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1) State and give a brief description of the basic components of a robot.

 End Effector: This is the part that generally handles objects, makes connection to other machines, or
performs the required tasks.
 Manipulator it is the main body of robot which includes links, joints, other structural elements

 Actuators : Actuators are the muscles of the manipulators(servo motors, stepper motors, pneumatic
and hydraulic cylinder)

 Sensors: Sensors are used to collect information about the internal state of the robot or to
communicate with the outside environment.

 Controller: The controller receives data from the computer, controls the motions of the actuator and
coordinates these motions with the sensory feedback information.

 Software: operating system or robotic software and the collection of routines.

2) Robot programming language can be classified into several categories according to the level at which
the programmer must interact with the system during the programming process. Describe these robot
programming classifications.

On line
• Teach Pendant
Teach pendant programming language is evolving to program the robot, the operator moves it from
point-to-point, using the buttons on the pendant to move it around and save each position individually.
When the whole program has been learned, the robot can play back the points at full speed.

• Lead Through programming


The robot is programmed by being physically moved through the task by an operator. This is exceedingly
difficult where large robots are being used and sometimes a smaller version of the robot is used for this
purpose. Any hesitations or inaccuracies that are introduced into the program cannot be edited out easily
without reprogramming the whole task. The robot controller simply records the joint positions at a fixed
time interval and then plays this back.
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Off line

Offline programming allows the robot to be programmed using a virtual prototype of the robot and task.
If the simulation software is intuitive to use, this can be a quick way to test an idea before moving it to
the robot. CAD ,CAM systems are being used to generate programs and it possible to program robots
from CAD data. The CAD models of the components are used along with models of the robots being
used and the fixturing required.

• Robot programming languages


In off line programming the program uses a high level computer language such as VAL which gives the
Robot decision making power.

Task level programming


Task-level-programming systems will require a very complete model of the robot and its environment to
perform automated planning operations.

Combination Programming:
– Often programming is a combination of on-line and off-line
• on-line to teach locations in space
• off-line to define the task or “sequence of operations

3) Vision systems are being used increasingly with robot automation to perform many tasks. Describe
briefly of these tasks.

Part Location

Help locate the parts so that the robot can then pick them up precisely and consistently. This includes
parts that are loosely fixtured, parts that are presented on a conveyor and in some cases parts in a box or
bin.

Part Identification

Traceability and genealogy of parts is crucial to many manufacturing or production processes. Other
processes simply require parts to be identified for a specific operation such as assembly or kitting

Part Sortation

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Many manufacturing and production processes require part to be sorted. Which can help to select and sort
parts based on part geometry (shape and size), color, barcode, markings and other features.

Flexible Feeding

Flexible feeding is an innovative way to present parts to a robot. Parts are fed out of a bulk hopper and
onto a feed surface. A feed surface may be a solid indexing or vibratory surface of a conveyor belt. A
camera mounted above the feed surface located the part and determines its orientation. The robot then
picks the parts and performs the necessary operation

Presence/Absence

Operations often require validating if a part or a feature on a part is present or absent. If the part/feature is
present the operation continues. If the part/feature is absent, the exception can be caught and managed.

Error Proofing

Error proofing is similar to Presence/Absence. Preventing a manufacturing error before it occurs or


detecting an error early in the process can save companies from shipping faulty or defective product

Inspection

Shipping faulty or defective products can be devastating to a business. Machine vision has a long history
in part inspection, ensuring consistent and predictable quality. Whether it's gauging a part, detecting
presence of a feature or error proofing,

Quality Control:

Quality control is another major key aspect that can be improved with automation for almost all
manufacturing processes. Which help to identify what aspects of the part need to look at in order to say
whether the part is good or bad.

4) Briefly describe the main types of power source used to power a robot and automation work-cell.

The drive system supplies the power, which enables the robot to move. Note that the dynamic
performance of a robot mainly depends on the type of power source. These are

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 Hydraulic drives
 Electric drives
 Pneumatic drives

Pneumatics drives

Many of the simple pick and place arms are driven by pneumatics. This makes them cheap but has the
disadvantage of being difficult to control. Pneumatics are still used with a number of modern robots to
drive end effectors.

Hydraulics drives

Hydraulic drives were used on a large number of the early robots as it was more rigid and controllable
than pneumatics and it could provide more power than the electric drives then available. The problems
with hydraulics are that it tends to be fairly slow in operation and that due to the high pressures involved
leaks can be very messy.

