PHASG 
CHIEF MATES
INTACT STABILITY
CRITERIA
o.ro 

   
M .
GZ
→ area .
> 0.03mmol
#¥tEd¥*f'÷
00
Heel .
So to .
Cargo ships .
m 
@ i
heel of 38
5
at
the
angle of
medium
or
greater
levee shall
righting Oceul
i
6
The initial shall
melnacatnichllght be 0 ism

for Passenger step Additionally
's
of passengers .
F. for of
crowding
Passenger ship on account on one
this
formed .
Mr [ dzfxw
0.02
=
Vqohx RG 
.me#I
? HM
for
or
the
ships aeeyty timed

that
X° angle of
cargo provided
deck
Heralded
.
'
'
  
be entended
mi
fbodg
longitudinally
METTLE
transversely
and full on been l 1
o8mrad.foragleofheelwfsfoieooorayleoffwodg.ulncheveeiskast@Themauinnunmghkigleiclshellbeo.zsrmatleast.Q
do =
VHM
p

SF W
Xo ×
flu
Ayo
1
G 2 = 0.8 ×
Xo
jape
=I
heehg arm '
' Xuo
l
do to '
no
heel
angle of due
Hell →
to
shift of grain
The
angle of
keel assumed
shift of obtained
1 due to
grain ,
ao°
GZ
Shellingcurve aim
upto the
angle of or the
angle of fhoody
at which meninum
angle
or the there is
@ sheep shall be
upright on to
sea .
proceeding
HEEL DUE To WIND
grind
=
Lwz = l . 5 LW
,
it
[
b w "
ftp.eadyheeeaugk
Miah
'
qw , " !
) )
For a
gust of
wind .
it is taken C. 5 times
oz
l°° factors which normal
Volley
on into more than
wind
dependent
is areas
follows .
Cs Roll blw G A
,
peliod distance
,
waterline .
arleofbilgeked .
Now
suppose ,
the
angle of
roll is no Cqeoz )
If the vessel rolls Ho
steadily ononesnde slid rolls are
of 4° GZ is LW
,
S at 10° Lwa ( Lwz 
1.5 LWD
then residual area under auve
(a) up to
angle
58 at ohvhevu
of flooding ,or CID is
angle
or
when a
heeling
moment is
applied to a vessel It starts
to heel and her back level developed
righting
is
buy
.
a .
is Lever should be
greater clan heeling lace
Righting shall
liij .
Dynamical stability of
that vessel be
large
enough to overcome the kinetic
developed
energy
by
the heel
of the vessel .
of kinetic
energy .
whereas the
dynamic stability is the aeea
of wave
multiplied at
by displacement
under 92
any ayle
of heel .
welfare the
function
the
,
dynamical
and
stability
under
is
the
of displacement
area curve .
the
large enough
should
which be to overcome
energy developed
kinetic duel to
heeling
.
than
Therefore much It is more important
GM alone criteria
in
stability of ship
. .
.
a
STATICAL STABILITY form of ashep
governed by CG S Form
of a
ship . means The under
water volume
GZ
Exam
and
N@chagaygn.di.rB
A→ Heel .
B :
Added 2 m .
and
stability increases also
range of stability
and
vanishing angle man G 2
range of stability
and Manor
vanishing stability ,
D: The Centre
of gravity ishfted i.
range of stability ,
GZ
,
van
sung stability
Contd .
E :
lf the COG is raised
by
1.5 mrthln the GM MU
it will The vessel all
negative about
be cause to
and
thereafter
°
angle of
8
redeuig
at
Man
the
range of stability ,
GZ
Sramshg
stability
F :
lf we take vessel E and enclose the
vessel will
freeboard8° by Zmhs . then
when
the
loll at
only
but in
positive
have
sage of stability
more
Stability
man GZ fvamshy ayh .
CONCLUSIONS
i. luuease in Freeboard has no
effects
littleeffect on initial
stability but dnueeses
and
range of stability vamshgthe angle of stwhnwy
2. increase
in beam increases iemtealr
but
stability hes
very
and
little
effedm
range of stability vameshg ayh of stably
3
of COG upwards overall reduces
thftiy and
.
KG = KM 
GM
KM = K Be BM
BM
LBY 132
Tg
= = =
,z✓
l2d
B N .
MB Lets take two vessel with
.
.mn two Breadths ,
Ci, N Ci ) B .
a N is narrower than B .
provided draft
B the
•
is same
on in dead
of beam the
GMB
is
greatellhan
the vessel loaded
GMN therefore if
is
equally
i. e. KG is same in both then GZ values
B' arrtn
'
for vessel
'
MU also be more *
then GZ values as
follows graph
M¥
B
a
FEE
.EE?fmEdodgTt:uImpointofinfumon
. but
57.3
overall
gives a
better
.
m L we take two vessel with same
(Ef
*'
s
KG and
therefore KMSGM
values are same
for both
G vessels have same
drafts
.
c. e.
hang different freeboards .
'sS
' ' '
that
i vessel
therefore after the mammon

