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THE 2- 3X

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE
AN ILLUSTRATED MO NTHLY
-ISSiTHSOffZ^f.

Editor: GILBERT H. GEOSfBJNOR m'fi


\

ASSOCIATE EDITORS^V.-i/BRARlES
MAJOE GENERAL A. W. GREELY ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
U. S. Army Washington, D. C.
C. HART MERRIAM DAVID T. DAY
Chief of the Bureau of the Biological Survey, Chief of the Division of Mineral Resources,
U. S. Department of Agriculture U. S. Geological Survey
WILLIS L. MOORE R. D. SALISBURY
Chief of the Weather Bureau, D. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture University of Chicago

O. H. TITTMANN G. K. GILBERT
Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geo- U. S. Geological Survey
detic Survey
ALEXANDER McADIE
O. P. AUSTIN Professor of Meteorology, U. S. Weather
Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, Depart- Bureau, San Francisco
ment of Commerce and Lahor
DAVID G. PAIRCHILD ALMON GUNNISON
Agricultural Explorer of the Department of President St Lawrence University
Agriculture.

VOL. XVIII-YEAR 1907

THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY


HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL
WASHINGTON, D. C.
WASHINGTON, D. C.

PRESS OF JUDD & DETWEILER, INC.


1907
CONTENTS
Page
Aerial Locomotion : with a few notes of progress in the construction of an aerodrome
by Alexander Graham Bell i

Angora Goats 35
The New Inland Sea; by Arthur P. Davis, Assistant Chief Engineer, U. S. Reclama-
tion Service 37
Honors Peary: an account of the presentation of the Hubbard Medal to Commander
to
Robert E. Peary, U. S. Navy, by President Roosevelt 49
An Awakened Continent to the South of Us; by Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of State.. 6i
Fighting the Polar Ice 72
Oeographic Literature 75
Flashlights in the Jungle (C. G. Schillings) 75
The Uncompahgre Valley and the Gunnison Tunnel (Barton W. Marsh) 78
National Geographic Society 78
Beautiful Ecuador ; by Hon. Joseph LeE, U. S. Minister to Ecuador 81
Persia — Past and Present 91
An Ice-wrapped Continent 95
The Bathing and Burning Ghats at Benares by Eliza R. Scidmore, Foreign Secretary
;

of the National Geographic Society 118


How Long will the Coal Reserves of the United States Last? by Marius R. Campbell. . 129
Efforts to Obtain Greater Energy from Coal 138
Polar Photography ; by Anthony Fiala 140
Notes on the Forest Service 142
Wolves 145
Geographic Literature 147
"Climatology of the United States" (A. J. Henry) 147
"The Wonders of the Colorado Desert" (George Wharton James) 147
"Romantic Cities of Provence" (Mona Caird) 147
"The Heart of England" (Edward Thomas) 147
"Geography of Nebraska" (George Everet Condra) '.

148
"Touraine" (Anne MacDonald) 148
"A Cruise Across Europe" (Donald Maxwell) 148
National Geographic Society 148
Archaeology in the Air by Eliza R. Scidmore
; 151
Railway Routes in Alaska; by Alfred H. Brooks, Geologist in Charge of Alaskan
Division, U. S. Geological Survey 165
The Maoris of New Zealand by Gilbert H. Grosvenor
; 198
The Great Natural Bridges of Utah 199
A Recent Report from the "Doubtful Island Region ;" by James D. Hague 205
The Possibilities of the Hudson Bay Country 209
The High Sierra 213
Motor Sledges in the Antarctic 214
Origin of the Word "Canada" 215
Book Review "Camp: Fires in the Canadian Rockies" (William T. Hornaday) 215
Decisions of the United States Geographic Board 216
'Committees of 1907 216
Millions for Moisture: an account of the work of the Reclamation Service; by C. J.
Blanchard, Statistician, U. S. Reclamation Service 217
Salton Sea and the Rainfall of the Southwest; by Alfred J. Henry, Professor of Me-
teorology, U. S. Weather Bureau 244
IV Contents
Page-
Women and Children of the East 2^
Notes on Central America 272
The Giant Spider Crab from Japan 280
Peary to Try Again 281
International Flat Globe and Geographical History 281
The Rock City of Petra; by Franklin E. Hoskins 283.
Reclaiming the Swamp Lands of the United States by Herbert Wilson, U. S. Geo-
;

logical Survey 292


The Revolution in Russia by William Eleroy Curtis
; 302-
Some of Our Immigrants by Gilbert H. Grosvenor
; 317

The Black Republic Liberia; by Sir Harry Johnston and U. S. Minister Lyon, of
Monrovia 334-
Ore-boat Unloaders 343
Factors which Modify the Climate of Victoria by Arthur W. McCurdy ; 345.
Scenes from Every Land 348''

Photograph of Oil Well near Oil City, Pennsylvania 348-


Echoes of the San Francisco Earthquake by Robert E. C. Stearns
; 351
For Teaching Physiography 3S3'
New Topographic Maps 353
Geographic Literature 354)
• "Two Years among the New Guinea Cannibals" (A. E. Pratt) 3S4
The Burton Holmes Lectures (E. Burton Holmes) 354;
Bighorn Mountains by N. H. Darton, of the U. S. Geological Survey
; 355
Picturesque Paramaribo by Harriet Chalmers Adams
; 365
An Impression of the Guiana Wilderness by Professor AngElo Heilprin, of Yale Uni-
;

versity, and Editor of Lippincott's "Gazetteer" 373


Our Fish Immigrants; by Hugh M. Smith, Deputy U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries. .. 385-
Fishes that Build Nests and Take Care of Their Young 400
Notes on the Remarkable Habits of Certain Turtles and Lizards; by H. A. Largelamb. 413.
Commercial and Financial Statistics of the Principal Countries of the World by O. P. ;

Austin, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics 420


Useful Facts about the Countries of the World 424,
Four Prominent Geographers 425
Noles 428'
Map of the North Pole Regions Supplement
Some Recent Instances of National Altruism; by Hon. William H. Taft, Secretary of
War 429
Seventy-five Days in the Arctics; by Max FlEischman, Life Member of the National
Geographic Society 439.
Nearest the Pole Substance of an address to the National Geographic Society by Robert
:

E. Peary 446
Peary's Twenty-years' Service in the Arctics 451
Map of the North Polar Regions 454.
No Man's Land — Spitzbergen 455.
Arctic Expeditions Commanded by Americans 458-
North American Indians 469
The East Indian in the New World; by Harriet Chalmers Adams 485;
Geographical Congress 491
Mexico—The Treasure House of the World ; by N. H. Darton, Geologist of the U. S.
Geological Survey 493;
Saving the Forests by HERBERT A. Smith, Editor of the Forest Service
; 519^
Flashlights from the Jungle— A Few Notes and Illustrations from a Remarkable Book
by C. G. Schillings 5341
Saint Stephen's Fete in Budapest by De Witt Clinton Falls
;
54&
Strange Sights in Far-away Papua by A. E. Pratt ;
559,
.

Contents v
Page
Solivia —A Country Without a Debt; by Seiior Y. Calderon, Minister from Bolivia to
the United States S73
Our Heralds of Storm and Flood by Gilbert H. Grosvenor
; 586
The Work Ocean of the Magnetic Survey Yacht
in the Pacific Galilee; by L. A. Bauer,
Director, Department Terrestrial Magnetism i 6oi
Hunting the Grizzly in British Columbia Joseph WendlE ;
612
Scenes from North Africa 615
A Strange and Remarkable Beast 620
The Chinese Jews by Oliver Bainbridge
; 621
Tirnova, the City of Hanging Gardens by Felix J. Koch
; 632
Geologists in China 640
Map of Africa 640
by Eliza R. ScidmorE
.Koyasan, the Japanese Valhalla ; 650
An
Experimental Boat of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, driven by Aerial Propellers 671
,Dr. Bell's Tetrahedral Tower 672
The Deep-water Route from Chicago to the Gulf; by Gilbert H. Grosvenor 679
The Marvelous Prosperity of the South 685
New Topographic Maps 686
Introducing Reindeer into Labrador 686
'Queer Methods of Travel in Curious Corners of the World; by O. P. Austin, Chief of
the U. S. Bureau of Statistics 687
Planting Fishes in the Ocean by George M. Bowers, U. S.
; Commissioner of Fish and
Fisheries 715
Hunting Big Game in Portuguese East Africa 723
-A Visit to Lonely Iceland by PerlEy H. Noyes
;
731
The Land of Fire; by Jon Stefansson 741
:Scenes from Every Land 744
Photographic Collections 744
Helping the Farmers 746
National Geographic Society 746

.Madeira On the Way to Italy by David Fairchild
;
751
A Simple Method of Proving that the World Is Round; by RobErT Marshall Brown. . 771
The Modern Alchemist; by James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture 781
Helping the Filipino Fisheries 795
"The Anglo-American Polar Expedition 796
The Use of Nuts as Food 800
American Explorations in Egypt 801
The Truth about the Congo 811
-Geographical Books of 1907 « . 813
Proposed Change in the By-Laws of the National Geographic Society 825
flmagination and Geography 830
ILLUSTRATIONS

Page
machine as reproduced in America for Chanute by Herring
Lilienthal gliding 2
Gliding through the air on Chanute's multiple-winged glider 3
Langley's aerodrome No. 5 in flight, May 6, 1896 4
The accident to Langley's aerodrome 6
Starting a flight 8
A high glide 8
Soaring 9
Landing 9
Unit cell having the form of the regular tetrahedron 12
A. Single-winged cell. B. Four-celled kite. C. Sixteen-celled kite. D. Sixty-four-
celled kite 13
from the flag-pole
Sixty-four-celled tetrahedral kite flying 14
Carrying the "Frost King" onto the testing ground 15
Side view of the "Frost King," showing how closely the cells are massed together 16
The "Frost King" in the air flying in a ten-mile breeze and supporting a man on the
flying rope 17
I. Two i6-celled tetrahedral kites. 2, 3, 4. Oionos kite with fixed tail. 2. Front view.
3. Bottom view. 4. Top view 19
Method of flying the Oionos kite 20
Oionos kite with movable tail controlled by swinging head-load of lead 20
Oionos kite in the air 21
Kite "Siamese Twins" seen from the front 22
Kite "Siamese Twins" seen from the rear, looking inside kite 23
Side view of "Mabel 11" 24
"Mabel 11" outlined against sky, showing bird-wing effect 24
A floating kite, adapted to be towed out of the water 25
"The Ugly Duckling" 26
Some of the balloons which took part in the great race for the Gordon Bennett Cup. ... 29
The French Military dirigible, "Patrie," in flight 30
The new Deutsch airship "Ville de Paris" 30

Count Von Zeppelin's airship the largest and fastest thus far constructed 31
Santos-Dumont's aeroplane 32
The aeroplane making its first successful free flight with its owner in control 32
A flock of Angora goats in our new state, Oklahoma 35
The great new lake rising in the Salton Sink 36
A section of the Imperial Valley which was at first inundated and then left high and
dry by the deepening channel 39
The way in which acres and acres of fine farm lands are undermined and washed into
the New River channel 40
Cutting work of the New River 45
The great Salton Sea, 205 feet below sea -level at this point 46
A few months ago this was fertile land cultivated by prosperous people. Looking down
New River canyon 47
The Hubbard Medal of the National Geographic Society, the first award of which was
made to Commander Peary December 15, 1906 48
"We crossed the Arctic Circle" 73
Hauling the carcass of a Polar bear aboard the ship 74
"Louise" 75
Illustrations vii
Page
Crossing a lead in the channel ice 70
The pony column crossing Rudolph Island glacier 76
"We seemed to be in an immense river of broken ice" 11
Gathering cacao pods, Ecuador 8o
Drying cacao beans in the sun °3
Water-carrier "5
Making sun-baked bricks in the Andes 86
Street scene in Quito 89
The San Francisco Cathedral, Quito 89
Llamas and their driver, a native Indian of Inca descent 90
Rock-hewn fire altar, Persepolis 92
The tomb of Xerxes 92
Subject nations bringing tribute to Xerxes 93
A rock panel below the tombs of Darius and Xerxes 93
The domed roofs ofKashan 94
A typical group of Mullahs and Seids 94
The great ice barrier, Antarctic continent 96
The highest ice wall seen (about 280 feet in height) 97
Another portion of the ice barrier, showing how it wastes away 98
Examining the ice barrier from a balloon 99
A view of the ice barrier, looking down from a balloon . 100
Dog team on the march loi
The chasm which prevented Captain Scott from reaching land at the end of his 400-
mile march up the ice barrier 102
A view of Erebus from the South 103
Advancing over the great inland plateau 104
A pressure ridge along the coast 107
A wandering albatross caught on the voyage south 108
Endeavoring to free the ship by blowing up the ice 108
Ice formed on submerged rope 109
The hunter waiting for a seal to come up to breathe 109
Ice flowers no
The south side of a glacier in
The Aurora Australis 112
Outline map of South Polar regions 114
Representatives of invertebrate zoology 115
A rookery of Emperor Penguins 1 16
Emperor Penguin and chick 117
Morning strollers on the river bank, Benares 119
The burning ghat at Benares 12a
Cremation in progress, and Domris washing human ashes at water's edge 121
The bathing ghats along the Ganges, Benares 122
A bathing ghat 124
The woman's ghat Benares
at 125

Dhobie ghat the public laundry 126
Diagram showing the output of the principal coal-producing nations 130.
Diagram showing the progressive change in composition of lignite, bituminous, and
anthracite J3i
Coal output of principal coal-producing states 132-
Diagram showing the coal areas of the various states 133
Outline map showing coal areas of the United States 135,
Diagram showing the increasing rate of consumption of coal in the United States 137
Sand spreading over fertile soil, Catawba River lowlands 143.,
Appalachian mountain field completely ruined by erosion 143
VIII Illustrations
Page
Cypress and eucalyptus lining an irrigating ditch, forming a windbreak, Southern
California 144
Persian cats in Hamadan 146
Nine wolf pups in front of their den 146
The Sigiri rock in Ceylon 15°
Country carts, Ceylon IS3
Picking tea I54
Village bazaar on the road to Sigiri 156
The Arab baby I57
The village pottery I57
The archaeologist in the air IS8
Climbing to Sigiri's summit 158
The king's throne on Sigiri 161
View from Sigiri's summit 161
Artist copying frescoes on the rock wall 163
Map of Alaska, showing navigable waters and railroads 164
Map of Alaska, showing, so far as is known, the distribution of metamorphic rocks and
the localities where gold has been mined 168
Copper-bearing areas of Alaska, so far as known 169
Map of Alaska showing the distribution of the coal-bearing rocks so far as known 170
Map of Alaska, showing distribution of timber 172
Annual productoin of gold in Alaska since 1880 I7S
Geographic provinces of northwestern North America 176
Topographic reconnaissance map from Controller Bay to Prince William Sound 178
Generalized profiles of proposed railway routes 179
Map of Alaska showing railway routes and known occurrences of economically impor-
tant minerals 181
Camp on bank of Copper River, showing character of timber 183
Potato patch at Baker Hot Springs, Tanana Valley 183
Mount Perouse and glacier 184
Mentasta Pass, on the railway route from Copper River to the Yukon 184
Copper River Valley at Copper Center 187
Freight steamer and barges on the Yukon River 187
White Horse, inland terminal of the White Pass and Yukon railway 188
The interior plateau region of Alaska 189
Miles glacier, Copper River 190
A Maori girl. New Zealand 191
The chief of one of the most celebrated Maori tribes, showing their remarkable tatooing 192
A Maori mother and child 193
A Maori hut 194
A group of Maori girls, Maori carving in the background 195
Two Maoris saluting 196
The daughter of a Maori girl and white man 197
Maoris practising the old war dance 198
The Augusta bridge the greatest natural bridge in the world
; 200
Caroline bridge the longest natural span in the world
; 201
The Edwin bridge 202
Map showing relative position of Doubtful Islands region, the Hawaiian Islands, and
the American coast 206
Map showing assigned positions of reported islands in the doubtful region, and the
sailing tracks of vessels sent to seek them 207
The interior of an Esquimo snow house 210
The goat at ease 211
Tehipite Canyon 212
Power Canal on th« Salt River project ; in Arizona 219
.

Illustrations ix

Building the foundation of the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona 220


A noted Apache chief employed on the Salt River project 222
Concrete flume to carry water across the Pecos River, Carlsbad project, New Mexico. 223
The Diversion Channel Dam, Minidoka project, Idaho 224
A tunnel on the government road to the Shoshone Dam 226
The Barker Brick Company, Heyburn, Idaho 227
Timbering in the west end of the Gunnison Tunnel 228
The newly constructed government road up the Gunnison Canyon 229
An orange orchard at Riverside, California, the product of private irrigation 231
A field of barley in the Yuma Valley, Arizona 232

Before irrigation the sage brush desert, Yakima Valley 235

After irrigation the same land valued at $500 per acre 235
A vineyard in the Yakima Valley 236
First cutting of alfalfa on reclaimed land 237
Cornfield near Granger, Washington 238
Picking hops in the Yakima Valley 239
A peach tree on the fruit farm of J. B. Ramerman, Yakima Valley 240
Apple tree in the orchard of Warren L. Gale, in the Yakima Valley 241
A rick of apples on the farm of F. Walsen, Yakima Valley 242
The little black brother 248
Cingalese children 249

Mother and child Ceylon 250
Tamil woman in Ceylon 251
Cingalese children 252
Tamil girl
Little 253
Tamil girl's foot and ankle 254

Buying the goldfish Japan 254
Toda mother and child 255
Street dancers —Delhi 256
Street dancers of Delhi 257
Bridegroom's palki in wedding procession at Jeypore 257
Camels in the Khyber Pass 258
A Gwalior Madonna 259
The cry of the famished, Gwalior 259
The twin babies of Nikko 260
The twin babies of Nikko 261
For the emperor's soldiers in Manchuria 262
Old age in the sunshine 262
A group of Buddhist nuns Japan — 263
The lady abbess of Hokkeji Convent, Nara 264
Feeding the storks, Okayama Castle garden 265
Javanese mother and child 266
Painting sarongs in Java 267
King and queen of Burma 268
Manchu lady and her son 269
Siamese prince in full regalia of jewels 270
Siamese woman in national dress 271
Outline map of Central America 273

Native types Honduras 276
Mail carriers and mule train leaving the post-office, Tegucigalpa, Honduras 279
The giant spider crab from Japan 280
Gorge of the Sik or entrance to Petra 285
Pharaoh's treasury, Petra 286
Rock-hewn theatre at Petra 288
Corinthian tomb and temple 289
Illustrations

290'
The dier, or monastery, Petra
A road in the Dismal Swamp, North Carolina 294,

Cypress swamps in the Dismal Swamp, North Carolina 295.


298-
Outline map showing swamp areas in the United States
Diagram illustrating the swamp areas of the different states 299
Cossack immigrants, of whom about 5,500 were admitted in igo6 317
A German family of one daughter and seven sons 318
A Scotch family of seven daughters and four sons 3I9
Hebrew family 320-
Typical Russian
Finnish girl 321
Russian sisters 321
Alsace-Lorraine girl 322
Finnish family 322
Polish and Slovak women 323
Ruthenian girl 324
Typical Southern Italian girl 324
Holland children 325
Holland women 325
Typical Roumanian peasant 326
Roumanian shepard's family as they appeared on landing in New York 327
Hindoos and Parsees 328
Arabs 329
Hungarian family 33°'

Servian gypsies 331


Children's roof garden, Ellis Island 332'

Excluded gypsies about to be deported 333


The foreign consuls at Monrovia 335
Two native kings, Liberia 335
Travelers' fountain 33^
Village in Eastern Liberia 336-

A Liberian family and native children 337


Women of the Solah tribe, Liberia 338-
Entrance to a native town, Liberia 339
Dancers at a funeral, interior Liberia 340
Women grinding corn. Interior Liberia 341

Electric ore boat unloader the Heulett type 344
Summer and winter isothermal lines of Victoria, B. C 346'
Outline map showing the situation of Victoria, B. C 347
A Vigorous oil well, Oil City, Pennsylvania 349
Making salt in China 35°
The Devil's post pile 352
Topographic map of the Cloud Peak region, summit of the Bighorn Mountains, Wy-
oming 357
Looking northwest across the great plains from the mouth of the Bighorn Canyon,
Montana 358
Cloud Peak from the east 359
Cloud Peak 360
Crest of Bighorn Mountains —
shows granite broken by frost 361
Looking up the canyon of Tongue River on the east side of Bighorn Mountains 362-
Canyon of Bighorn River at the north end of the Bighorn Mountains in Montana.... 363
Canyon of North Fork of Powder River in southern portion of Bighorn Mountains 364-
A street lined with mahogany trees in Paramaribo 366

Market scene Paramaribo 367
Bush negroes, Dutch Guianas 368-

Bush negroes, wife and children wilds of Surinam 2^9'
Illustrations xi
Page
A Belle of Surinam 370
Two colored girls of Surinam 37i
Native Indian girls in the bush 372'

Indians in a "dugout" near the mouth of the Orinoco 374


A giant three-toed sloth 37S
On the banks of the Essequibo, British Guiana 377
Indian children in the wilds of Guiana 378
An Indian family of the Guianas 379
In the great South American Forest 380
Part of the oyster crop in San Francisco Bay 382
Beach on western side of San Francisco Bay 383
Preparing caviar on the Columbia River 384
A sheepswool sponge of an unusual shape 401
Humpback salmon from Alaska 402
Seining carp from a pond, Sandusky River 403
School of carp swimming against inflowing water, in pond at Port Clinton, Ohio 403
Salmon ascending a stream in search of spawning ground 404

Salmon caught in a weir Alaska 405
Lake herring stored in a refrigerating plant 406
on nest
Aristotle's catfish 407
A typical American catfish on nest 408
Nest of Bowfin, commonly known as the dogfish or mudfish 409
Floating nest of gymnarchus 409
Three-spined stickelback 410
Stickelback male rotating in his nest to make it tubular for the female 410
Nest of ten-spined stickelback 411
Diagram of the cocoon which a certain fish builds to retain moisture for itself during
the dry season 412
Protopterus annectens 412
Alligator snapping turtle 414
Head of the alligator turtle 414
Plated lizard 415
Glass "snake" 415
Two-footed worm lizard 416
Heads of horned lizards 417
Regal horned lizard 418
Pacific horned lizard 418
I. Fox snake and her eggs. 2. Eggs of the corn snake. 3. .Eggs of the green snake.
4. Milk snake and her eggs 419
Charles D. Walcott .426
George Otis Smith 426
Frederick Haynes Newell 427
Arthur P. Davis 427
Polar bear crossing near ice fields 439
Character of ice upon which Polar bears are hvmted 441
Hunting aboard the Laura 441
Isle ofJan Mayen enveloped in fog 442
Houses on Jan Mayen built by Austrian Expedition in 1882 442
Robert E. Peary, U. S. Navy 459,
Morris K. Jesup 460

Live bull musk-ox at close quarters Cape Columbia 461
Typical Eskimo dog 462
Egingwah and reindeer at Cape Hubbard 463
A study in bronze 464
Akatingwah 465.
An Eskimo porter 466
.

XII Illustrations
Page
Sledging along northermost land 466
A group of Eskimo women , 467
A Zuni girl ,. 469
Hopiland 47°
Hopi children 47i
Hopi maiden 472
Sohowa Poqui San — Ildefonso girl 473
A Mohave mother 474
In the orchard — San Ildefonso 475
A Crow youth 476
At the pool, Crow 477
Apache mother and babe 478

Chedeh Apache 479
Son of the Desert Navaho — .'

480
A Navaho 481
Water-carriers —Acoma 482
Sacred zebus from far-away India 485
In her working gown 486
In town for a holiday 487
Hindoos employed on a cacao estate^Trinidad 488
"Holy" men from the Far East 489

Bronze beauty Trinidad 490
A Moqui girl of New Mexico 492
In the suburbs of Mexico City 494
Pottery vendors 495
Indian types 496
Water-carriers at the fountain — Guanajuato 498
A pulque shop , 499
Organ cactus — Mexico 500
Waiting the judgment day, in the cemetery, Mexico City 501
The yucca or Spanish bayonet, native of the plains of the Ser 502
Boy drawing pulque, the common drink of Mexico 503
A Mexican seiiorita 504
The public laundry 506
Market scene in Colima, Mexico 507
Going after cocoanut milk 508
A Mexican seiior 509
Drying coffee on a large Mexican plantation 510
Guadalupe Hidalgo 511
A girl from Yucatan 512
Tehuana Indian girl 513
Types of Mestizos (white father and Indian mother) Yucatan 514
Sacrificial stone 515
A wild agave plant —Yucatan 516
A native Maya
Indian of pure blood, Yucatan 518
A nursery of bull pine seedlings two months old 520
A middle-aged forest of Norway spruce, owned by the Austrian government 521
An illustration of overgrazing 522

Cryptomeria japonica the avenue is fifty miles long and several hundred years old... 531
One-half of a redwood tree 532
The Glens Falls boom '.
. .
533
A great bull eland 535
Two very large bull elephants in a virgin forest 536
A flashlight photograph of zebras drinking at night 537
Some specimens of Schillings' giraffe in the Mimosa woods 538
A herd of zebras and gnus 539
Illustrations xiii

Page
Schillings' giraffe passing the hiding-place from which the picture was taken 540
A flashlight of a powerful and full-grown leopard, taken at midnight S4i
Rhinoceroses taking a bath 54^
A cow rhinoceros with its young 543
Flashlight of a maned lion 544
Flashlight of a lioness about to spring upon a donkey 545
Street scenes during Saint Stephen's Fete —Budapest 549
Hungarian peasant 55^
Hungarian noblemen 553
Views of the procession 554
The procession 55&
The sacred relic 556
Two New Guinea dandies 561
Curious drums of the Tugeri (Dutch New Guinea) 562
A piebald tribe 565
A spider's web as a fishing net 5^7
Fishing with the spider's-web net 568
New Guinea women wearing the rami, or petticoat, made of leaves 570
Mr. A. E. Pratt and some native collectors 57i
Rubber gatherers in Bolivia 581
Tapping the rubber tree in Bolivia 582
Curing rubber by smoking it 584
Packing-room of a rubber house, Bolivia 585
Willis L. Moore, LL. D 587
Wreckage at Kansas City, Missouri, after the subsidence of the Kansas River flood
of 1903 588
Scene in railway yard, Kansas City, after the visitation of a flood 591
A fog billow, San Francisco 592
A typical weather map 595
Cirrus clouds merging into cirro-stratus 59^
Broken cumulus clouds 596
Cirro-cumulus clouds 597
Cirrus, the highest flying cloud 597
Ocean fog pouring in over the hills upon San Francisco 598
Sea fog lifting and changing to clouds, San Francisco Bay 598
The jumping characteristics of a tornado, Louisville, Kentucky 599
Buildings burst open by the explosive effect of a tornado 599
Freaks of tornadoes 600
The yacht Galilee at San Diego 602
Scene on board the Galilee while working near the equator 602
Inhabitants of Fanning Island 603
A scene on Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands 603
Natives of Fanning Island 604
Women of the Marquesas Islands 604
Native women playing cricket,Samoan Islands 606
Natives bathing at Samoan Islands 606
Fiti Fiti guard, Samoan Islands 607
A Fiji Islander 608
Scene in the Fiji Islands 609
The Observers en route to the observing station near Yokohama. View of the special
observing bridge. The Galilee blown on the breakwater at Yokohama. View of the
Scientific party taken in the cabin of the Galilee 610
A grizzly caught by a fallen log. A black bear trapped 613
Two grizzly bears shot by Joseph Wendle 614
Moorish girl, Morocco 616
Moorish girl, Morocco 617
.

XIV Illustrrtions
Page
In the Sahara Desert 6i8
Jewish Girls of Tunis 619
Mammoth recovered from northern Siberia 620
Memorial stone discovered by Mr. Bainbridge referring to "Foreign Heaven Chapel"... 623
Main gate of the Chinese city of Kaifengfu 624
Kiosh Imperial Palace, N. L. Chang, Shu Shen, and Mr. Bainbridge 624
Chinese waiting to see Mr Bainbridge pass along the street 625
Chinese Jew who told Mr Bainbridge the wonderful story of his people 626
Mohammedan mosque in which Mr Bainbridge discovered the Jewish ark 629
District Inspector Shields and the officer in charge of the escort on the site of the
Guafofu 630
Scenes in Tirnova 633
Street scenes in Tirnova 634
I. Going to market. 2. The Turks
last of the 637
Peasants visiting Tirnova in their garments of lavender 639
Cultivated terraces in Central China 640
Four Shensi soldiers of the Governor's Guard, Central China 641
Interior of temple to K'wang-sheng-ti, the great warrior of the "Three Kingdoms"
(221-265 A. D.) 642
In canyon between Siau-wang-kien and Chiang-k'ou-shi, Shen-si 643
A devise erected before the gate of a Chinese city to ward off an evil dragon 644
In a date orchard, Biskra, Algeria 64S
A Zanzibar maiden 646
In German East Africa 647
An unusually fruitful date palm, Tunis 648
A native village, German East Africa 649
Priest and women pilgrims to Koyasan 651
The images of Jezo, Benton, and Fudo 652
The hall of tablets at Shoji-shin-in 655
The treasurer and his assistants 6ss
The fireplace at Shoji-shin-in 656
Kobo Daishi's golden tokko other tokkos and
: bells 656
Main avenue in cemetery, Koyasan 658
Another view of the main avenue of the cemetery, Koyasan 659
Danj iro's tomb 660
Image of Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy, in the sacred grove, Koyasan 661
The traitor's grove 662
Tombs of a daimio 662
Image of Jizo San Koyasan
at the entrance of 667
The head priest of one of the monasteries of Koyasan 668
Pictures of the "B B" 671
The tetrahedral cells, of which the lookout tower was constructed 672
Tower during construction 673
Tower of Dr Alexander Graham Bell, built of tetrahedral cells 674
Another view of Dr Bell's tower taken on the opening, August 31, 1907 675
Outline map of the United States, showing waterways that probably could be made
navigable for commerce 676
View of the Chicago drainage canal 677
The Chicago drainage canal at Romeo, showing the great two-mile curve 677
Repairing the levee at Lagrange, Mississippi 678
The "burro" or donkey of Spanish America 688
Camel wagons at Delhi, India -.
689
Scene from a wedding procession, Cairo, Egypt 690
The bride on her way to her new home, Cairo, Egypt 691
The Belgian milk wagon 692
Crossing a river in India on a raft of inflated bullock skins 693
.

Illustrations xv
Page
A bullock carriage used by ladies of rank, India 694
A hill country "ekka" with passenger and baggage — India 695
Conveyances in Hyderabad, India 696
Morning ride of a lady of Calcutta in her palanquin 697
A "push-push" of India 698
Carts with bamboo covers, Ceylon 699
Young men riding to a Mohammedan festival, Allahabad, India 699
Coolies in the Himalaya Mountains bringing hay to market 700
Carabaos threshing rice in the Philippines 701
Tagalog boys carrying vegetables to Manila 702
Carrying water in bamboo tubes, Philippine Islands 703
Carrying milk to Manila 704
Traveling in Luzon, Philippine Islands 70S
Wheelbarrow carrying freight and passenger, Shanghai 706
Street scene in Hongkong 706
A dray seen on the streets of Shanghai 707
Transportation by man power, Yokohama 708
Reindeer carrying U. S. Mail, Alaska 710
Crossing the Thelmu River by a bridge of one rawhide rope, Uri, India 711
A carriage in Madeira, where all conveyances are sleds 712
A market camel being unloaded on a sidewalk in Cairo 713
A caravan through the desert 714
An automobile train in Australia 715
Female lobster, showing eggs attached to the swimmerets 717
Scraping the eggs from a live lobster for hatching purposes 718
George M. Bowers, U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries 719
Interior of a marine hatchery 720
Spawn-taker obtaining cod eggs from a fishing vessel '.
. . 722
A typical native village in Portugese East Africa 724
Native woman pounding maize 725
A wart-hog 726
The fallen monarch 727
A fair-sized bull hippopotamus 728
Native drums 729
Traveling in pre-railway days, Portugese East Africa 730
An Icelander knitting socks 731
Great canyon of the Jokulsa 733
Ponies fording the Thjorsa 733
The gullfoss or gold fall 734
A group of Icelandic farmers and ponies 735
An Icelandic dog and puppy 735
Drying codfish 736
A schoolboy 736
Milking time 738
The town of Seydisfjord, at the head of the fjord of the same name 739
An Icelander's family 740
A farm-house and farm-yard 740
A special exhibition of the Sacred Tooth, Kandy, Ceylon 745
Effect of spraying oatfields with iron sulphate, solution for eradication of wild mustard. .
747
An intermediate type of tomato, nearly seedless -
748
I<arge type seedless tomato 748
Corn grown on undrained field 749
Corn grown on field with tile drains 70 feet apart 749
Com grown on field with tile drains 40 feet apart 749
The open roadstead of Funchal 752
The running car, with attendants 753
XVI Illustrations
Page
A steep grade in Funchal 754
The carro of Madeira •
755
Funchal, the one city of Madeira 75^'
The New Madeira '.

757
Scenery of the Grand Curral 75&
A visitor to a mountain Mission Station 7S9>
Madeirans in gala dress 760
Madeira children 761
Wine press still in use on the island 762
Where the "Old Madeira" begins • 763.
The grapes from which the "Old Madeira" is made 764
Sledding a load of sugar-cane to mill 765

Dragon tree of the island a century old • 766'
Cutting the cane on one of the terraced miniature sugar-cane plantations 767
A rest on the way home from the spring 768-
A basket of anonas on the way to the fruit market 768
A typical coast village at the foot of precipitous cliffs that are terraced with plantations
to their top 769'
Peasant girls in the interior carrying sweet potatoes to market 770
Figure i 7T2
Figures 2, 3 • 773-
Figures 4, 5 774
Piling sunbaked bricks in India 775
Indian woman and child of Guatemala ^^(>
A Wallapai Indian girl of Arizona with a basket of native manufacture yyj
Crop of onions on reclaimed salt marsh, Revere, Massachusetts ^^'&

Crop of hay on diked meadow, Marshfield, Massachusetts 778


Scotch and white pine, S years old, in the Lake Clear plantation 779>
Successful examples of planting denuded state land n9>
Early versus late planting of cotton in the control of the Boll Weevil 780
California Indians pounding acorn meal for food 797
California Indians leaching acorns for food 797
Immense piles of sugar beets awaiting shipment to factory 798
Polish women thinning beets in the West 799'
Pow^r hoe 800
Gold necklace found by Mr Davis in the tomb of Queen Tiyi, January, 1907 801
Canopic heads of Queen Tiyi and other objects found in her tomb 802
Head of Queen Tiyi found in her tomb by Mr Davis 803
The golden vulture found on head of Queen Tiyi 804
Mummefied monkeys and dog found by Mr Davis in the tomb of Amenhotep 11 805
Mummefied monkeys found by Mr Davis in the tomb of Amenhotep II 806
Cicatrised Batetela woman (Lualaba Kassai) 807
Specimens of hairdressing among women of the Sango Banzyville 807
Native huts built of leaves (Aruwimi) 80S
Children of the settlement school at Boma praying 809
Funeral at Bumba ( Bangala) 810
English missionaries and some of their charges 811
The Salt Plain of Lop 812
Bedouin woman and child 814
A typical Hausa village in Nigeria 815
Peasants of "Little Russia" 817
Albanians and Bulgarians 818
Dogs occupy the sidewalk while people walk in the street 821
The Turkish butcher 821
Dancing girls in Borneo 822
A duck farm in the United States 823
•£22

5^e NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE
^Immm 33:

Vol. XVIII JANUARY, 1907 No. I

CONTENTS

AERIAL LOCOMOTION
By Dr ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL. lUuarated

THE NEW INLAND SEA


(An Account of the Colorado River Break.) By ARTHUR P. DAVIS
Ululated

HONORS TO PEARY
Addresses by President Roosevelt, the Italian Ambassador, and the Secretary of

the Navy, and Commander Peary's Response

AN AWAKENED CONTINENT TO THE SOUTH OF US


By the Secretary of State, Hon. ELIHU ROOT

FIGHTING THE POLAR ICE. Illustrated

Published by the National Geographic Society


Hubbard Memorial Hall
Washington, D. C.
$2.50 a Year 25 Cents a Number
Entered at the Post-Offlce at Washington, 0. C, as Second-Class Mail Matter
THE
;

Vol. XVIII, No. r WASHINGTON January, 1907

Tl
MATEONAIL
©OMAIPIHIB
'A(SAEIINII

AERIAL LOCOMOTION
With a Few Notes of Progress in the Construction
of an Aerodrome*

By Alexander Graham Bell


Formerly President of the National Geographic Society

THE is
history of aerial locomotion
full of tragedies, and
specially true where flying-ma-
this is
through the air by means of propellers
were largely forgotten. The balloon was
changed from its original spherical form
chines are concerned. Men have gone to a shape better adapted for propulsion
up in balloons, and most of them have^ and at last, through the efforts of Santos
come down safely. Men have launched Dumont, we have arrived at the dirigible
themselves into the air on wings, and balloon of today. But in spite of the
most have met with disaster to life or dirigibility of the modern balloon, it has
limb. There have been centuries of effort so far been found impracticable to impart
to produce a machine that should fly like to this frail structure a velocity sufficient
a bird, and carry a man whithersoever he to enable it to make headway against
willed through the air and previously to
; anything but the mildest sort of wind.
1783, the year sacred to the memory of The character of the balloon problem has
the brothers Montgolfier, all experiments therefore changed. Velocity of propul-
at aerial locomotion had this end exclu- sion rather than dirigibility is now the
sively in view. chief object of research.
Then came a period when the conquest
of the air was sought through the agency
THE once MORE RECOGNIZED AS
BIRDS are
of balloons. For more than one hun-
THE TRUE MODEES OE FLIGHT
dred years the efforts of experimenters It has long been recognized by a grow-
were chiefly directed to the problem of ing school of thinkers that an aerial
rendering the balloon dirigible and the; vehicle, in order to cope with the wind,
earlier experiments with gliding ma- should be specifically heavier than the air
chines, and artificial wings, and the pro- through which it moves. This position
jects of men to drive heavy bodies is supported by the fact that all of Na-

*An address read before the Washington Academy of Sciences, December 13, 1906, and spe-
by Dr Bell for publication in the Nationai, Geographic Magazine.
cially revised
The National Geographic Magazine
However this may
be, it is certainly the
case that the tend-
ency of aerial re-
search is today re-
verting more and
more to the old lines
of investigation that
were pursued for
hundreds of years
before the invention
of the balloon di-
verted attention from
the subject. The old
devices have been re-
invented the old ex-
;

periments have been


tried more.
once
Again, the birds are
recognized as the
true models of flight,
Lilienthal Gliding Machine as Reproduced in America for and again men have
Chanute by Herring put on wings, but
this time with more
ture's flying models, from the smallest promise of success.
insect to the largest bird, are specifically
heavier than the air in which they fly,
THE GLIDING FLIGHTS OF ULIENTHAL
most of them many hundreds of times Lilienthal boldly launched himself into
heavier, and that none of them adopt the the air in an apparatus of his own con-
balloon principle in flight. It is also sig- struction, having wings like a bird and a
nificant in this connection that some of tail for a rudder. Without any motor, he
Santos Dumont's most celebrated ex- ran down hill against the wind. Then,
ploits were accomplished with quite a upon jumping into the air, he found him-
small balloon, so ballasted as to sink in self supported by his apparatus, and
the air instead of rise. He was then en- glided down an elevation of a few
hill at
abled, under the influence of his motive feet from the ground, landing safely at a
power, to steer his balloon upward with- considerable distance from his point of
out the expenditure of ballast and to de- departure. This exhibition of gliding
scend without the loss of gas. This flight fairly startled the world, and hence-
probably typifies, for the balloon, the di- forth the experiments of Lilienthal were
rection of change in the future. A conducted in the public eye. He made
reduction in the volume of gas coinci- hundreds of successful flights with his
dently with an increase in motive power gliding machine, varying its construction
will lead to greater velocity of propulsion, from time to time, and communicating to
now the main desideratum. Then de- the w.orld the results of his experiments
pendence upon velocity for support rather with practical directions how to manage
than gas may gradually lead to the elimi- the machine under circumstances of diffi-
nation of the gas bag altogether ; in culty; so that, when at last he met with
which case the balloon will give birth to the usual fate of his predecessors in this
a flying machine of the heavier-than-air the experiments were not abandoned.
line,
type. They were continued in America by

Aerial Locomotion

Glidiug Through the Air on Chauute's Multiple-winged Glider

Chanute of Chicago, Herring, and other than our own Professor Langle}', the late
Americans, including the Wright broth- Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
ers, of Dayton, Ohio. The constant failures and disasters of the
Hargrave of Australia attacked the fl)'- past had brought into disrepute the whole
ing-machine problem from the standpoint subject of aerial flight by man; and the
of a kite, communicating his results to would-be inventor or experimenter had
the Royal Society of New South Wales. to face not only the natural difficulties of
It is to him we owe the modern form of his subject, but the ridicule of a skeptical
kite known as the "Hargrave box kite," world. To Professor Langley is due the
which surpasses in stability all previous chief credit of placing this subject upon a
forms of kites. He also constructed suc- scientific basis, and of practically origi-
cessful flying-machine models on a small nating what he termed the art of "aero-
scale,using a store of compressed air as dromics." In his epoch-making work on
his motive power. He did not attempt to "Experiments in Aerodynamics," pub-
construct a large-sized apparatus or to go lished in 1891 among the Smithsonian
up into the air himself so he still lives, to
; Contributions to Knowledge, he prepared
carry on researches that are of interest the world for the recent advances in this
and value to the world. art by announcing that
SUCCESSFUL FLIGHT OF PROFESSOR LANG- "The mechanical sustention of heavy bodies
in the air, combined with very great speeds, is
LEV'S MODEL not only possible, but within reach of me-
chanical means we actually possess."
No one has contributed more to the
modern revival of interest in flying- He also attempted to reduce his prin-
machines of the heavier-than-air type ciples to practice by the construction of a
The National Geographic Magazine

Langley's Aerodrome No. 5 in Flight, May 6, 1896


From instantaneous photograph by Alexander Graham Bell

Aerial Locomotion

large model of an aerodrome driven witnessing the experiments. But the


through the air by a steam-engine under newspapers insisted upon being repre-
the action of its own propellers. I was sented. The correspondents flocked, to
myself a witness of the memorable ex- the scene, and camped there fbi-" weeks,
periments made by Professor Langley on at considerable expense to their papers.
the 6th of May, 1896, with this large- They watched the house-boat containing
sized model, which had a spread of wing the aerodrome by day and by night, and
of about 14 feet. No one who witnessed upon the least indication of activity
the extraordinary spectacle of a steam- within, newspaper reporters were on hand
engine flying with wings in the air, like a in boats. After long delay in hopes of
great soaring bird, could doubt for one securing privacy it was at last decided to
moment the practicabiHty of mechanical try the apparatus but the newspaper
;

flight. I was fortunate in securing a representatives, embittered by the at-


photograph of this machine in full flight tempts to exclude them, were bringing
an automatic record of
in the air, so that the experiments into public contempt.
the achievement exists (page 4). The They nicknamed the apparatus "The
experiment realized the utmost hopes and Buzzard," and were all ready to presage
wishes of Professor Langley at that time : defeat.