Electric drives

There are three major types of electric drive that have been used for robots.

Stepper Motors
these are used mainly for simple pick and place mechanisms where cheapness is more important than
power or controllability.

DC Servos
For the early electric robots the DC servo drive was used extensively. It gave good power output with a
high degree of control of both speed and position.

AC Servos
In recent years the AC servo has taken over from the DC servo as the standard drive. These modern
motors give higher power output and are almost silent in operation. As they have no brushes they are very
reliable and require almost no maintenance in operation.

5) “Safety is an important issue to be considered when planning and integrating an industrial robot in a
manufacturing work-cell. To avoid accidents, the industry must consider and emphasize certain
procedures/safety issues”. Discuss.

Safety procedures
 General reliable and fail-safe design of robot and its parts
 Quality assurance for the hardware

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 Limitation in design of supply of power, electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic etc. to the robot
 Fire and explosion safe design
 Avoidance of sharp corners, protruding parts, which can catch other items
 Tether protection
 Assurance of reliable operation of robot basic hardware and software
 Low total mass of robot and transported items
 Use of sensors for collision avoidance
 Carrying out risk analysis
 Set up an emergency stop mechanism and local control system

Safety issues
 movements and sequences of movements that are almost impossible to follow, as the robot’s high-
speed movements within its radius of action often overlap with those of other machines and equipment
 release of energy caused by flying parts or beams of energy such as those emitted by lasers by
Free programmability in terms of direction and speed
 susceptibility to influence by external errors (e.g., electromagnetic compatibility)

6) “The robot gripper plays an important role in industrial part handling operations”. Briefly discuss
about types of gripper with its working principal.

 Vacuum Grippers

The vacuum gripper has been the standard EOAT in manufacturing because of its high level of
flexibility. This type of robot gripper uses a rubber or polyurethane suction cup to pick up items.
Some vacuum grippers use a closed-cell foam rubber layer, rather than suction cups, to complete the
application

 Pneumatic Grippers

The pneumatic gripper is popular due to its compact size and light weight. It can easily be
incorporated into tight spaces, which can be helpful in the manufacturing industry. Pneumatic robot
grippers can either be opened or closed, earning them the nickname “bang bang” actuators, because of
the noise created when the metal-on-metal gripper operates.
Pneumatic vacuum generators function based on the Venturi principle Compressed air is introduced
into the ejector or gripper.
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 Hydraulic Grippers

The hydraulic gripper provides the most strength and is often used for applications that require
significant amounts of force. These robotic grippers generate their strength from pumps that can
provide up to 2000psi. Although they are strong, hydraulic grippers are messier than other grippers
due to the oil used in the pumps. They also may need more maintenance due the gripper being
damaged because of the force used during the application. It works based on Pascal’s law. This law
states that the pressure can be transferred to a confined fluid in every direction.

 Servo-Electric Grippers

The servo-electric gripper appears more and more in industrial settings, due to the fact that it is easy
to control. Electronic motors control the movement of the gripper jaws. These grippers are highly
flexible and allow for different material tolerances when handling parts. Servo-electric grippers are
also cost effective because they are clean and have no air lines.

1.An Input command is sent to the gripper from a robot control unit. This unit is usually pre-programmed
by an operator via a teach pendant. With most electric grippers, the command can be a position, a speed
or a grip force. The robot can send commands to the gripper using digital I/O's, or by using any of the
available robot communication protocols.
2.The command from the robot is received by the gripper control module responsible for driving the
gripper motor(s). This gripper module is sometimes embedded in the gripper but most of the time it
consists of a box sitting between the robot controller and the gripper.
3.The servo-electric motor reacts to the signal. The shaft will then rotate to the commanded position,
speed or force. To enable closed-loop control, feedback from the motor position is usually necessary at
the gripper level. Until there is a signal change, the servo will hold the position (and resist change).

7) Explain applicability of Artificial Intelligence with regard to robotics.


Artificial Intelligence defined with following concepts. To see the applicability of AI in robotics we
can go through with these concepts. Rather today AI robotics system is more specifically, its known
Weak AI.
 Simulating higher functions of the human brain
 Programming a computer to use general language
 Arranging hypothetical neurons in a manner so that they can form concepts

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 A wat to determine and measure problem complexity
 Self-improvement
 Randomness and creativity

AI system in robotic is being utilized in vast area of activities such as, vehicles, transportation, electronic
trading medical diagnosis, robot control, and remote sensing. AI has been used to develop and advance
numerous fields and industries, including finance, healthcare, education, transportation, and more.