'
but L'
GZ for both vessel will be more
ship
will have more
of man a2 and
range of stability
vessel the vessels
'
is
hang
than
if
even
.
leave
negative stability Also
enitial shall a
's '
more
dynamical stability
than at
larger angles
but smaller have Identical
dynamic
at
angles
stability
ya
of
point of interim
q
1. !
Heel  57.3°
EFFECT
' '
OF A MOVEMENT OF G
VERTICALLY & HORIZONTALLY
M
•
•
enrettuln GZ ( GZ 
GMSNO )
G this reduction Is man @ 90° .
the corrected
therefore '
GZ
K is = CGZ GG
GZ 
,snO whereas
If
the
weights are
shifted downwards .
ay Prior H
shifting of
→
to
#
weights
.
YEW
Hsfoamsmltigwpwoda
.
a.
upwards
Shifted weight
.
reduces dlamhuem Gz
range of stability
b. Reduces .
A better
dynamic
c.
m
uno
atauayles
stability mundi
forts ) .
a. .
G 21
g
GZ
Gr .
an
k
TRANVCRSE
' '
SHIFT OF G
¥k
:
GWILBGWELWGQ
→ 8 99 ,
Is L to BG ,
GAS
°
,
= 90 
Ci)
A
IWGG ,
+ LAGG ,
= 9o° 
di)
G z
eq.li Sdi )
"
from )
O ,
LBGW 2 LAGG ,
= O ( list )
! GA 2
GG cos O
.
,
'
' '
. So the
final GZ =
GZ 
Gq ,
cos 0
B
W
ahetransversesluftcanbe
gaff
Youth
Marked
Faun
t.faa.fm#
¥4
,f^ Heel .
the vessel
Caso
is listed
0
!
list
due to
Heel
transverse
Sheff
→ 90 '
then causes GZ
reduced
overall
stability
in all
aspects ierangeof
vanishing stability 'ayh
'
except
'
stability buttf it
KM
asqtfenrendkebingrgmtmdtm
KB is
KM
slightly
= KBTBM
more
where
than
* m
( 
and
half of ships draft .
BM =
I/V ,
c. e . BM A 1
/ u . W rd .
displacement
so ,
when
initially
the
light weight draft starts
high and
draft
the KN is as soon as the
to
stage
balance
KB is
slowly inaeeng
KM
BM
change of
it starts the the f.
Ready
i Ron increases
slowly at
greater drafts
.
.
MCTC
MCTC =
W × G M L
# MAC
as we can see
itself from T
the
formula
it
directly
is
pro potonaltoew
'
i.e.
underwater volume
therefore desp .
→
it increases with increase
of deft
TPC
rcpc =
A/ , •
x
density
as we can
from the formula
see .
proportional to
Trc
directly
it is
the alle
of cross section
p
increases with
therefore it
increase
of draft
'
displacement
LCB
LCB
of a vessel Is the distance
of centre of
AP
buoyancy from .
centred
of Bougancy este
centre
of utowrolume
y
Aft fwd
initially draft is 1
the
when q
Lcd
Lees then the posh of and
e
dealt
is
fwd
when
of midship
to increases then i
towards
moves
aft '
mtd
ship
length
→
LCF
LCF is the dist of centre of flotation from Ap .
water plane
LCF is ceuttoid
of tt
the area . acts
.
To A VESSEL AT .
ANGLE OF LOLL
nz
loaded there
ef is a
of
due to
°
even so then
hee positive stability
ire .
g
it creates
GM positive •
being
.
level collate
highly
a GZ .
B.
,
k
shifts Byand
actingdownwards
'
B
'
to
and with
upwards G
acting
a
level
in between it cleats a moment to
and her
correct the vessel .
being
back to
original
state .
of ofloll
,
qq
IG
when the vessel stars to lull .
comes a that .
B ,
•
coincides ioittig
'
i. e .
GM = O at
,
vessel has
this
angle no
acting cancel
levee as the both G and B
forces
each olku as are in line and the vessel
they
a . .
at that
angle
and
if the vessel
a stuck is
struck
by
an external force lteuttmuoapnge
all euiteal
.
GM bae to be small
negative very
or
DRY DOCK in G
NO CARGO ON BOARD .
floating
tell it is in the dock as soon as the
istransf
Steen the .
,
to blocks which
the is as
equal to the
weight
discharged from place therefore
that .
Decrease
hydrostatic draft the of vessel
in
c. .
by
3 . virtual use
of coq f. loss
of GM C virtual )
vessel
when the is
therefor furthermore hayed
down dock virtual loss of
dry
in the the GM
increases until the vessel is
folly hayed all over
CARGO ON BOARD
board W the be
With
cargo
on the of vessel will
smaller and GM thus
more
therefore GM ,
is not
sufficient to acoomadolecoes of GM .
aspect of stability .
DRY Docking A LOADED SHIP
dry
.
amount
hatch
of also
cargo the
in each tank or
a .
information regarding
the
position of bulkheads and the blocks .
in well
possible even or
along
with the
dock
dry
the with
declivity
even
of
or
minimum to seduce
the trim to be
kept
thrust blocks
the at
after .
B . with the
information provided the
plan
cauied out entsa
support
mu to
give
be
think
upto the bolton
plating
.
help the
stability
mttr
will then .
of
rebel entra
the .
giving support .
5
After the dock is
empty for
survey
. a
G .
the double bottom be deballasled
to withstand the
weight of cargo .
advisable to unload to
it is prior deydok
EFFECT ON STABILITY OF A TRIM BY
STERN
be atnem vessel
more
for Stern clean
keel by
.
vessel on even .
this Is because . KM
I greater