"I have brought to a close," he says, "the Two experiments were made but on ;

portion of the work which seemed to be spe- both occasions the apparatus caught in
cially mine — the demonstration of the prac- the launching ways and was precipitated
ticability of mechanical flight; and for the next into the water without having a chance to
stage, which is the commercial and practical
development of the idea, it is probable that the show what it could do in the air. The
world may look to others. The world indeed newspapers immediately announced to
will be supine if it does not realize that a new the world the failure of Professor Lang-
possibility has come to it, and that the great ley's machine and ridiculed his efforts.
universal highway over head is now soon to be
opened."
The fact of the matter that the ma-
is
chine was never tried, and that there was
But the world was not satisfied with no more reason for declaring it a failure
this position. looked to Professor
It than for deciding that a ship would not
Langley himself to carry on the experi- float that has never been launched. After
ments to the point of actually transport- having witnessed the successful flight of
ing a human being through the air on an the large-sized model of 1896, I have no
aerodrome like his model and so, with
; doubt that Professor Langley's full-sized
the aid of an appropriation from the War aerodrome would have flown had it been
Department of the United States, Pro- safely launched into the air.
fessor Langley actually constructed a full- When the machine was for the second
sized aerodrome, and found a man brave time precipitated into the water it was
enough to risk his life in the apparatus not much damaged by the accident. Pro-
Mr Manley, of Washington, D. C. fessor Langley, of course, was more
anxious about the fate of his intrepid as-
langley's Experiments with his large sistant than of his machine, and followed
MACHINE Mr Manley into the house-boat to ascer-
Great public interest was aroused but ; tain his condition. During this tempo-
Professor Langley did not feel justified rary withdrawal from the scene of the
in giving information to the public, and catastrophe the crew of a tugboat grap-
therefore to foreign nations, concerning pled the frail framework of the sub-
experiments undertaken in the interests merged aerodrome, and in the absence of
of the War Department. His own dislike any one competent to direct their efforts
to premature publicity cooperated with they broke the machine to pieces, thus
his conscientious scruples to lead him to ending the possibility of further experi-
deny the newspapers the opportunity of ments without the expenditure of much
The National Geographic Magazine
: ;

Aerial Locomotion

capital. The ridicule of the newspapers, vain. Others have continued their re-
however, effectually prevented Professor searches, and today the world is in pos-
Langley from securing further financial session of the first practical flying-ina-
aid, and, indeed, broke his heart. There chine, the creation of the brothers Or-
can be little doubt that the unjust treat- ville and Wilbur Wright, of Dayton,
ment to which he was exposed con- Ohio. Indeed, we have news from
tributed materially to the production of France that a second has just appeared,
the illness that caused his death. constructed by the same Santos Dumont
He lived long enough, however, to to whom the world already owes the
know of the complete fruition of his first practical dirigible balloon.
hopes by others, and only two days before The Wright brothers began by repeat-
his death he had the gratification of re- ing the gliding experiments of Lilien-
ceiving a communication from the newly thal, with improved apparatus of the

formed Aero Club of America recogniz- Hargrave type as modified by Chanute.


ing and appreciating his efforts to pro- After having made niany successful
mote mechanical flight. This communi- glides through the air without a inotor,

cation read as follows they followed in the footsteps of Lang-


ley and propelled their machine by
RESOIvUTIONS OI' THE AERO CLUB OF means of twin screws operated by engine
AMERICA, ADOPTED JANUARY 20, I906 power. They were successful in launch-
"Whereas our esteemed colleague, Dr S. P.
ing their apparatus into the air, and it
Langley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- flew, carrying one of them with it.
tion, met with an accident in launching his Their machine has flown not once sim-
aerodrome, thereby missing a decisive test of ply, but many times, and in the presence
the capabilities of this man-carrying machine,
built after his models which flew successfully of witnesses ; so that there can be no
many times; and doubt that the first successful flying-
"Whereas, in that difficult experiment, he machine has at last appeared. Specially
was entitled to fair judgment and distinguished successful flights were made on the 3d
consideration because of his important achieve-
ments in investigating the laws of dynamic and 4th of October, 1905, which were
flight, and in the construction of a variety of referred to by the Wright brothers in a
successful flying models Therefore be it
: letter to the editor of U
Aerophile pub-
"Resolved, That the Aero Club of America, lished in that journal January, igo6.
holding in high estimation the contributions of
Dr Langley to the science of aerial locomotion, They have also made a communication
hereby expresses to him its sincerest apprecia- upon the subject to the Aero Club of
tion of his labors as a pioneer in this important America, and have received the formal
and complex science and be it further
;
congratulations of that organization
"Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions
be sent to the Board of Regents of the Smith-
upon their success.
sonian Institution, and to Doctor Langley." Each of the Wright brothers in turn
has made numerous flights over their
Professor Langley was on his death- testing field near Dayton, Ohio, some-
bed when these resolutions were brought times at an elevation of about 80 feet
to his attention, and when asked what at other times skimming over the field
should be done with the communication at a height of about ten feet from the
his pathetic answer was, "Publish it." ground. They have been able to circle
To all who know his extreme aversion to over the field of operation, and even to
publicity in any form this reply indicates describe in the air the figure eight, thus
how keenly he felt the misrepresenta- demonstrating their perfect control over
tions of the press. their apparatus, both in the vertical and
horizontal directions. They have suc-
THE FIRST PRACTICAE FLYING MACHINE ceeded in remaining continuously in thv.
Both in the case of and
Lilienthal air for more than half an hour —
thirty-
Langley their efforts have not been in —
eight minutes, in fact and only came
The National Geographic Magazine
porting surfaces consisted
of two superposed aero-
planes each measuring six
by forty feet so that the
;

machine as a whole had a


flying weight of nearly two
pounds per square foot (1.9
pounds).
Thanks to the efforts of
the Wright brothers, the
practicability of aerial flight
by man is no longer proble-
matical. We, can no longer
consider as impossible that
which has already been ac-
complished. America may
well feel proud of the fact
Starting a Flight that the problem has been
first solved by citizens of the
United States.

A FEW NOTES OF PROGRESS


IN THE CONSTRUCTION
OF AN AERODROME
For many years past in —
fact, from my boyhood the —
subject of aerial flight has
had a great fascination for
me. Before the year 1896 I
had made many thousands
of still unpublished experi-
ments having a bearing
upon the subject, and I was
therefore much interested in
the researches of Professor
A High Glide Langley relating to aerody-
namics. We
were thrown
The Wright Brothers' Gliding Machine closely together in Wash-
ington, and although we
down on account of the exhaustion of rarely conversed upon aerodynamics we
their fuel supply. They state that the knew that we had a subject of mutual
velocity attained was one kilometer per interest and showed the greatest per-
minute, or about thirty-seven miles an sonal confidence in one another. I did

hour. The machine has not only sus- not hesitate to show him my experi-
tained its own weight in the air during ments he did not hesitate to show me
;

these trials, but has also carried a man his. At least as early as 1894 Professor
and a gasoline engine weighing 240 Langley visited me in my Nova Scotia
pounds, exerting a force of from 12 to home and witnessed some of my experi-
15 horse-power, and in addition an extra ments and in May, 1896, he recipro-
;

load of 50 pounds of pig-iron. The ap- cated by inviting me to accompany him


paratus complete, with motor, weighed to Ouantico, Virginia, and witness a trial
no less than 925 pounds, while the sup- of his large-sized model. The sight of
Aerial Locomotion

Langley's steam aero-


drome circling" in the
sky convinced me that
the age of the flying-
machine was at Iiand.
Encouraged and stim-
ulated b}^ this re-
markable exhibition
of success, I quietly
continued my experi-
ments in my Nova
Scotia laboratory in
the hope that I, too,
might be able to con-
tribute something of
value to the world's
knowledge of this im-
portant subject.
Warned by the ex-
periences of others, I
have sought for a Soaring
safe method of ap-
proach —
a method
that should risk hu-
man life as little as
possible during tVie

earlier stages of ex-


periment. E",xperi-
ments with aero-
dromes must neces-
sarily be fraught with
danger until man, by
practical experience
of the conditions to be
met with in the air
and of the means of
overcoming them,
shall have attained
skill in the control of
aerial apparatus. A Landing
man cannot even ride
a bicycle without prac-
tice, and the birds themselves have to can be obtained. If these disasters
learn to fl)-. Man, not having any in- should, as so often in the past, prove fatal
herited instincts to help him in this mat- to the experimenter, the knowledge ob-
ter, must first control his flight con- tained by the would-be aviator will be
sciously, guided by knowledge gained lost to theworld, and others must begin
through experiment. Skill can only be all over again, instead of pursuing the
obtained by actual experience in the air, subject where he left off, with the benefit
and this experience will involve accidents of his knowledge and his experience. It
and disasters of various sorts before skill is therefore of the utmost consequence to
lO The National Geographic Magazine
progress in the art of aviation that the ten miles an hour would be sufficient for
first attempts to gain experience in the its support as a flying-machine in calm
air should be made under such conditions air, while a less speed would suffice in
of safety as to reduce to a minimum the heading into a moderate wind.
habilit}' to fatal results. Such velocities would be consistent
with safety in experiments, especially if
A MACHINE THAT WII^I, SUPPORT ITSELF the flights should be made over water
AT LOW VELOCITY DESIRABLE instead of land, and at moderate eleva-
The Wright brothers' successful tions above the surface. Under such
flying-machine travels at the rate of circumstances the inevitable accidents
about thirty-seven miles an hour and, ;
which are sure to happen during first ex-
judging from its great flying weight periments are hardly likely to be fol-
(nearly two pounds per square foot of lowed by more serious consequences than
supporting surface), it is unlikely that a ducking to the man and the immersion
it could be maintained in the air if it had of the machine. If the man is able to
a very much less velocity. But should swim and the machine to float upon
an accident happen to a body propelled water, little damage need be anticipated
through the air with the velocity of a rail- to either.
road train, how about the safety of the There are two critical points in every
occupants? Accidents will happen, aerial flight —
its beginning and its end.

sooner or later, and the chances are A flying-machine adapted to float upon
largely in favor of the first accident water not only seems to afford a safe
being the last experiment. While, there- means of landing, but also promises a.
fore, we may look forward with confi- solution of that most dii^cult of prob-
dence to the ultimate possession of flying- —
lems a safe method of launching the
machines exceeding in speed the fastest apparatus into the air. If the supporting-
railroad trains, it might be the part of floats are so formed as to permit of the-
wisdom to begin our first experiments at machine being propelled over the surface
gaining experience in the air with ma- of the water like a motor boat, then, if
chines traveling at such moderate veloci- sufficient headway can be gained under
ties as to reduce the chances of a fatal the action of her aerial propellers, the ma-
catastrophe to a minimum. This means chine can be steered upward into the air.,
that they should be light-flying ma- rising from the water, after the manner

chines that is, the ratio of weight to of a water bird, in the face of the wind.
supporting surface should be small. This seems to be the safest method of
While theory indicates that the greater gaining access to the air but, of course,,
;

the weight in proportion to supporting- its depends upon possibili-


practicability
surface consistent with flight, the more ties of lightness and speed yet to be
independent of the wind will the ma- demonstrated.
chine be, yet it might be advisable to In any event, if the machine, man and'
begin, if possible, with such a moderate all, is light enough to be flown as a kite,
flying weight as to permit of the machine it can be towed out of the water into the-

being flown as a kite. There would be air through the agency of a motor boat;,
little difficulty, then, in raising it into the and, upon land, it would not even be
air, and should an accident happen to the necessary for it to gain headway before
propelling machinery, the apparatus rising, for in a supporting wind it would
would descend gently to the ground or ; rise of itself into the air, if relieved of
the aviator could cast anchor, and his the weight of the man, and fly as a kite.
machine would continue flying, as a kite, It would then be a comparatively simple
if the wind should prove sufficient for its matter to lower the kite to a convenient
support. If it could fly, as a kite, in a height from the ground, and to hold it
ten-mile breeze, then a velocity of only steadily in position by subsidiary lines-

Aerial Locomotion 1 1

while the aviator ascends a rope ladder to ferred to, which were undertaken at first
his seat in the machine. In this way the for my own pleasure and amusement,
man would not be exposed to danger dur- have gradually assumed a serious char-
ing the critical operation of launching the acter, from their bearing upon the flying-
apparatus into the air, and by a converse machine problem.
process a safe landing could be effected The word "kite" unfortunately is sug-
without bringing the machine to the gestive to most minds of a toy —
just as
ground. The chance of injury to the ma- the telephone at first was thought to be a
chine itself would also be much lessened toy so that the word does not at all ade-
;

by relieving it of the weight of the man quately express the nature of the enor-
during the initial process of launching mous flying structures employed in some
and the final process of bringing the ma- of my experiments. These structures
chine down to the ground. vi'ere really aerial vehicles rather than
Such speculations as these of course kites, for they were capable of lifting men
are only justifiable upon the assumption and heavy weights into the air. They
that it is possible to construct an aerial were flown after the manner of kites, but
vehicle large enough and strong enough their flying cords were stout manila
to support a man and an engine in the air, ropes. They could not be held by hand
and yet light enough to be flown as a kite in a heavy breeze, but had to be anchored
in a moderate breeze with the man and to the ground by several turns of the
engine and all on board. My experiments ropes around stout cleats, like those em-
in Nova Scotia have demonstrated that ployed on steamships and men-of-war.
this can be done and I now therefore
; One of the great difficulties in making
find myself seriously engaged in the at- a large structure light enough to be flown
tempt to reduce these ideas to practice by as a kite has been pointed out by Pro-
the actual construction of an aerodrome fessor Simon Newcomb in an article in
of the kite variety.The progress of ex- McClure's Magazine, published in Sep-
periment may
be divided into three well- tember, 1901, entitled "Is the Air-Ship
marked stages the kite stage, the motor-
:
Coming?" and this difficulty had so much
boat stage, and the free flying-machine weight with him at that time as to lead
rising from the water. him to the general conclusion that
"The construction of an aerial vehicle which
THE KITE STAGE could carry even a single man from place to
In April, 1899, I made my first com- place at pleasure requires the discovery of some
new metal or some new force."
munication on the subject of kites to the
National Academy of Sciences in a paper This conclusion the Wright brothers,
entitled "Kites with Radial Wings," and now Santos Dumont, have demon-
which was reviewed, with illustrations, in strated tobe incorrect; but Professor
the Monthly Weather Revieiv for April, Newcomb's objections undoubtedly have
1899 (vol. XXVI, pp. 154-155, plate xi). great force, and reveal the cause of fail-
I made another communication to the ures of attempts to construct large-sized
National Academy on the 23d of April, flying-machines upon the basis of smaller
1903, upon "The Tetrahedral Principle models that actually flew. Professor
in Kite Structure," which was published, Newcomb shows that where two aerial
with ninet)'-one illustrations and an ap- vehicles are made exactly alike, only dif-
pendix, in the National Geographic fering in the scale of their dimensions,
Magazine for June, 1903 (vol. xiv, pp. the ratio of weight to supporting surface
220-251). The substance of the present is greater in the larger one than in the
address was presented in part to the Na- smaller, the weight increasing as the
tional Acadeni}' of Sciences at their recent cube of the dimensions, whereas the sup-
meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, No- porting surfaces only increase as the
vember 21, 1906. The experiments re- squares. From this the conclusion is
—;

I 2 The National Geographic Magazine


obvious that if we make our structure of material. When these tetrahedral
largeenough it will be too heavy to fly frames or cells are connected together by

even by itself far less be the means of their corners they compose a structure of
supporting an additional load like a man remarkable rigidity, even when made of
and an engine for motive power. This light and fragile material, the whole
conclusion is undoubtedly correct in the structure possessing the same properties
case of structures that are "exactly alike of strength and lightness inherent in the
excepting in their dimensions," but it is individual cells themselves (page 12).
not true as a general proposition. The unit tetrahedral cell yields the
skeleton form of a solid, and it is bounded
EVADING AN OLD LAW by four equal triangular faces. By cov-
Asmall bird could not sustain a heavy ering two adjoining faces with silk, or
load in the air and while it is true that a
; other material suitable for use in kites,
similar bird of double the dimensions we arrive at the unit ''winged cell" of the
would be able to carry a less proportion- compound kite, the two triangular sur-
ate weight, because it is itself heavier in faces in their flying position re.= .;mbling a
proportion to its wing surface than the pair of wings raised with theii points up-

smaller bird eight times as heav}', in ward, the surfaces forming a dihedral
fact, with only four times the wing sur- angle (Fig. A, p. 13).
face —
still it is conceivable that a flock of Four of these unit cells, connected
small birds could sustain together at their corners, form a four-
a heavy load divided celled structure having itself the form of
equally among them a tetrahedron containing in the n iddle an
and it is obvious that in empty space of octahedral form equal in
this case the ratio of volume to the four tetralied "al cells them-
Unit cell having weight to wing surface selves (Fig. B, p. 13).
the form of the would be the same for In my paper I showed that four of
^^^'^'
the whole flock as for the these four-celled structures connected at
hedrlTn
individual bird. If, then, their corners resulted in a sixteen-celled
we build our large structure by combin- structure of tetrahedral form containing,
ing together a number of small structures in addition to the octahedral spaces be-
each light enough to fly, instead of sim- tween the unit cells, a large central spare
ply copying the small structure upon a equivalent in volume to four of the four-
larger scale, we arrive at a compound or celled structures (Fig. C, p. 13).
cellular structure in which the ratio of In a similar manner four of the sixteen-
weight to supporting surface is the same celled structures connected together at
as that of the individual units of which their corners form a sixty-four-celled
it is composed, thus overcoming entirely structure (Fig. D, p. 13).
the really valid objections of Professor Four of the sixty-four-celled structures
Newcomb to the construction of large form a two hundred and fifty-six-celled
flying-machines. structui-e, etc., and in each of these cases
In my paper upon the tetrahedral prin- an empty space exists in the center equiv-
ciple in kite structure I have shown that alent to half of the cubical contents of the
a framework having the form of a tetra- whole structure, in addition to spaces be-
hedron possesses in a remarkable degree tween the individual cells and minor
the properties of strength and lightness. groups of cells.
This is specially the case when we adopt Kites so formed exhibit remarkable
as our unit structure the form of the stability in the air under varying condi-
regular tetrahedron, in which the skeleton tions of wind, and I stated in my paper
frame is composed of six rods of equal that the kites which had the largest cen-
length, as this form seems to give the tral spaces seemed to be the most stable
maximum of strength with the minimum in the air. Of course, these were the
Aerial Locomotion 13

nJ O

^3

El
o
14 The National Geographic Magazine
front cells would shield the others from
the action of the wind, and thus cause
them to lose their efficiency but no very
;

A^?^ marked effect of this kind has been ob-


served in practice. Whatever theoretical
interferences there may be, the detri-
mental effect upon the flying qualities of
a kite are not, practically, obvious, while
the gain in structural strength and in
power outweigh any disadvantages
lifting
that mayexist. I presume that there
must be some limit to the number of cells
that can be placed in close proximity to
one another without detrimental effect,
but so far my experiments have not re-
vealed it.

EXPERIMENTS WITH "THE FROST KING"


To put together into
test the matter, I
one structure the available winged
all
cells I had in the laboratory —1,300 in
number. These were closely attached
together, without any other empty spaces
in the structure than those existing" be-
tween the individual cells themselves
when in contact at their corners.
The resulting kite, known as "The
Frost King" (pages 15 and 16), con-
sisted of successive layers or strata of
64-celled Tetrahedral Kite Flying from
cells closely superposed upon one an-
Flag-pole
other. The lowest layer, or floor of
Photograph by D. G. McCurdy the structure, consisted of 12 rows of 13
cells each. The cells forming each row
structures that were composed of the were placed side by side, attached to one
largest number of unit cells, and I now another by their upper corners, and the
have reason to believe that the automatic 12 rows were placed one behind the other,
stability of these kites depends more upon the rear corners of one row being at-
the number of unit cells than upon the tached to the front corners of the row
presence of large empty spaces in the immediately behind. The next stratum
kites; for I have found, upon filling in above the floor had eleven rows of 14
these empty spaces with unit cells, that cells; the next, 10 rows of 15 cells, etc.,
the flying qualities of a large kite have each successive layer increasing in lateral
been greatly improved. The structure, so dimensions and diminishing in the fore-
modified, seems to fly in as light a breeze and-aft direction so that the top layer, or
;

as before, but with greatly increased lift- roof, consisted of a single row of 24 cells
ing power, while the gain in structural placed side by side. One would imagine
strength is enormous. that a closely packed mass of cells of this
I had hitherto supposed that if cells kind, 1,300 in number, would have de-
were placed directly behind one another veloped some difficult)' in flying in a
without providing large spaces between moderate breeze if the cells interfered
them comparable to the space between with one another to any material extent;
the two cells of a Hargrave box kite, the but this kite not only flew well in a breeze
Aerial Locomotion 15
i6 The National Geographic Magazine

Side View of the Frost King, showing how closely the cells are massed together
Photograph by E. H. Cunningham

estimated at not more than about lo miles would then contain more than double the
an hour because it did not raise white number of cells, and so should be able to
caps, but carried up a rope ladder, several sustain in the air more than double the
dangling ropes lo and 12 meters long, load so that such a structure would be
;

and more than 200 meters of manilla rope quite capable of sustaining both a man
used as flying lines, and, in addition to all and an engine of the weight of a man and
this, supported a man in the air (page yet be able to fly as a kite in a breeze no
17)- stronger than that which supported the
The whole kite, impedimenta and all, "Frost King."
including the man, weighed about 131 An .engine of the weight of a man
kgs (288 pounds), and its greatest could certainly impart to the structure a
length from side to side was 6 meters
at velocity of 10 miles an hour, the esti-
the top and three meters at the bottom. mated velocity of the supporting wind,
The sloping sides measured 3 meters, and and thus convert the kite into a free fly-
the length from fore to aft at the square ing-machine. The low speed at which I
bottom was 3 meters. It is obvious that have been aiming for safety's sake is
this kite might be extended laterally at therefore practicable.
the top to twice its length without form-
HORIZONT.^L AEROPLANES FOUND IN-
ing an immoderately large structure. It
STABLE
would then be 12 meters on the top (39
feet) and 9 meters on the bottom from In the "Frost King" and other kites
side to side, without changing the fore- composed exclusively of tetrahedral
and-aft dimensions or the height. It winged cells there are no horizontal sur-
Aerial Locomotion

The Frost King in the Air, Flying in a Ten-mile Breeze, and Supporting a Man
on the Flying Rope
During the experiment the rope straightened under the pull of the kite, and the man was raised
to a height of 30 or 40 feet. He was in great peril, but fortunately was brought
down safely. Photograph by Alexander Graham Bell
The National Geographic Magazine
faces (or rather surfaces substantially tremely unlikely that the equilibrium of
horizontal, as in ordinary kites), but the a large kite could be endangered by the
framework is admirably adapted for the shifting of the centers of pressure in
support of such surfaces. Horizontal small surfaces within the kite. This may
aeroplanes have much greater supporting be the cause of the automatic stability of
power than similar surfaces obliquely ar- large structures built of small tetrahedral
ranged, and I have made many experi- cells. If so, one principle of stability
ments to combine horizontal surfaces would be Small surfaces, well separated,
:

with winged cells with greatly improved and many of them. The converse propo-
results, so far as lifting power is con- sition would then hold true if we desired
cerned. But there is always an element to produce instability and a tendency to
of instability in a horizontal aeroplane, upset in a squall, namely Large surfaces,
:

especially if it is of large size, whereas continuous, and few of them.


kites composed exclusively of winged
HARGRAVI^ BOX KITES AND TETRAHEDRAI,
cells are wonderfully steady in the air
KITES COMPARED
under varying conditions, though defi-
cient in lifting power and the kites com-
; Another source of danger with large
posed of the largest number of winged continuous surfaces is the fact that a sud-
cells seem to be the most stable in the air. den squall may strike the kite on one side,
In the case of an aeroplane of any kind lifting it up at that side and tending to
the center of air pressure rarely coincides upset it; but the compound tetrahedral
with the geometrical center of surface, structure is so porous that a squall passes
but is usually nearer the front edge than right through and lifts the other side as
the middle. It is liable to shift its posi- well as the side first struck so that the
;

tion, at the most unexpected times, on ac- kite has not time to be upset before the
count of some change in the inclination blow on one side is counterbalanced by a
of the surface or the direction of the blow on the other. I have flown a Har-
wind. The change is usually small in grave box kite simultaneously with a
steady winds, but in unsteady winds great large kite of many tetrahedral cells in
and sudden changes often occur. squally weather for the purpose of com-
The extreme possible range of fluctua- paring them under similar conditions.
tion is of course, from the extreme front The tetrahedral structure often seemed to
of the aeroplane to the rear, or vice versa, shiver when struck by a sudden squall,
and the possible amount of change, there- whereas the box kite seemed to be liable
fore, depends upon the dimensions of to a swaying or tipping motion that
the aeroplane, especially in the fore- would be exceedingly dangerous in a
and-aft direction. With a large aero- structure of large size forming part of a
plane the center of pressure may sud- flying-machine.
denly change to such an extent as to en- Another element of stability in the
danger the equilibrium of the whole ma- tetrahedral structure lies in the fact that
chine, whereas with smaller aeroplanes, the winged surfaces are elevated at a
especially those having slight extension greater angle above the horizon than 45°.
in the fore-and-aft direction, the change, Supposing the wings of a cell to be
though proportionally as great, is small opened out until they are nearly flat, or
in absolute amount. Where we have a make a compara-
at least until they each
multitude of small surfaces well sepa- with the horizon say
tively small angle —
rated from one another, as in the tetrahe- —
20° then, if from any cause the cell
dral construction, it is probable that the should tip so as to elevate one wing
resultant center of pressure for the whole (say to 25°) and depress the other (say
kite can shift to no greater extent than to 15°), the lifting power of the wind
the centers of pressure of the individual willbe increased upon the elevated wing
surfaces themselves. It is, therefore, ex- and diminished on the depressed wing;
Aerial Locomotion 19

SO that there would be no tendency to


a recovery of position, but the very re-
verse. The pressure of the wind would
tend to increase the tipping action and
favor the production of oscillation and
a tendency to upset. The lifting power
of the wind upon a surface inclined at
10° is less than at 20°, and greater at
25° than 20°. The more the wings
are opened out and the flatter they be-
come, the more essentially unstable is
the arrangement in the air.
Mow suppose the wings to be raised
until they are nearly closed, or at all
events till they make a small angle with
the vertical (say 70° from the horizon-
tal), then, if from any cause the cell
should tip so as to elevate one wing
(say to 75°) and depress the other
(say to 65°), the lifting power of the
wind will be increased upon the de-
pressed wing and diminished on the
elevated wing for the lifting power of
;

the wind is greater at 65° than at 70°


and less at 75°. Thus the moment a
tipping action begins the pressure of
the wind resists it, and an active force
is invoked tending to restore the struc-

ture to its normal position. The more


the wings are raised and the more they
approach the perpendicular position,
the more stable essentially is the ar-
rangement in the air.
The dividing line between these two
opposite conditions seems to be drawn
about the angle of 45°. As the tetra-
hedral wing surfaces make a greater
angle than this with the horizontal,
they constitute an essentially stable ar-
rangement in the air, whereas a hori-
zontal surface represents the extreme
of the undesirable unstable condition.

AUTOMATIC STABILITY
These considerations have led me to
prefer a structure composed of winged
tetrahedral cells alone, without hori-
zontal surfaces either large or small,
although the lifting power is less than
when horizontal surfaces are employed,
because the factor of safety is greater.
One of the chief causes that have led to
disasters in the past has been a lack of
Two i6-celled Tetrahedral Kites, the one on the
stability in the air. Automatic stability
right protected by a beading of weed around the
outer edges. 2, 3, 4. Oionos Kite with fixed tail. under varying conditions is surely of
2 Front view. 3. Bottom view. 4. Top view the very first consequence to safety, for
20 The National Geographic Magazine
what would it profit a man were
he to gain the whole world and
lose his own equilibrium in the
air ? A kite composed exclusively
of multitudinous winged cells
seems to possess this property of
automatic stability in a very
marked degree. If, then, its Hft-
ing power is sufficient for our
purpose, there is no necessity for
the introduction of a factor of
danger by the addition of hori-
zontal surfaces. Of course, the
addition of such surfaces would
enable us to secure the desired
lifting power with a smaller, and
therefore lighter, structure, and
this would be of advantage if we
could be sure of its stability in
Method of Flying the Oionos Kite the air.
Pieces of red silk are attached to several meters of the In employing tetrahedral
flying cord with the object of rendering the direction winged cells alone upon the hol-
of the cord visible on the photograph plate low plan of construction in which
large empty spaces
occurred within the
kite, a practical diffi-
culty was encountered
arising from the enor-
mous size of the struc-
ture required for the
support of a man,
combined with the in-
creasing weakness of
the structure as it in-
creased in size. The
discovery that the
cells may be closely
massed together with-
out marked injurious
effects has completely
remedied this diffi-

Oionos Kite with Movable Tail Controlled by Swingin culty; for upon this
Head-load of Lead plan not only is the
structural strength
When released in the air at a considerable elevation it acts very much
improved by an
like a soaring bird, moving forward against the wind or swinging in-
around in large circles. It is then, in effect, a free gliding machine, crease of size, but the
which acquires considerable velocity in the horizontal direction, lifting power increases
while descending gently in the vertical direction. The head-load with the cube of the
gives the machine a slight tendency to dive, which is resisted by
the steering action of the tail when headway is gained. The moment dimensions so that a
;

the head is depressed, as in diving, the weight swings forward, thus very slight increase in
automatically causing the elevation of the tail the dimensions of a
Aerial Locomotion 2 L

large kite increases very greatly its lifting BOATS DRIVEN BY AERIAL PROPELLERS
power. We
now have the possibility of Of course, it would be premature for
building structures composed exclusively
me to enter into any description of ex-
of tetrahedral winged cells that will sup- periments that are still in progress, or to
port a man and an engine in a breeze of submit plans for an aerodrome which are
moderate velocity without the necessity still under discussion. I shall therefore
of constructing a kite of immoderate size. simply say, in conclusion, that I have
The experiments with the "Frost King"
made December, 1905, satisfied me
in
upon this point and brought to a close
my experiments with kites.
CONCI^USION

Since December, 1905, my attention


has been directed to other points neces-
sary to be considered before an aero-
drome of the kite variety can be made,
and to the assembling of the materials
for its manufacture.
I have had to improve and simplify the
method of making the winged cells them-
selves. Through the agency of Mr Hec-
tor P. McNeil, superintendent of the
Volta laboratory, Washington, D. C, who
is now taking up the manufacture of
tetrahedral cells as a new business, I am
now able to obtain cells constructed
largely by machinery, and with stamped
metal corners to hold the rods together.
The process of tying the cells and parts
of cells together had proved to be very
laborious and expensive, and the process
was not suited to unskilled persons. By
the new process most of the work is done
by machinery, and no skill is required to
connect the cells together.
I have also had to go into the question

of motor construction a subject with

which I am not familar and while wait-
" Oionos " Kite in the Air

ing for the completion of the material re- This name was applied by the ancient Greeks
quired for the aerodrome I have been to the great solitary soaring birds, from
which they drew their auguries
carrying on experiments to test the rela-
tive efficiency of various forms of aerial
propellers. recently been making experiments in
I have also been occupied with the de-
propelling, by means of aerial propellers,
construction of a supporting float
tails of
a life-raft supported, catamaran fashion,
adapted for propulsion over the water as on two metallic cylinders. The whole
a motor boat and also adapted to form arrangement, with a marine motor on
the body of the flying-machine when in board, is exceedingly heavy, weighing
the air. over 2,500 pounds, and it is sunk so low
22 The National Geographic Magazine
Aerial Locomotion 23
24 The National Geographic Magazine

Side View of Mabel II

A floating kite supported upon three boat-like floats formed of tetrahedral cells and covered com-
pletely with oil-cloth. In September, 1903, this kite was raised into the air by being towed by
a steamboat against the wind

r^WWI4«|pi jjM^

Photos by Gilbert H. Grosvenor

Mabel II Outlined against Sky showing Bird-wing Effect


For experiments with this kite see "The Tetrahedral Kites of Dr Alexander Graham Bell," by
Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Popular Science Monthly, December, 1903
Aerial Locomotion 25

A Floating Kite, adapted to be Towed Out of the Water


Kite consists of a bridge, or truss, of tetrahedral cells with wings of Japanese waterproof paper
upon two floats of light framework covered with oilcloth. A stout towing pole extends later-
ally across the lower part of the wing-piece at the front. Photograph b}' Douglas McCurdy

that the water level rises at least to the this that she is not stopped by a current
:

middle of the supporting cylinders, so of air moving with very much greater
that the raft is not at all adapted for velocity than her maximum possible
propulsion and cannot attain great speed. speed in a calm. Of course, there would
The great and unnecessary weight of this be nothing remarkable about this if her
machine has led to an interesting and propellers were acting in the water in-
perhaps important discovery that might stead of the air but they were not. They
;

have escaped attention had the apparatus acted e.xclusively in the air, and the water
been lighter and better adapted for pro- was only an additional resistance to be
pulsion (page 26). overcome.
Under the action of her aerial propel- It is worthy of note in this connection
lers, this clumsy raft is unable to attain a that the rapid rotation of the propellers
higher speed than four miles an hour; yield a theoretical efficiency of thirty or
and 3^et she is able to face a sixteen-mile forty miles an hour, and that the mass
white-cap breeze and make headway of the machine and the resistance of the
against it, instead of drifting backward water drag this down to an actual per-
with the wind. Under such circum- formance of only four miles so that at
;

stances her speed is materially reduced; first sight it appears probable that the
but the point I would direct attention to is effect noted may be a result of the
:

26 The National Geographic Magazine

"The Ugly Duckling"


A raftsupported upon metallic cylinders and propelled by aerial propellers. Above illustration
shows raft propelled by small gasoline motor. In subsequent experiments referred to in tlie
text, the bridge, or truss, supporting the propellers was raised considerably above the level of
the platform, and the engine employed was a four-cylinder water-cooled marine motor weigh-
ing 650 pounds. This caused the metallic floats to be sunk to their middle points but the
;

floats were not connected together at their ends, as shown above

greater slip of the propellers acting in a mass. We


are here dealing with mo-
calm. I am inclined to think, however, mentum {mv) not , velocity {v) alone.
that this explanation is insufficient, and The body having the greatest momentum
would suggest the following as more will be the victor in the struggle, what-
probable ever the actual velocities may be.
The enormous mass of the moving The suggestiveness of this result lies
body enables it to acquire very consider- in its application to the ilying-machine
able momentum with slight velocity,
whereas the opposing current of air has
problem. A balloon, on account of its
slight specific gravity, must ever be at
stich slight mass that it cannot acquire
the mercy of the wind. In order to make
an equal momentum with a very much
any headway against a current of air, it
higher velocity.
If two bodies of unequal mass, moving
must itself acquire a velocity superior to
with equal but opposite velocities, come the wind that opposes it. On the other
into collision with one another, then the hand, it is probable that a flying-machine
heavier body will not be completely of the heavier-than-air type, at whatever
stopped by the lighter. It will make head- speed it moves, will be able to make
way against the resistance of the other, headway against a wind of much greater
even though the lighter should possess velocity, provided its momentum is
superior velocity, provided, of course, greater than the momentum of the air
that it has a sufficient superiority of that opposes it.
Aerial Locomotion 27
APPENDIX A 25 X 12.5 centimeters, having an area of 312.5
square centimeters.
DETAHS CONCERNING THE KITE "FROST KING" Thus an actual silk surface of 541.5 square
centimeters arranged as the two wings of a
Number of Cells in the "Frost King"
winged cell yields a supporting surface of 312.5
Num- Number of Number of square centimeters.
Layers of cells. ber of cells in cells iu
rows. each row. eacli layer.
In kites, therefore, composed exclusively of
tetrahedral winged cells each having a side of
1st layer i 24 24
25 centimeters, the area of supporting surface
2d layer 2 23 46
bears the same proportion to the actual surface
3d layer 3 22 66
as the numbers 3,125 to 5,415; or i to 1.7328.
4th layer 4 21 84
5th layer 5 20 100 Supporting surface i

6th layer 6 19 114


7th layer 7 18 126 Actual surface 1.7328
8th layer 8 17 136
9th layer 9 16 144 A
simple way of calculating the amount of
loth layer 10 15 150 supporting surface in such structures is to re-
nth layer 11 14 154 member that there are 32 cells to the square
I2th layer 12 13 156 meter of supporting surface therefore the
;

1,300 cells of the kite "Frost King" had a sup-


Total number of cells 1,300 porting surface of 40.6250 square meters (437.3
sq. ft.).
Dimensions. — Each cell had a side of 25 Ratio of Weight to —
Surface. The actual silk
centimeters, so that the roof, or ridge-pole; surface employed the "Frost King" was
in
measured 6 meters, extending laterally across 70.3950 square
meters (757.7 sq. ft.), the
the top of the structure. The oblique sides weight of the kite was 27,694 gms. (61 lbs) so ;

were 3 meters in length, and the bottom, or that on the basis of the actual surface, the fly-
floor, formed a square having a side of 3 ing weight was 393.4 gms. per square meter
meters. The whole structure constituted a sec- (0.08 lbs. per sq. ft.).

tion of a tetrahedral kite the upper half, in But, for the purpose of comparing the flying
fact, of a kite having the form of a regular weight of a tetrahedral kite with that of other
tetrahedron with a side of 6 meters. kites, in which it is usual to estimate only the
Weight. — The winged cells composing this aeroplane surfaces that are substantially in a
structure weighed on the average 13.84 gms. horizontal plane, it would be well to consider
apiece, so that the whole cellular part of the the ratio of weight to horizontal or supporting
structure which supported all the rest, consist- surface in this kite.
ing of 1,300 winged cells, weighed 17,992 gms. The weight was 27,694 gms, (61 lbs.), the
In addition to this, the kite carried as dead resolved horizontal or supporting surface was
load stout sticks of wood, which were run equivalent to 40.6250 square meters (437-3 sq.-
through the structure to distribute the strain ft.), and the flying weight for comparison with
of the pull upon the strong parts of the frame- other kites was 681.7 gms. per square meter of

work that is, upon the junction points of the supporting surface (0.14 lbs. per sq. ft.).
cells. The outside edge of the kite was also The kite, in addition to its own weight,,
protected by a beading of wood. The whole carried up a mass of dangling ropes and a
strengthening material weighed 9,702 gms., and rope-ladder, as well as two flying cords of
the kite as a whole weighed 27,694 gms. (61 manilla rope. The impedimenta of this kind
lbs.). weighed 28,148 gms. (62 lbs.). It also sup-

Surface. I estimate the surface of an ported a man, Mr Neil IVIcDermid, who hung
equilateral triangle having a side of 25 centi- on to the main flying rope at such a distance-
meters as about 270.75 square centimeters in ; from the cleat attached to the ground that
which case the silk surface of a single winged when the rope straightened under the strain
cell consisting of two triangles amounts to of the kite he was carried up into the air to a.
541.5 square centimeters, and the actual silk height of about 10 meters (over 30 ft.). The
surface employed in 1,300 cells equals 70.3950 weight of this man was 74,910 gms. (about
square meters (757.7 sq. ft.). 165 lbs.). Thus the total load carried by the
The surfaces are all oblique, and if we re- kite, exclusive of its own weight, was 103,058'
solve the oblique surfaces into horizontal and gms. (or 227 lbs.).
vertical equivalents (supporting surfaces and The whole kite, load and all, including the
steadying surfaces) we find that the resolved man, therefore, weighed 130,752 gms. (288 lbs.),
horizontal equivalent (supporting surface) of and its flying weight was 1,857.4 gms. per
a single winged cell forms a square of which square meter of actual surface (0.38 lbs. per
the diagonal measures 25 centimeters, and this sq. ft.), or 3,218.5 gms. per square meter of
is equivalent to a rectangular parallelogram of supporting surface (0.66 lbs. per sq. ft.).
A. G. B.
:

28 The National Geographic Magazine


APPENDIX B des Sciences, t. cxxn. Seance du 26 Mai,
1896, pp. 1-3.
Partial Bibliography Relating to Aerial Loco-
Description du vol mecanique. Comptes
motion, Prepared, through the Courtesy of
Rendus, cxxii, May 26, 1896.
the Smithsonian Institution, by Dr Cyrus
Adler, Assistant Secretary, in Charge of
A Successful Trial of the Aerodrome. Sci-
ence, New York, May 22, 1896, p. 753.
Library and Exchanges. Experiments in Mechanical Flight. Nature,
Dr Adler says London, May 28, 1896, p. 80.
"In accordance with your request, I am L' Aeroplane de M. Samuel Pierpont Langley.
authorized to send you herewith a list of the L'Aeronaute, 29, Annee No. 7, Juillet,
writings of S. P. Langley, Octave Chanute, Paris, 1896.
Otto Lilienthal, Lawrence Hargrave, and A. M. Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight.
Herring, to be used in connection with your The Aeronautical Annual, Boston, 1897,
recent paper on aerial locomotion. I ought to No. 3, pp. 11-25.
explain that, excepting in the case of Mr The New Flying Machine. Strand Magazine,
Langley's writings, I am not at all sure that London, June, 1897, pp. 701-718.
the lists are complete, since the time afforded The "Flying Machine." McClure's Magazine,
for bringing together the references was very June, 1897, pp. 647-660.
short, and of course there may be publications Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight.
in out-of-the-way journals which would only Smithsonian Report, Washington, D. C,
be revealed by a more extended inquiry. 1897.
I
have also appended a list of papers on the The Langley Aerodrome Note prepared for
:

subject published by the Smithsonian Institu- the Conversazione of the American Insti-
Smithsonian publications are acces-
tion, as the tute of Electrical Engineers, New York,
libraries throughout the country,
sible in all
April 12, 1901. Smithsonian Report, Wash-
whereas many of the publications cited in the ington, 1900, pp. 197-216.
other lists are not readily to be found." The Greatest Flying Creature. Smithsonian
Report, Washington, 1901.
S. P. LANGLEY Note of the Aerodrome of Mr. Langley. Pub-
lished in Scientific American Supplement
Experiments in Aerodynamics. Smithsonian of November 29 and December 6, 1902.
Contributions to Knowledge, Washington, Experiments with the Langley Aerodrome.
D. C, 1891. Smithsonian Report, Washington, 1904.
Experiences d'Aerodynamique. Revue, de
I'Aeronautique, Paris, 1891, pages 77-144. OCTAVE CHANUTE
Recherches Experimentales Aerodynamiques et
Donnees d'Experience. Extrait des Comptes Aerial Navigation A
lecture delivered to the
:

rendus des Seances de I'Academie des Sci- students of Sibley College, Cornell Univer-
sity, May 2, 1890. (Reprint.) The Rail-
ences t. cxiiL Seance du 13 Juillet, Paris,
1891.
road and Engineering Journal.
Recherches Experimentales Aerodynamiques et Progress in Aerial Navigation. The Engineer-
Donnees d'Experience. "L'Aeronaute," vol. ing Magazine, New York, October, 1891,
24-25, pages 176-180, Paris, 1891-1892. vol. 2, No. I.

