
it sinks
from WL to wlz therefore towards
the B
shifts from its
original posn
the
of the
newly submerged part Now
' '
b .

due the B to B B f G not


In
to
sluf
creates
of and
turn
,

line which in
couple
( on
aseby
creates this
trimming Calculate
a moment
head ) We can BB
,

BB = V × ( LCB - l CF )
,

=
where V is Volume underwater
and '
v
'
new added volume .
originally
Aslso we can calculate the trim total
It = BB × W
, .

MCT C
Density LCB > LCF LCF > LCB .

High to low
Trimhyhead Teumbyaem .

how to
High Trimbyhead
Trimbysteen