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Obstacle Sensing Stick

For visually impaired

Submitted by:

Divya Khandelwal (Me16207022)


Sonali Shukla (Me16207024)
M.E (Electronics)
Semester – 1st
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Block Diagram
3. Pin Configuration
4. Working
5. Algorithm
6. PCB Layout
7. Major Components used
8. Possible Modifications
9. GSM/GPRS Module
10. GPS Module
11. Locating the person
Introduction
 This prototype is designed to guide a visually impaired person to walk and
avoid bumping into obstacles. Low cost ultrasonic rangefinders along with
a microcontroller is used to measure the distance to obstacles and if they
are close enough provide a feedback to the user in form of number of
beeps.
Block Diagram
Pin Configuration
Digital Pin 1 -

Digital Pin 2 Trigger pin of Left Sensor

Digital Pin 3 Echo pin of Left Sensor

Digital Pin 4 Trigger pin of Front Sensor

Digital Pin 5 Echo pin of Front Sensor

Digital Pin 6 -

Digital Pin 7 Trigger pin of Right Sensor

Digital Pin 8 Echo pin of Right Sensor

Digital Pin 9 Positive terminal of buzzer


Major Components used
 HCSR04 Ultrasonic Sensors
For interfacing with microcontroller it
provides two lines namely TRIGGER
and ECHO. The trigger pin is an input
pin, the MCU sends a 10uS high pulse
on this line to tell the HC-SR04 to start
a taking a measurement.

 Arduino Uno Board


It reads distance to obstacle using the sensor and also commands the
buzzer. We here use the microcontroller- ARDINUO.
This microcontroller board is the most user friendly and easy to
program.
Working
Sensor Number of alert Attached to Pin
beeps No.

Front 3 beeps Pin 4,5

Left 2 beeps Pin 2,3

Right 1 beep Pin 7,8

*The sensor sensing the nearest obstacle gives the alert beep at that time.
The minimum distance is calculated by algorithm.
Working of Sensors

15 1 To trigger pin of Left Sensor


16 2
17 3
18 4 To trigger pin of Right Sensor
19 5
20 6
21 7 To trigger pin of Front Sensor
22 8
23 9
24 10
25 11
26 12
27 13
28 14
Contd..

15 1
16 2 To echo pin of Left Sensor
17 3
18 4
19 5 To echo pin of Right Sensor
20 6
21 7
22 8 To echo pin of Front Sensor
23 9
24 10
25 11
26 12
27 13
28 14
Sensor sending pulse
A
L Is there echo on echo pin?
NO

G YES

O Calculate duration of echo received

R Calculate distance from duration

I Is obstacle in range of 2 to 50 cm
NO
T YES

H Find minimum distance of Obstacle


And its direction
M LOOP
Make buzzer beep accordingly
PCB Layout

•The PCB holds all the parts of this


project the microcontroller and the
power supply circuit of the circuitry.

•The sensors are placed at special


angle towards the bottom side of the
stick to sense the objects better.

•They are connected to rest of the


circuit through jumper wires.
Possible Modifications
SOS GPS
switch tracking
Adding a switch which Module added to stick
if pressed commands would send the
the buzzer to location of the blind
continuously beep person to his guardian
loudly. in case he needs help.

Makes stick
To seek help from
unnecessarily bulky
passerby.
and costly.

Some modules need


more voltage to
operate.
GSM/ GPRS Module
 SIM900 GSM Module - This module supports communication in
900MHz band.
 Use : To send message to concerned mobile number.
 Operating Voltage : +12V
 Interfacing with Arduino Uno Board:

SIM900 GSM Module Arduino Board

Rx pin Serial - Tx pin

Tx pin Serial – Rx pin

Gnd Pin Gnd Pin

Vcc +12 V (external DC)


GPS Module
 GPS Module SKG13BL : It fetches the latitude and longitude of
the current location from the satellite.
 Voltage : +12V

SIM900 GSM Module Arduino Board

Rx pin --

Tx pin Digital Pin 11 *

Gnd Pin Gnd Pin

Vcc +12V (External DC)

* In programming we will include Software Serial Library to allow


serial communication on pin 11.
Locating the Person
Message Google map to
received to show location
concerned corresponding
person to the latlng.