The Possibility of Mechanical Flight. Century Aerial Navigation. Transportation, New


Magazine, New York, September, 1891, York, October, 1893, vol. i. No. 2, pp.
pages 783-785- 24-25.
Mechanical Flight. The Cosmopolitan, New Progress in Flying Machines. The Railroad
York, May, 1892. and Engineering Journal, New York, con-
The Internal Work of the Wind. Smithsonian tinued from October, 1891, to March, 1893,
Contributions to Knowledge, Washington, and from May, 1893, to December, 1893.
D. C, 1893. Progress in Flying Machines. L'Aeronaute,
Paris, 26-27, 1893-1894, pp. 221-224.
La Travail Interieur du Vent. Revue de
I'Aeronautique, Paris, 1893. Sailing Flight, parts I and 2. The Aeronautical
The Internal Work of the Wind. American Annual, 1896 and 1897, Boston, Nos. 2 and
Journal ofScience, New Haven, Conn., 3, pp. 60-76, 98-127.

January, 1894.
vol. XLVir, American Gliding Experiments. Separate-
Die innere Arbeit des Windes. (American Abdruck, Heft i, 1898, der Illustriten

Journal of Science, 1894, ser, 3, vol. xtvii, Aeronautischen Mittheilungen, pp. 1-8.
p. 41.) Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau Progress in Flying Machines. New York,
Braunschweig, 31 Marz, 1894, No. 1S99, pp. i-vi, 1-308.
13, pp.
157-160. Aerial Navigation. The Independent, New
Langley's Law. Aeronautical Annual, Boston, York, 1900, pp. 1006-1007, 1058-1060.
1895, No. I, pp. 127-128.
Experiments in Flying. McClure's Magazine,
Description du vol mecanique, Extrait des New York, vol. xv. No. 2, June, 1900.
Comptes rendus des Seances de I'Academie {Continued on page 33)
Aerial Locomotion

PI'S

cd c; o

;PQ o

^<1^^.2^
o
3° The National Geographic Magazine

The French Military Dirigible, " Patrie," in Flight


The latest French airship, "La Patrie," is 33^ feet in diameter by 196 feet long, and has a capacity of
111,195 cubic feet. Driven by a 70-horsepower motor and two propellers, this dirigible has recently
made about 30 miles an hour. Its lifting capacity is 2,777 pounds. Illustration from the 5«V«i!«>fc
Amencan

The New Deutsch Airship '

' Ville de Paris,


'

' a Strange Looking Dirigible Balloon


The peculiar arrangement of twin, hydrogen-filled cylinders forms a sort of balancing tail. This air-
ship has a length of 60 meters (196.85 feet) and a diameter of 10.8 meters (35.43 feet), while its
capacity is 3,000 cubic meters 105,943 cubic feet). Its propellers are placed on either side of the
(

body framework or " nacelle," and- at about the center of the latter, which is boat-shaped. The
weight which can be carried, outside of the equipment and the fuel sufficient for a ten hours' run,
is about 1,100 pounds. A 70-horsepower Panhard motor is used. Illustration from the Scientific
American
Aerial Locomotion 31

Count Von Zeppelin's Airship— the lyargest and Fastest Thus Far Con-
structed —
Coming Out of Its Shed and Performing Various Evolutions
Above Lake Constance

'This airship, which is 38 feet in diameter by 410 feet in length and which has a capacity of
367,120 cubic feet, held itself stationary against a 33'/^-mile-an-hour wind on January last,
by means of two 35-horsepower gasoline motors driving four propellers. The airship can
lift three tons additional to its own weight, which gives it a radius of 3,000 miles at
31
miles an hour. On October 11, 1906, Count Zeppelin maneuvered this dirigible balloon
above Lake Geneva, ascending to a heit;ht of 2,500 feet and steering the huge cigar-shaped
aerostat very nicely. The airship is mounted on floats, so that it works equally well on
the water. During one flight it remained in the air an hour and twenty minutes, although
the steering-gear was caught in the skeleton framework aud became partly unmanageable.
The attempts proved also that the airship was dirigible in spite of its great size, as several
complete circles were made while in the air. Illustrations from the Scientific American
The National Geographic Magazine

Santos-Dumont's Aeroplane
The inventor is seated on top of the basket, just ahead of the motor

The Aeroplaue making its First Successful Free Flight with its Owner in Control

The machine flew about 200 feet at an elevation of 10 feet from the ground
Illustrations from the Scienti^c American
Aerial Locomotion 33
Aerial Navigation Balloons and Flj-ing Ma-
: Nr. II der Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiffahrt
chines from an Engineering Standpoint. und Physik der Atmosphare. November,
Cassier's Magazine, New York, June, IQOI, 1893, pp. 259-272.
vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 111-123. Allgemeine Gesichtspunkte bei Herstellung und
LaNavigation Aerienne aux Etats-Unis. Anwendung von Flugapparaten, Zeitschrift
L'Aerophile, Aout, 1903, II Annee, No. 8, fiir Luftschiffahrt und Physik der Atmos-
pp. 171-183. phare. Berlin, 1894, Heft 6, pp. 143-155.
L' Aviation en Amerique. Revue Generale des Maxim's Flugmaschine, Zeitschrift fiir Luft-
Sciences, pures et appliquees, Paris, 14 schiffahrt und Physik der Atmosphare.
Annee, No. 22, November 30, 1903, pp. Berlin, 1894, Heft 10, pp. 272-273.
1133-1142. Wellner's weitere luftschrauben-Versuche,
Aeronautics. Encyclopaedia Britannica Supple- Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiffahrt und Physik
ment, London, pages 100-104, with 3 plates. der Atmosphare. Berlin, 1894, Heft 12, pp.
Aerial Navigation. Scientific American Sup-
334-336.
plement, New York, vol. 57, 1904, pp. Resultate der praktischen Segelradversuche
23598-23600. Prof. Wellner's, Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiff-
Aerial Navigation. Smithsonian Institution ahrt und Physik der Atmosphare. Berlin,
Report, 1903-1904, pp. 173-181. 1895, Heft I, pp. 25-26.
Aerial Navigation. Popular Science Monthly, Die Profile der Segelflachen und ihre Wirkung,
New York, vol. 64, 1904, pp. 385-393- Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiffahrt und Physik
Aerial Navigation. Engineering World, Chi- der Atmosphare. Berlin, 1895, Heft 2/3,
cago, August 10, 1906, vol. 4, No. 9, p. 222.
PP- 42-57-
OTTO LILIENTHAL Ueber die Ermittelung der besten Flugelfor-
men, Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiffahrt und
Der Vogelflug als Grundlage der Fliegekunst.
Physik der Atmosphare. Berlin, 1895, Heft
Berlin, 1889, pp. i-viii, 1-187, plates i-viil.
10, pp. 237-245.
Ueber Theorie und Praxis des freien Fluges.
Lilienthal's Experiments in Flying. Nature,
Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiffahrt. Berlin, X.
London, December 20, 1894, vol. 51, No.
1891, Heft 7 u. 8, pp. 153-164.
1312, pp. 177-179-
Ueber meine diesjahrigen Flugversuche. Zeit-
schrift fiir Luftschiffahrt. Berlin, 1891,
Deux Lettres de M. Otto Lilienthal. L'Aero-
naute, Paris, 27 Annee, No. 12, December,
Heft 12, pp. 286-291.
1894, PP- 267-270.
Ueber die Mechanik im Dienste der Flugtech-
Principes Generaux a Considerer dans la Con-
nik. Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiffahrt und
struction et I'emploi des appareils de vol
Physik der Atmosphare. Berlin, 1892, Heft
de M. Otto Lilienthal. L'Aeronaute, Paris,
7 u. 8, pp. 180-186.
seine Nachahmung. 27 Annee, No. 12, December, 1894, pp. 270-
Ueber den Segelflug und
274.
Zeitschrift fur Luftschiffahrt und Physik
Die Flugapparate, Berlin, 1894, Sonderabdruck
der Atmosphare. 1892, Heft 11, pp. 277-
aus Nr. 6 der Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiffahrt
281.
und Physik der Atmosphare. Berlin, 1894,
Die gewolbten FKigelflachen vor dem oestrei-
Ingenieur- und Architekten pp. 3-15.
chischen
Verein. Zeitschrift fiir Luftschiffahrt und
Les Experiences de M. Lilienthal par M. P.
Lauriol. Revue de L'Aeronautique,- 8
Physik der Atmosphare. 1893, Heft 3/4,
Annee, ire Livraison, 1895, pp. i-io.
pp. 88-90.
Practical Experiments for the Development of
Die Flugmaschinen des Mr
Hargrave. Zeit-
schrift fiir Luftschiffahrt und Physik der
Human Flight. The Aeronautical Annual,
Boston, 1896, No. 2, pp. 7-22.
Atmosphare. Berlin, 1893, Heft 5, pp.
114-118.
At Rhinow. The Aeronautical Annual, No. 3,
Boston, 1897, pp. 92-94.
Ein begeisterter Flugtechniker in Chile. Zeit-
The Best Shapes for Wings. The Aeronautical
schrift fiir Luftschiffahrt und Physik der
Annual, Boston, 1897, No. 3, pp. 95-97-
Atmosphare. Berlin, 1893, Heft 5, p. 126.
Der Kunstflug. In Taschenbuch f. Flugtech-
Zur zweiten Auflage Buttenstedts "Flugprin-
:

Luftschiffahrt und niker 2.


cip." Zeitschrift fiir
Aufl., Berlin, 1904 (313-321).
Physik der Atmosphare. Berlin, 1893, Heft
6, pp. 143-145- i„\wrEnce hargrave
. , .
, , r r
Ueber Schraubenflieger. Zeitschrift fur Luft-
schiffahrt und Physik der Atmosphare. Flying Machine Memoranda. Journal and Pro-
Berlin, 1893, Heft 9, pp. 228-230. ceedings of the Royal Society of New
Die Tragfahigkeit gewolbter Flachen beim South Wales, Sydney, 1889, vol. xxiii, part
praktischen Segelfluge, Zeitschrift fiir I, pages 70 to 74.

Luftschiffahrt und Physik der Atmosphare. On a Compressed-air Flying-machine. Journal


Berlin, 1893, Heft II, pp. 259-272. and Proceedings of the Royal Society of
Die Tragfahigkeit gewolbter Flachen beim New South Wales, Sydney, 1890, vol. xxiv,
praktischen Segelfluge, Separatabdruck aus part I, pages 52 to 57.
..
...

34. The National Geographic Magazine


Flying-Machine Work and tlie i/6 I. H. P. Hargrave's Versuche. 111. aeron. Mitt., Strass-
Steam Motor Weighing 2% lbs., (Reprint.) burg, 7, 1903 (366-370).
Journal and Proceedings of the Royal So-
ciety of New South Wales, vol. xxvi, pages A. M. HERRING
170 to 175.
Flying-Machine Work and
the 1/6 I. H. P. Dynamic Flight. Aeronautical Annual, Boston,
Steam Motor Weighing 354 lbs. Journal 1896, No. 2, pp. 89-101.
and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Recent Advances Toward a Solution of the
New South Wales, Sydney, vol. xxvi, Problem of the Century. Aeronautical
pages 170 to 175. Annual, Boston, 1897, No. 3, pp. 54-74.
On the Cellular Kite. (Reprint.) Journal and Die Regulirung von Fkigmaschinen. Zeit-
Proceedings of the Royal Society of New schrift fiir Luftschififahrt und Physik der
South Wales, vol. xxx, pages i to 4. Atmosphiire. 1899, Heft 9, pp. 205-211.
"Aeronautics." (Reprint.) Journal and Pro- Einige sehr leichte Benzin- und Dampfmotoren.
ceedings of the Royal Society of New Zeitschrift fiir Luftschififahrt und Physik
South Wales, vol xxxii, pages 55 to 65. der Atmosphare. 1899, Heft r, pp. 1-4.

List of Articles Relating to Aeronautics Published by the Smithsonian Institution

Arago, Francis Aeronautic Voyages performed with a view Report, 1863.


to the advancement of science.
Glaisher, James . . An Account of Balloon Ascensions Report, 1863.
789 Wenham, F. H On Aerial Locomotion Report, 1889.
801 Langley, S. P Experiments in Aerodynamics Cont. to Knowledge.
884 Langley, S. P The Internal Work of the Wind Cont. to Knowledge.
938 Lilienthal, Otto . . The Problem of Flying and Practical Experi- Report, 1893.
ments in Soaring.
1134 Langley, S. P Story of Experiments in Mechanical Flight. . Report, 1897.
II3S Hufifaker, E. C On Soaring Flight Report, 1897
1 149 Letters from the Andree Party Report, 1897.
1 197 Bacon, John M Scientific Ballooning Report, 1898,
1248 Count Von Zeppelin's Dirigible Air Ship Report, 1899,
1267 Janssen, J The Progress of Aeronautics Report, 1900
1268 Lord Rayleigh on Flight Report, 1900
1269 The Langley Aerodrome. (Note prepared Report, igoo.
for the conversazione of the Amer. Inst, of
Elec. Engineers, New York City, April 12,
1901.)
1270 Curtis, Thomas E. The Zeppelin Air Ship Report, 1900.
1352 Lyle, E. P., Jr Santos-Dumont Circling the Eiffel Tower in Report, 1901.
an Air Ship.
1358 Langley, S. P The Greatest Flying Creature Report, igoi.
1379 Baden-Powell, Maj. Recent Aeronautical Progress, and Deduc- Report, 1902.
B. F. S. tions to be drawn therefrom regarding the
Future of Aerial Navigation.
1380 Wright, Wilbur . . Some Aeronautical Experiments Report, 1902.
1443 Pettigrew, Jas. Bell On the Various Modes of Flight in Relation Report, 1867.
to Aeronautics.
1494 Baden-Powell, Maj. Progress with Air Ships Report, 1903.
B.
1495 Chanute, O Aerial Navigation Report, 1903.
1496 Graham Bell's Tetrahedral Kites Report, 1903.
IS97 Langley, S. P Experiments with the Langley Aerodrome. Report, 1904.
1598 von Lendenfeld, R. Relation of Wing Surface to Weight Report, 1904.
Angora Goats 35
LOWER COLORADO RIVER
SHOWING IRRIGABLE LANDS
UNITED STATES a MEXICO.

r r
ro R N I A

The Great New Lake Rising in the Salton Sink


The Colorado River isnow flowing through the Imperial Canal into the Alamo River. Nine-tenths
of the water leaves the Alamo River, however, at a point a few miles south of Sharp's Heading
and rushes into the New River, and thence down into Salton Sink. Before this break occurred
the Alamo and New Rivers were barely perceptible channels, filled with sand and sediment,
and only occasionally carrying water. As the Salton Sink is nearly 300 feet below sea-level,
the descending torrent has dug deep channels in the Alamo and New Rivers. These channels-
are preceded by huge cataracts, which are rapidly eating their way back and leaving the towns
and canals without water. On November 4, 1906, a dam over 500 feet long was completed below
Pilot Knob, which turned the river back into its old channel to the Gulf of California, but sev-
eral weeks later the water worked its way around the dam, and the entire river is once more
rushing down to the Salton Sink. The cataract in the New River is now rapidly approaching^
the Alamo, and if it once joins the Alamo, the Imperial Valley farms will be left high and dry
until they are inundated by the rising Salton Lake
THE NEW INLAND SEA =

By Mr Arthur P. Davis
Assistant Chief Engineer, U. S. Reclamation Service

MANY centuries ago the Gulf of


California extended to a point
century. At high water the river nor-
mally overflows its banks in the valley
about 150 miles northwest- regions all the way from the Grand Can-
ward from its present head. It also ex- yon to theGulf of California. In un-
tended up the present valley of the usually high water, such as occurred in
Colorado River at least to Yiuna and 1891, the overflow running into the Sal-
probably somewhat above. The Colo- ton Sink has been sufficient to materially
rado River, rising in the Wind River raise the level of the lake and overflow
Mountains of Wyoming and the Rocky the tracks of the Southern Pacific Rail-
Mountains of Colorado, carved the rocks way, which are built along its shores.
along its course and brought the result-
ing sands and mud down in its swift
the irrigating company responsible
for the break
current, discharging them into the arm
of the gulf near Yuma. As this process The ease of diverting the Colorado
went on, without cessation, century after River near the international line and con-
century, the valley was gradually filled, ducting the water through natural chan-
a delta built up, over which the river nels to the Colorado Desert for irrigation
flowed far out into the gulf. It en- has been recognized for many years, and
croached progressively upon the shores various attempts to promote this project
of the gulf until it built up a delta en- have been made from time to time, usu-
tirely across, joining the foothills of the all}', however, without success, owing to

Cocopah Mountains on the western shore. the international complications involved.


This cut off the head of the gulf, and the About 1 89 1 Mr C. R. Rockwood, a
arid climate rapidly evaporated the waters civil engineer, made plans for the con-
thus separated and left an inland depres- struction of a headgate in rock at the
sion, which at its lowest point was nearly foot of Pilot Knob, just north of the
300 feet below sea-level, f Mexican line, and of a canal to carry the
The river continued to bring down its water to the so-called Alamo River, an
load of sediment and to build its delta ancient channel of the Colorado which,
higher and force it farther into the gulf. by lapse of centuries, had been nearly
Like all such deltaic streams, the channel filled with sand and sediment. Efforts
on the top of the delta is constantly shift- to promote this project were for nearly
ing, cutting one bank, building up the 10 years unsuccessful, but finally a small
other.overflowing both banks, and during amount of money was raised, which,
high water sometimes entirel}^ abandon- however, was insufficient for the con-
ing an old channel for a new one. In this struction of the works as planned. The
way the river has from time to time flowed promoters then concluded simply to cut
into the Salton Sea for some years or the dirt banks of the river and lead the
centuries, and anon has shifted to the water by a small canal into an old chan-
eastward and discharged again into the nel, whence it flowed into the Imperial
gulf. This is the general course the Valley without additional construction.
river has followed ever since its dis- A cheap wooden headgate was built in
covery by the Spaniards in the i6th the canal near the river andwas for a
* An address to the National Geographic Society, November 23, 1906.
t It is estimated that the amount of silt carried by the Lower Colorado River is sufficient
to cover 53 square miles one foot deep with dry alluvial soil each year.
38 The National Geographic Magazine
time used in the control of the waters. 75,000 acres of land, most of which was
The water was diverted from the Alamo imder cultivation in the Imperial Valley.
channel at a point called Sharp's Head- The Southern Pacific Railroad built a
ing, just below the Mexican line, in the branch road from Old Beach through
southern edge of the Imperial Valley. Brawley, Imperial, and Holtville to Ca-
The water was led by canals over the lexico, and began building through Mex-
land to be irrigated and settlement began. ican territory from Calexico to Yuma,
The headquarters of the irrigation intending to make this the main line and
company were established at a town cut out some heavy grades now en-
called Calexico, adjoining the Mexican countered between Pilot Knob and Yuma.
line, this name being derived by sub-
stituting the first syllable of the word
THB BREAK Olf JUNE, I905
"California" for the first letter of "Mex- The large new heading in Mexico
ico." Settlers gradually came in and, maintained itself without silting through-
the valley proving to be very fertile, de- out the low-water season, but when the
velopment proceeded apace. As the de- annual flood of May arrived the larger
mand for water became greater, how- volume of water and the consecjuent in-
ever, the supply became less. The muddy crease in velocity began cutting the chan-
waters of the Colorado River, checked nel, and in June it was found that the
by their entrance into the artificial chan- volume of water running toward the Im-
nel, and still further checked by the ob- perial Valley was many times that re-
struction of the headgate, deposited their quired for irrigation and was rapidly
load of mud, and constant effort was cutting the channel wider and deeper.
necessary to keep the heading open. The By the end of August, 1905, the ma-
unsuccessful attempts to maintain the jority of the water of the Colorado River
canal heading led to its abandonment and was flowing toward the westward in-
to the cutting of a new one near by in stead of the south, and the Salton Sea
which no headgates were provided. This was rapidly rising and submerging por-
gave somewhat less trouble, but it, too, tions of the Southern Pacific Railroad
gradually began to fill and the effort at track, which were hurriedly moved to
maintenance had to be continued. Sev- higher ground.
eral new headings were cut for the same The distance from Yuma to the Gulf
reason, and serious losses occurred in of California along the general course
the Imperial Valley from shortage of of the Colorado River is about 75 miles.
water during the time when most needed, The distance to the Salton Sea is not
owing to the difficulty of getting suffi- very much greater, but the difference in
cient water into the head of the canal. elevation between the gulf and the Salton
After repeated failures of the eft'ort to Sea is about 280 feet. The gradient
maintain an open canal heading, the com- from Yuma to the gulf is about two feet
pany finally went to a point about four per mile along the windings of the river,
miles below the Mexican line, where a which is the natural gradient adopted by
greater declivity from the river bank this river under the circumstances with
could be obtained in a shorter distance, which it is beset. The channel to the
and there cut a large channel, with the Salton Sea, therefore, had more than
idea of obtaining a sufficient velocity of 200 feet surplus declivity, so that the
water to prevent the deposit of sediment water in running through that channel
in the canal heading. In this respect the was rapidly eroding its bed. It cut the
attempt proved successful, and through- gorge wider and deeper near the Salton
out the low-water season of 1904-05, Sink and formed great falls or cataracts
which occurs in winter, a large supply of in the channel. The channels near the
water was furnished through this chan- vicinity of Calexico had been so nearly
nel, sufficient for the irrigation of about obliterated with the lapse of time that
^ .s^.i f?^'\-

A Section of the Imperial Valley Which Was at First Inundated and Then Left
High and Dry by the Deepening Channel
This photograph shows how the Southern Pacific Railroad tracks were cut into and washed out
before the river found any channel or before the channel had cut any depth in the ground.
Location, 6)4 miles southeast of Calexico
40 The National Geographic Magazine
The New Inland Sea 41

the waters spread over a large area of down New River and only one-fifth down
the country, and as the quantity increased the Alamo. While this proportion was
threatened' to engulf the farms and the favorable to the regimen of the Alamo
town of Calexico. Large dikes were arid the safety of Sharp's Heading, it
hurriedly built to shut out the water, was very threatening in another respect.
and the town was thus saved from dis- It accelerated the cutting of the New
astrous inundation before the waters River channel, in which was a great
rose high enough to sweep it away. In cataract four or five miles below the
the meantime channels formed near the separation of the two streams, and this
Salton Sea, and were cutting deeper and was, of course, advancing upstream. It
deeper, the cataracts therein were ad- was well recognized that when this cata-
vancing upstream as the water under- ract reached the Alamo the channel
mined them and carried the debris into would be so deep that all of the water
the sea. As these cataracts advanced would run down New River and leave
vipstream they left below them, of course, Sharp's Heading on dry land, without
deep channels, which carried all the water any water for the irrigation of the Im-
far below the surface of the surrounding perial Valley. Threatened first with in-
country to the Salton Sea. In the early undation, and next with the destruction
part of the present year the cataract in of their entire water supply, the inhab-
New River had reached Calexico, after itants of the Imperial Valley have nat-
which, instead of threatening to overflow urally been almost in a state of panic for
this town, the water was in a gorge 45 several months.
feet below the surrounding country.
Opposite Imperial the channel of New
THE SAFETY OF $100,000,000 IN THE
River is over 80 feet in depth and that BALANCE
of the Alamo nearly as deep. The continuation of the flow of the
The large amount of water flowing- Colorado River into the Salton Sea
down the Alamo River was rapidly erod- meant the gradual inundation of the
ing this channel throughout its course. entire Imperial Valley. Whether the
Sharp's Heading is a cheap wooden struc- lake would ever rise high enough to
ture and has been for some time in im- actually flow out through Volcano Lake
minent danger of washing out, which to the Gulf of California is problemat-
would have left the canals of Imperial ical. Volcano Lake is about 30 feet
Valley without water for irrigation, above sea-level. Taking the mean an-
though domestic water might have been nual discharge of the Colorado River at
obtained with great eiTort from the deep 9,000,000 acre-feet and the evaporation
channels of the Alam.o and New rivers. at 6 feet in depth per annum, the lake
would fill in 40 to 50 years and would
THE RETREATING CATARACT flow a considerable stream perennially
The deep channel in the Alamo River, into the Gulf of California. But taking
which passed Holtville in August, was the more probable values of 8,000,000
gradually approaching Sharp's Heading, acre-feet for the mean annual inflow and
and it was recognized that when this 7 feet in depth for the mean annual evap-
cataract reached the heading it would be oration, the depression would never fill.
very difficult and expensive, and perhaps It would rise to a point 8 or 10 feet above'
impossible, to maintain that heading. sea-level and oscillate above and below
This, however, was not the only peril to this level in accordance with the fluctuat-
the water supply of the valley. The ing annual discharge of the Colorado
channel of New River had eroded to River.
such an extent that where the two Either result, however, would have
streams separated it was estimated that been destructive of enormous interests.
four-fifths of the water was runninsr It would have submerged 150 miles of

42 The National Geographic Magazine


the railroad track of the Southern Pacific company passed hands of rep-
into the
road, and would have required extensive resentatives of railroad company.
the
alterations of its alignment in the vicin- About one year ago the construction
ity of Yuma. The rapid erosion of the of a dam across the new channel
channel leading to the Salton Sea would was in progress, and strong hopes were
advance upstream slowly but surely. It entertained by the railroad people of the
has already cut the channel at Yuma two success of the attempt, when a very
or three feet below the former level. large and unexpected flood came down
This cutting would be continued until the river, which carried away the works
the 200 odd feet of excess fall in the and left the situation more threat-
channel had been distributed up the ening than ever. As soon as the water
Colorado River, eventually, perhaps, as subsided sufficiently the efforts were re-
far as The Needles. It certainly would newed and continued throughout the
have cut a deep channel up to Parker spring of 1906 without success. When
so deep that it would probably have been high water came in May the company
entirely impracticable to dam and divert was obliged to abandon its efforts until
the Colorado River at any point below after the flood season. The heavy dis-
Bill Williams Fork, and thus it would charge of the river during May, June,
have become impossible to irrigate the and July nearly all went down the Alamo
great valleys of the Colorado River. and New rivers and cut the channels
These valleys aggregate about 400,000 larger and larger. The railroad south
acres. It is estimated that there are of the Mexican line was entirely washed
300,000 acres of fertile irrigable land in away, the former site finally becoming a
the Imperial Valley and twice as much deep channel.
more in the Colorado delta in Mexico.
The lands referred to are now settled by
THE DESTRUCTIVE CATARACTS
a population of 12,000 to 15,000 people, The cataract in New River ad-
most of whom would have had to aban- vanced upstream past Calexico, took
don their homes. away some of the buildings of that town,
It may be said, therefore, that during and nearly all of the buildings of the
the past year the fate of 700,000 acres Mexican village of Mexicala, and con-
of fine irrigable land, in a semi-tropical tinued to advance eastward at a threaten-
climate, the homes of over 12,000 people, ing rate. The Alamo River cut back
and 150 miles of railroad track have been similarly, and in August, 1906, the cata-
trembling in the balance. It is impos- ract had passed the town of Holtville
sible to assign definite values to all these and caused the temporary shutting down
elements, but $100,000,000 would not be of the power plant at that place. In the
an overestimate. endeavor to prevent the destruction of
The railroad company spent immense valuable buildings and farms, the people
sums of money in repeated removals of made strenuous attempts to guide the-
its track, as the shores of the Salton Sea cutting of the water by the use of dy-
grew higher and higher, and also ex- namite to assist the cutting where it
perienced great difficulty in preventing would do less damage than if left to its-

the destruction of its bridge across the own inclinations. It not


apparent,
is
Alamo River, as the channel cut deeper however, that any great benefit resulted
and wider. The railroad company ap- from these attempts. During the high-
preciated the gravity of the situation in water season of 1906 the irrigation com-
the summer of 1905 and made a large pany made two plans for the diversion-
loan to the irrigation company for the of the destructive waters. One of these,,
purpose of damming the channel. Re- the success of which was relied upon,
peated efforts to do this were unsuccess- was the construction of large headgates
ful, and the control of the irrigation at the foot of Pilot Knob, substantially
The New Inland Sea 43
as originally planned by the engineers. it very difficult and expensive for the
It was planned to dig a channel from the railroad company to transport materials
river above these headgates large enough for this construction but, in spite of all
;

and deep enough to divert the water with- these difficulties, the officials, with com-
out very much obstruction and carry it mendable energy, poured money and men
to the Alamo River below its junction into the breach with an unstinted hand,
with the Colorado. This would leave with the determination to make this
the new channel dry and permit a dam effort successful. was recognized that
It
to be built there and levees along the the work was daily becoming more diffi-
river to close the disastrous break. This cult; the channel was cutting deeper and
work, however, required a very large deeper, and if the river were not con-
amount of excavation, estimated to cost trolled during the present low-water sea-
nearly a million dollars. The headgates son it probably never could be, as another
were built, but no sufficient machinery high-water season would cut the channel
was available for the excavation, and the so deep that, without rock foundation or
construction of a mammoth dredge was any means of holding a large structure,
undertaken at Yuma. This dredge, it would be impossible, or at least enor-

mounted upon an enormous pontoon, was mously expensive, to accomplish the work
to have a capacity of lifting about six the following or any subsequent year.
tons of material at once, and is now A railroad was built from the main line
finished and at work. to the proposed dam and continued
site
Realizing the large amount of time across the river on piling; a large camp
that would be required for this excava- was constructed and laborers assembled;
tion, and in the face of the heavy cost of huge pile-drivers and dredges were,
repeatedly moving its tracks onto higher brought to the ground, and piles were
and rockier ground along the Salton Sea, driven at intervals across the channel
the company concluded to make a pre- where it was proposed to build the dam.
liminary attempt to dam the new channel At points about 500 feet apart in the
by constructing a by-pass around the river and along the located line of the
proposed dam site, through which the trestle, two bulkheads were built, one
water could flow as the dam raised it composed mostly of rock and brush on
higher and higher. Wooden headgates the south side, and the other almost en-
were built in the by-pass, and in August tirely of fascines, on the north side. A
the construction of the dam was com- mat 100 feet long, up and down stream,
menced. was placed on the bottom between these
abutments, the piles of the trestle pin-
DESPERATi; ATTEMPTS TO REGAIN CONTROL
ning the mat to the bottom. Over part
At this period the situation looked of this mat a second mat was placed.
very gloomy every condition was un-
; Immediately after the construction of
favorable the river, instead of coming
; the railway across the river the opera-
down to its normal low water, was dis- tion of building the remaining 500 feet
charging nearly twice as much water as it of dam between the two abutments was
ordinarily does at that time of year. The begun. Steam shovels loaded 40-yard
large amount of construction in progress automatic dump cars at quarries four
in the Southwest made it extremely diffi- miles away, and train-loads of these cars
cult to obtain and keep laborers in the were run out on the trestle and dumped
hot climate and primitive surroundings into the river upon the mat. Gradually
of a construction camp. The great heat the river rose, until on October 10 the
also made ir extremely difficult to employ difference in elevation of the water above
animals to advantage in excavation or and below the dam was six feet, and
transportation of material. The heavy practically the whole river was flowing
demands made upon rolling stock made through the gates.
44 The National Geographic Magazine
The engineers in charge had detected its old channel, and since this time the
cutting in front of and below the gates, work has steadily gone on raising the
and in anticipation of their failure had dam and riprapping its upstream and
built a trestle across the river above the down stream slope.
gates, with the intention of dumping in Great credit is due to Mr Epes Ran-
enough rock to partially close the gates dolph, general manager, and Mr H. T.
and relieve the situation there. At 3.15 Corey, engineer in charge, for the energy
on Thursday, October 11, a large part of and skill with which this work was han-
this gate, known as the Rockwood gate, dled.
went out. The river rapidly scoured a
deep channel, lowering the surface of
HOW SOON WILL THB LAKU DRY UP?
the water above the dam until there was The area of the present Salton Sea is
only a difference in elevation of about over 400 square miles, and its depth
three feet. Work was immediately be- about 90 feet. If the river discharges no
gun on repairing the trestle below the water into the sea, it will probably dry
gates, which had been injured both by up in about 10 or 12 years.
the increased flow and by the timber Levees must be built along the entire
carried away from the gate. From all western bank of the Colorado River
the available quarries within a radius of from Pilot Knob to high ground far into
from three to four hundred miles, rock Mexico, probably 15 to 20 miles, be-
was hurried to this point and dumped cause if high water ever overflows this
rapidly from the lower trestle. At the river again and reaches the deep channel
same time the trestle which had been which now exists there, it will rapidly
started above the gates was strength- erode the channel back to the river and
ened, and as soon as it was in shape cars the disaster of 1905 will be repeated.
were run out on that and rock dumped In order to prevent the Imperial Valley
in. In the meantime part of the material being deprived of water for irrigation, it
that had been dumped between the two is necessary to build a new canal from

abutments in the river and over which the headgates at Pilot Knob to the chan-
the overflow had taken place was re- nel of the Alamo River. This can doubt-
moved and gradually the channel through less be completed in a few months, and
the Rockwood gate was filled up. some water is already flowing through
When this was entirely filled, so as to the old Imperial Canal, which is approxi-
throw the entire flow of the river over mately along the same line, so there is
the central portion of the dam, the fill- no danger to the people of the Imperial
ing of this portion was again resumed. Valley.
Large blocks of granite weighing sev- Some persons have suggested that the
eral tons, as well as smaller material, was existence of the Salton Sea during the
hauled out as rapidly as trains could past year has had a tremendous effect
bring it and gradually the gap was upon the climate in that vicinity in
closed. Arizona, and even as far east as Texas
The river during all this time did not and New Mexico. Much publicity has
go below about 9,000 second-feet, adding been given to this idea, it having been
materially to the difficulties expected. caught up by newspapers as something
On November i there was an eleven- worthy of a story.
foot difference in the elevation between The absurdity of any such idea may be
the water below and above the dam and inferred when we notice that only a
about one-half the water in the Colorado short distance to the southward of the
was going down its old channel. By Salton Sea occurs the great inland Gulf
noon of November 4 the dam was high of California, which is hundreds of times
enough so that practically the entire flow larger than the Salton Sea, and yet there
of the Colorado River was returned to is no very marked influence upon the
Cutting Work of the New River
This photograph shows how the Mexican town called Mexicala was partly destroyed by the New
River cutting into the town at this point
Cut and washed banks in the big bend of the New River, 5 miles northwest of the town of Imperial,
California. These banks are from 60 to So feet in height and are constantly caving into the river
bed and washing away, consequently widening the river and cutting back onto the farm lands
The Great Salton Sea, 205 Feet Below Sea-level at this Point, Near the Salton
Station on the Southern Pacific Railroad

Brush dam at the head works of the California Development Company's dam in the Colorado River,
just below the old river bed
The New Inland Sea 47

\f,.
48 The National Geographic Magazine
climate. Besides being so much larger, CONDITIONS WORSE THAN BEFORE
the Gulf of California is somewhat nearer
Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas and
A few days after this address was de-
is separated from them by fewer moun-
livered, the Colorado River worked its
tain chains. If any influence could be way around the dam, which had been
exercised by the Salton Sea, hundreds built at cost of so much labor and money,
or even thousands of times as much in- and plunged on again to the Salton Sink.
fluence would be exercised by the gulf The flow of water has been unusually
itself; yet no such influence can be de- great for this time of year, which compli-
tected in that vicinity. cates the situation. The cataract of the
Those who hold to this idea apparently New River has now advanced a long way
ignore or neglect the fact that the same
above Mexicala and is rapidly approach-
causes that have led to the creation of
ing the Alamo. If the cataract once joins
the Salton Sea have led to the cutting
the Alamo the entire Imperial Valley will
down of the bed of the Colorado River
and the prevention of its normal annual be cut off from water, and left high and
overflow at Yuma and all points below dry until the new Salton Lake has risen
there. The great delta, therefore, which sufficiently to inundate the entire region.
is annually overflowed under normal con- Some perplexing questions as to who is
ditions has received no such overflow responsible for the damages will arise,
since the river has been running into the for the company whose carelessness
Salton Sea, at least during the past high- caused the break is chartered under the
water season, and this fact itself would laws of Mexico, while all the capital and
counteract any influence that might have all the stockholders are American. The
been exerted by the evaporation from the break, furthermore, occurred in Mexican
surface of the Salton Sea. territory.
Climate is the result of great cosmic The Southern Pacific Railway is mak-
influences so great and extensive that ing herculanean efforts to turn back the
the Salton Sea would be a negligible river, but the situation has become very
quantity beside them. desperate.

KOBEKl LFEAR^- >^ i

R.Arctic Lxplorations J
Far [HI bi NowTK -fy

The Hubbard Medal of the National Geographic Society, the First Award of
Which was Made to Commander Peary December 15, 1906
,

Honors to Peary 49
Not only the people in the Imperial ing backward at the rate of one-third of
Valle)' are threatened, but also the La- a mile a day. If not checked it will reach
guna Dam above Yuma, which has been and destroy the Laguna Dam, and ulti-
built at a cost of one million dollars. The mately deprive of water every farm along
great cataract, which resembles Niagara the Colorado River up to the Grand Can-
Falls and is 1,500 to 1,800 yards wide yon, causing a damage of approximately
and has a fall of 90 to 100 feet, is work- one billion dollars.

HONORS TO PEARY
An account of the presentation of the Hubbard Medal to Commander
Robert B. Peary, U. S. Navy, by President Roosevelt, on behalf of the National
Geographic Society, at the annual dinner of the Society, December 15, 1906, with
the congratulatory addresses of President Roosevelt, the Italian Ambassador
and the Secretary of the Navy, and Mr Peary's responses.

ABOUT 400 members and


Geographic
of the National
guests
So-
from 7 to 7.30, after which the company
adjourned to the banquet hall. After an
ciety united to pay honor to invocation by Dr Edward Everett Hale,
Commander Robert E. Peary, U. S. Chaplain of the U. S. Senate, the guests
Navy, on the occasion of the annual ban- took the places assigned to them at the
quet of the Society, December 15, 1906. twelve long tables, which had been deco-
Ten nations were represented by mem- rated by Small & Sons. The U. S. Ma-
bers of the diplomatic corps and 20 states rine Band played throughout the dinner.
by Senators and Representatives. A President Roosevelt arrived after the din-
number of members came from New ner had been served and while Dr Cook
York and Philadelphia to attend. The was speaking.
feature of the evening was the presenta- The firsttoast of the evening was
tion of the Hubbard Medal to Mr Peary drunk to the President of the United
by President Roosevelt on behalf of the States, and while the guests were stand-
Society. The medal was specially struck ing the toastmaster. President Moore,
for the occasion, being made by Tiffany asked all to join in a moment of silent
& Co., of New York, under the direction memorial to the first President of the
of Mr George F. Kunz, a member of the Society, Gardiner Greene Hubbard.
Society. On one side it bears the seal of In his introductory remarks President
the Society, and on the reverse the fol- Moore called attention to the fact that
lowing inscription "The Hubbard Medal,
: the National Geographic Society num-
awarded by the National Geographic So- bered in its ranks the best men of the
ciety to Robert E. Peary for arctic ex- best nations of the world. He declared
ploration. Farthest north, 87° 6'. De- that there were present at the dinner
cember 15, 1906." A blue sapphire star, some of the men who had achieved the
from Montana, marks the point of far- greatest discoveries in science, the great-
thest north attained by Mr Peary. est lawmakers, the highest representa-
The members were received in the tives of the church. He said that from
parlors of the New Willard by the Presi- small beginnings the Society had grown
dent of the National Geographic Society until it now numbered 18,000 members,
and Mrs Moore, Commander Peary (ill- and he added "We are not modest in
:

ness prevented Mrs Peary from being our ambitions ; we wish to know all about
present), and the Secretary of the Navy, the earth, and the waters under the
— —

50 The National Geographic Magazine


earth, and the heavens above the earth." In the fields of science, there is no
Briefly, he recapitulated some of the place for low feelings ;in the competi-
triumphs achieved by members of the tion for the conquest of the globe, there
Society, explorations in the South Pacific, is no sentiment of envy. All work for
in darkest Africa, and the farthest north. humanity. I am therefore happy to trib-
He recalled that in the year 1882 the far- ute, on behalf of the Italians, to you,
thermost point in the arctic regions was Commander Peary, to your courageous
reached by an officer and founder of the and faithful followers, to your intrepid
National Geographic Society General — companion, Mrs Diebitsch Peary, the
A. W. Greely, who held the much-cov- most sincere expression of our deep,
eted prize for fourteen years, when it was warm, and heartfelt admiration.
wrested from him by that hardy Norse-
man, Nansen. He in turn was eclipsed COMMANDER PEARy'S ACKNOWLEDGMENT
TO THE ITALIAN AMBASSADOR
by the Duke of Abruzzi, and it had re-
mained for Commander Peary, of Amer- Mr Ambassador, I deeply value your
ica, to rob Italy of her well-won honors. kindly words. Coming from the illus-
As the representative of the Duke of trious representative of the country which
Abruzzi's country was present, he would claims Abruzzi and Cagni, they are
ask him to respond to the toast "Con- :
doubly prized. The fact that such names
gratulations from Italy on America's far- as Abruzzi, Cagni, Nansen, Greely, and
thest north." Parr)'- are indelibly inscribed upon the
white disk close to the Pole, shows con-
BY THE ITALIAN AMBASSADOR, BARON
clusively, if anything were needed to
MAYOR DE PLANCHES
show it, that these efforts to solve the
Mr President, Ladies and Gentlemen: northern mystery represent the biggest,
I beg to express, before all, my best cleanest, most manly example of friendly
thanks to the National Geographic So- international rivalry that exists.
ciety for the kind invitation I received It is a magnificent galaxy of flags that
from it to attend this solemn assembly. has been planted around the Pole, and
Solemn, not only in the etymological when eventually some one of them shall
acceptance of the word sole in anno — reach the Pole itself, it will add to its
but in its largest extent, because you are own luster without in any way detract-
here gathered not only for your annual ing from the luster of the others or leav-
banquet, but to celebrate a great deed and ing any sense of injury or humiliation in
a great man. its wake.
An Italian, a son of our ancient and The
fact that 3'ears of experience have
illustrious royal family, a prince who is enabled me to plant the Stars and Stripes
at the same time a true seaman, held for nearer the Pole than the colors of Italy
several years the record of the farthest in no way lessens D'Abruzzi's honors or
latitude in the arctic regions. This record his magnificent feat. It causes no sur-
is now yours, Commander Peary. With prise on our part when Norsemen,
what energy, with what almost super- Britons, and Yankees seek the rigors of
human endurance, you obtained it, is the north but when a son of the south,
:

world-wide known, and I am sure that of sunny Italy, strikes swiftest and deep-
the Duke of Abruzzi, so high-minded as est into the mystery of the frozen north,
he is, applauds the triumph of his glori- we recognize that it is the hand, heart,
ous emulator. Nobody was more worthy and head that do things in this world, re-
of success than you. Commander Peary gardless of race, or climate, or other con-
you, an American, you a veteran, a young ditions.
veteran, indeed, of the war against the Abruzzi has always had my warmest
mysterious powers that jealously defend admiration, not only for his own per-
the approach of the Pole. sonal attributes and the fact that what
: ;

Honors to Peary 51

he sets his hand to do he does, whether From Mr Morris K. Jesup, the Presi-
it be in the frozen north, or in the heart dent of the Peary Arctic Club who has
of Africa, but because he presents, as I largely borne the expense, with some few
remarked on the occasion of the award of his friends of the Arctic Club, of send-
to him of the great gold medal of the ing this magnificent expedition, com-
American Geographical Society in New manded by our august explorer. Com-
York, such a shining example to the mander Peary, we have just received the
gilded youth of unbounded means in this following telegram
and other countries who have no higher
"To the National Geographic Society, Wash-
ambition than to possess the fastest auto- ington, D. C:
mobile or to win the blue ribbon at some "Very much regret being unableto be pres-
fleeting horse or dog show, when they ent this evening at your banquet for Peary.
might, like Abruzzi, devote their time, He is worthy and entitled to all the honor that
his country can bestow.
their abilities, and their money to adding
"MoKRis K. Jesup."
to the of human knowledge.
sum
One thing have I envied him, and that The next toastthe "United States
is
is the power that when he sees something Navy." What man is there whose breast
in the world of exploration which he does not swell with pride when he thinks
feels ought to be done he can put his of the achievements of the United States
hands in his pocket and go and do it, —
Navy from the flag that Paul Jones first
without wasting the greater portion of unfurled to the fighting breezes until we
his gray matter in raising the sinews of come down to our own contemporary
war, and thus being compelled to enter men, Dewey, Sampson, and our own be-
upon the work almost exhausted in mind loved Schley! The navy has had much
and body. I trust he may long continue to do besides the manning of ships of
to win new honors for his country, and war. It has explored the ocean depths,
should he or any other in the near future it has marked the boundary Hues of
better the record or reach the Pole itself, islands, and it has sent great expeditions
our hands shall be extended in warmest into the north. So our navy has done
congratulation to one whom we shall much that we can be proud of, and it is
know is a man. highly appropriate that a toast should be
given tonight to the United States Navy
ANNOUNCEMENT BY PRESIDENT MOORE OF and who is more worthy to respond to
THE ELECTION OF GEORGE DEWEY, that toast, and who better illustrates in
ROALD AMUNDSEN, AND MORRIS K. his own light and his own achievements
JESUP AS HONORARY MEMBERS the best that there is in American citi-
The National Geographic Society has zenship than Charles J. Bonaparte.
for honorary members President Roose-
velt, Nansen, the Duke of Abruzzi, THE UNITED STATES NAVY, BY HON.
Grover Cleveland, Robert E. Peary, and CHARLES J. BONAPARTE
Prince Roland Bonaparte, the latter di- Mr President, Ladiesand Gentlemen:
viding the honor of relationship with one Before speaking of the toast to which
of the distinguished members of the Cab- I am asked to respond, I wish to express
inet of the The Board of
United States. our gratitude to our friend and special
Managers of the National Geographic guest this evening, not merely for not
Society has recently elected as honorary having found, but having come pretty
members Admiral George Dewey, who near finding the Pole, but also for having
has had something to do with the geog- solved in his speech this evening one of
raphy of the world; Roald Amundsen, those problems which at present are per-
who has recently completed the North- plexing the souls of the more thought-
west Passage, and Morris K. Jesup, ful among the American people. We
President of the Peary Arctic Club. want to know what we shall do with our
;

52 The National Geographic Magazine


multi-millionaires. I was in a great deal are the worthy representatives, gives to
of doubt on that subject myself until that branch of its public service the sup-
I heard the speech to which we last port in sympathy, in appreciation, and
listened. Now the solution has been money which it deserves from any coun-
cleared. We ma)' send the young ones try which has sense enough to know
to the North Pole and the old ones can when it has a good thing and ought to
pay for getting there. keep it.