8) For all industrial jobs below, suggest most suitable robot geometry for each job. Support your answer
with a sketch of work envelop.
i. Painting
 Polar Configuration (Articulated Robot )

ii. Pick and place in assembly line


 Cylindrical Configuration SCARA robot

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iii. Palletizing
 Cylindrical Configuration robot (SCARA)

9) Company ABC plan to set up a flexible manufacturing system in their new plant. This company
produces a variety of bread for daily consumes.
a) Identify the capabilities of flexibilities of their manufacturing.

The following capabilities should able to be varied or diverse each to each for the flexibilities
of their manufacturing.
 Weight of bread
 Bread type
 Flavours
 Colour changeability
 Sliced or non- sliced
 Variety of Ingredient

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 packing methods

b) Then, they should qualify as being flexible. Explain all tests they should possess as the
manufacturing system would satisfy the criteria.
 Bread Weight measuring test
 Volume measurement of ingredients
 Packing process monitoring and testing
 Count and measure right number of slices for the right weight and type
 temperature measurement at different states of backing

c) Illustrate the basic FMS components for their new plant with appropriate label. Also explain
the details of each component.

 Proximity sensors
 Limit sensors
 Thermostat
 Count sensors
 Actuators
 Conveyers
 Pick and place robots
 Image processing to detect faulty packing
 Industrial Timers

10) Table 1 shows the specification of two model of Staubli robot.


a) Compare both model specifications in terms of their characteristics.

 TX200 Robot has higher number of moments with compared to TS20; hence TX200 has greater
flexibility of operation and ensures higher number application than the TS20 robot.
 TX200 has greater payload than TS20, therefore it can be used for loading and unloading
application.
 Capability of Reach is higher in TX200 therefore it has large working envelop and allows
maximum utilization of cell workspace than the TS20 robot.
 Repeatability is good in TS20 than TX200 robot, therefore TS20 is compatible with precision tasks
and repeating applications, such as spot welding.
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 TX200 robot has two options for robot mounting therefore it has the flexibility from its
commencing. And it can save the floor space so it is ideal for limited space work cell.

 The Protection class (wrist) IP implies the of robots classification (Ingress Protection)
The two digits represent different forms of environmental influence: The first digit represents
protection against ingress of solid objects. The second digit represents protection against ingress of
liquids. -----( IP65)

Protection schemes of TX200;

 Totally protected against dust ingress


 Protected against low pressure water jets from any direction. Limited ingress permitted. And
Protected against short period s of immersion in water.

Protection schemes of TS20

 Protected against solid objects over 50mm e.g. hands, large tools.
 No protection against liquids

b) Suggest an application suit for each model.

TX200 applications
 Milling
TS20 applications
 Spot welding
 Pick and place
Model TX200 TS20
Degree of freedom 6 4
Nominal load capacity 100kg 0.5kg
Maximum load capacity 130kg 1kg
Reach 2194mm 220mm
Repeatability 0.06mm 0.01mm

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Protection class (wrist) IP65(67) IP10
Attachments method Floor or ceiling Floor
Staubli CS8 series
CS8C HP CS8C M
controller

Table 1

11) What does ZYX Euler angle rotation matrix represent? Show that the order of rotation for ZYX and
XYZ are equivalent.

ZYX Euler angle rotation matrix represents the current or moving frame with describes 3 rotations first
about X axis and then current Y axis and then current Z axis. And Euler angles each rotation takes place
about an axis whose location depends upon the preceding rotations as shown in the following figure.
Because of the three rotations taken place about the axes Z, Y, and X respectively we will call this
representation as ZYX Euler angles.

Consider the following rotations are take place about a known frame {A} with moving frame {B’}.

A. First rotate {A} about Z axis by an angle α to produce frame {B’}. This rotation represent
by rotation matrix .

B. Next moving frame {B’} is rotated about Y’B axis by an angle β to produce frame {B’’}.
this rotation is describes by rotation matrix

C. Finally frame {B”} is rotated about X”B axis by an angle γ to give frame {B}. this rotation
is described by the rotation matrix
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Using the intermediate frames {B'} and {B"} in order to give an expression for .
Thinking of the rotations as descriptions of these frames, we can immediately write

Then the final orientation of {B} is given relative to {A} as,

[ ] [ ] [ ]

Where cα = cosα, sα = sinα, and so on.