is
also increases overall
GMS
BM the
Gzof
.
the
however
vessel increases .
reduced
The
due
initial
to
stability
adverse
being
effect of reduction in
aft freeboard .
a
WHEN DECK IMMERSION
Takes RLALE
c .
when on even keel . the deck A 1
takes Gz
immersion place
vessel
evenly along
the a
, ,
'
B'length change ,
or
shift of : !
towards the bwesr
.
side Heel →
to (n ,
gives use curve
vessel trim then the deck
if the
initially
a. is
by
skin
first than
ford position therefore providing Ford
portion aft
bouganiyma this
more
to trimmed
get
suoyay
helps vessels
by
the Stan more
this
trimming
moment
' effects higher part of
B'
slightly
and thus the in will
aft
can
of this
comp .
towards the
higher side . and result came (2)
G2 walrus
reducing
the
therefore
.
only toward
vessels sheer #
if
even
having
. on
keel
called treetnm
effect is
into items as
The curves
into
will be
account
different if the } free trim
trim
change ofthe
B taken the
the vessel into a
,
if wosetrem
puts
adverse
overall
effect of greetrim is
.
EFFECT OF WAVES ON STABILITY
A.
crest
4L
when the vessel is
trough than
Stability
is more on
vessel on Crest .
chsoyh
when the vessel with
wavelength
the
passes
its crest
amidships ,
there is reduction in
and
ofGM
lame loss
watery area
,
this reduces BM
end
because
of end shapes a drop of waterlines mu
lessened outward movement
cause .
a .
of Bilueelfn
reduction en B S G Zcanseforttus reason .
As increase in
'
B'
diagram deduction
the
seen
from the
idnndshp
at
nullified Bs ends
the
by of
'
is almost
Also at the there Is reduced
chest
of
wave a
,
in
'
B
'
the
of but
case wave
.TW?Ynaeaye
sdrfwtisq
Many
a. momentum
case the
of
much
of ehingaem waterflow cease
loss
effect in
more
of stability
limit
.
travel
Heel . At the its
of .
GZ = GZ 
GG ,
cos O
when GG ,
=
wtofwaterxdist.fm#
Displacement
EFFECT ON TRIM DUE To CHANGE
in DENSITY

}wr
Fb .
G WLZ
; ;
B
•
B
Vw
from
dainty
When to lower
vessel
goes higher
and LCB > LCF
when the vessel lighter density of
from d , goes
to
and
it sinks
from WL to wlz therefore towards
the B
shifts from its
original posn
the
of the
newly submerged part Now
' '
b .
line which in
couple
( on
aseby
creates this
trimming Calculate
a moment
head ) We can BB
,
BB = V × ( LCB  l CF )
,
=
where V is Volume underwater
and '
v
'
new added volume .
originally
Aslso we can calculate the trim total
It = BB × W
, .
MCT C
Density LCB > LCF LCF > LCB .
High to low
Trimhyhead Teumbyaem .
how to
High Trimbyhead
Trimbysteen