Now, ladiesand gentlemen, I have been It is difficult for a Secretary of the


asked to respond to the toast "The Navy who has not outgrown all desire
American Navy." I hope that many of to have country show itself worthy
his
you will often attend many of the ban- of the good fortune that a kind Provi-
quets of the National Geographic So- —
dence has given it it is difficult for such
ciety. It will be my very undeserved a Secretary to avoid feeling some un-
good fortune if I am so happy as to be philosophic indignation at the want of
with you at more than one of them, but appreciation of the immense value of
surely this is the only chance that I will this great factor of our nation's honor
ever have to answer to this toast, for the and safety and the peace of the world
navy is about to get rid of the least which I see every day in the exponents
worthy element in it; and it is only by of public opinion around us. I, however,
taking advantage of the few hours of do not propose, in the funeral oration to
very undeserved honor that remains to which I have already referred, to dwell
me that I am qualified for answering, as on the shortcomings of the world in gen-
I am about to answer this evening.* eral and America in particular, in its
The navy in rendering the service it failure to fully appreciate the merits and
has always rendered to our coitntry has sacrifice of its seamen, but I wish to ask
aided in many things. Solving these of you all to use the legitimate influence
mysteries of the northern wilderness to which each one of you has, and which all
which our attention has already been of you have so much in this community,
called, however important in itself, is to enable your fellow-citizens to under-
after all only a part of the duty which the stand, as I feel sure you understand, how
navy has to render, and only a part of important it is to the dignity, the use-
the claim which it has on the gratitude fulness to mankind, and the self-respect
and admiration of its countrymen; for I of' the American people that it should
may say with a good grace, since no one treat its navy as that navy deserves to be
will think that I am entitled to any of treated and as the interests of the country
the credit which I claim for it, that it demand.
has always been ready under all circum- In the first place, let us all understand
stances and at all times to do its duty that by having this safeguard of our
and what more can any one claim? peace and independence and needed na-
I am about to leave the navy, and I tional existence we are spared enormous
therefore feel that I may take advantage burdens borne by less favored nations,
of your ill-judged kindness in calling and of which we cannot even appreciate
upon me to deliver a sort of funeral ora- the weight, so little have we reason to
tion of the involuntary suicide which I fear. In the next place, let us under-
am about to make. I will endeavor to stand that these men, who are ready to
praise only what is worthy of praise, and serve us in all contingencies, and amid
to call your attention not to the unim- all dangers, and at the cost of all sacri-
portant matter of who signs the navy's fice, deserve to be regarded by their fel-
mail, but to the really important matter low-countrymen as worthy at least of
of whether this country, of which you gratitude and respect.
* The speaker became Attorney General of I saw the other day in one of our news-
the United States December 17, 1906. papers a comment, and I may say criti-
Honors to Peary 53
cism,on my annual report, in that I and expresses
officers of the service, feels
showed too much warmth at the discrim- indignation at such treatment for such
ination, the insulting discrimination, men, for such service, I say that is no
shown in certain parts of this country ground for observation that he grows
against the uniform of our sailors. Now, hot over trifles.
ladies and gentlemen, let me detain you Again, I ask of you to use your influ-
two or three minutes by enabling you, ence, the influence which each one of you
as intelligent and public-spirited men and has, in such circles as he or she fre-
women, to understand what is meant by quents, to make the people of the United
the discussion on that subject, for if you States understand how grave a thing it
understand it, that is all that any one is to hamper the development of this

can ask. Our ships are manned in great branch of the national defense, when you
majority by young men from the farms must know that in its keeping is the
and homes of our country, men between safety of our country from perils too
eighteen and twent}'-five years boys, — serious to be lightly mentioned, and yet
most of us would be disposed to call which are often inexcusably forgotten.

them who are not the old nomadic cos-
THE TOASTMASTER
mopolitan sailors of former days, but are
men who respect themselves, and who Watts gave to us the steam-engine,
desire the respect of others, and who look Fulton the steamboat, Morse the tele-

forward I do not deny that there are graph, and finally Bell the telephone.
black sheep in every lot, and some in Probably no man has done more to link

these to becoming useful and respected humanity together, to make us all one
members of society. These boys are kin, than he who has solved the great
away, isolated from all amusements, lead- problem of sending the beautiful modu-
ing a monotonous life on ships for lations of the human voice over a metallic
months at a time, and when they return circuit. Our Society was honored by
to port and are given the opportunity to having that man for its President, and if
do what every young thing wants to do, I could express and enforce my own opin-
kick up its heels, and have the inclina- ion and that of the members of the Na-
tion which it is perfectly natural and per- tional Geographic Society, he would still
fectly laudable of men of their age and be the President of the National Geo-
surroundings to have, to be rewarded for graphic Society. We
love him, and I am
this long period of monotonous isolation going to introduce him now to say a few
by a certain amount of amusement and words and to have him introduce Dr
distraction —
these men have, in too many Cook, not because we need him to wake
parts of our country, all reputable sources things up, but I want you to see him,
of amusement and relaxation closed to Alexander Graham Bell.
them for no other reason than that they
are clothed in the garments which show
REMARKS BY DR ALEXANDER GRAHAM BEEL
that they are serving their country. And Mr President, Ladies and Gentlemen:
what are the consequences? That, ex- I am
indeed proud of this gathering of
cluded from the places where they might the members of the National Geographic
be amused innocently and creditably, they Society, and to think that I once had the
are driven into haunts of vice, with the honor of being your President. I re-
consequences that would naturally fol- member well when the mantle of your
low. It is not a trifling matter it is a
; first President, Mr Hubbard, fell on my
matter of which any community which shoulders, and we looked at this little
endures it has every reason to be seed that he helped plant. Could we ever
ashamed and when the Secretary of the
; suppose it could grow into the great
Navy, in company with the President of national organization that we have today ?
the United States and with all prominent That little seed! And yet I can still re-
54 The National Geographic Magazine
member when we congratulated ourselves mountains of the world. The country to
upon a thousand members but today we
; the east was entirely unknown, and the
number eighteen thousand members this ; country to the west but roughly outlined.
little seed has grown into a tree and cov- A venture to ascend this mountain must
ers the whole world wherever Americans
; therefore assume the 'responsibilities of
are, there we find members of the Na- an exploring enterprise and be prepared
tional Geographic Society. for all kind of difficulties.
But I have been asked to say a few Three years ago, as Commander Peary
words about a man who must be known was preparing for his assault upon the
by name, at least, to all of us, Dr Fred- North Pole, I organized an expedition to
erick A. Cook, President of the Ex- ascend Mount McKinley from the west.
plorers' Club, New York. We have had In this we failed, but we carried a line
with us, and are glad to welcome, Com- of exploration through and around the
mander Peary, of the Arctic regions, but range.
in Dr Cook we have one of the few Last spring I organized another ex-
Americans, if not the only Am^^rican, pedition upon a similar general plan. My
who has explored both extremes of tlie chief companions were Prof. H. C.
world, the Arctic and the Antarctic re- Parker, Russell W. Porter, Belmore H.
gions. And now he has been to the top Browne, and Edward Barrille. We took
of the American continent, and therefore twenty pack horses from Seattle for our
to the top of the world, and tonight I difficult cross-country transportation, and
hope Dr Frederick Cook will tell us for the river we built a powerful motor
something about Mount McKinley. boat.

THE TOP OF NORTH AMERICA, BY DR P. .V.


We reached Cook Inlet early in June.
COOK During June and July we forded and
swam icy streams, pushed through thick
Mr Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen- underbrush, and over gloomy marshes,
I would prefer to tell you tonight of the only to find that the part of the mountain
splendid achievement of Commander which we finally reached was impossible
Peary and of the noble charact-; of the for an ascent.
man who has succeeded in pushing hu- A good deal of pioneer work was done
man endeavor to the utmost limit of en- at this time, but the opportunity to make
durance, all with the unselfish motive of an attempt to climb did not present itself
carrying the honor and the flag of his until early in September, after all hope of
country to the farthest north but your mountaineering had been abandoned.
chairman has put me to the task of get- The launch was pushed up the Susetna
ting to the top of our continent. and the Chulitna rivers to the east of
In the conquest of Mount McKinley Mount McKinley. From here with two
success was mostly due to our use of the men I aimed to explore a route for a
working equipment of polar explorers, future ascent.
and among polar explorers Commander We left the boat and with our camp
Peary has worked hardest to reduce the equipment and instruments in rush sacks
outfit to its utmost simplicity. Thus in- we started for the mountain. In an air
directly to Commander Peary should fall line we were forty miles from the summit,
a part of the honor of scaling the arctic and from our position we noted three
slopes of our greatest mountain. possible lines of ascent. A large glacier
Mount McKinley is in mid-Alaska. It which we had previously discovered of-
is 20,300 feet high. Its summit pierces fered us here a highway through the
the frigid blue one thousand feet above giant foothills. In three days we were
any other mountain on the North Ameri- against the main slope of the great moun-
can continent. It is, then, the top of our tain ; but here our difficulties began.
continent and the most arctic of the bis: I was fortunate enough to have two
;

Honors to Peary 55
loyal supporters, Barrille and Dokkin. to cliffs, always gaining a little altitude
Barrille was chosen as my
sole companion and rising farther and farther into
for the upper work, while Dokkin was cloudland, with awful cold and stormy
its
instructed to place a line of caches along agitation. The day was a long one.
the glacier. It was now September ii, Without food or drink, with little rest or
winter was advancing rapidly snow cov-
; relief from awe-inspiring excitement, we
ered all the foothills down to 2,000 feet, ascended until about 7 p. m. Here, on a
and frosty storms must be expected. We cornice, we built a snow house and
had explored the first glacier, which was within we found rest and comfort, amid
our main mission at this time, but the cloud and storms.
route to the summit was as uncertain and The day after the sun again broke
seemingly impossible as ever, but on the through the clouds of snow for a few
morrow we resolved to make a vigorous brief moments. We noted the bright,
trial. snowy slopes of Mount McKinley with
Our was pitched on the glacial
silk tent less fearand more courage. We were
ice. We pemmican, drank tea, and
ate at 12,000 feet, and but one difficult cliff
put down hard bread while a strong wind barred the way to the summit, and we re-
was rushing down from the gulches of solved at all hazards to find a way around
the big mountain. Huge black clouds this barrier. The way proved, however,
were so low that we could almost touch a long one. For two days we chopped
them, and through them rushed soul- steps, dragged each other over dangerous
stirring avalanches; great boulders of ice cornices and slippery rocks, and as we
rock and ice, followed by a hiss, a gust had conquered this impediment we rose
of wind, tons of snow, explosive noises, out of the cloud world of storm into a
and the entire range quivered as from an region of silence and serenity. Above
earthquake. The noise of the cracking were the easy slopes of the top below, a
;

glaciers increased with the advancing chaos of cliff and spire, a maze of crags
night, but the avalanches decreased, the and grottos, with clouds wildly sweeping
clouds brightened, and at dawn the giant the slopes.
slopes of Mount McKinley loomed up in We had now risen to nearly 15,000
the blue twilight, sharp, steep, pointing feet before we could assure ourselves that

heavenward so far up so inconceivably an ascent along our chosen route was pos-
high that it took our breath as we tried sible. We were chilled to the marrow
to estimate the task of climbing. I never and our forces were about exhausted.
felt so small and the sky never seemed so Would we push on to the summit or
distant. We
were shivering as we melted return? We agreed to push to the sum-
ice for tea and ate pemmican, but as the mit. It was our sixth day on the climb,
sun burst over the icy spires, and a mil- and we estimated that another long day
lion reflecting surfaces threw piercing would place us on the summit. But now
rays from slope to slope we warmed up our legs were heavy, our packs like lead
to our enterprise. we were heaving for breath, with icicles
The bright blaze of this sunburst re- forming on our mustaches and hearts
mained with us long enough to get thumping like a gas engine in trouble.
started into a maze of blue crags and Two thousand feet was all we could put
gloomy granite cliffs. We
were aiming to our credit on the seventh day but, ;

to get to the north arete for our day's starting early in the morning of the i6th
task. Cloud after cloud drifted on us, of September, we began the last weary
and each cloud was preceded and fol- climb. It was hard to lift one foot above
lowed by a brief blast of icy wind. Hour another but the slope was easy, and with
;

after hour we dug our feet and hands much forced effort we made a few hun-
into the snow in desperate effort to get dred paces, leaned over our ice axes,
from crevass to crevass, from grottos puffed a few minutes, and then went
56 The National Geographic Magazine
farther. We dropped on a snow slope man who by his achievements makes it

a few hundred feet below the summit evident that in some of the race, at least,
and tried to rest, while we gasped for there has been no loss of hardier virtues.
breath; but the piercing air chilled us; I said some loss of the hardier virtues.
and so, with knees bent, and back bent, We will do well to recollect that the very
and chests laboring like bellows, we word virtue, in itself, originally signifies
digged one foot after another over the courage and hardihood. When the Ro-
big blocks of granite at the top. The man spoke of virtue he meant that sum

summit at last the top of the continent. of qualities that we characterize as man-
Our North Pole had been reached. To liness.
an ice flag was attached, and
axe the I emphatically believe in peace and all
Barrille stood on the brink, as near the kindred virtues. (Applause.) But
heaven as he ever expects to get and live. I think that they are only worth having
We had been eight days in ascending, but if they come as a consequence of pos-

we remained only twenty minutes. It sessing the combined virtues of courage


would, however, take me several hours and hardihood. So I feel that in an age
to tell you what we saw. This I will re- which naturally and properly excels, as it
serve for a future occasion. should excel, in the milder and softer
qualities, there is need that we should
THE TOASTMASTER
not forget that in the last analysis the

The National Geographic Society is
safe basis of a successful national char-
honored by the presence of the Chief acter must rest upon the great fighting
Executive of the United States. virtues, and those great fighting virtues
The Board of Managers of the Na- can be shown quite as well in peace as
tional Geographic Society, representing, in war.
as was said earlier in the evening, They can be shown work of the
in the
eighteen thousand members, widely scat- philanthropist, in the work
of the scien-
tered over the civilized world, have by tist, and, most emphatically of all, in the
unanimous vote ordered that a handsome work of the explorer, who faces and over-
gold medal be presented to Commander comes perils and hardships which the
Robert E. Peary for distinguished average soldier never in his life knows.
service in exploration, and for having In war, after all, it is only the man at the
reached the farthest north, 87 degrees very head who is ever lonely. All the
and 6 minutes. Because of the many others, from the subordinate generals
distinguished achievements that stand to down through the privates, are cheered
his own personal credit, to add honor to and sustained by the sense of companion-
that medal, we are proud of having it ship and by the sense of divided respon-
presented by the President of the United sibility.
States with his own hands. You (turning to Commander Peary),
ADDRESS BY PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT
the man whom we join to honor to-
Mr Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: months

night you, who for months in and
out, year in and year out, had to
Icount myself fortunate in having face perils and overcome the greatest
been asked to be present this evening at risks and difficulties, with resting on
such a gathering and on behalf of such a your shoulders the undivided responsi-
society, to pay a tribute of honor to an bility which meant life or death to you
American who emphatically deserves well —
and your followers you had to show in
addition what the modern commander
of the commonwealth. (Applause.) Civ-
ilized people usually live under conditions with his great responsibility does not
of life so easy that there is a certain ten-
dency to atrophy of the hardier virtues. moral

have to show you had to show all the
qualities in war, together with
And it is a relief to pay signal honor to a other qualities. You did a great deed, a
Honors to Peary SI
deed that counted for all mankind, a deed reached; that the result of the last ex-
which reacted credit upon you and upon pedition is to show the unavailability
your country, and on behalf of those of dogs and sledges and of the route fol-
present, and speaking also for the mil- lowed; that there are better methods for
lions of your countrymen, I take pleasure attaining the Pole than by dogs and
in handing you this Hubbard Medal, and sledges that the discovery of the Pole is
;

in welcoming you home from the great not a matter of any value or interest, are
feat which you have performed. Com- equally erroneous.
mander Peary. (Prolonged applause.) The result of the last expedition of the
Peary Arctic Club has been to simplify
RESPONSE TO THE PRESIDENT BY COM- the attainment of the Pole fifty per cent,
MANDER PEARY and to accentuate the fact that man and
President Roosevelt: Eskimo dog are the only two mechanisms
capable of meeting all the varying contin-
In behalf of the Peary Arctic Club and
gencies of Arctic work, and that the
its president, Morris K. Jesup, I beg to
American route to the Pole and the meth-
express our deep appreciation of the
ods and equipment which have been
great honor conferred by the National
brought to a high state of perfection are
Geographical Society in this award of its the best for attaining that object.
gold medal, and the double honor of re- Had the past winter been a normal
ceiving this medal from the hand of
season in the arctic region and not, as
President Roosevelt.
it was, a particularly open one through-
Your continued interest, Mr President, out the Northern Hemisphere, I should
and permission to name the club's ship have won the prize. And even if I had
after you, has been most deeply valued
known before leaving the land what ac-
by the club, and your name has proved a tual conditions were to the northward,
powerful talisman. Could I have fore- as I know now, I could have so modified
seen this occasion it would have lightened my route and my disposition of sledges
many dark hours but I will frankly say
;
that I could have reached the Pole in spite
that it would not, for it could not, have of the open season.
increased my efforts. Another expedition following in mv
The true explorer does his work not steps and profiting by my experience can
for any hope of rewards or honor, but not only attain the Pole; it can secure
because the thing he has set himself the remaining principal desiderata in the
to do is a part of his very being, and arctic regions, namely, a line of deep-sea
must be accomplished for the sake of soundings through the central Polar
accomplishment, and he counts lightly Ocean, and the delineation of the un-
hardships, risks, obstacles, if only they known gap in the northeast coast line of
do not bar him from his goal. Greenland from Cape Morris Jesup to
To me the final and complete solu- Cape Bismarck. And this work can be
tion of the Polar mystery which has done in a single season.
(engaged the best thought and interest As regards the belief expressed by
of the best men of the most vigorous some, that the attainment of the North
and enlightened nations of the world Pole possesses no value or interest, let
for more than three centuries, and to- me say that should an American first of
day quickens the pulse of every man or all men place the Stars and Stripes at that
woman whose veins hold red blood, is coveted spot, there is not an American
the thing which should be done for the citizen at home or abroad, and there are
honor and credit of this country, the millions of us, but what would feel a
thing which it is intended that I should little better and a little prouder of being
do, and the thing that I must do. an American; and just that added in-
Assertions that the Pole cannot be crement of pride and patriotism to mil-
The National Geographic Magazine
lions would of itself be ten times the Dr Frederick A. Cook
value of all the cost of attaining the Pole.
Mr Emory R. Johnson, President Geographi-
cal Society of Philadelphia,and Mrs Johnson
President Roosevelt, for nearly four Mrs Hobson
centuries the world dreamed of the union Commander and Mrs Key
of the Atlantic and the Pacific. You have The counselor of the Japanese Embassy and
planted the Stars and Stripes at Panama
Madame Miyaoka
The Minister of Colombia and Madame
and insured the realization of that dream. Cortes
For over three centuries the world has The Minister of Norway and Madame
dreamed of solving the mystery of the Hauge
The Minister of Ecuador and Madame Carbo
north.
The Charge d' Affaires of Spain
Tonight the Stars and Stripes stand Mr Frederick Courtland Penfield, formerly
nearest to that mystery, pointing and Minister to Egypt
beckoning. God willing, I hope that Mrs George Kennan
your administration may yet see those Mr and Mrs Tilden
Dr Theodore LeBoutillier, Secretary of Geo-
Stars and Stripes planted at the Pole graphical Society of Philadelphia
itself. For between these two great Dr Anita Newcomb McGee
logical cosmic boundaries, Panama to the Judge Martin A. Knapp, President Interstate
Commerce Commission
south and the North Pole to the north, Commerce
Judge- Clark, of the Interstate
lies the heritage and the future of that Commission
giant whose destinies you guide today, Representative Grosvenor, of Ohio, and Mrs
the United States of America. Grosvenor
General George M. Sternberg
The committee of arrangements for the Mr and Mrs Herbert Wadsworth
dinner consisted of
Mr and Mrs Hennen Jennings
The Bishop of Washington
Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Chairman O. P.; Mrs James W. Pinchot
Austin, Alexander Graham Bell, Charles Senator Hopkins, of Illinois, and Mrs
Hopkins
J. Bell, W. J. Boardman, Colby M. Ches-
ter, F. V. Coville, William Crozier, Henry
Mr and Mrs Shainwald, of New York city
Representative Dalzell, of Pennsylvania, and
F. Blount, William E. Curtis, George Mrs Dalzell
Dewey, John Joy Edson, David Fair- Monsignor O'Connell, President of Catholic
child, Melville W. Fuller, Henry Gannett, University of America
Mr and Mrs Theodore W. Noyes
J. Howard Gore, John W. Foster, Ed- Mr. Archibald Hopkins
ward Everett Hale, A. J. Henry, Arnold Senator Warren, of Wyoming
Hague, John B. Henderson, Jr., Ru- Dr and Mrs Alexander Graham Bell
dolph Kauffmann, Martin A. Knapp, C. Mr Edward Everett Hale
Hart Merriam, Willis L. Moore, Simon Prof. Simon Newcomb
Admiral Bradford
Newcomb, Theodore W. Noyes, Gifford Mr Nicholas Luquer
Pinchot, Marvin F. Scaife, Miss Eliza R. Mr W. C. Whitemore
Scidmore, O. H. Tittmann, John M. Mr James Lowndes
Wilson. Mr W. R. Tuckerman
Mr Nathaniel Wilson
MEMBERS AND GUESTS PRESENT Mr Byron Andrews
Mr W. A. DeCaindry
Commander Robert E. Peary, U. S. Navy Gen. John O'Connell
The Secretary of the Navy, Hon. Charles J.
Representative Lamar, of Florida, and Mrs
Bonaparte Lamar
The Italian Ambassador Representative Scott, of Kansas
The President of the National Geographic Admiral Winfield Scott Schley and Mrs
Society and Mrs Willis L. Moore Schley
The Japanese Ambassador Mr W. J. Boardman
The Secretary of Agriculture Mr John A. Kasson
The Minister of Bolivia and Madame Cald- Dr Z. T. Sowers
eron Commissioner H. L. West
The Minister of Switzerland Miss Hale
Representative and Mrs Kittredge Haskins, Judge Thomas H. Anderson and Mrs An-
of Vermont derson
Honors to Peary 59
Rev. J. A. Aspinwall Mr Gifford Pinchot, Forester of U. S. Forest
Dr and Mrs Teunis S. Hamlin Service
Mr Hillary A, Herbert, ex-Secretary of Navy Mr Hector Fuller
Judge Ambler Mr George L. Raymond
Representative Richard Bartholdt, of Mis- Miss Aileen Bell
souri Dr J. H. Bryan
Mr Daniel C. Oilman, formerly President Miss Bryan
Carnegie Institution, and Mrs Oilman Mr and Mrs D. C. Phillips
Mr Hanihara, Second Secretary of Japanese Mr and Mrs F. D. McKenney
Embassy Mr W. A. Mearns
Mr Crosby S. Noyes Dr J. C. Simpson
Mr William B. Howland Mr F. A. Richardson
Mr B. H. Warner Mr Frank Sutton
Mr Robert P. Porter Senator McCreary, of Kentucky
Judge Job Barnard and Mrs Barnard Mrs Wynne
Mr Herbert L. Bridgman, Secretary Peary Colonel Casey, U. S. Army, and Mrs Casey
Arctic Club Mr and Mrs Marvin F. Scaife
Mr Jesse E. Wilson, Assistant Secretary of Prof. Joseph A. Holmes
Interior Mr and Mrs C. A. Richardson
Mr and Mrs C. H. Ackert Mr and Mrs A. B. Browne
Surgeon General Wyman, of the Marine JVIrand Mrs Hutchinson
Hospital Service Hon. Charles Henry Butler
Dr W. A. White, Superintendent Govern- Mr and Mrs Alpheus H. Snow
ment Hospital for the Insane Hon. O. H. Tittmann, Superintendent U. S.
Senator Clarence D. Clark, of Wyoming, Coast and Geodetic Survey
and Mrs Clark Mr and Mrs Edgar C. Snyder
Representative Lacey, of Iowa Mr Gilson Gardner
Hon. George Shiras, Third Mr Filler
Lieutenant General Nelson A. Miles, U. S. Mr Thompson
Army Mr John Holmes Magruder
Mrs Joseph Kuhn General Shallenberger
Senator Perkins, of California Mr and Mrs George H. Judd
Mr Gardner F. Williams Dr and Mrs L. A. Bauer
Dr George M. Kober Dr and Mrs Charles O. Stone
Mr A. Maurice Low Senator Heyburn, of Idaho, and Mrs Hey-
Mr Henry C. Perkins burn
Representative Mann, of Illinois, and Mrs Mr James S. Henry
Mann Mr A. F. Emery
Hon. Charles D. Walcott, Director U. S. Mr Odell L. Whipple
Geological Survey, and Mrs. Walcott Mr Arthur G. Plant
Mr and Mrs E. G. Walker Mr Frank B. Lord
Miss Laura Bell, of Philadelphia Mr W. M. Mitchell
Mr and Mrs Anthony Fiala Mr and Mrs Futton
Miss Emily Bell Rev. Thomas D. Clark
Mr Charles L. Marlatt Miss McCerey
Mr and Mrs Stuyvesant Pillot, of New Miss Gena Russell Harding
York Rev. and Mrs Ernest Smith
Representative Burton, of Ohio Representative Graff, of Illinois, and Mrs
Mrs Sweat Graff
Mr and Mrs Henry S. Kerr, of New York Rear Admiral Colby M. Chester, U. S. Navy
Miss Eliza R. Scidmore Mr and Mrs George W. Rouzer
Dr and Mrs Hamilton Wright Mr A. A. Adee, Second Assistant Secretary
Mr and Mrs Arthur Dunn of State
Mr W. R. Hunn, of Philadelphia Mr R. L. Fearn
Mr George Wood, of Philadelphia Major and Mrs Reynolds Landis
Mr Gilbert H. Grosvenor, editor of the Mr Wm. B. Thompson
National Geographic Magazine, and Mrs Mrs McCourtney
Grosvenor Dr Muncaster
Mr and Mrs Charles Denby Mr and Mrs Howard S. Nyman
Dr and Mrs George F. Becker Mr and Mrs Christian Heurich
Mr W. S. Irwin, managing editor McClure's Representative Cox, of Tennessee
Magazine Senator Burkett, of Nebraska, and Mrs
Miss Perkins Burkett
Representative Perkins, of California Mr A. J. Stofer
Mrs Hatton Mr Louis Garthe
6o The NATIONAL' Geographic Magazine

Dr Ralph Jenkins Mr John B. Sleman, Jr.


Mr John PhiHp Sousa Miss Austin
Mr E. W. Foster Mr M. L Weller
Mr and Mrs W. H. Baldwin Senator Gallinger, of New Hampshire, and
Mr H. C. Gauss Mrs Gallinger
Dr and Mrs David T. Day Mr Reuel Small
Representative Ransdell, of Louisiana Mr Frank B. Stetson
Prof, and Mrs J. Howard Gore Mr Charles S. Bradley
Mrs M. B, Tulloch Mr Fred. G. Clapp
Mr Henry V. Tulloch Admiral and Mrs Gheen, U. S. Navy
Mr Arthur C. Johnson Mr and Mrs G. R. Putnam
Mr J. A. Breckons Mr William Bowie
Mrs W. A. H. Church Col. and Mrs Robinson
Mr Edward S. Jones Gen. James A. Buchanan
Mr Melville Church Mr and Mrs C. E. Grundsky
Mr W. W. Andrews Hon. O. P. Austin, Chief Bureau of Statis-
Mr Ernest H. Merrick tics, and Mrs Austin
Mr A. E. Bowers Mr F. C. Billard
Mr George Xavier McLanahan Capt. W. V. Jacobs
Representative Burleson, of Texas, and Mrs Dr C. L. Billard
Burleson Miss Hendley
Mr and Mrs David Fairchild Mr Hendley"
Mr John Ross Martin Mr Herndon Morsell
Mr Frederick E. Mann Mr A. B. Casselman
Mr Ernest Janson Mr F. W. Booth
Mr and Mrs Joseph Crawford Prof, and Mrs Humphreys, of Mount
Miss Rollins Weather Observatory
Dr and Mrs S. F. Emmons Mrs Breaux
Miss Pruyn Mr and Mrs Otto J. Luebkert
Dr and Mrs Alberton S. Cushman Ex-Senator and Mrs Thurston, of Nebraska
Representative Lamb, of Virginia Mr Busby
Mr Gardiner Bell Dr and Mrs George B. Welch
Miss Pillot Mr J. T. Granger
Rev. David H. Buel Rev. and Mrs W. R. Turner
Mr Charles J. Bell, President American Se- Mr and Mrs F. B. Eichelberger
curity and Trust Co., and Mrs Bell General Ellis Spear
Mr W. W. Jermyn Mr Mattingly
Mr B. F. Johnson Representative Brooks, of Colorado, and Mrs
Mr and Mrs W. H. Seaman Brooks
Miss C. C. Barnam Senator Pyles, of Washington
Miss Hartwell Mr John Joy Edson, President Washington
Rev. S. H. Greene Loan and Trust Company, and Mrs Edson
Mr Bourne Mr Waernicke
Mr and Mrs Kern Mr A. H. Chase
Miss Kern Mr and Mrs Bradbury
Dr F. E. Hoskins Mrs G. V. B. Moore
Mr and Mrs William E. Curtis Mr Walter C. Thomas
Mr and Mrs Goehring Mr and Mrs Mesney
Mr Milo A. Shand Mr and Mrs Buckey
Mr. Arnold Mr and Mrs Van Wickle
Mr and Mrs H. E. Williams Mr Dennis
Mr and Mrs E. B. Stocking Mr S. I. Kimball, Superintendent of the Life
Colonel and Mrs Rutherford Saving Service
Miss Farrell Mr W. G. Dennis
Mr and Mrs George E. Roberts Mr John W. Echols
Senator Long, of Kansas, and Mrs Long Mr Edward R. Wood
Mr Henry F. Blount, Vice-President Ameri- Mr and Mrs Denney
can Security and Trust Co., and Mrs Blount Mr W. R. Smith
Mr R. S. Woodward, Jr.
Mrs Eliza T. Ward
Miss Carbo Mrs T. H. McKee
Mr Barlow
E. S.
Mr James Penniman
Miss Gheen
Admiral and Mrs Prindle, U. S. Navy Mr Charles P. Neill, Commissioner of Labor,
Graham and Mrs Neill
Mr and Mrs Andrew B.
Mr and Mrs F. V. Coville
Mr John B. Sleman, Sr.
Mr John Oliver LaGorce
Mr E. Quincy Smith
AN AWAKENED CONTINENT TO THE
SOUTH OF US
By Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary of State

A LITTLE less than three centuries


of colonial and national life have
brought the people inhabiting
the United States, by a process of evolu-
tion, natural and with the existing forces
from our consideration and interest the
enterprises and the possibilities of the
outside world. Invention, discovery, the
progress of science, capacity for organi-
zation, the enormous increase in the pro-
inevitable, to a point of distinct and radi- ductive power of mankind, have acceler-
cal change in their economic relations to ated our progress and have brought us
the rest of mankind. to a result of development in every
During the period now past the energy branch of internal industrial activity
of our people, directed by the formative marvelous and unprecedented in the his-
power created in our early population by tory of the world.
heredity, by environment, by the struggle
for existence, by individual independence,
WE HAVE A NEW ROLE TO PLAY
and by free institutions, has been devoted Since the first election of President Mc-
to the internal development of our own Kinley the people of the United States
country. The surplus wealth produced have for the first time accumulated a
by our labors has been appHed immedi- surplus of capital beyond the require-
ately to reproduction in our own land. ments of internal development. That
We have been cutting down forests and surplus is increasing with extraordinary
breaking virgin soil and fencing prairies rapidity. Wehave paid our debts to
and opening mines of coal and iron and Europe and have become a creditor in-
copper and silver and gold, and building stead of a debtor nation we have faced
;

roads and canals and railroads and tele- about we have left the ranks of the bor-
;

graph lines and cars and locomotives and rowing nations and have entered the
millsand furnaces and school-houses and ranks of the investing nations. Our
collegesand libraries and hospitals and surplus energy is beginning to look be-
asylums and public buildings and store- yond our own borders, throughout the
houses and shops and homes. We have world, to find opportunity for the profit-
been drawing on the resources of the able use of our surplus capital, foreign
world in capital and in labor to aid us in markets for our manufactures, foreign
our work. We have gathered strength mines to be developed, foreign bridges
from every rich and powerful nation and and railroads and public works to be
expended it upon these home undertak- built, foreign rivers to be turned into
ings into them we have poured hun-
; electric power and light. As in their
dreds of millions of money attracted several ways England and France and
from the investors of Europe. We have Germany have stood, so we in our own
been always a debtor nation, borrowing way are beginning to stand and must
from the rest of the world, drawing all continue to stand towards the industrial
possible energy towards us and concen- enterprise of the world.
trating it with our own energy upon our That we are not beginning our new
own enterprises. The engrossing pursuit role feebly is indicated by $1,518,561,666
of our own opportunities has excluded of exports in the year 1905 as against

*Aii address before the Trans-Mississippi Commercial Congress, Kansas City, Missouri,
Tuesda3-, November 20, 1906, specially revised by Mr Root for publication in the NaTionai,
Geographic Magazine.
;

62 The National Geographic Magazine


$1,117,513,071 of imports, and by $1,- times as large as the United States with-
743,864,500 exports in the year 1906 as out Alaska and more than double the
against $1,226,563,843 of imports. Our United States including Alaska. A large
first steps in tlie new field indeed are part of this area lies within the temperate
somewhat clumsy and unskilled. In our zone, with an equable and invigorating
own vast country, with oceans on either climate, free from extremes of either heal
side, we have had too little contact with or cold. Farther north in the tropics are
foreign peoples readily to understand enormous expanses of high tablelands
their customs or learn their languages stretching from the Atlantic to the foot-
yet no one can doubt that we shall learn hills of the Andes, and lifted far above the
and shall understand and shall do our tropical heats the fertile valleys of the
;

business abroad as we have done it at western Cordilleras are cooled by per-


home with force and efficiency. petual snows even tinder the Equator;
vast forests grow untouched from a soil
A NEWIvY AWAKENED CONTINENT TO THE
of incredible richness. The plains of
SOUTH OE US Argentina, the great uplands of Brazil;
Coincident with this change in the the mountain valleys of Chile, Peru,
United States the progress of political Equador, Bolivia, and Colombia are
development has been carrying the suited to the habitation of any race, how-
neighboring continent of South America ever far to the north its origin may have
out of the stage of militarism into the been hundreds of millions of men ran
;

stage of industrialism. Throughout the find healthful homes and abundant sus-
greater part of that vast continent revolu- tenance in this great territory.
tions have ceased to be looked upon with The population in 1900 was only 42,-
favor or submitted to with indifference; 461,381, less than six to the square mile.
the revolutionary general and the dictator The density of population was less than
are no longer the objects of admiration one-eighth of that in the State of Mis-
and imitation civic virtues command the
; souri, less than one-sixtieth of that in the
highest respect; the people point with State of Massachusetts, less than one-
satisfaction and pride to the stability of seventieth of that in England, less than
their governments, to the safety of prop- one per cent of that in Belgium.
erty and the certainty of justice; nearly With this sparse population the pro-
everywhere the people are eager for for- duction of wealth is already enormous.
eign capital to develop their natural re- The latest trade statistics show exports
sources and for foreign immigration to from South America to foreign countries
occupy their vacant land. Immediately of $745,530,000, and imports of $499!,-
before us, at exactly the right time, just 858,600. Of the five hundred millions of
as we are ready for it, great opportu- goods that South America buys we sell
nities for peaceful commercial and indus- them but $63,246,525, or 12.6 per cent.
trial expansion to the south are pre- Of the seven hundred and forty-five
sented. millions that South America sells we buy
Other investing nations are already in $152,092,000, or 20.4 per cent, nearly
the field —
England, France, Germany, two and a half times as much as we sell.
Italy, Spain
but the field is so vast, the
; Their production is increasing by leaps
new demands are so great, the progress and bounds. In eleven years the exports
so rapid, that what other nations have of Chile have increased forty-five per
done up to this time is but a slight ad- cent from $54,030,000, in 1894, to $78,-
vance in the race for the grand total. 840,000, in 1905. In eight years the ex-
The opportunities are so large that figures ports of Peru have increased one hun-
fail to convey them. The area of this dred per cent from $13,899,000, in 1897,
newly awakened continent is 7,502,848 to $28,758,000, in 1905. In ten j'ears the
square miles, more than two and one-half exports of Brazil have increased sixty-six
An Awakened Continent 63
per cent from $134,062,000, in 1894, to SOUTH AMERICANS ARE COMPLEMENTARY
$223,101,000, in 1905. In ten years the TO US
exports of Argentina have increased one
hundred and sixty-eight per cent from The material resources of South Amer-
ica are in some important respects com-
$115,868,000, in 1895, to $311,544,000, in
plementary to our own that continent is
;

This is only the beginning; the coffee weakest where North America is strong-
est as a field for manufactures it has
and rubber of Brazil, the wheat and beef ;

and hides of Argentina and Uraguay, comparatively little coal and iron.
In many respects the people of the two
the copper and nitrates of Chile, the cop-
continents are complementary to each
per and tin of Bolivia, the silver and gold
other; the South American is polite,
and cotton and sugar of Peru, are but
refined, cultivated, fond of literature and
samples of what the soil and mines of
of expression and of the graces and
that wonderful continent are capable of
yielding. Ninety-seven per cent of the
charms of life, while the North American
territory of South America is occupied by
is strenuous, intense, utilitarian. Where
ten independent republics living under
we accumulate, they spend. While we
have less of the cheerful philosophy which
constitutions copied
substantiallyor
finds sources of happiness in the existing
adapted from our own. Under the new
conditions of life, they have less of the
conditions of tranquillity and security
inventive faculty which strives contin-
which prevail in most of them, their eager
ually to increase the productive power
invitation to immigrants from the old
of man and lower the cost of manufac-
world will not long pass unheeded.
ture. The chief merits of the peoples of
ARGENTINE RECEIVES 200,000 IMMI- the two continents are different their
;

GRANTS ANNUALLY chief defects are different. Mutual in-


The pressure of population abroad will tercourse and knowledge cannot fail to
inevitably turn its streams of life and greatly benefit both each can learn from
;

labor towards those fertile iields and val- the other each can teach much to the
;

leys the streams have already begun to


;
ether, and each can contribute greatly to
flow more than two hundred thousand
;
the development and prosperity of the
immigrants entered the Argentine Re- other. Alarge part of their products
public last year; they are coming this finds no domestic competition here a
;

year at the rate of over three hundred large part of our products will find no
thousand. Many thousands of Germans domestic competition there. The typical
have already settled in southern Brazil. conditions exist for that kind of trade
They are most welcome in Brazil they ;
which is profitable, honorable and bene-
are good and useful citizens there as they ficial to both parties.
are here; I hope that many more will The relations between
the United
come to Brazil and every other South States and South America have been
American country, and add their vigor- commercial or
chiefly political rather than
ous industry and good citizenship to the personal. In the early days of the South
upbuilding of their adopted home. American struggle for independence, the
With the increase of population in eloquence of Henry Clay awakened in
such a field,under free institutions, with the American people a generous sympathy
the fruits of labor and the rewards of for the patriots of the South as for
enterprise secure, the production of brethren struggling in the common
wealth and the increase of purchasing cause of liberty. The clear-eyed, judi-
power will afford a market for the com- cious diplomacy of Richard Rush, the
merce of the world worthy to rank even American Minister at the Court of St
with the markets of the Orient as the James, effected a complete understanding
goal of business enterprise. with Great Britain for concurrent action
:

64 The National Geographic Magazine


in opposition to the designs of the Holy American independence, however, did
AlHance, already contemplating the par- not and could not in the nature of things
tition of the Southern Continent among create any relation between the people of
the great powers of continental Enrope. South America and the people of the
The famous declaration of Monroe ar- United States except a relation of political
rayed the organized and rapidly increas- sympathy.
ing power of the United States as an
obstacle to European interference and
THE NEW ERA OE AMERICAN RELATIONS
made it forever plain that the cost of Twrenty-five years ago Mr Blaine, san-
European aggression would be greater guine, resourceful, and gifted with that
than any advantage which could be won imagination which enlarges the histo-
even by successful aggression. rian's understanding of the past into the
statesman's comprehension of the future,
THi; MONROE DOCTRINE AS SOUND TODAY undertook to inaugurate a new era of
AS 80 YEARS AGO American relations which should sup-
That great declaration was not the plement political sympathy by personal
chance expression of the opinion or the acquaintance, by the intercourse of ex-
feeling of the moment it crystallized the
; panding trade, and by mutual helpfulness.
sentiment for human liberty and human As Secretary of State under President
rights which has saved American idealism Arthur, he invited the American nations
from the demoralization of narrow sel- to a conference to be held on the 24th of
fishness, and has given to American November, 1882, for the purpose of con-
democracy its true world power in the sidering and discussing the subject of
virilepotency of a great example. It preventing war between the nations of
responded to the instinct of self-preser- America. That invitation, abandoned by
vation in an intensely practical people. Mr Frelinghuysen, was renewed under
It was the result of conference with Jef- Mr Cleveland, and on the 2d of Octo-
ferson and Madison and John Quincy ber, 1889, Mr Blaine, again Secretary
Adams and John C. Calhoun and William of State under President Harrison, had
Wirt —a combination of political wisdom, the singular good fortune to execute his
experience, and skill not easily surpassed. former design and to open the sessions of
The particular circumstances which led the first American conference at Wash-
to the declaration no longer exist ; no ington. In an address of wisdom and
Holy Alliance now threatens to partition lofty spirit, which should ever give honor
South America; no European coloniza- to his memory, he described the assem-
tion of the west coast threatens to exclude bly as
us from the Pacific. But those conditions "An honorable, peaceful conference of
were merely the occasion for the declara- seventeen independent American powers,
tion of a principle of action. in which all shall meet together on terms
Other occasions for the application of of absolute equality; a conference in
the principle have arisen since it needs
; which there can be no attempt to coerce
no prophetic vision to see that other occa- a single delegate against his own concep-
sions for its application may arise here- tion of the interests of his nation a con-
;

after. The principle declared by Monroe ference which will permit no secret un-
is as wise an expression of sound polit- derstanding on any subject, but will
ical judgment today, as truthful a rep- frankly publish to the world all its conclu-
resentation of the sentiments and instincts sions a conference which will tolerate no
;

of the American people today, as living spirit of conquest, but will aim to culti-
in its force as an effective rule of conduct vate an American sympathy as broad as
whenever occasion shall arise, as it was both continents a conference which will
;

on the 2d of December, 1823. form no selfish alliance against the older


These great political services to South nations from which we are proud to claim
:

An Awakened Continent 65

inheritance a conference, in fine, which the doing of them, but the facilities will
will seek nothing, propose nothing, en- be useless unless used by individuals;
dure nothing that is not, in the general they cannot be done by resolutions of this
sense of all the delegates, timely, wise or any other commercial body resolu-
;

and peaceful." tions are useless unless they stir individ-


The policy which Blaine inaugurated ual business men to action in their own
has been continued the Congress of the
; business affairs. The things needed have
United States has approved it subse- ; been fully and specifically set forth in
quent Presidents have followed it. The many reports of efficient consuls and of
first conference at Washington has been highly competent agents of the Depart-
succeeded by a second conference in ment of Commerce and Labor, and they
Mexico, and now by a third conference in have been described in countless news-
Rio de Janeiro; and it is to be followed papers and magazine articles ; but all

in years to come by further successive these things are worthless unless they
assemblies in which the representatives of are followed by individual action. I will
all American States shall acquire better indicate some of the matters to which
knowledge and more perfect understand- every producer and merchant who de-
ing and be drawn together by the recog- sires South American trade should pay
nition of common interests and the kindly attention
consideration and discussion of measures
SOME ESSENTIALS OF SUCCESS IN THE
for mutual benefit.
SOUTH AMERICAN FIELD
BOTH NORTH AND SOUTH AMgRICA HAVE 1. He should learn what the South
GROWN UP TO Blaine's policy Americans want and conform his product
Nevertheless, Mr Blaine was in ad- to their wants. If they think they need
vance of his time. In 1881 and 1889 heavy castings, he should give them
neither had the United States reached a heavy castings and not expect them to
point where it could turn its energies buy light ones because he thinks they are
away from its own
internal development better. If they want coarse cottons, he
and direct them outward towards the de- should give them coarse cottons and not
velopment of foreign enterprises and for- expect them to buy fine cottons. It may
eign trade, nor had the South American not pay today, but it will pay tomorrow.
countries reached the stage of stability The tendency to standardize articles of
in government and security for property manufacture may reduce the cost and pro-
necessary to their industrial development. mote convenience, but if the consumers
Now, however, the time has come both ; on the River Plate demand a different
North and South America have grown up standard from the consumers on the Mis-
to Blaine's policy; the production, the sissippi, you must have two standards or
trade, the capital, the enterprise of the lose one market.
United States have before them the op- 2. Both for the purpose of learning
portunity to follow, and they are free to what the South American people want
follow, the pathway marked out by the and of securing their attention to your
far-sighted statesmanship of Blaine for goods, you must have agents who speak
the growth of America, North and the Spanish or Portuguese language.
South, in the peaceful prosperity of a For this there are two reasons one is ;

mighty commerce. that people can seldom really get at each


To utilize this opportunity certain other's minds through an interpreter, and
practical things must be done. For the the other is that nine times out of ten it
most part these things must be done by a is only through knowing the Spanish or

multitude of individual efforts they can- ;


Portuguese language that a North
not be done by government. Govern- American comes to appreciate the admi-
ment may help to furnish facilities for rable and attractive personal qualities of
;

66 The National Geographic Magazine


the South American, and is thus able to United States now stands in a position
estabHsh that kindly and agreeable per- of assumed and business inferi-
financial
sonal relation which is so potent in lead- ority to the countries through whose
ing to business relations. banking houses all its business has to be
3. The American producer should ar- done.
range to conform his credit system to that 5. The American merchant should
prevailing in the country where he wishes himself acquire, if he has not already
to sell goods. There is no more money done so, and should, impress upon all his
lost upon commercial credits in South agents, that respect for the South Ameri-
America than there is in North America can to which he is justly entitled and
but business men there have their own which is the essential requisite to respect
ways of doing business they have to; from the South American. We are dif-
adapt the credits they receive to the ferent in many ways as to character and
credits they give. It is often inconve- methods. In dealing with all foreign
nient, disagreeable, and sometimes impos- people it is important to avoid the nar-
sible for them to conform to our ways, row and uninstructed prejudice which
and the requirement that they should do assumes that difference from ourselves
so is a serious obstacle to trade. denotes inferiority. There is nothing
To understand credits it is, of course, that we resent so quickly as an assump-
necessary to know something about the tion of superiority or evidence of conde-
character, trustworthiness, and commer- scension in foreigners there is nothing
;

cial standing of the purchaser, and the that the South Americans resent so
American producer or merchant who quickly. The South Americans are our
would sell goods in South America must superiors in some respects we are their
;

have some means of knowledge upon this superiors in other respects. We


should
subject. This leads naturally to the next show to them what is best in us and see
observation I have to make. what is best in them. Every agent of an
4. The establishment of banks should American producer or merchant should
be brought about. The Americans be instructed that courtesy, politeness,
already engaged in South American trade kindly consideration are essential requi-
could well afford to subscribe the capital sites for success in the South American
and establish an American bank in each trade.
of the principal cities of South America. 6. The investment of American capital
This is, first because nothing but very in South America under the direction of
bad management could prevent such a American experts should be promoted,
bank from making money capital is ; not merely upon simple investment
much needed in those cities, and six, grounds, but as a means of creating and
eight and ten per cent can be obtained for enlarging trade. For simple investment
money upon just as safe security as can purposes the opportunities are innumer-
be had in Kansas City, St Louis, or New able. Good business judgment and good
York. It is also because the American business management will be necessary
bank would furnish a source of informa- there, of course, as they are necessary
tion as to the standing of the South here but given these, I believe that there
;

American purchasers to whom credit may is a vast number of enterprises awaiting


be extended, and because American banks capital in the more advanced countries of
would relieve American business in South America, capable of yielding great
South America from the disadvantage profits, and in which the property and the
which now exists of making all its finan- profits will be as safe as in the United
cial transactions through Europe instead States or Canada.
of directly with the United States. It is A good many such enterprises are
unfortunately true that among hundreds already begun. I have found a graduate
of thousands of possible customers the of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
! ; ;

An Awakened Continent 67
tiology, a graduate of the Columbia two or three foreign concerns running
School of Mines and a graduate of Col- slow cargo boats, and there are some for-
onel Roosevelt's Rough Riders smelting eign tramp steamers. That is the sum
copper close under the snow line of the total of American communications with
Andes I have ridden in an American car
; South America beyond the Caribbean
upon an American electric road, built by Sea.
a New York engineer, in the heart of the
coffee region of Brazil, and I have seen
NOT ONE AMERICAN STEAMSHIP RUNS TO
the waters of that river, along which
ANY SOUTH AMERICAN PORT BEYOND
Pizarro established his line of communi-
THE CARIBBEAN
cation in the conquest of Peru, harnessed During the past summer I entered the
to American machinery to make light ports of Para, Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de
and power for the city of Lima. Every Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo, Buenos
such point is the nucleus of American Aires, Bahia Blanca, Punta Arenas, Lota,

trade the source of orders for American Valparaiso, Coquimbo, Tocopilla, Callao
goods. —
and Carthagena all of the great ports
7. It is absolutely essentialthat the and a large proportion of the secondary
means of communication between the two ports of the Southern Continent. I saw
countries should be improved and in- only one ship, besides the cruiser that
creased. carried me, flying the American flag.
This underlies all other considerations The mails between South America and
and it applies both to the mail, the pas- Europe are swift, regular and certain
senger and the freight services. Between between South America and the United
all the principal South American ports States they are slow, irregular and un-
and England, Germany, France, Spain, certain. Six weeks is not an uncommon
Italy lines of swift and commodious time for a letter to take between Buenos
steamers ply regularly. There are five Aires or Valparaiso and New York. The
subsidized first-class mail and passenger merchant who wishes to order American
lines between Buenos Aires and Europe goods cannot know when his order will
there is no such line between Buenos be received or when it will be filled.
Aires and the United States. Within the The freight charges between the South
past two years the German, the English American cities and American cities are
and the Italian lines have been replacing generally and substantially higher than
their old steamers with new and swifter between the same cities and Europe; at
steamers of modern construction, accom- many points the deliveries of freight are
modation and capacity. uncertain and its condition upon arrival
In the year ending June 30, 1905, there doubtful.
entered the port of Rio de Janeiro steam- The passenger accommodations are
ers and sailing vessels flying the flag of such as to make a journey to the United
Austria-Hungary 120, of Norway 142, States a trial to be endured and a jour-
of Italy 165, of Argentina 264, of France ney to Europe a pleasure to be enjoyed.
349, of Germany 657, of Great Britain, The best way to travel between the
1,785, of the United States no steamers United States and both the southwest
and seven sailing vessels, two of which coast and the east coast of South America
were in distress is to go by way of Europe, crossing the
An English firm runs a small steamer Atlantic twice. It is impossible that trade
monthly between New York and Rio should prosper or intercourse increase or
de Janeiro; the Panama Railroad Com- mutual knowledge grow to any great
pany runs steamers between New York degree under such circumstances. The
and the Isthmus of Panama the Bra- ; communication is worse now than it was
zilians are starting for themselves a line twenty-five years ago. So long as it is
between Rio and New York; there are left in the hands of our foreign competi-
;

68 The National Geographic Magazine


tors in business we cannot reasonably from this field, in which we were once
look for any improvement. It is onlv conspicuously successful ?
reasonable to expect that European I think the answer is twofold.
steamship lines shall be so managed as to
promote European trade in South Amer-
THE AMERICAN SAILORS RIGHTFULLY DE-
ica rather than to promote the trade of
MAND THE AMERICAN SCALE OE LIV-
ING
the United States in South America.
This woeful deficiency in the means to 1. The higher wages and the greater
carry on and enlarge our South American cost of maintenance of American officers
trade is but a part of the general decline and crews make it impossible to compete
and feebleness of the American merchant on equal terms with foreign ships. The
marine, which has reduced us from car- scale of living and the scale of pay of
rying over ninety per cent of our export American sailors are fixed by the stand-
trade in our own ships to the carriage of ard of wages and of living in the United
nine per cent of that trade in our own States, and those are maintained at a
ships and dependence upon foreign ship- high level by the protective tariff. The
owners for the carriage of ninety-one per moment the American passes beyond the
cent. The true remedy and the only limits of his country and engages in ocean
remedy is the establishment of American transportation he comes into competition
lines of steamships between the United with the lower foreign scale of wages and
States and the great ports of South of living. Mr Joseph L. Bristow in his
America adequate to render fully as good report upon trade conditions affecting the
service as is now afforded by the Euro- Panama Railroad, dated June 14, 1905,
pean lines between those ports and Eu- gives in detail the cost of operating an
rope. The
substantial underlying fact American steamship with a tonnage of
was well stated in the resolution of this approximately thirty-five hundred tons
Trans-Mississippi Congress three years as compared with the cost of operating
ago: a specified German steamship of the same
"That every ship is a missionary of tonnage, and the differences aggregate
trade that steamship lines work for their
; $15)315 per annum greater cost for the
own countries just as railroad lines work American steamship than for the German,
for their terminal points, and that it is that is $4.37 per ton. He gives also in
as absurd for the United States to depend detail the cost of maintaining another
upon foreign ships to distribute its pro- American steamship with a tonnage of
ducts as it would be for a department approximately twenty-five hundred tons
store to depend upon wagons of a com- as compared with the cost of operating a
peting house to deliver its goods." specified British steamship of the same
How can this defect be remedied ? The tonnage, and the differences aggregate
answer to this question must be found by $18,289.68 per annum greater cost for the
ascertaining the cause of the decline of American steamship than for the British,
our merchant marine. Why is it that that is $7.31 per ton. It is manifest that
Americans have substantially retired from if the German steamship were content

the foreign transport service? We are a with a profit of less than $15,000 per
nation of maritime traditions and facility annum, and the British with a profit >f
we are a nation of constructive capacity, less than $18,000 per annum, the Ameri-
competent to build ships we are emi-
; can ships would have to go out of busi-
nent, if not preeminent, in the construc- ness.
tion of machinery; we have abundant 2. The principal maritime nations of
capital seeking investment we have cour-
; the world, anxious to develop their trade,
age and enterprise, shrinking from no to promote their shipbuilding industry, to
competition in any field which we choose have at hand transports and auxiliary
to enter. Why, then, have we retired cruisers in case of war, are fostering their
;

An Awakened Continent 69
steamship lines by the payment of sub- petitor ; is a contest against his com-
it

sidies. England is paying to her steam- petitors and his competitors' govern-
ship lines between six and seven million ments and his own government also.
dollars a year; it is estimated that since Plainly these disadvantages created by
1840 she has paid to them between two governmental action can be neutralized
hundred and fifty and three hundred only by governmental action, and shoidd
millions. The enormous development of be neutralized by such action.
her commerce, her preponderant share of What action ought our Government to
the carrying trade of the world, and her take for the accomplishment of this just
shipyards crowded with construction purpose? Three kinds of action have
orders from every part of the earth, indi- been advocated.
cate the success of her policy. France is 1. A —
law providing for free ships that
paying about eight million dollars a year is, permitting Americans to buy ships in

Italy and Japan, between three and four other countries and bring them under the
million each Germany, upon the initia-
; American flag. Plainly this would not at
tive of Bismarck, is building up her trade all meet the difficulties which I have de-
with wonderful rapidity by heavy sub- scribed. The only thing it would ac-
ventions to her steamship lines and by complish would be to overcome the excess
giving special differential rates of car- in cost of building a ship in an American
riage over her railroads for merchandise shipyard over the cost of building it in
shipped by those lines. Spain, Norway, a foreign shipyard; but since all the
Austria-Hungary, Canada all subsidize materials which enter into an American
their own lines. It is estimated that about ship are entirely relieved of duty, the dif-
$28,000,000 a year are paid by our com- ference in cost of construction is so slight
mercial competitors to their steamship as to be practically a negligible quantity
lines. and to afford no substantial obstacle to
Against these advantages to his com- the revival of American shipping. The
petitor the American ship owner has to expedient of free ships, therefore, would
contend ; and it is manifest that the sub- be merely to sacrifice our American ship-
sidized ship can afford to carry freight at building industry, which ought to be re-
cost for a long enough period to drive vived and enlarged with American ship-
him out of business. ping, and to sacrifice it without receiving
We are living in a world not of natural any substantial benefit. It is to be ob-
competition, but of subsidized competi- served that Germany, France, and Italy
tion. State aid to steamship lines is as all have attempted to build up their own
much a part of the commercial system of shipping by adopting the policy of free
our day as state employment of consuls ships, have failed in the experiment, have
to promote business. abandoned it, and have adopted in its
place the policy of subsidy.
IT IS NOT A FAIR FIGHT 2. It has been proposed to establish a
It will be observed that both of these discriminating tariff duty in favor of
disadvantages under which the American goods imported in American ships, that
ship owner labors are artificial they are ; is to say, to impose higher duties upon
created by governmental action, one by goods imported in foreign ships than are
our own government in raising the stand- imposed on goods imported in American
ard of wages and living, by the protective ships. We tried that once many years
tariff, the other by foreign governments ago and have abandoned it. In its place
in paying subsidies to their ships for the we have entered into treaties of commerce
promotion of their own trade. For the and navigation with the principal coun-
American ship owner it not a contest
is tries of the world expressly agreeing that
of intelligence, skill, industry and thrift no such discrimination shall be made
against similar qualities in his com- between their vessels and ours. To sweep
70 The National Geographic Magazine
away all those treaties and enter upon a by building up the business of the
war of commercial retaliation and repri- country.
sal for the sake of accomplishing indi-
rectly what can be done directly should A MOST IMPORTANT MEASURE
not be seriously considered.
3. There remains the third and obvi-
A is now
bill pending in Congress
which contains such provisions it has
ous method: To neutralize the artificial
;

passed the Senate and is now before the


disadvantages imposed upon American
House Committee on Merchant Marine
shipping through the action of our own
and Fisheries it is known as Senate Bill
;

government and foreign governments by


No. 529, Fifty-ninth Congress, first
an equivalent advantage in the form of a
session. It provides specifically that the
subsidy or subvention. In my opinion
Postmaster General may pay to American
this is what should be done it is the sen-
;
steamships, of specified rates of speed,
sible and fair thing to do. It is what
carr_ving mails upon a regular service,
must be done if we would have a revival compensation not to exceed the following
of our shipping and the desired develop-
amounts For a line from an Atlantic
ment of our foreign trade. We cannot
:

port to Brazil, monthly, $150,000 a year;


repeal the protective tariff no political
for a line from an Atlantic port to Uru-
;

party dreams of repealing it we do not ;


guay and Argentina, monthly, $187,500 a
wish to lower the standard of American year for a line from a Gulf port to
;

living or American wages. Brazil, monthly, $137,500 a year; for a


We should give hack to the ship owner line from each of two Gulf ports and
what we take azuay from him for the pur- from New Orleans to Central America
pose of maintaining that standard, and and the Isthmus of Panama, weekly, $75,-
unless me do give it back, zve shall con- 000 a year for a line from a Gulf port to
;

tinue to go zvithout ships. Mexico, weekly, $50,000 a year for a line ;

How can the expenditure of public from a Pacific Coast port to Mexico,
money improvement of rivers and
for the Central America and the Isthmus of
harbors to promote trade be justified Panama, fortnightly, $120,000 a year.
upon any grounds which do not also sus- For these six regular lines a total of
tain this proposal? Would any one re- $720,000. The payments provided are
verse the policy that granted aid to the no more than enough to give the Ameri-
Pacific railroads, the pioneers of our can ships a fair living chance in the com-
enormous internal commerce, the agen- petition.
cies that built up the great traffic which There are other wise and reasonable
has enabled half a dozen other roads to provisions in the bill relating to trade
be built in later years without assistance ? with the Orient, to tramp steamers and to
Such subventions would not be gifts. a naval reserve, but I am now concerned
They would be at once compensation for with the provisions for trade to the
injuries inflicted upon American shipping South. The hope of such a trade lies
by American laws and the consideration chiefly in the passage of that bill.
for benefits received by the whole Ameri- Postmaster General Cortelyou, in his

can people not the shippers or the ship- report for 1905, said:
builders or the sailors alone, but by every "Congress has authorized the Post-
manufacturer, every miner, every farmer, master General, by the act of 1891, to
every merchant whose prosperity depends contract with the owners of American
upon a market for his products. steamships for ocean mail service and. has
The provision for such just compensa- realized the impracticability of command-
tion should be carefully shaped and di- ing suitable steamships in the interest of
rected so that it will go to individual the postal service alone by requiring that
advantage only so far as the individual such steamers shall be of a size, class,
is enabled by it to earn a reasonable profit and equipment which will promote com-
An Awakened Continent 71

merce and become available as auxiliary United States and foreign countries other
cruisers of the navy in case of need. The than Canada and Mexico was $6,008,-
compensation allowed to such steamers is 807.53, leaving the profit to the United
found to be wholly inadequate to secure States of $3,043,183.32; that is to say,
the proposals contemplated hence ad- ; under existing law the government of
vertisements from time to time have failed the United States, having assumed the
to develop any bids for much-needed monopoly of carrying the mails for the
service. This is especially true in regard people of the country, is making a profit
to several of the countries of South of three million dollars per annum by
America with which we have cordial re- rendering cheap and inefficient service.
lations and which, for manifest reasons, Every dollar of that three millions is
should have direct mail connections with made at the expense of the commerce of
us. I refer to Brazil and countries south the United States. What can be plainer
of it. Complaints of serious delay to than that the government ought to ex-
mails for these countries have become pend at least the profits that it gets from
frequent and emphatic, leading to the sug- the ocean mail service in making the
gestion on the part of certain officials of ocean mail service efficient. One-quarter
the government that for the present, and of those profitswould establish all these
until satisfactory direct communi-
more lines which I have described between the
cation can be established, important mails United States and South and Central
should be dispatched to South America America and give us, besides a good mail
by way of European ports and on Euro- service, enlarged markets for the pro-
pean steamers, which would not only in- ducers and merchants of the United
volve the United States in the payment of State who pay the postage from which
double transit rates to a foreign country the profits come.*
for the dispatch of its mails to countries In his last message to Congress, Presi-
of our own hemisphere, but might seri- dent Roosevelt said:
ously embarrass the government in the "To the spread of our trade in peace
exchange of important official and dip- and the defense of our flag in war a great
lomatic correspondence. and prosperous merchant marine is indis-
"The fact that the government claims pensable. We
should have ships of our
exclusive control of the transmission of own and seamen of our own to convey
letter mail throughout its own territory our goods to neutral markets, and in case
would seem to imply that it should secure of need to reenforce our battle line. It
and maintain the exclusive jurisdiction, cannot but be a source of regret and un-
when necessary, of its mails on the high easiness to us that the lines of communi-
seas. The unprecedented expansion of cation with our sister republics of South
trade and foreign commerce justifies America should be chiefly under foreign
prompt consideration of an adequate for- control. It is not a good thing that
eign mail service." American merchants and manufacturers
should have to send their goods and let-
THE U. S.GOVERNMENT NETS ICO PER CENT ters to South America via Europe if they
PROFIT ON ITS EOREIGN MAIL wish security and dispatch. Even on the
It is difficult to believe, but it is true, Pacific, where our ships have held their
that out of this faulty ocean mail service own better than on the Atlantic, our
the government of the United States is merchant flag is now threatened through
making a large profit. The actual cost to the liberal aid bestowed by other govern-
the government last year of the ocean * There would be some modification of these
mail service to foreign countries other figures if the cost of getting the mails to and
than Canada and Mexico was $2,965,- from the exchange offices were charged against
the account but this is not separable from the
;

624.21, while the proceeds realized by the general domestic cost and would not materially
government from postage between the change the result.
;

72 The National Geographic Magazine


ments on their own steam lines. I ask clearly between private opinion and pub-
your earnest consideration of the report lic opinion and between real public
with which tlie Merchant Marine Com- opinion and the manufactured appear-
mission has followed its long and careful ance of public opinion ; they know that
inquiry." when there is a real demand for any kind
bill now pending in the House is
The of legislation it will make itself known
a framed upon the report of that
bill to them through a multitude of individual
Merchant Marine Commission. The voices. Resolutions of commercial bodies
question whether it shall become a law frequently indicate nothing except that
depends upon your Representatives in the the proposer of the resolution has a posi-
House. You have the judgment of the tive opinion and that no one else has
Postmaster General, you have the judg- interest enough in the subject to oppose
ment of the Senate, you have the judg- it. Such resolutions by themselves,
ment of the President; if you agree with therefore, have comparatively little effect
these judgments and wish the bill which they are effective only when the support
embodies them to become a law, say so of individual expressions shows that they
to your Representatives. Say it to them really represent a genuine and general
individually and directly, for it is your opinion.
right to advise them and it will be their It is for you and the business men all
pleasure to hear from you what legis- over the country whom you represent to
lation the interests of their constituents show to the Representatives in Congress
demand. that the producing and commercial inter-
The great body of Congressmen are ests of the country really desire a prac-
always sincerely desirous to meet the just tical measure to enlarge the markets and
wishes of their constituents and to do increase the foreign trade of the United
what is for the public interest but in this ; States by enabling American shipping to
great country they are continually as- overcome the disadvantages imposed
sailed by innumerable expressions of upon it by foreign governments for the
private opinion and by innumerable de- benefit of their trade and by our gov-
mands for the expenditure of public ernment for the benefit of our home
money they come to discriminate very
; industry.

FIGHTING THE POLAR ICE


"Fighting the Polar Ice," just Archipelago and by a series of magnetic
IN Page published
&
by Messrs Doubleday,
Co., Mr Fiala gives a
and meteorological observations
Messrs W. J. Peters and R. W. Porter,
by

graphic narrative of the Ziegler Polar which from their exactness and conti-
Expedition of 1903-1905, of which he nuity have proved immensely valuable.
was the commander. The scientific work The Scientific Report is in press and will
of this expedition,it will be remembered, be published shortly by the National Geo-
was under the direction of the National graphic Society.
Geographic Society. The expedition The expedition left Norway early in
failed in its object of getting to the Pole, July, 1903, but owing to the great
reaching only 82°, owing to wide open amount of ice encountered failed to reach
leads in the ice, succeeded by immense Teplitz Bay, in Franz Josef Land, before
pressure ridges but their two years' stay
; the end of August.
in the Far North was amply repaid by As a result, they had not time before
detailed explorations of previousl}' un- the darkness set in to discharge the sup-
charted portions of the Franz Josef plies, and were therefore compelled to
Fighting the Polar Ice 73

" WE CROSSED THE ARCTIC CIRCLE, AND ALL MEMBERS OF THE EXPEDITION WHO HAD NOT
CROSSED THE PARALLEL BEFORE, WERE SEIZED BY THEIR COMRADES WHO HAD, AND
INITIATED AS POLAR EXPLORERS BY BEING THROWN OVERBOARD WHILE THE STEAMER
WAS IN MOTION, THEIR SAFETY FIRST INSURED BY A LONG LINE MADE FAST AROUND
THEIR WAISTS."
This and the foUon'ing photogi aphs '
copyrighted by Anthony Fiala.

keep their ship in an open roadstead, Camp Ziegler to Camp Abruzzi, a dis-
where she was finally crushed and sunk by tance of 200 miles. The lowest temper-
the ice with more than half the provisions ature recorded was 60.2 below zero
and coal. What they had taken ashore, (Fahr.), on January 5, 1905.
however, was sufficient for one year. The volume is magnificently illustrated
The failure of the relief ship to appear from photographs by Mr Fiala, the pano-
in 1904 would have seriously embar- ramic pictures giving us a better idea of
rassed the party if it had not been for the the difficulties of dragging sledges over
-abundant stores cached at Cape Flora by the polar ice than any pictures heretofore
the Duke of Abruzzi and a vein of coal published.
found by Assistant Engineer Vedoe 600 "It is a curious fact that when one
feet up the talus. The coal burned dog has antagonized the others the only
ireely. Twenty tons of it were mined way to save him from destruction later
out of the frozen clay and carried down on is to chain him. Then the other dogs
the steep talus on the backs of the men. let him alone. Unfortunately for us, the
Mr Fiala writes vtry entertainingly, dogs that seemed to incur the enmity of
hiis power of description being exceed- their fellows were the large, strong ani-
ingly realistic. Particularly vivid are the —
mals the bullies and fighters. There
•chapters describing the grinding of the seemed to be a degree of justice in their
ship by the immense fields of ice which judgments. From close observation, I
finally engulfed her; and the march in found that the dogs generally forgave a
the blackness of an arctic night from bite on the head or body, while an attack
74 The National Geographic Magazine

HAULING THE CARCASS OF A POLAR BEAR ABOARD THE SHIP

on the legs seemed to be considered foul faster than their rivals, but as soon as-
play and must be paid for by the life of they struck rough going, the ponies out-

the offending canine the whole pack distanced the dogs easily, at the same
uniting in his execution. time dragging heavier loads. The men
"The one important point in which our driving the dog teams were tired out at
equipment differed radically from that the end of a day's march by the constant
prepared for other attempts over the exertion in helping the dogs pull their
polar ice was in the use of ponies. These loads up grades and over ice-blocks, but
tough little animals are accustomed to it was seldom that the ponies required

the very lowest temperatures experienced assistance.


in the steppes of Siberia, some parts of "Over I20 polar bears were killed dur-
which are considered the coldest places ing our two years' stay in the Franz
of the earth. .They are also accustomed Josef Archipelago. Scurvy was un-
to forcing their way through deep snows known and the general health of the
and across frozen rivers whose shores party was good.
are lined with broken ice and deep drifts. "During the summer our party secured
They had been used first by Jackson, seventeen bears, and we luxuriated in
who believed them superior to dog teams bear steaks fried in butter. Most of the
and used them in preference to dogs on men enjoyed the meat, which was not un-
his trips of exploration and survey like beef when prepared carefully, by
through the Franz Josef Archipelago. cutting away all fat before frying. Thei
"On smooth ice the dog's traveled fat gave the meat a rancid taste.
:

Fighting the Polar Ice 75


"In the nesting time of the gulls and This volume is the fourth of the Geo-
loons, several of the sailors went up the graphical Library published by Double-
talus daily, dragging with them a long day, Page & Co. The fifth, "Nearest
ladder that they had constructed and, at the Pole," by Commander Robert E.
the risk of their lives, clambered up the Peary, will appear in the early spring.
precipitous side of the great rock and
robbed the nests. Many of the eggs GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE
were fresh, and when fried with the ham A
Flashlights in the Jungle: record of hunt-
we had found in the Duke's cache gave ing adventures and of studies in wild life in
equatorial East Africa. By C. G. Schillings;
us a breakfast not to be despised.
translated by Frederick Whyte. Illustrated
"Eight brant and several hundred with 302 of the author's "untouched" photo-
loons were shot and added to our larder graphs taken by day and night. New York
Doubleday, Page & Company. 1906. $3.80
net.
The most remarkable part of this very in-
teresting book are pictures which are
the
snapshots at wild animals. Particularly won-
derful are the flashlights of "lions killing an
ox" (393) and of three full-grown lionesses
(356), and still another of a lioness about to
spring upon a donkey (378). There is also a
remarkable series of flashlights of groups of
zebra drinking at night (333, 337, 323) and a
picture of a rhinoceros with its young (231),
and two really wonderful pictures taken by
daylight at fifteen paces of rhinoceroses bathing
(205, 206). There is another series of giraffes
stalking through the forest, taken by daylight
(307, 321). The book is in fact full of rare
and unique pictures of all sorts of animals and
is worth many times the price for the pictures
alone.
Herr Schillings' e.xperiences show that
photographing was often dangerous work. The
following description of photographing rhi-
noceroses is quoted "Accompanied now by only
:

two of my bearers and two Masai, I succeeded


in approaching warily within 120 yards of them.
I had taken several pictures successfully with
my telephoto-lens, when suddenly for some
reason the animals stood up quickly, both
together, as is their wont. Almost simultane-
ously the farther of the two, an old cow, began
moving the front part of the body to and fro,
and then, followed by the bull with head high
in the air, came straight for me, full gallop.
and sixteen great walruses and about the I had instinctively felt what would happen, and
in a moment my rifle was in my hands and my
same number of seals. Walrus liver was camera passed to my bearers. I fired six shots
considered a delicacy, but the meat and succeeded bringing down both animals
in
proper was rather tough and made one twice as they rushed toward me. Great fur-
think he was dining on automobile tires." rows in the sand of the velt showed where they
fell.
The party also shot a number of "My final shot I fired in the absolute certainty
ptarmigan, which is interesting as the that my last hour had come. It hit the cow in
first recorded appearance of these birds the nape of the neck, and at the same moment I
in the archipelago. Mr Fiala pays a sprang to the right, to the other side of the
brier bush. With astounding agility the rhi-
well-deserved tribute to Mr W. S. noceroses followed me, and half way round the
Champ, the leader of the relief expedi- bush I found myself between the two animals.
tion of 1905. It seems incredible, now that I tell the tale in
76 The National Geographic Magazine
Fighting the Polar Ice 77
:

The National Geographic Magazine


cold blood, but in that same instant my shots — —
March 29 "Mexico the Treasure-house of
took effect mortally and both rhinoceroses the World." By Mr N. H. Darton, of the
collapsed." U. S. Geological Survey. Illustrated.
Dr Schillings' pictures will constantly en- April 5— "A Popular Explanation of Earth-
hance in value, for the time is not distant when quakes and Volcanoes." By Dr G. K. Gilbert,
the huge beasts he so vividly describes will be of the U. S. Geological Survey. Illustrated.
as rare as the American buffalo. April 12— "Captain John Smith and Old
E. M. G. Jamestown." By Mr. W. W. Ellsworth, Secre-
tary of the Century Co.
The Uncompahgre Valley and the Gunnison Announcements will be made later of ad-
Tunnel. By Barton W. Marsh. Pp. 151. dresses byCommander Robert E. Peary, U. S.
S]4 by 8% inches. Illustrated. Montrose, Navy, who has recently attained "Farthest
Colo. :Marsh and Torrence. 1905. North," and by Dr F. A. Cook, of Brooklyn,
The compilers of this volume state in their who has accomplished the first ascent of Mount
preface that their object is "to assist those who McKinley, the highest mountain in North
contemplate making a chawge of location, as America.
well as for the distribution of accurate knowl-
edge of this part of the country." Useful in- SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS
formation is given about the situation and sur-
roundings of the valley, resources and products
The meetings of this course will be held at
the home of the Society, Hubbard Memorial
of the land, present water supply, climate,
towns and industries, educational advantages, Hall, Sixteenth and M streets, at 8 p. m., on the
following dates
and finally the advantages of irrigation by
turning the waters of the Uncompahgre River
January 11 — Annual
Meeting. "Aboriginal
Agriculture in Guatemala." By Mr O. F. Cook,
into the valley by means of the Gunnison Tun-
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Illus-
nel.
trated.
January 22— "The Coal Lands of the U. S.
NATIONAL :GE0GRAPHIC SOCIETY Public Domain." By Mr M. R. Campbell, of
the U. S. Geological Survey. Illustrated.

January 4 "German East Africa." By Dr —
February 9 "A Visit to Sumatra." By Mr
Louis Livingstone Seaman, of New York. Il- George H. Peters, of the U. S. Naval Observa-
lustrated.

January 18 ^"Camping Expeditions in the
tory. Illustrated.
February 18 — "Reclaiming the Desert." By
Canadian Rockies." By Mr Howard Du Bois.
— Mr C. J. Blanchard, of the U. S. Reclamation

January 25 "Bolivia a Country Without a Service. Illustrated. The Reclamation Serv-
Debt." By the Bolivian Minister, Seiior F. ice has a fund of $40,000,000, which is being in-
Calderon. Illustrated.

February i "The Rising Pacific Empire." —
vested in irrigation works.
February 22 "Reclaiming the Swamp Lands
By Hon. George C. Perkins, U. S. Senator of the United States." By Mr H. M. Wilson,
from California.

February 8 "The Guianas." By Prof.
of the U. S. Geological Survey. Illustrated.
February

28 "Acclimatizing Fishes or —
Angelo Heilprin, of Yale University. Illus- Transplanting Fishes from the Atlantic to the
trated.
— "Ten Pacific, and Vice Versa, etc." By Dr Hugh
February 15 Years of Polar Work; M. Smith, Deputy Commissioner, Bureau of
or, What We Know and What We Want to Fisheries.

Illustrated.
Know." By Mr Herbert L. Bridgman, Secre- March 8 "Twenty Years in Beirut and
tary of the Peary Arctic Club. Damascus or. The Syria of Today." By Rev.
February ig "Two
— Illustrated.
Thousand Miles in the F. E. Hoskins.
;

Illustrated.
Saddle through Colombia and Ecuador." By March 11.— "The U. S. Forest Service." By
Hon. John Barrett, U. S. Minister to Colombia. Mr Gifford Pinchot, Forester. Illustrated. The
Illustrated.

March l "Santo Domingo and Haiti." By
Forest Service has charge of 1x4,606,058 acres
of forest land, worth $400,000,000.
Rear Admiral Chester, U. S. Navy. Illustrated. —
March 22 "Utilizing the Surface Waters of

March 15 "The Regeneration of Korea." the United States for Power." By Mr H. A.
By Mr George Kennan. Illustrated. Pressey, C. E. Illustrated.

March 21 "Our Immigrants Where They : April 6— "The South Sea Islanders." By Mr
Come Prom, What They Are, and What They A. B. Alexander, of the U. S. Bureau of Fish-
Do After They Get Here." By Hon. F. P. eries.

Illustrated.
Sargent, Commissioner General of Immigra- April 15 "Photographs of Wild Game Taken
by Themselves." By Hon. George Shiras, 3d.
tion.
March —
Illustrated.
23 "Queer Methods of Travel in
Curious Corners of the World." By Hon. O.
Illustrated.
April 19
— "A Trip to Argentine and Para-
P. Austin, Chief Bureau of Statistics. Illus- guay." By Mr John W. Titcomb, of the U. S.
trated. Bureau of Fisheries. Illustrated.
——gp>—
S%e NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE
Vol. XVIII FEBRUARY, 1907 No. 2
CONTENTS

. BEAUTIFUL ECUADOR
By Hon. JOSEPH LEE, U. S. Minister to Ecuador. Illustrated

PERSIA, PAST AND PRESENT. lUustrated

AN ICE-WRAPPED CONTINENT
With 20 illustrations of that great Antarctic Continent —
twice the size of
Europe —which is covered with mountains of ice and snow

THE BURNING AND BATHING GHATS OF INDIA


By ELIZA RUHAMAH SCIDMORE. Foreign Secretary of the National
Geographic Society. Illustrated

HOW LONG WILL OUR COAL RESERVES LAST?


By M. R. CAMPBELL, of the U. S. Geological Survey. Illustrated

POLAR PHOTOGRAPHY
By ANTHONY FIALA
Notes on the Forest Service (Illustrated) and Geographic Literature

Published by the National Geographic Society


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n GEOGRAPHIC
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Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR
Associate Editors
MAJ. GEN. A. W. GREELT ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
U. S. Army Washington, D. C.

W J McGEE DAVID T. DAY


Director Public Museum, St Louis
Chief of the Division of Mineral
Resources, U. S. Geological Survey
C. HART MERRIAM
Chief of the Biological Survey, U. S.
Department of Agriculture ANGELO HEILPRIN
Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila-
WIIiIiIS Ii. MOORE delphia
Chief of the Weather Bureau, U. S.
Department of Agriculture R. D. SALISBURY
University of Chicago
O. H. TITTMANN
Superintendent of the U. S. Coast
and Geodetic Survey G. K. GILBERT
U. S. Geological Survey
O. P. AUSTIN
Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, ALEXANDER McADIE
Department of Commerce and Meteorology, U. S.
Professor of
Labor Weather Bureau, San Francisco
DAVID G. PAIRCHILD
Agricultural Explorer of the De- ALMON GUNNISON
partment of Agriculture President St Lawrence University

Hubbard Memorial HalL Washington, D. C.