Simplifying further,

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

 For XYZ fixed angle representation:

Consider the below figure, Start the rotations with the frame coincident with a known reference frame
{A}. Note that here all rotations occur about axes of the reference frame.

A. First rotate frame {A} about X axis by an angle γ to give frame {B’}. This rotation is describe by
rotation matrix .
B. Then frame {B’} is rotated about Y axis an angle β to give frame {B”}. This rotation is describe
by rotation matrix .
C. Finally it is rotated about Z axis by an angle α to give frame {B}. This rotation is describe by
rotation matrix .

Final orientation of {B} is given relative to {A} as,

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=[ ] [ ] [ ]

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

Therefore it is clear that the order of rotation of ZYX and XYZ are equivalent.

12) Obtain a mathematical expression for composite transformation of frames.

Consider three frames {A}, {B} & {C}.


Successive transformation are known. We are desired to find the point P in {C} to the one
described in {A}. Progressively map , the point in frames {A}, {B} & {C}.

Combining above two mapping; (1) substitute in (2), the composite transformation can be found as,

Where is overall transformation matrix give conversion from {C} to {A}.


Thus,
Similarly i number of rigid transformation can be combined as,

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{i} to {j} where {i}>1,

In the Euler angles each rotation takes place about an axis whose location depends upon the preceding
rotations as shown in the following figure. Because of the three rotations taken place about the axes Z, Y,
and X respectively we will call this representation as ZYX Euler angles.

Consider the following rotations are take place about a known frame {A} with moving frame {B’}.
A. First rotate {A} about Z axis by an angle α to produce frame {B’}. This rotation
represent by rotation matrix .
B. Next moving frame {B’} is rotated about Y’B axis by an angle β to produce frame
{B’’}. this rotation is describes by rotation matrix
C. Finally frame {B”} is rotated about X”B axis by an angle γ to give frame {B}. this
rotation is described by the rotation matrix
Using the intermediate frames {B'} and {B"} in order to give an expression for .
Thinking of the rotations as descriptions of these frames, we can immediately write

Then the final orientation of {B} is given relative to {A} as,

[ ] [ ] [ ]

Where cα = cosα, sα = sinα, and so on.


Simplifying further,

[ ] [ ]

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[ ]

 For XYZ fixed angle representation:

Consider the below figure, Start the rotations with the frame coincident with a known reference frame
{A}. Note that here all rotations occur about axes of the reference frame.

A. First rotate frame {A} about X axis by an angle γ to give frame {B’}. This rotation is describe
by rotation matrix .
B. Then frame {B’} is rotated about Y axis an angle β to give frame {B”}. This rotation is
describe by rotation matrix .
C. Finally it is rotated about Z axis by an angle α to give frame {B}. This rotation is describe by
rotation matrix .

Final orientation of {B} is given relative to {A} as,

=[ ] [ ] [ ]

[ ] [ ]

[ ]

Therefore it is clear that the order of rotation of ZYX and XYZ are equivalent.
13) Obtain a mathematical expression for composite transformation of frames.

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Consider three frames {A}, {B} & {C}.
Successive transformation are known. We are desired to find the point P in {C} to the one
described in {A}. Progressively map , the point in frames {A}, {B} & {C}.

Combining above two mapping; (1) substitute in (2), the composite transformation can be found as,

Where is overall transformation matrix give conversion from {C} to {A}.


Thus,
Similarly i number of rigid transformation can be combined as,

{i} to {j} where {i}>1,

16) Explain the factors on which the number of solutions to given inverse kinematic model.

The number of solutions increase when the Range of joint angles are larger and length of links are higher,
and vice versa.

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17) “Solutions to inverse kinematics problem are generally difficult”. Explain.

Inverse kinematics takes as input the Cartesian end effector position and orientation, and calculates joint
angles. Getting the solution for an inverse kinematics problem is very complex and also, inverse
kinematics may not have a unique solution therefore it requires pre-calculated data system for finding the
right solution.

Reference

https://www.robots.com/articles/grippers-for-robots

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https://science.howstuffworks.com/robot6.htm
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287878456_Artificial_Intelligence_and_its_applications_in_Li
braries

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