From stereograph, copyright 1906, by Underwood & Underwood, New York

Gathering Cacao Pods


La Clementina hacienda, Ecuador, the biggest chocolate plantation in the world. The trees are
under constant cultivation and are continually growing more prolific. Laborers receive 80 cents to
$1.00 (silver) per day, with house-rent free. 200 are employed all the year and 150 additional
during harvest season on this plantation.
Vol. XVIII, No. 2 WASHINGTON February, 1907

Tl

C>
mateomal o
/rnl

©(smaipihis
aoam:
BEAUTIFUL ECUADOR*
By Hon. Joseph Lee, U. S. Minister to Ecuador

THE Republic of Ecuador lies at


the northwestern corner of the
South American continent, be-
about sixty miles above its mouth. It
has a population of 50,000. It is the
emporium of Ecuador. All imports and
tween Colombia and Peru. As its name exports pass through Guayaquil. The
implies, it is situated upon the Equator. houses are built of wood, owing to the
Ecuador possesses an area of 429,C)CX) lack of other material. They are con-
square miles, including the Galapagos structed in the southern style, with bal-
Archipelago. It is nearly twice the size conies protruding over the sidewalks and
of France and as large as Texas, New resting upon wooden pillars, thus form-
York, Pennsylvania, and Nebraska com- ing piazzas which afiford protection
bined. The population is 1,500,000. against sun and rain. As fires under the
Although the country is comprised be- circumstances are particularly dangerous,
tween one degree north and four degrees Guayaquil has perhaps a more extensive
south latitude, almost every variation of fire department than any city of its size,

climate is obtainable, from the torrid and ample reservoirs of water on a hill
lands of the coast to the chilly plains, at behind the town. It is improbable that
an elevation of 12,000 feet, at the foot of Guayaquil will ever again be visited by
the snow-clad peaks of the Andes. such disastrous conflagrations as in the
Both the eastern and western ranges past.
of the Andes traverse the Republic. Be- GUAYAQUIL
tween these ranges lie extensive high val-
leys yielding the products of the Temper- The hospitals of Guayaquil are as com-
ate Zone. To the west of the Cordillera plete as any in South America. The
stretch the low tropical lands on the Pa- great new General Hospital, with its

cific, and to the east the country grad- modern most favor-
appliances, compares
ually descends to the low Amazon Valley ably with Ancon Hospital at Panama.
and the frontiers of Brazil. Although the cathedral, the churches,
Guayaquil, the principal seaport of the the great municipal buildings, and the-
Republic, is situated on the River aters are built of wood, they are impos-
Guayas, the most important stream in ing and are decorated in perfect taste.
South America emptying into the Pacific, The Union Club of Guayaquil is, with
*An address to the National Geographic Society November 30, 1906.
82 The National Geographic Magazine
the exception of the Hongkong Club, the tured in the Province of Manabi. The
best I have ever seen in the tropics. lowlands of the coast also produce cin-
Under the bright hght of the moon, these chona bark, from which we obtain qui-
buildings appear to be constructed of nine (Countess of Chinchon), rice, cof-
rare marbles. The public squares are fee, sugar, tobacco, rubber, copal gum,
beautifully kept and filled with rare speci- vanilla, sarsaparilla, salt, petroleum, and
mens of the rich vegetation of Ecuador. cotton. It is interesting to note that dur-
The harbor is always busy with ship- ing our civil war England was supplied
ping. Two steamers each week sail for with cotton from Ecuador. Of course,
Panama and two arrive from the Isth- every variety of tropical fruit is produced
mus. Fleets of tugboats, lighters, and fine timber for house and ship build-
canoes, and balsas cover the water. The ing.
canoes, laden deep with fruit and country The daily papers of Guayaquil, The
produce, come down river on the swift Nacion, Telegrafo, Grito del Pueblo, and
tide and return on the turn of the tide Tienipo, are well patronized, well pub-
with scarcely the necessity of moving a lished,and of much influence. A
satis-
paddle. The balsas are used to a great factory daily telegraphic service is main-
extent. They are a maritime contrivance tained with the rest of the world. It is
invented by the ancient Peruvians and to be regretted that our newspapers do
made of five, seven, and nine trunks of not devote an equivalent amount of space
an exceedingly light tree called balsa, in to events in South America.
sizes as required. Large balsas go with Across the river from Guayaquil is
safety to sea as far as Paita, in Peru. Duran, the terminus of the Guayaquil
The logs are lashed together with vines, and Quito Railroad, a company incor-
and are fastened so firmly that they can porated under the laws of the State of
ride almost any sea. The whole structure New Jersey. This railroad, built by
adapts itself to the waves, and no water American engineers, is completed for a
rises between the logs. Houses are gen- distance of 140 miles and rises to a
erally built upon them and form homes height of 12,000 feet, under the shadow
for a literally "floating population." of Chimborazo. The road bed is leveled
The dry season lasts from June to
De- into the city of Quito, 260 miles from the
cember. The weather is very pleasant coast, and track is being laid at the pres-
and the nights and mornings are often ent time at the rate of a mile per day.
cold. The mean temperature of Guay-
ASCENDING tut ANDES
aquil is about 78 degrees.
On clear summer days, Chimborazo Leaving Duran at 7 a. m., the train
may be seen, rising 21,000 feet above the proceeds over flat and gently rising coun-
long chain of the Cordillera, covered try to the foothills of the Andes. In the
with ice and snow whose dazzling white- level country are the great sugar estates,
ness is intersected by black lines formed stretching for miles on either side of the
by the sharp edges of frightful rocks track and equipped with lines of minia-
upon which the snow cannot gather. ture railway for hauling cane and with
Guayaquil exports one-third of the large sugar factories. Leaving the
world's supply of cocoa. It is raised plains, the ascent is gradual through
along the Guayas River and its tribu- dense tropical forests plentifully watered
taries andthe principal staple of Guay-
is by streams and cascades which can sup-
aquil. Ivory nuts, from which bone but- ply unlimited water power.
tons of commerce are made, are exported At an elevation of from 4,000 to 5,000
in enormous quantities. Panama hats, feet there rises a mass of colossal, bald,
so called because they are distributed to rounded hills, almost shutting out the
the United States and Europe by way of sunlight, and it appears impossible that
the Isthmus of Panama, are manufac- the railroad can proceed further. The
From stereograph, copyright igo6, by Underwood & Under od, New York

Drying Cacao Beans in the Sun


La Clementina plantation, Ecuador, where 25,000 pounds are produced yearly for American and
European chocolate factories. When the pods are first opened the beans and enveloping pulp are
creamy white, but they grow brown by exposure to sun and air. The beans shown here are spread
on bamboo matting. The workmen rake them over once in a while by scuffling through them with
bare feet to ensure even drying. The trees in the distance are cacao trees, of which there are 3,000
acres in this one estate.
84 The National Geographic Magazine
mountains seem an unsurmountable wall and shouts without intermission. It is
9,000 or 10,000 feet high. But American the most thrilling, exciting, and hair-
engineers have found a way and have ac- raising locomotion I know. The mules
complished one of the most difficult feats are kept at full gallop down the long
known in railroad construction. A sugar- slopes of the Andes. It is often as much
loaf peak stands out in front of the tow- as they can do to keep ahead of the coach.
ering hills. Cut zigzag in the sheer face However, I never heard of an accident.
of the granite, a switchback of four levels The drivers are men long trained in the
has solved the problem of i-ising to 9,000 business and do not know what fear is.
feet. This level attained, the line ad- Formerly, before the days of the rail-
vances through volcanic country, seamed road and carriage road, it took ten days
with ravines and surrounded by sulphur- on mule back from Guayaquil to Quito;
covered hills, until a similar cul-de-sac is now by rail and coach the time is three
reached. This in turn is surmounted by days. I have made the journey with au-
means of a similar switchback loop with tomobile and train in 20 hours.
a grade of 7 per cent, and we reach
the Pass of Palmyra, on the roof of the
A LAND made; FOR GIANTS
world, at 12,000 feet. Wild wastes of The country is on a colossal scale. It
shifting sand surround the track. Stiff seems a land made for giants. High in
grass, like rushes on the sea-shore, is the the the tops of the rounded hills are
air,
only vegetation. Fossil shells are found one patchwork of cultivated fields. At
here, and the general appearance of the the foot of the hills lie smiling green val-
country is; that of the sea-coast. leys. There is abundant water and the
Frorn this point there is a gradual de- dry places are well irrigated. Along the
scent until the present end of the road is roadside water is carried for long dis-
reached at Cajabamba, 11,000 feet above tances by means of tunnels cut in the vol-
the level of the sea and at the foot of canic soil, with arched openings at cer-
mighty Chimborazo. At this place there tain intervals. The scarlet wool ponchos
are some of the few existing remains of worn by the Indian laborers make it pos-
buildings erected by the ancient Incas. sible to pick them out, in the marvelous
They are built of great masses of stone clear atmosphere, on the hills and in the
fastened together with cement. The valleys at surprising distances.
stone can be broken, but it is impossible It is necessary to spend the night at
to make any impression upon the cement. the city of Ambato (8,000 feet). The
Strange to relate, I found living here a town lies in a deep cauldron. The cli-
former Rough Rider, whom I had known mate is delightful. Here apples, plums,
in Cuba. He is engaged in the purchase and peaches flourish as well as the vege-
of hides for the New York market. tables and cereals of the Temperate Zone.
It is necessary to spend the night in Ambato has several cotton mills, produc-
this village and to set out for Quito early ing the coarse white cotton cloth uni-
next morning by automobile or diligence. versally used by the Indians for shirts
I have always found it more satisfactory and wide baggy trousers. Water power
to travelby diligence. In this way bag- is abundant and the mills pay well. Am-
gage can accompany the traveler and a bato is also the headquarters for the trade
long wait at the journey's end is avoided. from the Oriente, or the lowlands
The wagons are drawn by teams of five towards the east stretching to the valley
or six miles. Sixty mules, with changes, of the Amazon. A
line for a railroad to
are used to reach Quito. Two drivers tap this district, rich in rubber and gold,
occupy the box seat, one furnished with has been surveyed and work will begin
a long-handled whip for the leaders, the soon.
other with a short whip for the wheelers. Leaving Ambato in the early morning,
The animals are urged on with whistles we can see one of the most srlorious
Beautiful Ecuador

sights of the world —


sunrise on Chim- One Valverde, a Spaniard, was informed
borazo. The majestic giant stands out of the secret by his sweetheart, an Inca
in the dawn, his mantle of snow washed maiden, and he became suddenly very
with crimson and gold. The road winds rich. He left a description and guide of
over gigantic hills, around precipices, and the hiding place. This document was
down steep descents until we reach the preserved in the archives of the city until
great plain of Latacunga, stretching to it was stolen. Many expeditions have
the foot of dread Cotopaxi. been made in search of the lost treasure,
The fields as well as the broad roads but without success.
crossing the wide valleys are inclosed by From this city we journey over rolling
adobe walls surmounted by the broad- country to the foot of Cotopaxi (18,890
leaved American aloe. The aloe, some-
times called the century plant, is one of
the most useful and important plants in
the country. It is an erroneous idea that
it flowers only once in a hundred years.

The Indians thatch their huts with its


leaves. The leaves when tapped yield
syrup they can also be used as soap, and
;

the spines as pins. The fiber is woven


into sacks and from it are made the
coarse sandals worn b}' the common peo-
ple. The tall flower stalks are used for
beams and ladders. The flowers, boiled
and soaked in vinegar, make an agreeable
pickle.
The cochineal is found in abundance
upon the leaves of the plentiful cactus.
Its name is derived from its supposeil
resemblance to a little pig (cochinillo).
It is used by the Indians for dyeing
ponchos and shawls.
As we approach the city of Latacunga
the country becomes more sterile. The
plain is covered with volcanic sand and
pumicestone, indicating the neighborhood
of Cotopaxi. The houses and churches
are built of pumicestone thrown out by
the mountain, which in the past has
caused much destruction to this part of
the country. Water Carrier
There is a legend that the great earth-
quake of 1698 was predicted by a priest feet )The mountain presents a beauti-
.

seven years before it took place. The ful appearance, clad in its robe of snow.
Carmelite nuns of Latacunga believed in Its shape is that of a regular truncated
the prophecy and slept in tents in their cone with a flat summit. The crater is
garden for seven years. The convent uninterrupted in activity, and volumes of
fell, but the nuns were saved. white and gray smoke continually issue
Latacunga is the starting point of the from it. Generally the smoke assumes
most romantic gold legend in Ecuador. the form of an enormous tree, with trunk
The lost treasure of the Incas is supposed and branches, until a current of air tears
"to be hidden in the neighboring hills. it awav from the mountain and it floats
The National Geographic Magazine

Beautiful Ecuador 87

away a cloud, while by night the smoke city, relieved by roofs of rich red tiles.
forms a pillar of fire. Near the snow- In the streets and plazas are thousands of
line is a huge mass of rock called the people, continually moving. The major-
Inca's head. According to legend, this ity are Indians in scarlet or orange
was the original summit of the mountain, ponchos, wide white cotton trousers, and
torn off and hurled down by an eruption broad-brimmed white felt hats. There
on the day the Inca, Atahualpa, was exe- are Indians from a hundred different vil-
cuted by the Viceroy of Peru. lages, marked by the cut of the hair, the
After crossing the high pass of Chas- turn of a hat, or the shape of a poncho.
qui, above the clouds, the road lies The streets are thronged from morning
through rich pastures and fertile fields. to evening with mules, horses, oxen, don-
The green pastures of the beautiful val- keys, and llamas with loads of every de-
ley of Machachi spread around us, dotted scription.
with countless herds of cattle and horses. Ladies in smart victorias, drawn by
Beautiful villas set in gardens and groups Chilian or native horses, drive to and
of trees nestle at the foot of great hills. from the shops filled with merchandise
Houses are closer together as we near from Paris, New York, London, Vienna,
Quito, the capital. Numberless Indians, and Berlin. Handsome officers in full

men and women, carrying burdens or regimentals stroll along the streets. Gen-
driving laden mules, form an endless pro- tlemen in frock coats and top-hats are
cession. For the entire length of the everywhere.
great Ecuadorian highway, human beings The city is traversed from east to west
are always in sight. by two deep ravines, through which
The Indians carry everything on their Pichincha sends down its torrents of
backs. The load is supported by a strap melted snow. The land upon which the
passing across the forehead. Their city is built is, in shape, like the inside of
strength lies in the muscles of the neck, an oval bowl, at the bottom of which is
not in their arms. Their gait is a dog the Plaza Mayor. The course of the
trot, which they can keep up all day. streets is generally regular, running east
They are very polite and submissive. and west and north and south. The
streets are paved with cobbles. The
A SNOW-WHITE CITY houses, of stone and brick, are mostly
Quito is built in a bowl-shaped valley, built in the Spanish-Moorish style, with
at the foot of Mount Pichincha. The courtyards within. The roofs project
altitude of the city is 9,600 feet above the over the sidewalk and afford protection
sea. The mountain rises in the back- from rain. Balconies overhang the
ground to a height of 16,000 feet. The streets from every window. The ground
view which presents itself from the sum- floor on the street has no connection with
mit of this mountain is one of the most the rest of the house and is usually occu-
superb and imposing possible to conceive. pied by shops. The entrance is always
Twenty snow-clad peaks rise before you, high enough to admit a mounted horse-
ranging from 15,000 to 22,000 feet. It man with ease. Around the courtyards
is truly a Council of the Patriarchs of the are galleries, supported by arches or pil-
Andes. lars. The living rooms open upon these
There are three entrances to the city galleries. Servants are cheap and
±v/o from the south and one from the faithful.
north. We enter from the south by a There are several good hotels in
picturesque bridge spanning the Machan- —
Quito the Royal Palace, Hotel de Paris,
gara River. Hotel Americano, and the Casa Azul.
The direct rays of the equatorial sun The people of Quito are charming,
are white as lime-light, and the first im- courteous, and hospitable. I do not know
pression of Quito is that of a snow-white anv citv of its size which contains as
'.

88 The National Geographic Magazine


many intelligent and cultivated people. sultry valleyswhich separate the mighty
Their hospitality is proverbial. I have chains of the Andes. This variation of
continually received presents of sweet- temperature, depending upon elevation
meats, butter, cakes, venison, and even and occurring between narrow limits,,
fish. There are no fish in or near Quito. furnishes a daily and diversified supply
They must be brought from Guayaquil of vegetable food, from the banana, pine-

frozen in blocks of ice a journey of six apple, orange, and plantain, to wheat,
days on mule back. I shall always be corn, potatoes, cabbages, salads, apples,,
indebted to my courteous, cultivated pears, grapes, and strawberries. Hens
friends of Quito for their constant kind- lay so persistently that medicine has to
ness to me. be given to them to save their lives. As
The population of Quito is computed the climate is cool and the houses un-
to be about 70,000. Being the capital of heated, daily and frequent exercise on
the Republic, the government buildings foot or on horseback is absolutely neces-
and offices are here and also the presi- sary. On leaving the city it is difficult
dential palace. The handsome govern- to avoid the sun, as trees are scarce but ;

ment and municipal buildings, the bish- sunstroke is unknown. Mosquitoes,


op's palace, and the cathedral surrovmd snakes, scorpions, tarantulas, and rats
the great plaza. There are many beau- are unheard of. There are no bugs or
tiful churches and convents in Quito. beetles.
The church of the Jesuits is superb, with The Quito is beautiful and in-
flora of
its interior a mass of scarlet and real exhaustible. Roses bloom all the year
gold. Singers from Europe are attached round wild flowers cover the sides of
;

to the choir. Here in the capital, above courtyards and ruins tulips, orchids,,
;

the clouds, is one of the prettiest theaters pinks, and lilies bloom winter and sum-
in South America. mer, and geraniums run riot over walls
The Cornmercio and Tieiiipo, the lead- and roofs.
ing newspapers, are progressive, well
COMMERCIAL PROSPECTS
edited, and influential.
The mean temperature of the city is Ecuador is a sound-money country
about 60 degrees. The thermometer and has never issued paper money. As
scarcely ever rises above 70 degrees or the Ecuadorians have demonstrated in
sinks below 50. The mornings and even- the past their good sense in this matter,
ings are cool, the middle of the day the actual currency, which is on a gold
warm. The climate is delightful never — basis, is unlikely to be disturbed in the
hot, never cold —
a perpetual early spring. future.
Consumption and pulmonary diseases are Ecuador has no foreign debt. The
practically unknown. Many marvelous only foreign debt incurred has been paid,
cures have been accomplished in cases of off. This was the money borrowed dur-
consumption where hope had been given ing the struggle for independence. The
up. There are many people who would onlv obligation of the government at
pay any price to be delivered from the present is the interest on the bonds issued ,

great white plague. Quito seems to be for the construction of the Guayaquil
a cure. The days and nights are of and Quito Railroad. Development al-
twelve hours' duration the year round. ways follows the railroad.
The difference between sun and shade is Ecuador the principal producer of
is

ID degrees. This difference is felt at cocoa and ivory nuts in the world. On .

once by moving from sun to shade or the coast, coffee, rubber, bananas, sugar-
vice versa. A journey of four hours cane, rice, cotton, and tobacco grow lux-
from the city will place the traveler in the uriantly. Upon the plateaux of the high .

region of eternal frost, or in the space of district's are produced wheat, corn, oats,
half a day he can descend to the deep and beans, potatoes, and all the principals
Beautiful Ecuador 89

O!

a
From stereograph, copyright 1906, by Underwood & Underwood, New York

Llamas and Their Driver, a Native Indian of Inca Descent


These tough Httle beasts are akin to the Arabian camel and are used commonly for beasts of
burden on rough mountain roads in the Andes. They can carry 100 pounds apiece and travel nearly
all day, picking up their food as they go along in the form of wayside grass, twigs, etc.
Persia — Past and Present 91
cereals of the Temperate Zone. This Ecuador is a rich country awaiting de-

section also supplies cattle, horses, sheep, velopment, where there are opportunities
and pigs. There is abundant pasture all for the capital and spirit of foreigners.
the year. It is an agricultural country. The Republic has good currency,
The establishment of industries is wel- cheap labor, plenty of water power,
comed. The rivers on the coast and the abundant raw material of superior qual-
streams in the mountains furnish ample ity, man\- rivers on the coast for trans-
and cheap water power. Some of the portation, and a railroad into the in-
industries which would give results are terior. But the doors of trade cannot be
banana planting on the coast, where land opened unless the merchants and capital-
and labor are cheap, the crop finding a ists of this country heed the invitation
ready market lard-refining, as immense
; and enter the markets, in which they are
quantities are imported by way of Pan- assured a preferred place, and lay the
ama and Cape Horn to supply Ecuador, lines of mutual trade relations that will
Peru, and
Chile cotton and woolen
; redound to the advantage of the coun-
mills for the same markets cement ; tries concerned.
works to supply public construction and This initiative must be found here,
railroad building; furniture factories, and it is certain that commercial inter-
china and glass works, distilleries, and ests of this country and the American
canning and preserving factories — all investors will put the sickle into the field
these industries would find the necessary sowed by our great Secretary of State,
elements, raw material of the best quality, the Hon. Elihu Root, and already ripen-
and cheap labor. For cement the cotm- ing.
try provides all the materials also for ; Germany, Great Britain, and France
china and glassware for shoes, fine
; are in the field, Great Britain having a
leather and hides for furniture, a great
; larger trade balance to her credit than
variety of useful and precious woods. this country enjoys. The success of the
There is enough land on the coast avail- European trader is due to his closer
able to supply the banana market of the study of the needs of the people. They
world. The fisheries around the Gala- have their particular predilections in
pagos Islands, which belong to Ecuador, trade, and these can only be ascertained
are well stocked with turtle and codfish. by a careful study of their lives and
The climate is mild, the sea is calm, and wants.
there is abundant salt. There are exten- America has the world as her market,
sive coal deposits in the province of but it is in the line of self-interest that
Azuay and gold and silver in the prov- she should stimulate, encourage, and de-
inces of Loja, El Oro, and Esmereldas. velop the South American trade.

PERSIA— PAST AND PRESENT


THE recent death of the Shah of
Persia and plans in that coun-
extensive journeys through the ancient
kingdom. The chapter on the ruins of
try for a constitutional assem- Persepolis, which was founded by
bly lend special interest to this handsome Darius the Great in 500 B. C, and which
volume. The author, who is professor flourished for many centuries thereafter,
of Indo-Iranian languages in Columbia is particularly interesting. Through the
University and a well-known writer on courtesy of Messrs Macmillan Co., the
the Zoroastrian beliefs, describes some publishers, we are enabled to republish

* Persia — Past and Present. A Book of Travel and Research. By A. V. Williams Jackson.
With more than 2co illustrations and one map. Pp. 490. 6}4 by 9 inches. New York The
:

Macmillan Co. 1906. $4.00 net.


92 The National Geographic Magazine
Persia— Past and Present 93

,,. i\ \ 1)'> i
,.- T^fSS IJih

^\ \ EJiJL \^:sjim )M
^\ii:ir<\MmwmASS.

Subject Nations Bringing Tribute to Xerxes

A Rock Panel Below the Tombs of Darius and Xerxes


Carved at least 700 years later. It represents the surrender of the Roman Emperor Valerian (260
A. D.) to the Persian King
94 The National Geographic Magazine

The Domed Roofs of Kashan

A Tj'pical Group of Mullahs and Seids


An Ice Wrapped Continent 95.

several views of this remarkable city. On the palaces and the royal library, with all
page 92 is given an illustration of the its manuscripts, in order that posterity
portal to what is probably the tomb of might know nothing of its former
Xerxes. There are four such tombs in grandeur. The Mohammedans, who
a row carved out of a solid rock cliff. came later, scoured the country for man-
One has been identified as the tomb of uscripts. One governor issued an edict
Darius, and the others are probably those that every Zoroastrian should bring him
of Xerxes, Artaxerxes, and Darius II. about 14 pounds of Zoroastrian and Par-
The entrance to each is so high that from see books, in order that all these books
the ground ropes and ladders must be might be burned, and he concluded his
employed to reach it. Each tomb is a mandate with the order that any one who
lofty chamber entirely carved out of disobeyed should be put to death. No
rock, now empty except for numerous wonder the history of these people is
bats and birds. But even more wonder- shrouded in mystery.
ful are the vast masonry terrace on which The publishers are to be commended
were built the palaces of the kings and for the excellentmap, an expense which
the triple wall surrounding it. Here few publishers are willing to incur. A
Alexander the Great, according to tradi- valuable bibliography and index are also
tion,held a great orgy, and then burned

AN ICE WRAPPED CONTINENT^


To the south of Magellan Strait
there is a supposed continent,
twice the size of the United
the enthusiasm with which the discoveries
of the expedition were received, but the
scientific reports now appearing show
States, which is justly called the most that immense additions have been made
mysterious land in the world. During to our knowledge of the "bottom of the
the last few years five expeditions from globe."
as many nationalities have sought to tm- Captain Scott was very wise as well as
ravel the wonders of this vast region, but fortunate in his choice of base, which he
only one expedition, the British South established at the western end of the
Polar expedition under command of great ice barrier, vmder the shadow of
Captain Robert F. Scott, R. N., has suc- two lofty snow-clad volcanoes. Mounts
ceeded in getting near enough to do ex- Terror and Erebus, which Ross had seen
ploring work. This expedition was in state of violent eruption 60 years be-
planned by the Royal Geographical So- fore. To the east stretched the unending
ciety of London and assisted financially plain of the ice barrier, while to the west
by the Royal Society and by the British towered a great range of mountains, with
government. It sailed from London July peaks 9,000 feet in height. The first year
31, 1901, on The Discovery, which had efforts were concentrated in exploring
been especially built for the work, and the ice barrier, and the second to dis-
returned to England September 10, 1904. covering what lay behind the chain of
An unfortunate attack of scurvy during mountains.
the first year, caused by tinned meats,
and the fact that three relief ships were
THE GREAT ICE BARRIER

sent after it, unnecessarily it developed the problems which lay


"Perhaps of all

afterward, at first somewhat dampened before us in the south, we were most

*A review of "The Voyage of T/ie Discovery " by Captain Robert F. Scott, with 260 full-page
anil smaller illustrations, by Dr E. A. Wilson and others, 14 colored plates, and 2 maps. 2 vols.,
556 and 508 pages. New York Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 5io-°° "^^
:
96 The National Geographic Magazine
An Ice Wrapped Continent 97
-IT-} t "IB' "7

The Highest Ice Wall Seen (about 280 feet in height)

keenly interested in solving the m)"Steries the west, which he discovered andnamed
of this great ice-mass. Sixty years be- King Edward VII Land. When he after-
fore, Ross's triumphant voyage to the ward charted the track of the ship he
south had been abruptly terminated by a found he had sailed from 20 to 30 miles
frowning cHff of ice, which he traced farther south than Ross had done; in
nearly 400 miles to the east such a phe-
; other words, that 20 to 30 miles of ice
nomenon was unique, and for sixty years barrier had worn off since Ross had
it had been discussed and rediscussed, seen it.

and many a theory had been built on the At one point he halted the ship and
slender fioundation of fact which alone moored her to the barrier for a day,
the meager information concerning it while diff'erent members of the staff as-
could afford." cended in a captive balloon to800 feet
Before taking The Discovery, to her elevation. While lying alongside the ice
permanent quarters. Captain ,Seott wharf for 24 hours, the ship and wharf
coasted along the entire front of this bar- rose and fell together. The depth of
rier, and determined that it extended water here was 315 fathoms.
from the volcanoes Erebus and Terror Captain Scott makes the important ob-
for nearly soo miles to an ice-clad land on servation that the surface current set into
98 The National Geographic Magazine
An Ice Wrapped Continent 99
the barrier and under the ice for
a certain time, then turned and
set out again to sea. It would be
very interesting to know how far
"inland" this flux and reflux
penetrates.
During the first spring and
summer Captain Scott, Ivieuten-
ant Schackleton, and Dr Wilson
advanced 400 miles due south
across the barrier to 82° 17'
south latitude. When they
halted they could see to at least
84°, but the barrier still stretched
ahead, apparently unending. If
the dogs had not failed the party,
they would probably have suc-
ceeded in getting farther, but, as
it is, they beat the record for the

"Farthest South" by several de-


grees.
This ice barrier is probably
thrust off of some great body of
land enveloping the South Pole.
While the barrier is wearing
away in front, as proven by the
fact of its retreat of 30 miles in Examining the Ice Barrier from a Balloon
60 years, it is .being constantly
fed in the rear; in fact, its recession in Magnetic Pole, and consequently the
front would be considerably more rapid series is an invaluable aid to mapping out
if the loss was not balanced' by additions
the magnetic conditions of the whole of
in the rear.* How
far off the source is, this region.
is a mystery and when we bear in mind LAND IN THE WORLD
;
THE MOST desolate;
the scarcity of precipitation such in
southern latitudes, it is almost impossible During the entire march of 400 miles
to imagine where the supply is to be southward over the ice barrier, Captain
found. Scott had been flanked by a lofty moun-
The following year Lieutenant Royds tain chain on the right at a distance of
led a party about 100 miles across the about 50 to 30 miles. The peaks he
barrier to the east. Like Scott, he found named after prominent Englishmen and
it level everywhere. supporters of the expedition. Mount
It was on this journey also that a most Markham (15,000), Mount Longstaff
interesting series of magnetic observa- (10,350), etc. At the end of the march
tions were taken by Bernacchi, who car- he had tried to reach this land, but an
ried with him the Barrow dip circle, an immense chasm (page 102) barred his
especially delicate instrument. The great way. On his return to the ship, after an
value of these observations lies in the fact absence of 93 days, he found that Lieu-
that they were taken in positions which tenant Armitage had discovered a route
were free from all possible disturbances, across this chain of mountains, beyond
either from casual iron or from land which he reported a limitless ice-covered
masses the positions also run in a line
; plateau at an elevation of 8,900 feet and
which is almost directly away from the flat as a table. Armitage, however, did
*Voyage of The Discovery, vol. 2, p. 42r.
1 oo The National Geographic Magazine
An Ice Wrapped Continent lOI
I02 The National Geographic Magazine
An Ice Wrapped Continent 103
I 04 The National Geographic Magazine

— o
'

T^ rt

O &

—I /3

C t-i

< g

o a
CO s

8 3
.s ^
:

An Ice Wrapped Continent 105

cold,so wind-swept, or so fearsomely


not attempt to advance across the plain.
monotonous.
The following year Captain Scott and
several companions ascended to this "When the reader considers its geo-
plateau by Armitage's route. Their dogs graphical situation, its great elevation,
had all failed and the men were obliged and the conditions to which we were sub-
It was a jected while traveling across it, he will, I
to drag the heavy sledges.
think, agree that there can be no place on
heavy pull, as they had to climb 9,000
earth that is less attractive.
feet in 70 miles, up a rough glacier.
Captain Scott traveled to the westward "This great ice-sheet is unique it has ;

about 200 miles across this plateau, which no parallel in the world, and its discovery
did not vary in altitude more than 60 or
must be looked upon as a notable geo-
graphic fact."
70 feet. At one point he passed directly
south of the Magnetic Pole. ICE-FLOWERS
"The error of our compass had passed
In his diary, Captain Scott gives the
from east to west and was nearly at its
maximum of 180° although I could not
;
following description of the only flowers
accurately at the time, I could they saw
calculate it

get a good idea of its amount by observ-


''-March 30 {Easier Sunday). Like —
yesterday, a fine day, with a light north-
ing the direction in which the sun reached
The reader will see erly breeze. This is a season of flowers,
its greatest altitude.
that from a magnetic point of view this and behold! they have sprung up about
was a very interesting region. We were —
us as by magic very beautiful ice-
directly south of the South Magnetic flowers, waxen white in the shadow, but
Pole and the north end of our compass radiant with prismatic colors, where the
needle was pointing toward the South sun rays light on their delicate petals.
(geographical) Pole. It was a phenomenon to be expected in

"To show what a practical bearing this the newly frozen sea, but it is curious
reversal of the compass had, I may re- that they should come to their greatest
mark that in directing Skelton on his perfection on this particular day.
The
homeward track to the eastward, I told ice is about five inches thick and
free
ice-flowers
him to steer due west by the compass from snow consequently the
;

card. It is only on this line or the similar stand up clear-cut and perfect in form.
one which joins the northern poles that In some places they occur thickly, with
such an order could be given, and we broad, delicate, feathery leaves in others
;

visible, with
were not a little proud of being the first the dark, clear ice surface is
to experience this distinctly interesting only an occasional plant on it in others,
:

physical condition in the Southern Hemi- again, the plants assume a spiky appear-
sphere. ance, being formed of innumerable small
"There can be little doubt, I think, that spicules.
the wind blows from the west to the east "The more nearly one examines these
across this plateau throughout the winter, beautiful formations, the more wonderful
and often with great violence, as the they appear, as it is only by close
inspec-

high snow-waves show. What the tem- tion that the mathematical precision of
perature can be at that season is beyond the delicate tracery can be observed. It
is now established 'that on the freezing
of
guessing but if the thermometer, can fall
;

to -40° in the height of the summer, one salt water much of the brine is mechan-
ically excluded. Sea-ice is much less
can imagine that the darker months pro-
duce a terrible extremity of cold. salt than the sea itself, and what salt re-
be entangled in
"The interior of Victoria Land must mains is supposed only to
be considered the most desolate region in the frozen water. The amount of salt
the world. There is none other that is at
excluded seems to depend on the rate at
is formed, and while some is
once so barren, so deserted, so piercingly which the ice
;

io6 The National Geographic Magazine


excluded below the ice-surface, some is desert ice, where all around is gray and
alsopushed out above, and it is this that cold and white and silent, the richness of
forms the ice-flowers. The subject is their coloring strikes one very forcibly.
very fascinating, and we have already Their voice is loud and trumpet-like, and
started to measure the salinity of ice rings out in the pack-ice with a note of
taken from different depths and formed defiance that makes one feel that man is
under various conditions the ice-flowers
; the real intruder. They have no fear,
themselves do not seem to constitute a but an abundance of inquisitiveness, and
saturated solution of brine, and why they a party such as I have mentioned will
should differ in form in various places walk up to one with dignity, and stand in
seems beyond explanation." a ring all round, with an occasional re-
mark from one to the other, discussing,
THE EMPEROR PENGUIN no doubt, the nature of this new and up-
"We had
felt that this penguin was the right neighbor.
truest type of our region. All other "The method employed by the Em-
birds fled north when the severity of peror penguin for carrying the G.g^ and
winter descended upon us the Emperor
;
chick upon his feet is shared also by the
was alone prepared to face the extremest King penguin of the sub-Antarctic area;
rigors of our climate and we gathered
;
as we saw in our visit to their rookeries
no small satisfaction from being the first in the Macquarie Islands. The King
to throw light on the habits of a creature penguin we saw as he sat in mud and
that so far surpasses in hardiness all puddles, with his single egg upon his
others of the feathered tribe.* feet, and now we saw the Emperor pen-

"Not many birds undertake to lay guin doing precisely the same thing with
their eggs in the darkness of a polar his single chicken to keep it off the ice
winter, nor do many birds appear to and we are agreed that the term 'pouch,'
think that sea-ice is the most attractive which has been used in this connection, is
ground to 'sit' on. And when, in addi- one which not only does not describe the
tion to this, we find the Emperor pen- matter, but is anatomically wrong and
guin hatching out its chicks in the coldest misleading. The single ^%%, or the
month of the whole Antarctic year, when chick, sits resting on the dorsum of the
the mean temperature for the month is foot, wedged between the legs and the
in
i8° below zero, Fahrenheit, and the mini- lower abdomen, and over it falls a fold of
mum may fall to -68°, I think we may heavily feathered skin, which is very
rightly consider the bird to be eccentric. loose, and can completely cover up and
"The Emperor penguin stands nearly hide the egg or chick from view. When
four feet high, and weighs upward of So the chick is hungry or inquisitve, it pokes
to 90 pounds. He is an exceedingly out from under the maternal (or pater-
handsome bird, with a rich black head, a nal) lappet a piebald downy head of black
bluish-gray back and wings, a lemon- and white, emitting its shrill and persist-
yellow breast, with a satin-like gloss on ent pipe until the mother (or the father)
the feathers, and a brilliant patch of fills it up.
orange on the neck and lower bill. His "The feeding is managed as with cor-
movements are slow and stately, and the morants and many other birds, the little
dignity of his appearance is much in- one finding regurgitated food when it
creased by the upright carriage of his thrusts its head inside the parent's mouth.
head and bill. When a group of these "I think the chickens hate their parents,
birds is met with in the middle of the and when one watches the proceedings in
a rookery it strikes one as not surpris-
* This description of this remarkable bird is
from the chapter on "Antarctic Fauna," by Ed- ing. In the first place, there is about one
mund A. Wilson. Voyage of The Discovery, chick to ten or twelve adults, and each
vol. 2, p. 469. adult has an overpowering desire to 'sit'
An Ice Wrapped Continent 107
io8 The National Geographic Magazine

A Wandering Albatross Caught on the Voyage South

V
Endeavoring to Free the Ship by Blowing Up the Ice

The attempt was unsuccessful


An Ice Wrapped Continent i 09

Ice Formed on Submerged Rope

'^\-:-<*'*i^ _Jfc:^^.

The Hunter Waiting for a Seal to Come Up to Breathe


I I o The National Geographic Magazine
An Ice Wrapped Continent III

._-*!V
112 The National Geographic Magazine
An Ice Wrapped Continent i'3

on something. Both males and females would have been past believing that a
want to nurse, and the result is that when dying seal could have transported itself
a chicken finds himself alone there is a over fifty miles of rough steep glacier
rush on the part of a dozen unemployed surface."
to seize him. Naturally, he runs away, The dogs which had been brought
and dodges here and there till a six-stone from Siberia had the unpleasant ex-
Emperor falls on him, and then begins a perience of molting in winter, which was
regular football 'scrimmage,' in which the Arctic summer, but their fur soon
each tries to hustle the other off, and the came out again.
end is too often disastrous to the chick. The members of the party kept up
Sometimes he falls into a crack in the ice, their good spirits by outdoor games. One
and stays there to be frozen while the of the most spirited contests was a game
parents squabble at the top sometimes,
: of hockey April 7 by "The Married and
rather than be nursed, I have seen him Engaged vs. The Single," the match
crawl in under an ice-ledge and remain being played in a temperature of —40°.
there, where the old ones could not reach
AMERICAN EXPLORERS OVERLOOKED
him. I think it is not an exaggeration to
say that of the "]"] per cent that die, no Every one who reads Captain Scott's
less than half are killed by kindness." narrative as given in "The Voyage of
The Discovery" must admire the strong
SOME INTERESTING OBSERVATIONS and hearty personality of the leader. He
The power of the midnight sun in is full of energy, and not only did the

these latitudes is illustrated by the fact hardest work himself, but was able to
that when several members of a party get others to follow him willingly and
were caught on a ice-floe for several cheerfully. His lieutenants and men like-
hours without matches, Dr Wilson was wise command our respect for their cour-
able to produce a light for their pipes age, fidelity, and faithful work.
from a small pocket magnifying glass. It is unfortunate, however, that in his
During the summer the biologist of the resume of what has been done in the far
staff succeeded in growing a crop of south by previous explorers he completely
mustard and cress. He raised some on overlooks the two Americans who dis-
flannel and with chemicals, but the best covered the Antarctic Continent Pal- —
result was obtained from Antarctic soil, mer, who first saw the western half of
"which is evidently most productive." the continent, now called West Antarc-
No vegetation of any kind was seen tica, and Admiral Charles Wilkes, who
anywhere, but, on the other hand, they first sighted and defined the eastern half
found an abundance of animal life, so of the continent, known as Wilkes' Land.
that no party wintering in the Antarctic To quote Major General A. W. Greelv,
regions will have diiificulty in providing U. S. Army:
themselves with fresh food. "Captain Scott is happier as an ex-
On their ascent to the inland plateau plorer than as an historian. From his
they "passed two more carcasses of Wed- narrative and charts is absent the name of
dell seals; the last was at the greatest the American who discovered the Ant-
altitude we have yet found one, nearly arctic Continent, Captain N. B. Palmer.
5,000 feet above the sea it grows more
; Further, not only does Scott omit men-
than ever wonderful how these creatures tion of Palmer and erase his name from
can have got so far from the sea. We the Antarctic map, but he gives the credit
never satisfactorily explained this matter. for the first discovery of land in the
The seal seems to crawl to the shore or Antarctic regions to the distinguished
the ice to die, possibly from its instinctive Russian navigator, Bellinghausen.
dread of its marine enemies but unless
; "The discovery in the summer of 1820-
we had actually found these remains, it 182 1 of Palmer Land, from the summit of
1
14 The National Geographic Magazine

^^
An Ice Wrapped Continent 115

BEPRFSEINTftTIVES OF

HQ av E-w-seXTdK .

Representatives of Invertebrate Zoology


ii6 The National Geographic Magazine

a /3
'3
S
be a
a a

W S

< 1
An Ice Wrapped Continent 117

Emperor Penguin and Chick

sighted land ahnost surely on January 16, part of Wilkes Land, namely, Eld Peak
from 157° 46' east longitude, and again and Ringold's Knoll, to the east of Ade-
more positively on January 19, from 154° lie, but Captain Scott adds that "whilst it
30' east longitude, 66° 20' south latitude. is certain that we must reject Wilkes
On January 30 the size of the land was Land to the eastward of Adelie Land,
sufficiently ascertained to receive the Wilkes' soundings still remain as a guide .

name 'Antarctic Continent,' and this dis- to the limit of the continental plateau in
covery of Wilkes is the most important this region. Our own uniform soundings
discovery yet made in the Antarctic." of 250 fathoms, together with his, show
Impartial geographers in due time rec- that there is considerable extent of shal-
ognized the importance of Wilkes' dis- low sea, limited more or less by the track
covery, and in recognition of his work of the Wilkes' ships, approximately along
affixed the name Wilkes Land to the por- the Antarctic Circle."
tion of the Antarctic Continent along The German South Polar expedition
which he coasted. confirmed the opposite end of Wilkes
The homeward track of The Discovery Land in 1902.
disproved the existence of merely a small G. H. G.
;

THE BATHING AND BURNING GHATS AT


BENARES
By Eliza R. Scidmore
Foreign Secretary of the National Geographic Society

Copyri^^ht by the National Geographic Society, igoy

THE greatest
India, the
human spectacle in
most amazing and
complete exhibition of blind re-
man has a house at Benares, and it is
the acknowledged center of learning and
culture of the Hindu world. Literature
ligious zeal and superstition in all and astronomy have flourished there for
heathendom, the sunrise gathering of
is ages, and colleges of western learning in-
Ganges worshipers along the river bank struct in the exact sciences and even san-
at Benares. It is such an incredible itary science yet the old observances
;

thing that the winter tourist cannot real- prevail and the Hindu changes his spots
ize that he sees the spectacle when the —
no more than the leopard for a little
fewest Hindus are taking part; and it is matter of memorizing the words of a
impossible to conceive how the thirty few dozen English text books. He may
and fifty thousand bathers of a winter's lead a life outwardly conforming to Eu-
morning, are doubled and trebled on the ropean conventions and customs, but,
occasions of the great summer festivals, when he seeks Benares, to be cured
ailing,
and the imposing river front of the sa- by the touch and taste of Ganges water
cred city is one solid mass-meeting three and dying, he begs to be buried within
miles long. The half cannot be told one, sight of the spires and shrines that line
and roaming up and down the river front the ghats.
two and three mornings in succession Benares stretches for three miles along
leaves one as much amazed and im- the left, or west, bank of the Ganges, that
pressed as on a first morning. One has there turns northward, and all the city's
heart-sinking doubts of the Christian extent is sacred ground. Who dies there
missionaries ever being able to make on the left bank is sure of exalted estate
headway with such a people, against such hereafter; while the right bank is deso-
bigoted zealots. But, as Gautama Buddha late and accursed, and whoever dies on
once won them from Hinduism at this that stretch of Ganges shore becomes a
very place and held them to his purer donkey in the next incarnation, without
faith for generations, they can be con- hope forever. One bank of the muddy
verted again. stream is steep and high, crowded with
palaces, temples, and hanging gardens,
the S-\cred city
with the broad, magnificent flights of
Benares, as a sacred city resting on steps, called ghats, sweeping down be-
Shiva's trident spear, has been the goal tween them to the river's edge. The op-
of Hindus for all of thirty centuries. posite shore is low and sandy —a flat
The pious one seeks Benares in sickness land, useful only for sunrise effects. The
and in health, in prosperity and in ad- Maharajah of Benares has a white mar-
versity, to beseech the gods, to implore ble palace on the right bank, far up
their aid, to vow rewards to them and to stream, its terraces and marble-screened
fulfill those vows. The dream of his life balconies commanding a noble view of
is to retire to Benares in his old age, to the whole stately city front ; but the
•die in sacred Kasi, to have his body cre- prejudice is not allayed. No one dies in
mated at the edge of "Mother Ganges" this Ramnagar palace, nor in the village
and the ashes committed to her flood. behind it, if mortal eiifort can prevent.
Every Hindu prince and noble and rich The dying are bundled into boats in
The Bathing and Burning Ghats 119

Morning Strollers on the River Bank, Benares

panic haste, for it is as good to give the has its church and club, its tennis courts
death rattle on Mother Ganges' breast and polo ground.
as on the Benares shore. Sight-seeing begins at Benares before
The
traveler coming up from Calcutta daybreak, and one drives through the
gets a bewildering and better view of the two miles of uninteresting streets in the
splendid city front as he crosses the high starlight and gray gloaming, across to
railway bridge across the Ganges the — the boats at the river bank. In mid-
fortified iron structure made real to winter, the "cold-weather" months of
every one in Mrs Flora Annie Steel's Indian travel, it is bitterly cold at that
"Voices of the Night." Then the long —
hour hoar frost on the ground, blue
fantastic line of the ghats is succeeded and lilac frost haze in the air. One
by three miles of suburbs, of dingy plas- needs all the fur wraps and rugs he can
ter and adobe walls and dusty tamarind get to drive down to the river, yet is
trees, the commonplace railway station, glad for the shelter of a sun umbrella
and the vast spaces of the Cantonment, before noon.
or European settlement. A British regi- Every one at that hour was hurrying
ment is always quartered beside this hot- in the one direction, and when we had
bed of fanaticism, political conspiracy, raced down the great steps and the
and disaffection and all heathenish pos- houseboat was poled oft' from the bank,
sibilities. The officersand the many offi- all the river front was before us like a
cials of the civil service give Benares a theater stage lighted by the rising sun
considerable English communitv, that striking full upon it. As the sun shone
120 The National Geographic Magazine
The Bathing and Burning Ghats 1 2 1
122 The National Geographic Magazine
The Bathing and Burning Ghats 123

red, orange, and yellow through the all there at the river's brink either. All
thick frost haze, a great murmur of who go are in evidence, with the lime-
voices rose from the length of the ghats, light of the rising sun full in their faces,
the tens of thousands of fervent wor- save the few high-caste and noble
shipers, standing" on platforms built over women, who arrive before daylight and
the water and standing waist deep in are rowed out in curtained boats to bathe
the water, repeating in muttered chant and pray unseen in mid-stream. It must
the ancient Vedic hymn. They dipped require physical courage as well as re-
themselves beneath the swirling mud ligious zeal to breast that cold, muddy
flood they lifted the water in jars and
; current on a frosty morning; and, as the
poured it over their heads they lifted it
; majority of these people have only a
in their hands and let it trickle through double cotton sheet for promenade toilet,
their fingers or run down their arms, and one shivers sympathetically and wonders
they dipped tufts of sacred grass in the at the death rate from pneumonia.
water and sprinkled themselves ;they The sun transforms the scene when it
pressed their nostrils, they twisted their concjuers the haze and throws clear yel-
fingers, and did all manner of motions low beams upon the solid and fantastic
as they chanted and muttered to them- buildings and the white-robed company.
selves, each one rapt, intent, absorbed The air mellows, and one basks in the
entirely in the long religious recitals. sun thankfully, as do the beggars and
'

They paid no heed to us, nor to any fakirs, who shake off their wrappings of
happenings, for the Hindu ritual is so mat and sacking, and creep like numb
elaborate and exacting that if they should flies to the side of sunny walls. They
make a slip or omission, they would have sit there until some ostentatious Hindu
to begin the long ritual all over again. comes along doling out rice to the poor
For the priests and high-caste Brahmans, as a means of acquiring merit and favor
the daily prayers are of two hours' dura- —
with the gods and to be seen of men.
tion by the water side, and continue all These grotesque in their pow-
ascetics,
da}' but the ordinary man of Benares'
; dering of ashes and their rags, touch the
bazars gets his morning ceremony done sense of humor more than anything else
in far less time, wades back to shore and and give one relief in the long-drawn
dry garments, spots and stripes himself panorama of heathen blindness.
with fresh caste marks for the day. He
fills a brass jar with water and strolls
the; woman's ghat
along the ghats with the crowd, stops for The
boats are rowed along, close in-
a prayer or two, salaams to a cow or two, shore, barely avoiding the most devout
pours his water offering over some ones, who wade farthest out, and all the
greasy black image, and his religious way there is the same spectacle of re-
work is done. ligious zeal and spiritual exaltation. At
There is no evidence at the ghats that the Woman's Ghat every woman carries
Hinduism is dying out, but the census a brass lota, or water jar, or a still larger
tables give one gratifying data. Not and heavier jar of red pottery, and the
every believer goes to the Ganges each unending procession of gracefully-
morning, by any means. Tens and tens draped figures going up and down the
of thousands must shirk their religious broad ghat is an unending delight.
duties entirely for, as the city has a fixed
; Swathed head and all in their winding
population of 222,400 and a floating pop- saris, they wade into the river and pray,
ulation of ten to thirty thousand, it is one is sure, to every Hindu deity which
only an eighth or tenth of them all that the ten fingers represent to let them come
hail the sun across Mother Ganges. into the world again in some human form
There are eighty thousand priests fatten- less ignoble than a woman's. They go
ing in Benares temples, yet they are not back to shore and deftly envelop them-
124 The National Geographic Magazine
The Bathing and Burning Ghats 25
126 The National Geographic Magazine
The Bathing and Burning Ghats 127
selves in fresh saris and drop the wet ones greater merit and certainty of paradise
to the steps without once uncovering the for the dead one and the domri' s charges
;

face or exposing more than the feet and run from extravagant sums for burning
hands. They scour their brass lotas with the rich and noble at sunrise, and de-
Ganges mud, they wash their hair with crease toward noon and afternoon, when
sacred muck and fill the jars to take the very poor and the jail criminals are
home at the very mouths of the city sew- hurriedly burned, or half-burned, for a
ers. The devotees show no fastidious few annas, and the rubbish and bones
choice in dipping the water they drink. shoveled down the bank. Only the
All is Ganges water and all is sacred, highest-caste Brahmin priests and the
even when the surface is afloat with city holy fakirs escape the torch. These ex-
refuse discharging from the drain pipes alted beings are supposed to be so holy in
at their very elbows. At some sewer life that fire is not needed to purify them.
mouths the fanatics even seem to stand The flower-garlanded fakirs are rowed out
thickest and sip the sewerage most as- to mid-stream and committed to Mother
siduously, praying to the gods meanwhile Ganges to carry them down to the sea — if
to protect them from plague and all dis- alligators do not first consume them.
eases. The British government has fur- As the sun mounts and the air grows
nished a model water supply and sanitary golden and softly warm, and the people
sewerage, but the Hindus prefer Ganges finish their orisons, the river bank hums
filth to municipal drinking fountains, and and buzzes with the great social ex-
there is no way to make them do other- change. All Benares strolls along the
wise. ghats in mid-morning, as all Atlantic
City troops to the boardwalk, all Nice to
THE BURNING GHAT
the Promenade des Anglais. Big, flat,
The cremation ground is only a waste palm-leaf umbrellas are tilted against the
space of grimy sand and gravel between too warm sun, saris and garments are
two stone terraces, a neglected bank gul- stretched out to dry, and the carrying of
lied by rains, with pyres, building and water for household use, the washing of
half-consumed, scattered irregularly, and pots and clothing and vegetables sets
ghouls poking among the ashes for coins tongues wagging as at any village tank.
or jewels. More systematic ghouls carry Belated Brahmins keep on praying and
pans of ashes to the water's edge and performing their rites and gestures,
wash this pay dirt like any placer miner. while their next neighbor on the over-
Alongside this revolting sequel to yester- hanging platform shampoos his head or
day's burnings, lie fresh bodies, wrapped brushes his teeth and the "Sons of the
;

in white sheets and garlands of mari- Ganges," a band of robust Brahmins


golds. The bodies are dipped in the whose specialty is prayer for the repose
Ganges and laid in rows, witli the sacred of the dead, bellow the merits of their
stream laving their feet and profane particular intercessions above all the din.
ghouls washing pay dirt from yester- Then the fakirs wail and shake their ash-
day's pyres between and beside them, smeared heads, hold their shriveled arms
shaking grime and cinders over the hap- the more conspicuously in the ten-year
less, flower-wreathed bundles. poses of rigidity, and stretch themselves
This rude, open-air crematory is the more ostentatiously on the beds of nails.
monopoly of the domri, lowest caste of Snake-charmers are there, dancers and
all peoples, who charge extravagantly for jugglers, and everywhere among the
wood, the oil, and
their services, for the noisy crowds the sacred cows push their
the flame which lights the funeral torch way, nosing into grain sacks and rice
for touching off the pyre. The earlier bowls unhindered, and stately Brahmins,
in the morning the burning occurs, the painted in geometrical devices of the
128 The National Geographic Magazine
highest caste and piety, salaam abjectly Buddha preached and taught, and con-
to them —
a mad world, a crazy crowd, verted the people from Hinduism. It
surely. is a dark, dragon-eaved structure with
The throng is densest, the buzz and the flame-itipped__ gables, sadly reminding one
bellowing loudest, at the ghat below the of Burma and the further east; but the
cremation ground, for there are the Buddhism obtaining there is far from
sacred pools filled with Vishnu's perspira- the simple teachings of the Enlightened
tion, and where Devi dropped her ear- One, who lived in the Deep Park out

ring good reason for sanctity attaching
At this storm center
Sarnath way.
to them, certainly. Aurangzib's mosque, with its two
of the holy land of the Ganges bank, the slender, sky-piercing minarets, is easily
din and the hot sun are dizzying, and the ithemost conspicuous structure along the
mixture of Ganges water, old flower gar- ghats, as the conqueror intended it
lands, milk, butter, oil, sweetmeats, should be, and is a galling sight to
spices, and incense, cast into the tank all Hindu eyes. The few Moslems, who
day and every day, smells to heaven. The can manage to still live in Benares, fre-
odor is sickening, the sight of the gar- quent it every Friday, and the muezzin
bage mess more so, and the lepers and flings his shrill voice from the minaret
hideous sick folk, who crawl up and as if thousands hung upon his summons ;

down the slimy steps, are fit figures in but Hinduism has submerged the faith
this picture of heathenism triumphant of the Prophet, as it triumphed over
and undisturbed. Hindu intelligence Buddhism centuries before.
may be measured exactly when one con-
siders that the priests of the river bank
THE PUBLIC LAUNDRY
could easily check these suicidal cele- In every river city there are bathing
brants who flock there to drink the putrid ghats, where the people purify them-
mire in hope of cures. selves and their garments without the ac-
Perhaps it is well that Mrs Annie companiment of prayer, and there are
Besant has established her college at also ghats by the river bank, or tanks
Benares to teach the Hindus their own where dhobees swing and pound clothes
religion, the purer faith of Vedic times, and knead them on boards or stones.
freed from all the idolatrous and crazy The dhobee ghats and grounds are al-
abominations of later days. Nothing ways picturesque, and when one sees the
could be as bad as the creed that now energy with which they switch and club
enslaves them. Poseurs and unbalanced the garments entrusted to them, there is
Europeans, who come out to India loudly no wonder at the way a wardrobe melts
proclaiming their willingness to labor away in Indian travel. The corrugated
with Mrs Besant to save the Hindus washboard, the clothes-boiler, the labor-
after this novel plan, return to the world saving soap and soda are unknown and
at the end of each cold-weaither season. their advantages undreamed of, or the
The discipline is strict, the ideals high, Hindu brain would have evolved them
the regimen severe at Mrs Besant's col- thirty centuries ago, when cerebration
lege, and even Pierre Loti, after all his was more vigorous and all customs were
sentimentality over the Hindus, could established. The dhobee man and his
not stand the severe and monkish life harder-working wife slam and squeeze
prescribed for him by the English and hammer now, as they did in the first
prophetess, and returned to the flesh pots ages after the loom was invented, and
of the worldly folk. when they have spread their dunnage on
The fantastic little Nepalese temple on dusty turf or handy thorn bush the re-
the river bank isthe one living remnant sult is all that could be expected by the
of Buddhism in Benares, where the wearers of fine linen.
:

HOW LONG WILL THE COAL RESERVES OF


THE UNITED STATES LAST?*
By Marius R. Campbell
Of the United States Geological Survey

WITH the exception of food and


clothing, nothing concerns us
The value, compared with other mineral
products in the same year, is shown by
so mucli as fuel. On it we the following table
depend for heat and light to make our-
TABLE SHOWING VALUES OF MINERAL PRO-
selves comfortable, and for power by DUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES FOR I905
which to bring within our reach all that
goes to make up the material part of our
(1)
(2)
Coal
Iron
....
. . .
$476,756,96,^
382,450,000
twentieth-century civilization. Today (3) Clay products . . 149,697,188
power is the mainspring of human activ- (4) Copper . . . 139,795.716
Oil and gas 125,720,254
ity ; with it modern civilization will flour- (5) . .

ish — will expand and reach out to the


(6) Gold and silver . 122,402,683

ends of the earth to minister to our pleas- At the present time the United States
ures or to satisfy our ambitions without ; isthe largest factor in the world's pro-
it so-called civilization will cease to exist duction of coal, as shown by the diagram
and humanity will revert to the condition on page 130.
of primitive man, with brute force as the In the diagram given above the pro-
only dependence for safety and existence. duction of the three leading countries is
If, therefore, power is the foundation that for the year 1905 of the other coun-
;

of all of the material things we consider tries figures for that year are not avail-
worth having, is it not well to stop our able, and the blocks in the diagram repre-
mad race for a moment and consider sent the production during either the
whence it comes and how much of the year 1904 or 1903.
raw material is available for future use?
Without doubt, coal is the only fuel that THE growth of coal
today is worth considering, and, so far as Coal derived from vegetable ma-
is
we can see ahead, it will continue to be terial, either asaccumulations in swamps

the fuel of the future at least so long as from plants growing iii situ or as wood
it is within our reach or until other means that has been drifted into basins. In
of power production shall supplant it. either case the accumulation of vegetable
Therefore any study of the fuel supply matter has been covered by earthy ma-
of the future must be based upon a thor- terial washed into the swamp or basin
ough knowledge of coal, its mode of oc- and finally converted into coal. The for-
currence, amount from which future mer hypothesis is more generally ac-
supplies can be drawn, and rate of con- cepted than the latter, and it seems to
sumption, past, present, and to come. apply to most of the coal beds of this
The importance of the subject is countr\'.
shown by the growing value of the coal- The transformation from vegetable
mining industry in this country. In the matter into the different grades of coals
United States in 1905! coal to the is a process not well understood, but it
amount of 384,598,643 short tons, hav- seems to consist of the breaking up of
ing a value of $476,756,963, was mined. hydrocarbons and a partial slow distilla-

*An address to the National Geographic Society, January 22, 1907.


fAll statistics of production given in this paper are taken from U. S. Geological Survey,
Mineral Resources of the United States for 1905.
I30 The National Geographic Magazine
opment of joints and slaty cleav-
age, has converted the coal into
anthracite.
If the coal is cut by dikes or
sheets of molten lava, as fre-
quently has been the case, rapid
alteration occurs and the coal is
converted into coke or anthra-
cite coal. Such cases occur only
in fields in which there has been
considerable volcanic activity.
High-grade coals may be pro-
duced manner, but gener-
in this
ally onlya small area is affected,
and consequently the results are
not of great commercial im-
portance.
The progressive change in
composition is shown
the in
diagram on page 131, which rep-
resents the actual chemical com-
position, as shown by proximate
analyses, from the poorest grade
of Texas lignite to the best qual-
3 RITA IN ity of Pennsylvania anthracite.
The increasing value is shown
UNITED 5TATL5 332.919.34.1 s.T.
^^^^^B by the relative proportions of
fixed carbon (fixed carbon is the
Diagram Showing the Output of the Prmcipal carbon remaining after the vola-
Coal Producing Nations tile hydrocarbons have been
driven off at a low heat) and the
tion under considerable pressure, but decreasing amount of volatile matter and
only ordinary temperature. Where the moisture. In this case the fixed carbon
rocks are undisturbed, this is probably varies from 19 per cent in the lignite to
an exceedingly slow process, but where 88 per cent in the anthracite. The vola-
the rocks are upturned and broken, the tile matter varies inversely as the fixed
products of distillation find a ready carbon, being greatest in the lignite and
means of escape and the metamorphism least in the anthracite. The moisture also
may go on at an extremely rapid rate. diminishes in quantity from the lignite
Naturally the escaping gases are the to the anthracite, but the rate is not reg-
lightest hydrocarbons, and the material ular, since much of the moisture is due
remaining is the heavier, or fixed, car- to the conditions of sampling rather than
bon. to the chemical composition of the coal.
In a general way, time is an important The .ash is variable, depending largely
factor in bringing about this change, and upon the amount of earthy matter that
consequently the older carboniferous was washed into the old swamp during
coals of the east are more highly altered the growth of the coal-forming plants.
than the younger coals of the west. They The presence of ash is an important fac-
are generally converted into bituminous tor in the commercial value of a coal, but
coals, or, in the case of the eastern fields theoretically it forms no inherent part of
of Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, the the coal and should not be considered.
intense folding, together with the devel- In a general way, coals may be divided
. :

Coal Reserves of the United Stat ES 131


LIGNITE., CROCKETTTEX.
A\\\\\\\\\\V\\\\\\\\\\\V|
FIXaO C/fRBON MOISTUKE ASH VOLATILE MATTEfl

LIGNITE.. GLEN DIVE, MONT.

SUB-BITUMINOUS. LAFAYETTE, COLO.

SUB-BITUMINOUS. GALLUP, N.MEX .

BITUMINOUS. CARTERVILLE.ILL.

SEMI -BITUMINOUS. POCAHONTAS, W.VA.

SEMI-ANTHRACITE. SPADRA. ARK.

ANTHRACITE, PENNSYLVANIA

Diagram Showing the Progressive Change in Composition of L,ignite, Bituminous


and Anthracite
Note that all the moisture andjvolatile matter has been expelled in the anthracite

into three main classes anthracite, — and in limited areas in the west, {e)
bituminous, and Hgnite; but in the trade Sub-bituminous is applied to coals below
these main classes are broken up into the grade of bituminous, but above that
several groups, which are represented in of lignite. They are black and shining,
the following diagram but are light in weight and slack badly
DIAGRAM SHOWING on exposure to the atmosphere. These
CI,ASS OF COAI,
coals are common in the western fields
f (a) Anthracite. of Washington, eastern part of Montana,
Anthracite.
(6) Semi-anthracite.
(c) Semi-bituminous. northern Wyoming, about Denver in
"
I
Bituminous. . . \ (d) Bituminous. Colorado, and in northwestern New
y[e) Sub-bitummous. Mexico. (/) Lignite is brown and
[ Lignite (/) Lignite. woody, and occurs in North Dakota,
(a) Anthracite coal is too well known South Dakota, Texas, southeastern Ar-
to need description, {b) Semi-anthra- kansas, Mississippi, and Alabama.
cite is a low grade of anthracite, (c)
THE REASON WHY ONE COAL WILL COKE
Semi-bituminous is a high grade of
AND ANOTHER WILL NOT IS
bituminous, such as the George's Creek
NOT UNDERSTOOD
coal of Maryland, Pocahontas coal of
Virginia and West Virginia, and the The classes noted above include
all of
Carboniferous coal of Arkansas, {d) the different kindsof coal that are
Bituminous is the common grade of coal known, but certain pecuHarities of coals
found throughout the eastern coal fields within the bituminous class have led to
132 The National Geographic Magazine
I 5 i.2oo.t84 sHORiTONs bv which thc cokiiig properties of a coal
1,332.372 S.T.
are determined. The value of a coking
coal lies largely in the fact that coke is
g 1,473.211 S.T. practically the only fuel that can be used
to advantage in the production of iron.
1.643.832 S.T.
For this use the coke has to be of excep-
tional purit}^, containing an especially
low percentage of sulphur. It also must
5 1.934.
have a well-developed cellular structure
I 2,664.926 S.T. aud bc stroHg enough to withstand the
pressure of the modern blast furnace.
H 2.924.427 S.T.
Most of the coke of this character is pro-
3.983. 37B S.T. duccd iti thc Appalachian coal field in
.. ,,= ,,. . - Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia,
Tennessee, and Alabama. In general the
coke from the western fields is inferior to
that from the east, and little of it can be
used in the manufacture of pig-iron.
Most of the coke manufactured in the
west is used by the smelters where a
lower grade of fuel will suffice.
As shown on the map on page 135,
the various coal fields of the United
States are cut unequally by the boundary
lines of the different states, but, since
statistics are always given by states, they
will be regarded as the units.
The coal production of the various
states, yielding over one million short
37.7©I.S00 S.T.

38.434.363 S.T.

. 637 SHORTTONS

Coal Output of Principal Coal Producing States

distinctions which are of great impor- tons of coal in 1905, is shown in the
tance thus the property of coking, which
; accompanying diagram,
is limited entirely to the bituminous class,
has given to coals possessing this pecu-
Pennsylvania produces the most coal,
liarity a value far above those coals hav-
^"T Montana has the largest
'^°"'^^ Fields
ing similar composition, but which do
not possess this characteristic. The rea- As commonly understood, Pennsyl-
son why one coal will coke and another vania heads the list with a production
will not is not understood apparently it ; which dwarfs that of all other states into
does not depend upon chemical compo- insignificance. The
other states of the
sition, but rather upon some physical east that occup_v prominent positions are
property which no one has been able to Illinois, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana,
define. A
practical test is the only way and Alabama. Of the western states.
:

Coal Reserves of the United States '33

WYOMING
MONTANA 19,900. sq.i
47. 200sc|.m

W.VIRGINIA
17. coo sq.m

TEXAS
+1 ,300 sq.i TENNESSEE
KENTUCKY ""oosq-m,.
ie.fe70 sq.n
S.DAKOTA

ILLINOIS IND.TERR.
35,600 sq. 14.850 sq-
ARKANSAS
1,730 sq, mi
PENNSYLVANIA
K,680 sq.mv.
N.DAKOTA
35.S00 sq.
N, CAROLINA
NEW MEXICO 800 sq.mi -

\3 500 sq.mi.
MARYLAND
siosq.mi-
MISSOURI OHIO
£3.000 s<].r 12.660 sq.i

COLORADO OREGON
IOWA 11.600 sq. mi Z30 sq.i
20.000 sq.
GEORGIA
MICHIGAN 170 sq.n
11.300 sq.mi
KANSAS IDAHO
20.000 sq.i 14.0 sq.m
ALABAMA .

8,A3o sq.mi

Diagram Showing the Coal Areas of the Various States

Colorado stands at the head, with a pro- by low-grade lignite, and hence the fields
duction of nearly 9,000,000 tons an- are not so important as their areas would
nually; Wyoming stands second, with a seem to indicate. The same is true of
production of 5,600,000 tons; Washing- North Dakota, which includes an ex-
ton third, with a production of 2,800,000 tremely large area of coal territory, but
tons; New Mexico fourth, with 1,600,000 unfortunately the fuel is wholly lignite
tons; Montana fifth, with 1,600,000 tons, and of comparatively little value.
and Utah sixth, with 1,300,000 tons. The extent of some of the coal fields is
The areas of the coal fields that lie largely hypothetical. This is particularly
within the various states differ greatly, the case with Washington, where the
even more than the production. The rel- present estimate is probably far below
ative size of these areas is given in the the real extent of the fields. It might
following diagram be supposed that Washington had been
To many readers it will be a surprise explored thoroughly enough to deter-
to learn that the coal fields of Montana mine approximately the extent of its coal
are more extensive than those of any fields, but the peculiar conditions which
other state, and that Texas is a close sec- prevail on the west slope of the Cascade
ond. In this connection it must be un- Range make it practically impossible to
derstood that each of these states in- settle the question at the present time.
cludes an enormous territory, equal to The surface is deeply covered by glacial
two or three of the smaller eastern states. drift and vegetation, and it is only where
It is true, however, that most of the the great streams rushing down off the
coal territory of these states is underlain mountain slopes have cut through this
:

134 The National Geographic Magazine


drift that the coal beds are exposed. In these are the direct result of volcanic
this way they are known at many local- activity, and hence are of limited geo-
ities, and it is probable that they are graphical extent.
present in the intermediate covered areas, The largest field of anthracite coal in
but no one is willing to say so until more the western states is in Gunnison County,
prospecting has been done. When that Colorado, in the Crested Butte region.
occurs it is probable that the recognized Apparently the anthracite in this field is
area of the coal fields of Washington will the result of immense intrusions of ig-
be greatly increased. neous rock, which have baked the coal
The known coal fields of Alaska seem and thus driven off its volatile matter.
to be comparatively small, having ap- The same coal beds only a short distance
proximately the same area as the bi- away are either bituminous or sub-
tuminous field of Alabama. Here again bituminous in character. One other oc-
exploration may, and probably will, in- currence of anthracite is known in Colo-
crease the area materially, especially that rado, in the Yampa coal field, in the
of the low-grade lignites of the Arctic northern part of Routt County. In this
slope. locality the coal has been changed to an-
The area given for the coal fields of thracite by dikes and sheets of igneous
Alabama includes only the bituminous rock, and the field is very limited in
coal of Carboniferous age in the north- extent.
east part of the state. In addition to this, In New Mexico a small field of an-
as shown by the map on page 135, there thracite occurs near Cerrillos, on the
is a wide band of Hgnite-bearing Tertiary Santa Fe Railroad. The field is small
rocks crossing the southern part of the and the anthracite is due to the baking
state. These rocks are known to contain efl^ect of an intrusive sheet of igneous

beds of lignite, but in the presence of rock.


high-grade bituminous coal the lignite Utah claims a small field of anthracite
has never been explored, and conse- . coal in Iron County, near the southwest-
quently the number of beds, their thick- ern corner of the state. It has not been
ness and extent, are not known. It is developed and little is known of its ex-
possible that when the supply of better tent or value.
fuel is exhausted, or has fallen belo^v the In Washington a very small field of
demand, the lignite field may be found to anthracite occurs in the vicinity of a
contain an important supply of fuel. large mass of igneous rock on Carbon
River, southeast of Tacoma.
DISTRIBUTION OF COAL IN THE WEST The largest anthracite field outside of
The eastern coal fields have been Pennsylvania occurs near Controller
known and worked for so many years Bay, in Alaska. In this field the change
that most persons are fairly well ac- in the character of the coal is said to be
quainted with their extent, the character not directly related to volcanic activity,
of the coal, and the number of workable but to be due to the intense folding to
beds. In the western states some of the which the rocks have been subjected.
coal fields are comparatively well known, At the present time anthracite is mined
but many have never been adequately in the west only in Gunnison County,
explored, and consequently the informa- Colorado, and near Cerrillos, New Mex-
tion available regarding them is meager. ico.

So far as our present knowledge goes, —


Coking Coal. Good coking coal is
the distribution of the various classes of scarce in the western fields. The prin-
coal in the western states is as follows cipal source of supply is the Raton, or

Anthracite. -Only small areas of an- Trinidad, field, in southern Colorado and
thracite coal have been found in the northern New Mexico. Seventy per
western states and Alaska. Generally cent of the coke produced in the western
Coal Reserves of the United States

Outline Map Showing Coal Areas of the United States


The black areas are anthracite and bituminous ; the shaded areas are lignite

fieldscomes from this region. Some coke In Colorado good bituminous coal oc-
is produced in Colorado, on the west
also curs in the fields just mentioned, at Trin-
side of the Front Range, at Durango and idad and about Durango. It is also
in the vicinity of Glenwood Springs. present in the small field south of Can-
Other important centers of coke produc- yon City and in Gunnison County. As
tion are Castle Gate and Sunnyside, in shown on the map, the latter field occu-
Utah, and along Carbon River southeast pies the southeastern point of a large
of Tacoma, Washington. Coke is also synclinal basin which extends as far
made to a limited extent in Wyoming west as Castle Gate, Utah. The coal
near the Black Hills and in southern cen- outcrops on the south limb of this basin
tral Montana. There are several other in the Book Cliffs west of Grand Junc-
coals that will coke with difificulty, which tion and along the "Great Hogback"
may be developed in the future, but the from Gunnison County northwestward
present prospect is not particularly prom- through Glenwood Springs and Meeker.
ising. Throughout the whole line of outcrop
Bituminous, Steam, and Domestic around this basin the coals are of the
Coal. —
This class of fuel is much more bituminous class, although in places they
abundant than either of the two preced- belong to the lowest group of the class.
ing classes. In New Mexico the largest Good bituminous coal also abounds in
deposit of such coal is in the Raton field, the Yampa field, in Routt County. Thus
in the north central part of the territory. it will be seen that Colorado has a large

Similar coal also occurs in the northern supply of this class of coal.
part of the great Durango-Gallup field, Utah is also well supplied by the same
in the northwest corner of the territory, basin and by its extension southward
and in several small fields south of from Castle Gate along the Wasatch
Santa Fe. Plateau. There is also a small field at
136 The National Geographic Magazine
Coalville, east of Salt Lake City, and a at the north. It is mined commercially
fieldof unknown extent in Iron County, only in North Dakota and Texas.
occupying the Colob Plateavi.
Wyoming has bituminous coals along THE COAI, FIELDS BELONGING TO THE GOV-

the line of the Union Pacific Railroad at


ERNMENT ARE MOSTLY LIGNITE
or near Hanna, Rawlins, Rock Springs, Up to the present time we have used
and Kemmerer, and also in small areas our fuel without a question as to the pos-
about the Black Hills. It is possible that sibilityof its exhaustion, for if such a
other areas of bituminous coal exist in thought has entered the mind it has been
this state, but they are not well known. dismissed with the optimistic remark that
Montana has considerable bituminous "the American people are ingenious and
coal in the fields along the Northern Pa- inventive, and when the coal becomes ex-
cific Railroad west of Billings, about hausted some other source of heating
Great Falls, and in the Crazy Mountains, power will be discovered." Such assur-
but by far the largest areas in the state ance is delightful, but it will not suffice
carry coal of an inferior grade. to keep us warm, nor to turn our mills
Washington has several bituminous and keep trains running when our coal
coal fields along the western foothills of supply is gone.
the Cascade Mountains and at least one Of late, however, the more far-seeing
local basin at Roslyn, on the eastern side. people have been thinking deeply on this
Most of the coals of California are of subject, especially since the recent order
low grade, but one bed has been devel- of the President withdrawing tempo-
oped in Stone Canyon, in the southeast rarily from coal entry 64,000,000 acres
corner of Monterey County, that is good of coal land, and his recommendation to
bituminous coal. So far as known, this Congress that the time has arrived to
is the only coal of this class in the state. begin the conservation of our mineral

Sub-bituminous Coal. This class of fuels, and urging upon that body the
coal is abundant in the western fields. passage of laws upon the subject.
Most of the coal in the south part of the In the older fields of the east, with the
Durango-Gallup basin is of this class. It exception of Indian Territory, practically
is the only coal found in the Denver all of the coal land has passed to private
basin and in North and South Parks of ownership. Therefore the present order
Colorado. The great fields in the north- and the interest of the people generally
eastern part of Wyoming, the Bighorn centers about the coal fields of the Rocky
basin, and most of the fields in Uinta Mountain region and the Pacific slope.
County contain sub-bituminous coal. All The former contains an area estimated
of eastern Montana is supposed to be at 134,800 square miles, and the latter,
underlain by it, as is also the big field in including Alaska, 10,000 square miles, or
the north-central part of the state around a total of 144,800 square miles out of a
the Bearpaw Mountains. A number of total for the whole country of 400,500
small fields lying west of Butte, Helena, square miles.
and the main Front Range contain coal Of this area of 144,800 square miles of
of this character, but generally they are coal fields of the western states, it is esti-
of small extent and probably have little mated that 50 per cent has passed to pri-
commercial value. In Washington this vate ownership, leaving about 72,000
class of coal is abundant, but as a rule square miles of coal fields yet belonging
it occurs some distance west of the Cas- to the government. It must be remem-
cade Mountains. bered, however, that more than half of

Lignite. This class of fuel is found this area is included in the lignite fields
only in the fields of southern Alabama, of eastern Montana, North Dakota, and
Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas on the South Dakota, and when this is deducted
Gulf slope and North and South Dakota from the figures given above it leaves an
;

Coal Reserves of the United States 137


SI6lol825 331. 356s elusive of Alaska, is 2,200,000,000,000
short tons of coal. These figures convey
I82BT0IS35 4-. 168, 149 \
a totally inadequate idea of the true
amount. If, however, it were molded
l836Tol84Si 23.177, 637sn into a block, it would form a cube yyz
miles high, 714 miles long, and yyi miles
lB46-rolS55 83 417.825 ST.
broad ; expressed in another way, it

would form a layer of coal 6j4 feet thick


56toI86!> 173,795,014 s,t.
over the entire area of the coal fields of
the United States, 400,000 square miles
1866 TO 1875 419.425,104!
in extent.
Surely such an amount of coal is in-
1676 TO 1885 847,760,3 13 i.T.
exhaustible. A
block 734 miles high

18aSTol895 1,586,098,641;

2,632,599,452 !

Diagram Showing the Increasing Rate of Consumption of Coal in the United


States

area of only about 33,000 square miles would tower above the highest mountains
of fairl}' good coal, the title to which is on the earth. Is it possible that the peo-
still vested in the United States. ple of this country can use such a mass
Have we an inexhaustible supply of of coal ? Before the question is answered
coal, as many would have us believe, Or we must determine the rate of coal con-
should we begin to husband our re- sumption and study the factors of which
sources? Is the government justified in it iscomposed to see if they are liable to
withdrawing all coal from sale, as pro- fluctuate greatly in the near future. The
posed in the recent message of the Pres- following diagram, prepared from statis-
ident to Congress ? The answer to these tics of coal production collected by Mr
questions depends largely upon the broad E. W. Parker, of the United States Geo-
problem of what is the extent of our coal logical Survey, shows graphically the
supply, how rapidly are we using it, and amount of coal produced in each decade
is there a possibility that our stock of since 18 16.
fuel will be exhausted in the near future ?
In order to answer these questions, the WILL OUR COAL LAST lOO YEARS?
writer has attempted to estimate the The
actual consumption of coal in the
amount of coal yet remaining in the coal United States during this period has been
fields of the country. Such an estimate somewhat greater than that shown by the
must necessarily be vague and unsatis- diagram, for some coal has been im-
factory for the reason that our knowl- ported, but the diagram shows the rate
edge of the coal fields is limited, but re- at which we have been using our own
cent reconnaissance surveys have been coal. The rate of increase is enormous
made over the most important coal fields it issimply appalling. As shown by the
of the west, and now it is possible to diagram, the amount produced in any
make an estimate of their approximate one decade is equal to the entire previous
contents. production. The curve indicating the in-
crease seems to be going off into the
THB ESTIMATED AMOUNT OF COAL IN THE future in a straight line, and this means
UNITED STATES FIELDS
an increased production that no supply,
According to estimate, the total
this however great, can withstand for many
tonnage of coal in the United States, ex-
:

138 The National Geographic Magazine


If consumption of 1905
the rate of steamship lines, to manufacturing, and to
were maintained indefinitely, without domestic consumption of coal. In view
change, our coal would last approximate- of these considerations, it does not seem
ly 4,000 years, but if the constantly in- probable that the rate of increased con-
creasing rate which has marked the con- sumption will be affected materially for
sumption during the past 90 years be a great many years to come, and hence
maintained, our coal will practically be the estimate of 100 years will be nearer
exhausted within 100 years.' the truth than 4,000 years. The real life
The question now remains, Will this of our coal fields probably will be soire-
increasing rate hold? In order to an- where between these extremes, and it
swer that question we must analyze the seems probable that it may be about 200
present consumption to see whether all years.
of the factors composing it will probably If this estimate is even approximately
continue to increase in the future as they
correct, not time for the government
is it
have done in the past.
to take some steps to prevent the remain-
Alarge part of the coal produced in
ing coal of the west from passing to the
this country is consumed by the rail-
hands of corporations, to prevent waste-
roads. According to an estimate pre-
ful methods of mining and use, and to
pared by the Interstate Commerce Com-
conserve for the use of the common peo-
mission, the amount of coal consumed by
ple even this small fraction of the total
locomotives in 1905 amounted to
106,000,000 tons. Will this increase or
coal of the country? No doubt there is
a great difference of opinion on this sub-
decrease in the future? While it is pos-
ject, but it is hard to see how any fair-
sible that railroad building in the future
will not be so active as it has been in the minded person interested in the good of
past, there is every prospect of a great the people of this country rather than the
and growing increase in the traffic of ex- corporations can look upon the present
isting lines, and this will lead to a con- situation with other than concern, and
stantly increasing consumption of coal can fail to unite in an effort to avert the
unless some new source of power is dis- evil consequences that may be in store
covered. The same argument applies to for future generations.

EFFORTS TO OBTAIN GREATER ENERGY


FROM COAL
REALIZING the rapidity with 93 to 95 per cent is lost, owing principally
which our coals are being con- to wasteful and imperfect methods of
sumed, the government several combustion. Prof. Joseph A. Holmes
years ago established in connection with summarizes the work thus far done as
the United States Geological Survey a follows
coal-testing plant to ascertain ( i ) means In connection with the work of the
by which more energy can be obtained United States Geological Survey fuel-
from coal, and (2) whether some of the testing plant at St Louis, where a large
coals and lignites previously considered number of coals from very nearly every
of little value cannot be utilized. The state containing coal has been tested,
waste of the energy of coal in the ordi- some important results have been devel-
nary steam boiler is tremendous, it being oped which would tend toward conserv-
calculated that only from 5 to 7 per cent ing the coal supply. The most im-
of the energy is secured. The remaining portant of these results show that the
Greater Energy from Coal 139
vast brown and black lignite deposits of The following tabular statement shows
the West are available for use in the gas- the comparative efficiencies of a number
producer. It has been demonstrated that of coals tested in the gas-producer and
brown from North Dakota will
lignite burned under boilers, demonstrating the
produce some cases more than four
in economy of the gas-producer equipment:
times the power when used in the gas-
Table showing the relative efficiency of coals
producer than when burned under the
used under the steam, boiler and in the pro-
boiler. These Hgnites, containing from ducer-gas plant at the U. S Geological Survey
20 to 45 per cent moisture, have always fuel-testing plant, St. Louis, Mo., in 1904. and
stood at the bottom of the scale as a 1905.
(By Manus R. Campbell.)
boiler fuel, and they have been used for
power purposes only where it has been
impossible to secure bituminous coal. It
was discovered at the Geological Survey Name of coal tested.

coal-testing plant that these lignites, in


spite of their high moisture content, can
be utilized commercially to the best ad- West Virginia (13)
vantage in the gas-producer equipment. West Virginia (14)
West Virginia(i8)
In the boiler-room of the fuel-testing Virginia (3)
Ohio (5)
plant, where careful study has been made Pennsylvania (5)
of combustion and the conditions govern- Pennsylvania (8)
Ohio (6)
ing the methods of firing the various Virginia (4)
West Virginia (20)
coals of the United States, it has been Penn.sylvania(io)
shown that through proper stoking and West Virginia (4)
Kentucky (6)
superintendence the coal bill of the coun- Ohio(4)
Pennsylvania (6)
try could be considerably reduced by this Virginia (2)
careful attention to details which is too niinois(i9)
Kentucky (5)
often neglected in the average commer- West Virginia (t6)....
Kentucky (i)
cial plant. Pennsylvania (4)
A force of specially trained experts West Virginia
Ohio (9)
(g)

has been at work for some time making West Virginia (7)
Ohio (3)
a careful study of coals which contain too West Virginia (12)
much ash or sulphur to be available for Virginia
Ohio (8)
(I)

commercial purposes. These investiga- Indian Territory (4)..


niinois(io)
tions have been carried on both in the West Virginia (l)

laboratory and in the field, and the re- Indiana (8)


Indiana (7)
sults obtained so far look forward to a Kentucky (7)
Ohio (7)
time when these dirty coals can be Pennsylvania (7)
greatly improved by proper washing or
Alabama (2)
other means of mechanical preparation, Indiana (II)
Illinois (13)
and as a result many low-grade coals will Illinois (18)
Illinois
be extensively operated. Illinois
(14)
(15)
The briquetting of slack coal and other Illinois (16)
West Virginia (8)
waste sizes hasbeen successfully accom- Indiana (5)

plished at a low cost. The resultant Indiana (9)


Illinois (11)
briquettes have proved superior, in al- Indian Territory (i)..
Illinois (3)
most all cases, to lump coal from the Indiana (6)

same mines for power purposes. This Indiana (3)


Illinois (S)
branch of the investigations opens to the Illinois (9)
Illinois (6)
commercial world a hitherto unknown Illinois (4)
field which is destined soon to become an Wyoming (3)
Kentucky (3)
important factor in the production of
fuel.
a '

140 The National Geographic Magazine


One of the most important lines of in- ducer plant on this material. This "bone'
vestigation being conducted by the ex- coal has always been looked upon by the
perts of the fuel-testing plant is the study miners as a waste product, and is being
•of coal mines throughout the country to mined and discarded in many localities,
determine, where certain portions of the notably the Hocking Valley region in
"bed are being discarded, if it is not pos- Ohio.
sible to utilize the discarded portion for The old dumps are available as well as
power or other purposes. At the present the "bone" which is in place in the mines,
time gas-producer tests are being made and should the experiments now being
on ''bone" coal containing from 45 per conducted at the fuel-testing plant prove
cent of ash upward. So far no difficulty entirely successful, there should be a mar-
has been encountered in running the pro- ket for thi«^ material.

POLAR PHOTOGRAPHY
By Anthony Fiala
i,eader of the zlegler polar expedition, i903-i905, and author of
"Fighting the Polar Ice"

THE sun shines day and night


through the short Arctic sum-
character to the views,
and deadened the pictures of ice and
they flattened

mer, revolving like the hour snow and lengthened the exposure to
hand of a great clock in the dome of the hopelessly long intervals of time. The
sky not far above the circle of the hori- reason for this is the low altitude of the
zon. With the blazing luminary and the sun and the consequent high refraction,
vast white stretches of snow and ice, which gives more of the yellow and red
there ought to be no lack of light — rays than of the blues, as is the case with
veritable paradise for the photographer. an evening sun in our own latitude.
At first sight it would seem that with With so much reflected light, the pic-
all this dazzling brilliancy over-exposure tures would sufi^er for want of shadows,
would be the evil to guard against, and and I soon found that to get good values
that comparatively small openings and in ice picturesit was necessary to photo-

quick speeds would be the rule for lenses graph with the sun in such a position
and shutters. But no !Though the that the long shadows cast between the
Arctic explorer may travel in danger of ice blocks by the low orb could be used
snow-blindness in a flood of light, direct to accentuate the high lights and give
and reflected, he soon finds that the character and contrast. To that end, it
actinic value of sunlight is less than in was necessary to have the sun either at

lower latitudes in fact, surprisingly the right or left hand, and often I ex-
little— and he is obliged to use his very posed a film pointing the lens directly
quickest lenses, and then with their at the sun.
widest openings use the slowest speed The artist who attempts to photograph
consistent with the movement of the men the ice-fields after the time-honored cus-
and animals which he photographs on the tom of always having the sun behind his
crystal fields. back will generally be doomed to flat, in-
On my Arctic expedition I took
first sipid negatives and almost meaningless
color but only used them or
screens, pictures unless he can find shadows
tried to use them a few times. I soon enough in the foreground to give char-
found that, instead of giving color and acter to the view.
Polar Photography 141

In regard to apparatus and' material, explorers and particularly good for de-
around the ship and hut any good camera veloping films exposed in the Arctic,
can be used. I had several sizes. On the where long development is absolutely
first expedition I took a number of glass necessary to insure good results. Part
plates, but was unfortunate enough to of the outfit comprised a bioscope, a form
break some of my best negatives, so when of moving-picture camera, with which I
I went into the field again I took nothing hoped to secure views of men, dogs, and
but films. On the sledge journeys, where ponies moving over the ice-fields, the ad-
the question of weight is of great conse- vance of the America through the ice,
quence, the lightest form of camera is and, if possible, a bear fight. Of all my
sure to be the favorite. In my last trip photographic apparatus, the bioscope
over the moving polar pack I found that gave me the most trouble, particularly
a kodak was about the most convenient, in the low temperatures of spring and
and took with me a panoram kodak early autumn. The long celluloid film
(which weighed with its leather case upon which the numerous little negatives
only four and a half pounds) and a small were made (twenty to a second) became
suppl)' of films in water-tight tin tubes. very brittle under the influence of the ex-
On a sledge journey the camera and treme cold, and would fly to pieces when
films were always kept in the outer air, the mechanism of the instrmnent was
usually in a compartment of the canoe started, and pieces of celluloid would clog
that was lashed to one of the sledges. the gear wheels and jam between moving
During low temperatures, the interior of parts. After many failures, I hit upon
a tent is not the place in which to load the plan of warming the machine and
a camera. The little difference in tem- wrapping it up in hot blankets just be-
perature between the air of the shelter fore taking a picture. The heating and
and of the outside is sufficient to cause wrapping up was done in the hut at
condensation of moisture and the cold camp. I was thus enabled to secure some
lenses and metal work of the instrument valuable films a few of them reached a
;

coat with a film of ice. Often, as I stood length of 300 feet. But always, as soon
with my back to the sun in an endeavor as the instrument became cold, the films
to shade the camera as much as possible, broke like fragile glass. It was impos-
with a temperature of from 30 to 40° sible to warm the bioscope on the trail,
below zero, I have struggled with the so I was limited to views near the ship
little catches of the kodak and have had and in the vicinity of camp.
my fingers stick to the cold metal of the We shot a number of bears for food.
tin tubes containing the films while tak- A bear fighting for his life, surrounded
ing out an exposed roll and reloading the by a biting, snarling pack of dogs, would
camera with a new one. Care had also have been a splendid subject for a mo-
to be exercised to keep the instrument tion-picture camera but I was never so
;

from being frosted by the vapor from fortunate as to have camera and fight
hands and body. It was always with a at the same time.
feeling of thankfulness and relief that The pictures which show the ponies
the camera was made ready and I could and dogs hauling their loaded sledges
slip my half-frozen hands into mittens over the ice bring back in vivid reality
and by swinging the arms and perform- the cold, white fields and the struggling
ing a sort of Indian war dance restore men and animals fighting their way over
circulation. On return to camp the the frozen wastes.
films were all developed in an improvised The explorer with a camera has gone
dark-room with a small alcohol lamp to over very nearly all the earth and has
keep the developer at about 60 degrees brought back as part of his record views
temperature. I believe the new tank of life and land in the far-off parts of the
developer would be just the thing for earth.
: ;

142 The National Geographic Magazine


There is still land to be conquered help of the sun and modern chemistry, we
and it is good to know that when these will all be able to view with the explorer
unknown places are found and the flags what had once been forbidden and mys-
of discovery are planted, that with the terious territory.

NOTES ON THE FOREST SERVICE


THE Forest Service of the United
States has under its control to-
NEED OF FOREST RESERVES IN THE EAST
But while the far West is literally
day property which exceeds in
dotted with forest reserves,, the East has
value the forts, the arsenals, the war-
all
almost no reserves. There is, however,
ships, and the navy-yards controlled by
now pending in Congress a bill, already
the War and Nav}' Departments com-
passed by the Senate, which would create
bined. The number of forest reserves a White Mountain forest reserve in the
in various parts of the country, but
State of New Hampshire, to comprise ap-
mainly in the far West, is over 100, and
proximately 812,000 acres. There are,
the number is being continually in-
of course, no public lands in New Hamp-
creased. The present area of these re- shire, and therefore the national govern-
serves is over 125,000,000 acres, an area
ment must buy the land from private
equal to that of all the north Atlantic
owners. The national government must
and middle Atlantic states as far south as
buy it because the benefit which will ac-
Virginia. The approximate value of the crue from the reservation will be not
present forest reserves may be estimated
alone for New Hampshire, but for all the
as follows
New England states, save possibly Rhode
Stumpage value of 330 billion
Island. Elaborate arguments were made
feet of timber at $2 per 1000. . $660,000,000
no million acres, capable of pro- last spring before the Agricultural Com-
ducing commercial forest, at $1 mittee of the House of Representatives,
per acre 1 10,000,000 which has this bill in charge. The
no million acres of range for
bill provides for an appropriation of
grazing live stock, aX lYz cents
per acre (capitalized at 5 per $3,000,000 for the White Mountain re-
cent) 30,000,000 serve, and also for a larger reserve in the
83 million acre-feet of water for Appalachian Mountains, in the southern
irrigation purposes, at 10 cents
states. At the hearings before the com-
per acre-foot (capitalized at s
per cent) 166,000,000 mittee it was abundantly proved that the
Three million horse-power-ca- creation of these reserves, and that with-
pable of being developed from out further delay, is a matter of the high-
water in reserves, at $10 per importance to the respective sections
est
horse-power (capitalized at 5
per cent) 600,000,000 in which they are located. The injurious
Estimated value of occupancy effect upon the Connecticut River of the
and use of reserve land, prod- destruction of the White Mountain for-
ucts and resources additional
ests was so amply testified to as to be
to the above 5,000,000
Permanent improvements now on beyond question.
the reserves (roads, trails,
cabins, telephones, etc.) . 5,000,000
PLAN TO MAKE THE FOREST RESERVES
SELF-SUPPORTI NG*
Total $1,576,000,000
The money value of the national for-
Less 10 per cent for private hold- ests now reserved for the use and benefit
ings 157,600,000
* Extract from a recent message to Congress
$1,418,400,000 by President Roosevelt.
Notes on the Forest Service 143

Sand Spreading Over Fertile Soil, Catawba River Lowlands

Appalachian Mountain Field Completely Ruined by Erosion


Both pictures show the frequent results of reckless destruction of the forestg
144 The National Geographic Magazine

Cypress and Eucalyptus L,ining An Irrigating Ditch, Forming a Windbreak,


Southern California
Wolves 145
of the people exceeds considerably the and cannot contribute as they should to
sum of one thousand million dollars. But the general welfare. Expenditures for
this vast domain is withheld from serving such permanent improvements are prop-
the nation as freely and fully as it might erly chargeable to capital account. The
by the lack of capital to develop it. The lack of reasonable working equipment
3''early running expenses are met by the weakens the protection of the national
annual appropriation and the proceeds of forests and greatly limits their produc-
the forests. Under the care of the For- tion. This want cannot be supplied from
est Service the latter are increasing at the appropriation for running expenses.
the rate of more than half a million dol- The need is urgent. Accordingly I rec-
lars a year. The estimate of the appro- ommend that the Secretary of the Treas-
priation for the present year is less than
ury be authorized to advance to the
that for last year, and it is confidently
Forest Service, upon the security of the
expected that by igio the Forest Service
zi'ill be entirely self-supporting.
standing timber, an amount, say
In the
meantiiue there is the most urgent need $5,000,000, sufficient to provide a reason-
for trails, fences, cabins for the rangers, able working capital for the national for-
bridges, telephone lines, and the other bear interest and to be repaid in
ests, to
items of equipment without which the annual installments beginning in ten
reserves cannot be protected properly years.

WOLVES
THE enormous losses suffered by
stockmen on the western cattle
throughout the whole of North America
from Florida and the table-land of Mex-
These large
ranges and the destruction of ico to the Arctic Ocean.
game on forest reserves, game reserves, wolves —commonly "loafers" or
called
and in the national parks through the "lobos" —include at half a dozen
least
depredations of wolves have led to special species or geographic races, comprising
investigations by the Biological Survey, the small dark gray or black wolf of
in cooperation with the Forest Service, Florida and the southeastern United
to ascertain the best methods for destroy- States, the red wolf of southern Texas,
ing these pests. The results appear in the brindled wolf of Mexico, the light-
a report by Mr Vernon Bailey, of the gray wolf of the Central Plains region,
Biological Survey, which includes also the dark-gray wolf of eastern Canada, the
field notes on the distribution, abundance, almost white wolf of northern Canada
and breeding habits of wolves. (Forest and Alaska, and the large black or
Service Bulletin 72.) dusky wolf of the Northwest Coast re-
The chief object of the report is to put gion. Their habits differ mainly in
into the hands of every hunter, trapper, adaptation to the varied conditions of
forest ranger, and ranchman directions their environment —
timber, plains, moun-
for trapping, poisoning, and hunting tains, deserts, or northern barren grounds
wolves and finding the dens of young. — and in the methods of pursuit and cap-
The wolves of North America are ture of different kinds of animals for

divided into two groups the smaller food.
co)'Otes, or prairie wolves, of the western Wolves still occupy most of their origi-
United States, Mexico, and southwestern nal range, except where crowded out of
Canada, comprising several species and the more thickly settled regions. The
subspecies ;and the larger gray, black, large gray wolf of the plains and middle
or timber wolves, distributed practically west is at present the most abundant
T46 The National Geographic Magazine

Persian Cats in Hamadan


From " Persia Past and Present." By A.V.Williams Jackson. Copyright by The Macmillan Co.

photo hv Vernon Bailey, V. S. B"rgau of BioloT;ical Survey

Nine Wolf Pups in Front of Their Den


a

Geographic Literature 47
species in the United States and the most The Wonders of the Colorado Desert. By
George Wharton James. 2 vols., 8vo., pp.
destructive to stock. Over the thinly Illustrated.
44-1-547. Boston: Little, Brown
settled ranch country of Montana, the & Co. igo6. $5.00.
western parts of the Dakotas and Ne- This sumptuous book describes a region
braska, and of Wyoming, Colorado, New which for the past two years has been very
Mexico, and western Texas, where stock- much in the public eye, for it is that also known
as the Salton Desert, into which the Colorado
raising is the principal industry, the
River is pouring its waters and re-creating a
wolves have held their own, and in favor- lake in its midst. The story is here told at
able sections have increased since the length, with an account of the numerous at-
destruction of their former prey, the buf- tempts made to close the gap in the natural
levee and restore the river to its former chan-
falo, and the introduction of still greater
nel but this forms but a small part of the book.
numbers of domestic cattle this, too, in — ;

The aspect of the desert, its strange vegetable


the face of a fierce warfare waged by and animal inhabitants, its mountains and sand
ranchmen, trappers, and hunters. dunes, its delights and dangers, its history, are
all described by one who feels the call of the
desert and has the skill to picture it. With
GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE these descriptions are intercalated legends of
lost mines, tragedies, narratives of journeys,
Climatology of the United States. By A. J,
and among the latter a boat trip down the out-
Henry. Bull. Q., U. S. Weather Bureau. 4to.,
pp. I0I2. Washington, D. C. Government :
flow from the Colorado to the Salton Lake —
strange trip in a strange region.
Printing Office. 1906.
The book is beautifully and lavishly illus-
This is probably the most important publica- trated, in part by half-tones from photographs
tion ever issued by the Weather Bureau, inas- lay the author and in part by sketches from the
much as it comprises an exhaustive summary pencil of Carl Eytel. The map is by no
Mr
of the meteorological data down to date, col- means, point of execution, on a par with
in
lected by the Signal Service and the Weather the rest of the work. H. G.
Bureau.
The first 84 pages are devoted to a discussion Romantic Cities of Provence. By Mona
of the climates of the country, element by ele- Caird. Pp. 413. 6^4 by 9 inches. Illustrated.

ment atmospheric pressure, storms, vifinds, New York: Imported by Charles Scribner's
temperatures, precipitation, humidity, and Sons. 1906. $3.75 net.
cloudiness. This part of the work is profusely
illustrated with maps and diagrams. The author tells in a delightfully personal
The body of the book is composed of meteor- way of a journey through the south of France,
that wonder country of the ancients, where the
ological statistics of 690 Weather Bureau sta-
ruins of an amphitheater, arch, or massive
tions, distributed over the country as uniformly
bridge erected during the Roman occupation,
as practicable. Each station is fully described,
with position, elevation, history, and equipment.
about 40 B. C, is regarded as being quite
The data given for each station are as follows, modern. The writer gives a vast amount of
historical information, with anecdote and
as fully as possible For each month, each
:

legends of the birth of chivalry and its off-


season, and the year, the normal temperature,
spring, the Troubadours, who ruled France with
the mean of the maxima and the absolute
temperatures, the mean of the their music. The volume is enriched through-
maximum
out with many splendid sketches of Provence,
minima and the absolute minimum tempera-
Aries, Avignon, Beaucaire, and Nimes by
tures, and the highest and lowest monthly mean
temperatures; the normal precipitation, the Joseph Pennell and Edward Synge. Much at-
tention is given to the architecture of the
number of days with more than a trace of
ancients as well as that of the Renaissance, and
precipitation, the total amount in the dryest
it is quite evident that the volume is not
writ-
and wettest years, the average depth of snow,
ten as a text-book, but rather for those who
and the greatest depth in 24 hours, the mean acquaintance with
have at least a passing
relative and absolute humidity and amount of
Provence and its brilliant history. J. O. L-
sunshine, and finally the direction of the prev-
alent wind; then follow dates of temperature
The Heart of England. By Edward Thomas.
extremes.
stations are arranged geographically by Pp. 360. 8 by loyi inches. Illustrated. New
The
York E. P. Dutton & Co. 1906. $6.00 net.
states, and those of each state are preceded by
:

a physical description of the state and a sum- The author, having made a study of the
mary of the climatic data. quaint old customs of England, tells of them in
Students of American climate will find this a pleasing way. Throughout the shires of
work invaluable. It is to be hoped that every England many customs and habits have been
other country having a meteorological service handed down from father to son through cen-
will prepare a similar work. H. G. turies. These have been collected from many
148 The National Geographic Magazine
out-of-the-way places, and the volume will be national geographic SOCIETY
welcomed by those who love the old traditions
and folklore, which are fast being lost to view POPULAR MEETINGS.
amid the progress and hurry of today. num- A —
February I "The Rising Pacific Empire."
ber of old English ballads are given, many of
By Mr George C. Perkins, Senator from Cali-
which have not been before published in our
generation. The author has quite caught the
fornia.

February 8 "The Giiianas." By Prof. An-
real atmosphere of rural England, and a num-
gelo Heilprin, of Yale Universit}'. Illustrated.
ber of beautiful colored illustrations by H. L.
February —
12 "Labrador: Its People and
Richardson add in a great measure to the at-
tractiveness of the volume.
Conditions of Life." By Dr Wilfred T. Gren-
J. O. L. fell, M. G., special medical missionary of
C.
the Labrador Coast. Illustrated.
Geography of Nebraska. By George Everet —
February 1$ "The First Ascent of Mount
Condra. Pp. 192. 5 by 7^ inches. Lincoln, McKinley." By Dr Frederick A. Cook. Illus-
Nebraska University Publishing Co. 1906.
:

This little geography has been written for


trated.
March I
—"Santo Domingo and Haiti." By
the school children of Nebraska, and contains Rear Admiral Chester, U. S. Navy, Illustrated.
chapters on the formation of the soil and rock March 11— "Millions for Moisture." By Mr
beds of Nebraska, on atmospheric conditions, C. J. Blanchard, who will give an account of
illustrated with weather charts, and on the the Reclamation Service, and also of the Salton

methods of reclamation irrigation, forestation, Lake, formed by the break of the Colorado

and dry- farming practiced in the state. The
text is illustrated with pictures, maps, and
River.

March 15 "Ten Years of Polar Work; or.
charts, and is well indexed. It is an admirable What We
Know and What Want to We
publication. Know." By Mr Herbert L. Bridgman, Secre-
tary of the Peary Arctic Club. Illustrated.
Touraine. By Anne MacDonald. Illustrated.

March 23 "Queer Methods of Travel in
Pp. 420.8 by 10^ inches. New York E. P. :
Curious Corners of the World." By Hon. O. P.
Button & Co. igo6. $6.00 net Austin.

March 29 "Earthquakes and Volcanoes."
There has been much written of the south
of France, with its fascinating history, but
By Dr Andrew C. Lawson, Chairman Cali-
fornia Earthquake Commission.
there seems to be always something new to be — —
April 5 "IVlexico the Treasure-house of the
learned. In this volume the writer brings out
of the past a wealth of legend and folklore of
World." By Mr N. H. Darton, U. S. Geo-
this ancient land of great rivers and valleys, of
chateau.x and marches, giving to each its song
logical Survey.
Afril 12 "Two
— Thousand Miles in the Sad-
dle through Colombia and Ecuador." By Hon.
and story. The author has sought to set forth
the warlike achievements as well as the un- John Barrett, Director International Bureau of
American Republics. Illustrated.
tutored diplomacy of the feudal kings and —
April 19 "Captain John Smith and Old
rulers of this wonder country, telling in a
masterly way of innumerable invasions, of Jamestown." By Mr W. W. Ellsworth, of the
heroic defense and unceasing" strife, from the Century Co.
time of its occupation by the Celtic-Puroni, SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS.
whom Caesar's legions found there, through the —
February 22 "Reclaiming the Swamp Lands
dark centuries, when the fair country was given of the United States." By Mr H. M. Wilson,
over to the ravages of Goth and Franc, of
Musselman and Gaul, until the dawn of the February

of the U. S. Geological Survey. Illustrated.
28 "Acclimatizing Fishes or —
Renaissance overspread the land. The work Transplanting Fishes from the Atlantic to the
is magnificently illustrated by A. B. Atkinson Pacific, and Vice Versa, etc." By Dr Hugh
with two-score artistic pictures in color, as M. Smith, Deputy Commissioner, Bureau of
well as many drawings, showing the marvelous Fisheries. Illustrated.
architecture of each century, which is per- March 22— "The U. S. Forest Service." By
petuated in towered chateaux and cathedral, in Mr Gifford Pinchot, Forester. Illustrated. The
grim fortress and shrine. The work is com- Forest Service has charge of 114,606,058 acres
plete and shows the heights which the pub- of forest land, worth $400,000,000.
lisher's art has reached. J. O. L. —
March 26 "Utilizing the Surface Waters of
the United States for Power." By Mr H. A.
A Cruise Across Europe. By Donald Max- Pressey, C. E. Illustrated.
well. 8vo., pp. 254. Illustrated.New York April 6— "The South Sea Islanders." By Mr
and London : John Lane. 1907. A. B. Alexander, of the U. S. Bureau of Fish-
Adelightful narrative of a sail in a small eries.
April 15
— "Photographs
Illustrated.
of Wild Game
boat up the Rhine, across to the Danube, by an
old, disused canal, a,nd the journey down the Taken by Themselves." By Hon. George
Danube to the Black Sea. Most of the route is
remote from the track of the tourist, and the
Shiras, 3d.
April 19
—Illustrated.
"A Trip to Argentine and Para-
travelers,two young Englishmen, have many guay." By Mr John W. Titcomb, of the U. S.
novel adventures. H. G. Bureau of Fisheries. Illustrated.
S^e NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE
Vol. XVIII MARCH. 1907 No. 3

CONTENTS

THE MAORIS OF NEW ZEALAND


PAGE
Archaeology in the Air. By Eliza R. Scidmore, Foreign Secretary of the
National Geographic Society. Illustrated 131

Railway Routes in Alaska. By Alfred H. Brooks, of the U. S. Geological

Survey. With a Summary of the Remarkable Mineral Development of

the Tenitory. Illustrated . 1 64


The Maoris of New Zealand. Illustrated 191

The Great Natural Bridges of Utah. By Col. Edwin F. Holmes. Illustrated 199

A Recent Report from the Doubtful Island Region. By James D. Hague.


Illustrated 205
The Possibilities of the Hudson Bay Country. Illustrated . . . 209
The High Sierra. Illustrated 213
Motor Sledges in the Antarctic 214

Published by the National Geographic Society


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Washington, D. C.
$2.50 a Year 25 Cents a Nombet
Entered at the Post-Offlce at Wastiington, D. C, as Second-Class Mail Matter
NATIONAL
=0= GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE
N Illustrated Monthly, publislied by the
National Geographic Society. All editorial
communications should be addressed to Gilbert
H. Grosvenor, Editor of the National Geo-
graphic Magazine. Business communications
should be addressed to the National Geographic Society, ex-
cepting correspondence regarding advertising, which should
be sent to our advertising agents, The Potters Publishing Co.,
1 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y.

25 CENTS A KTJMBER; $2.50 A YEAR


Editor: GILBERT H. GROSVENOR
Associate Editors
MAJ. GEN. A. W. GREELY ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL
U. S. Army Washington, D. C.

W J McGEE DAVID T. DAY


Director Public Museum, St Louis
Chief of the Division of Mineral
C. HART MERRIAM Resources, U.S. Geological Survey

Chief of the Biological Survey, U. S.


Department of Agriculture ANGELO HBILPRIN
Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila-
WILLIS L. MOORE delphia
Chief of the Weather Bureau, U. S.
Department of Agriculture R. D. SALISBURY
TITTMANN University of Chicago
O. H.
Superintendent of the U. S. Coast
and Geodetic Survey G. K. GILBERT
U. S. Geological Survey
O. P. AUSTIN
Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, ALEXANDER MoADIE
Department of Commerce and Professor of Meteorology, U. S.
Labor
Weather Bureau, San Francisco
DAVID G. PAIRCHILD
Agricultural Explorer of the De- ALMON GUNNISON
partment of Agriculture President St Lawrence University

Hubbard Memorial Hall, Washington, D. C.


Vol. XVIII, No. 3 WASHINGTON March, 1907

ifnl
Dr
ATHOMAL
©(SMAIPIHIIKD
AOA-MNE
ARCHEOLOGY IN THE AIR
By Eliza R. Scidmore
Author of "Java — the Garden of the East," "Winter India," etc. etc.

Copyright igoj by the National Geographic Society

WHEN I was first in Ceylon


and had driven the seventy
vines,and sentinelled here and there with
splendid banyans and talipot palms, with
miles down to Anuradhapura the blue Matale mountains in the back-
and seventy miles back again to Kandy, ground. After that, cultivation lags, a
the archaeologists had not taken Sigiri few miles of rice fields follow, and one
in hand, and no tale of its wonders jogs along past the unending jungle of
tempted us from the straight and smooth the abandoned lowlands, where scant
post-road. Ten years later every one rains fall only during three months of
talked of Sigiri, and its fame was in the the year. This region was once the rich-
very air. Copies of wonderfully pre- est and most fertile in Ceylon, a vast rice
served frescoes, done on Sigiri's rock plain abundantly irrigated from tanks
walls fourteen centuries ago, met one in and lakes that stored water beyond all
the Colombo Museum, and driving par- need. This rich plain and Anurad-
ties came into Kandy and urged me to hapura, a city of fabulous wealth,
go to Sigiri by all means but none of
; tempted the Tamils of the Indian main-
these talkers had "climbed the Rock," land to many raids, and after a last in-
whatever that might mean. vasion the marauders destroyed all the
Ceylon, in natural beauties, is a
its tanks and canals before they retreated to
fair pattern for Paradise, second only to the Continent. Drought, disease, and

Java the most beautiful country on famine swept away the few remaining
earth —and one appreciates this paradise inhabitants, jungle overran the territory,
the more if he takes long driving trips and wild elephants trumpeted there un-
over the perfect roads. The short drive of disturbed. Their paths and the pilgrim's
sixteen miles from Kandy down to Matale path through to the sacred Bo-Tree at
is renowned as the finest drive in Ceylon Anuradhapura were the only roads in the
and is an unbroken panorama of ideal, wilderness, until coffee culture on the
cultivated tropical beauty. For another Matale hills tempted Tamil coolies over
ten miles the road is arched over with to Jaffna, whence they made their way
tamarind trees, festooned with pepper on foot to Kandy and the plantations.

152 The National Geographic Magazine


For this last half century, British gov- work and carrying all their possessions
ernors have tried to redeem this rich tied in a bundle on their heads, including
country and repopulate it. A post-road, even the sun umbrella. Hedges of aloes,
with rest-houses, was built through to hibiscus, and lantana, rows of tall tama-
Jaffna and to Trincomalee, the old tanks rind trees festooned with pepper vines,
were cleared out and walled round again, and always the graceful plumes of cocoa
and a railway projected from Colombo palms against blue sky, made the com-
around through the lowlands to Anurad- mon highway like the ideal scenes of a
hapura and Jaffna. The archssological theater drop-curtain. Groups of Tamil
survey found work to do far beyond the women in white and brilliant red head
limits of the appropriations, but the won- draperies seemed posed beside the bril-
ders of ancient art the)' have uncovered liant green tea bushes, and to be tossing
at Anuradhapura,* Mihintale, and Sigiri tea leaves over their shoulders into cylin-
furnish attractions to the winter tourists, drical baskets on their backs, only while
who are a very certain source of revenue they waited for the photographer or the
to Ceylon. sketch class to arrive. When the kodak
did arrive before one black beauty, with
ON THE ROAD TO SIGIRI
jeweled rings in her nose and a inite of a
Breakfasting by candle light at Matale black baby astride of her hip, she pulled
rest-house, one may start at six o'clock her veil over her face and set up a howl.
and drive through the very tolerable sub- Promises of a mone_v reward did not
stitute for Eden that the tropical world seem to reach her ear, but they reached
can present in that clearest, freshest hour the ears of a few dozen others, who came
of day. Minae birds sang from tall trees running, and with whoops and shrieks
and cocoa trees, and that grotesque precipitated themselves upon the tea bush
home friend, the woodpecker, drummed my kodak pointed to. Then the black
on all sorts of strange tree trunks. The overseer came, with black looks on the
woodpecker and the cocoa palm tree are blackest face ever seen, and with his big
not associated ideas with us of temperate walking stick cleared the magpie mob
America, to whose minds the rolling away and made the young mother stand
notes and scolding chatter of a wood- up and look pleasant in the act of picking
pecker conjures up an_v other picture. tea. For this she, or rather the baby,
The road dropped away between received the promised tiny silver piece,
great plantations, where the long-leafed, which the pickaninny c[uickly swallowed,
hybrid, Assam tea bushes striped the red and there was uproar again as we drove
earth in endless lines and feathery away.
grevillea trees shaded the bushes in as A few rows of shops now and then
precise rows. One tea plantation bor- constituted the village bazars, where the
dered for three miles along the road, estate coolies are tempted to dissipate, to
where great arks of bullock carts spend for bananas and cocoanuts, red
prairie schooners with thatched roofs peppers and curry stuff, or for brilliant
creaked their way, hung over the outside calicoes and gay teapots. Three shining
with bunches of fodder and cooking pots, figures of black bronze sat under a
and bursting open with their freight of thatched roof molding red clay on the
women and children and household ef- potters' wheel, and a yellow bronze Arab
fects. Gay young planters pranced by baby ran out, clothed only in coral beads
on Arab horses or sped along in dog and bits of hammered silver. A bearded
carts. Strings of spindle-legged Tamils Cingalese patriarch, nearly air-clad,
came on from Jaffna seeking plantation rested under a ban}'an tree, and a bronze

*See November, igo6. National Geographic


Cupid leaned lovingly against him. Then
Magazine for description of ruins at Annrad- estates and busy village bazars ceased,
bapura. rice fields began, and the cool white gov-
Archeology in the Air »53
154 The National Geographic Magazine

Picking Tea

ernment rest-house at Nalanda, in a com- between a double wall of uninteresting


pound shaded by enormous tamarind foliage and underbrush, as monotonous
trees, marked the end of tlie hill country. as anything in Illinois. Nothing tropical
After that was only the flat plain, cov- appeared save the millions of butterflies
ered with jungle, the white road running that fluttered over the road, and the gor-
Archeology in the Air ^S5
THE LAIR OF A W'ICKED KING
'

geous clusters of plumy red and yellow



Gloriosa superba the most splendid wild
Few countries have so clear and com-
flower in the world, fully worthy of its
historical record as Ceylon has
plete an
superlative name.
in the Mahawanso, or "Genealogy of the
Great," which was scrupulously kept
THE RED MONOLITH
from the fifth century B. C. down to
Dambool rest-house received and re- 1815, after the English had expelled the
vived us after the twenty-mile drive, and Dutch. The Mahazvanso relates how
from Dambool rock, the red monolith of King Kasyapa, having murdered his-
Sigiri rises squarely and sharply from father by entombing him alive, and half
over the ten-mile level of tree tops an — murdering his brother, who fled to the
enchanted mesa that burned blood red Indian mainland, had thereafter an un-
and purple in the sunset and seemed im- easy head and a bad conscience. Fear-
possible of attainment by any two-footed ing to remain in unprotected Anurad-
climber. The bare red rock, bulging at hapura, on the open plain, he built a
the top and overhanging its base all fortress around and a palace on top of
around, without crevice or chimney to Sigiri rock and brought a great city to
give access, gave us forebodings for the its base. All the jungle round has
morrow. yielded proof of the splendid structures
At the rest-house dinner table tales that once stood there. The lines of tanks
were told of travelers who drove over to and canals have been traced, and the

climb Sigiri and drove back again of ; tank nearest the rock has been cleared
heroic ones who climbed the first quartz and walled again and made useful for
staircases airily, but sat down at the the little settlement that has grown
guard-house terrace, and wept hysteric- around the archaeologist's camp.
ally at sight of the scaling ladders hang- The government has built a small rest-
ing in air, when it was time for them to house in a clearing, at just the right dis-
climb and cling by foot and hand, by tance and point of view to show the bold-
tooth and nail. They told of others who est outlines of the tremendous monolith,
arrived on high, but sat there half a day, and if one were seeking the ideal spot
until hunger nerved them to a blind- for peace and quiet, for world-forgetting,
folded descent; two coolies with a rope, and for absolute repose, Sigiri rest-house
and four coolies, each to tend and place would meet the requirements a Nir- —
a hand or a foot, assisting the descent, for vana, with the few necessary comforts of
a day's wages apiece. This archaeology life. It stands at the edge of Kasyapa's
in the air seemed rather too sensational viceroy's camp, which defended all ac-
for any one but Santos-Dumont, and cess to the causeway leading across the
there was a profound wish that we had tank to the rock and it had dependencies
kept Sigiri to ourselves until the deed was in the way of audience halls, halls of jus-

done or declined unknown. What was tice, temples, and barracks. The camp
Sigiri to us, anyhow? Who had ever walls are of cyclopean masonry, and laid
heard of America?
it in in lines of boulders that match the walls
We Anuradhapura road j:wo
left the of Mycenae and rock-girt Tiryns. Across
miles out from Dambool and followed the tank the jungle is cleared away and a
the Trincomalie road for three miles be- confusion of bare boulders, slopes, and
fore turning ofl^ into a jungle path that mounds of debris immediately surround
led for si.x miles through the leafy wilder- the rock. A
first stone staircase, a ter-

ness to the lone Lion Rock a drive of — race, an iron ladder, and a second stair-
enchantment through the azure air of the case brought us to the passageway be-
earliest morning. tween a high parapet of chunam that re-
156 The National Geographic Magazine
t.iT"' .T^l^^'I^}
Archeology in the Air 157

>

^'^^'f ' ^u-jv«.-Aa^


15 The National Geographic Magazine

Archeology in the Air 159


mains from Kasyapa's time. Cliunam, the most microscopic of ants about to
the universal building material of the climb the stem of a gigantic mushroom,
tropic East, is a cement composed of and to crawl up over its curving, um-
lime, cocoanut milk, and Para tree juice. brella edge.
It hardens and takes a polish like marble, The name of Lion Rock for long had
and where even slightly protected, as this no especial significance, until on this
wall has been by the overhang of the guard-house terrace the archffiologists
rock, will last for all time. Such a chu- descried three claws and the dew-claw
nam screen wall once protected all these of the feet of the gigantic lion, whose
lower staircases and galleries, so that head, moulded on to the rock front, gave
Kasyapa and his train could pass up and the name Sinha-giri, lion rock. Deep
down, in safety, unseen from the plain. grooves were cut in the face of the rock
Patches of highly colored, well-preserved as steppings for walls of masonry and
paintings decorate the overhanging roof the whole mass coated with chunam, and
of this gallery —
a queen's procession, painted to the semblance of a lion's head
bearing flowers and offerings to the tem- resting on his extended paws. The king's
ple —similar in design and execution to train, passing between the paws, as-
the paintings on the walls of the Ajanta cended a staircase and disappeared in the
caves. One sees them contentedly from lion's mouth. The series of concealed
below, although there remain still the staircases reached to the summit, where
dizzy scaffoldings and skeletons of poles the king could emerge safely to the open
by which the archseologists reached these air. There is trace of a portcullis half
pockets or arches on high, to hang in way up, the perpendicular grooves cut
mid-air while they sketched and photo- true and smooth, and in his palace in air
graphed these pre-Raphaelite paintings Ivasyapa might defy his enemies to reach
frescoes on the living rock, in clear him.
yellow, green, and red, that Puvis de The lion's claws measured four and
Chavannes might have done in an earlier five feet across, and passing between
incarnation,when art was pure and them was the original staircase of glitter-
strong, freshand young, and fog and ing quartz, and then a long, iron ladder
smoke were not a necessary part of his laid against the wall, as ladders are gen-
palette's setting. erally laid. The wind blew fresh from
Another long rock staircase, hugging northeast and eddied up from under-
the side of the rock, brought us up to the neath, as we mounted the rungs and
broad shoulder or terrace on the north looked down on dizzy vistas of far green
face of the mesa, where foundations jungle space. Then the ladder ran at
show the extent of the large guard-house right angles out in the air, parallel with
or barracks that defended the upper the face of the rock, the gas pipe rungs
staircases of the Lion Rock. The wind
'

driven into sockets drilled in the rock.


blew fresh and cool over far levels of Lizards chuck-chucked and ran derisively
tree tops, and every prospect pleased us away as we advanced, the very flies
save that of steep overhanging Sigiri, the kicked their heels in scorn as we clung
spidery lines of iron scaling ladders and with death grips to rails and stanchions.
hand rails that we had seen the black As we stopped to rest, and to look
blacksmith bending from iron piping in upward only, there were perpendicular
his forge far below. hand rails and iron loops of steps driven
And we had brashly said, fromKandy in the perpendicular rock, as on the side
to Dambool, that we were going to of a ship's hold or mast. A Zermatt
Sigiri ! "Andclimb the Rock" ? other climber might have reveled in the pros-
tourists asked. Of course. Silence for pect, but not I. On foot and knee, on all
a little longer would have been as gold or fours fairly, a solid rock slope was nego-
radium in our pockets, for we were as tiated and then came the gymnast's feat
;
;

I 60 The National Geographic Magazine


up the straight steps between the grooves directed a coolie toward a bank of debris,
of the old portcullis, lifting one's weight just to show how rich the place was in
by main force, and the worst was over. remains of former occupancy, and the
We had rounded the mushroom's lip first stroke of the pick loosened a shard.
and had only to tread in the grooves in Another deft stroke brought to light half
a long, smooth rock slope, with a com- of a plate, and while we marveled a coolie
forting hand rail on the side of dizzy came up over the edge of space, as only
space, as we followed around the curving Mahatmas are supposed to appear. He
rim to a final long, quartz staircase that had been weeding along the dizziest
reached the summit. edges, a rope fastened to his waist lest
the suction tread of his bare feet should
THE RUINS OF THi; SUMMIT fail when the weed patch became vertical.
There isa space of level terraces up
there Cjuite three acres in extent, and the
RETRIBUTION
trees that look like saplings from below, When Kasyapa had taken his treasure
mere tufts, few and scant as the hairs on and gone on high, he tried to gain peace
Bismarck's head, are spreading banyans of mind and acquire merit by pious deeds.
that give grateful shade from the too He summoned priests around him the ;

radiant sun. Walls and walls, lines of rocks below were honeycombed with her-
stone foundations and lines of crumbling mits' cells; he built temples and dagobas;
bricks ran here and there, with cjuartz he built a monastery in the air beside his
and carved stone steps in short flights, palace, and was rigorous in his penances,
and platforms happening everywhere. mortification, and religious offices — but
The whole ground-floor plan of the king's fortifying the approaches to the Lion
palace has been scraped down to bed Rock all of the time, so as to take no
rock, hard and clean. The top-dressing chances. Then retribution came over
of trees and bushes was burned, and then from the mainland in the train of his
the archsologists threw the debris and avenging brother, and fate had it that
rubbish over the side, and the monsoon foolish Kasyapa, instead of sitting still
rains washed the place clean, and they and holding tight to his throne in mid-
studied out the plan, as clearly as from air, should come down from his high-
an architect's drawing. There are wells perched palace and give battle on the
and cisterns, and a bathing tank, thirty low-lying plain in the commonplace way.
feet scjuare, cut from the living rock His elephant stepped aside to escape a
and a square throne or divan hewn on marshy spot and his troops, taking it as a
the eastern rim, where the king could movement of retreat, threw down their
lounge in the afternoon shade and survey arms and ran. And the wicked king was
his populous domains far below. There slain by his avenging brother, as he
are sockets in the rock showing where stood, alone in an oozy swamp, after all
the supports of a wooden pavilion roof, the years of security on his wind-swept
or the staffs for a silk canopy were set, rock.
and the seat for the umbrella-bearer be- Then Sigiriwas given over to the
hind the king's cushion is also intact. priests entirely.All the summit palace
The coarse rock glitters with garnet crys- became a monastery and the uncle of
tals and is a natural "Jeweled Throne" Kasyapa, who began the Mahawanso,
that any jeweled personage of the East continued it there, and the abbotts of
might envy. Sigiri added to the record in that ideal
Now that the foundations are all traced retreat, which is a literary landmark
and cleared away, the Archaeological Sur- identified with the Mahawanso in every
vey has only to maintain the staircases Cingalese mind. With time and Tamil
and ladders, and keep the place free from invasions, with the wear of centuries of
weeds and vegetation. The archaeologist sun and monsoon rains, cement and ma-
Archeology in the Air i6i

The King's Throne on Sigiri View from Sigiri's Summit


a

l62 The National Geographic Magazine


sonry crumbled and the splendor of the dizzy rock slopes. He left the
Sigiri dwindled. When the plain was grooves and the hand rails to the stran-
devastated and depopulated and the ap- gers, who sat down on the rock
proaches had suffered some sudden and and abjectly crawled, feet foremost —
complete ruin, the priests abandoned the —
"swarmed," in fact down, along the
monastery in the air, and as the Maha- slanting, curving rim of the mushroom's
wanso does not make any mention of this top, gripping the rail with a drowning
withdrawal, it is believed that it had been man's thoroughness.
abandoned for all of six centuries when "No. We have not lost any tourists
the archaeologists began work. In three yet. None slipped off, none blown away,
seasons they uncovered the rock and put so far —and no suicides. Why, I often
in the scaling ladders and hand rails to go up three and four times a day, to
make it accessible, and fought off swarms watch the work. It is quite safe. See?"
of bees with fire balls. They long had and the archaeologist side-stepped off on
hopes of uncovering treasure in the pal- the perpendicular wall and danced a
ace ruins, and dug through debris beds tarantelle with his own free foot flour-
fifty feet deep, hoping for some precious ished over six hundred feet of empty
spoil but the Malabar marauders or the
; air, until we begged him to remember
departing priests had swept it clear of the future of archaeology in Ceylon —
valuable things before the last staircase future that never can hold anything so
crumbled. unique and sensational as Sigiri.
Perched on that pinnacle peak, over- The little Tamil horse boy sat on his
looking half that north end of Ceylon, as heels flicking the noonday flies from the
it seemed, the air was fresh and cool in ponies when we i^eached the level low-
spite of the overhead sun, and the place land and its steaming, greenhouse atmos-
was inspiring. When the descent began phere. He grinned at us, and we knew
and one looked down and off into vistas the black imp had seen our abject crawl-
of space and diminishing perspectives ing on Sigiri heights.
over each boot tip, all sense of exhilara- "Did he go up?" and the coachman
tion was gone. The archsologist skipped answered, "Yes and it was very nice, he
;

like a chamois and walked securely as a says, but the get-downing was awful.
fly, in his rope-soled tennis shoes, over He has prayered and been saved."
Archeology in the Air 163
164 The National Geographic Magazine
.

RAILWAY ROUTES IN ALASKA'


By Alfred H. Brooks
Geologist in Charge of Alaskan Division, U. S. Geological Survey

TRANSPORTATION is the first confine myself entirely to commercial


essential element to the indus- lines, for obviously railways built for
trial advancement of a new military or scenic purposes will follow
land. Therefore, though the subject of routes determined by entirely different
railway location may be of no great aca- conditions.
demic interest, there lies a justification The controlling factors of railway loca-
for its discussion in the fact that it is of tion fall into two important groups, here
such vital importance to those who are termed (i) commercial and (2) geo-
developing the resources of Alaska. graphic, while in regions lying close to
Moreover, the matter is timely because of international boundaries a third, namely,
its relation to a broad question of public political, becomes operative. Each of the
policy, for many efforts have been made first two groups resolves itself into sev-
in recent years to obtain financial support eral subordinate factors, one or more of
from the federal government for Alaskan which may dominate in any given prov-
railway projects. ince, to the practical exclusion of all the
Popular interest in this subject appears others. The following table is an at-
to be only excelled by popular ignorance tempt to present a terse analysis of the

of it an ignorance, too, which is con- problem of railway location:
stantly being augmented by misstate- I. Commercial control:
ments in current literature. Some years 1. Developed resources (statistics of pro-
ago the assertion was made in a maga- duction and commerce).
2. Undeveloped resources.
zine article that some parts of Alaska
Mineral (economic geology).
were being rapidly gridironed by rail- Agricultural (climate, soils, and bot-
ways. To those familiar with the prim- any).
itive condition of transportation main- Timber (distribution, quality, and
taining throughout the territory, such a quantity)
3. Population.
statement can appear little short of ridic- Competitive or supplementary lines of
4.
ulous. This misleading article has, how- transportation (navigable waters and
ever, evidently been regarded as author- existing railways).
itative, for it has found place in a popular II. Geographic control:
encyclopaedia. 1. Position (terminals and connecting lines
of transportation).
Though the aggregate mileage of rail- 2. Distances (comparison of distances of
ways in Alaska is less than 200, but little different routes).
more than that of Porto Rico, this is 3. Relief (mountain ranges, passes, and
divided among eight different lines. Of valleys, as affecting gradients).
4. Water-courses (depths and width of
these, four are along the Pacific sea-
rivers, as affecting construction of
board, three on the Seward Peninsula, bridges or ferries).
and one in the Tanana Valley (see map, 5. Climate (precipitation, as affecting
etc.,
cost of construction, operation, and
page 164). All of these railways have
maintenance).
been built to supplement water trans-
III. Political control:
portation.
I. Political boundaries.

RAILWAY LOCATION Before analyzing this table I will fore-


In the discussion to follow of the prin- stall possible criticismby stating that
ciples governing railway location, I will certain elements which must of necessity
* Published by permission of the Director of the United States Geological Survey. Read at
the third annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers, New York, January
I, 1907.
66 The National Geographic Magazine
have an important influence with a locat- enhance the cost. It has
ditions will also
ing engineer are here entirely omitted been estimated by a competent engineer
because they do not appear to be germane that the same class of construction will
to the subject. In this I refer more spe- cost 75 to 100 per cent more in Alaska
cially to the financial backing to any than in the western states. The same
given project. Obviously the choice of a engineer has stated to the writer that in
railway route may have to be governed many parts of the interior, where valleys
by the low cost of first construction and rolling uplands are followed, the cost
rather than by consideration of the ulti- of a standard-gauge railway will prob-
mate economy in construction, operation, ably not exceed $30,000 per mile, but
and maintenance. I believe, however, through the coastal mountain ranges may
that the question of financing of a rail- be more than twice as great. Where de-
way project should find no place in a sci- tailed surveys and estimates are wanting,
entific discussion of railway location. The it will probably be safe to count on an

available sources of material for con- average cost of at least $35,000 per mile
struction have also not been included in for a standard-gauge railway from the
this analysis, for this is, after all, a local Gulf of Alaska to the Yukon.
problem and will not affect the general What I have termed commercial con-
choice of routes. trol is simply another name for tonnage,
the great dominating element in railway
COST PBR MILE location. This, in turn, "is dependent in
Though itis not the purpose of this a large measure on resources, developed
paper to discuss the more "purely engi- or undeveloped. In settled regions the
neering aspect of my subject, yet it may distribution of population may wield a
be well to devote a few words to the decided influence, but population again is
question of the cost of construction be- often merely an evidence of developed
cause of the many current misconcep- resources. The amount of tonnage will
tions regarding it. It will be pointed out also be affected by competitive and sup-
below that the watersheds to be crossed plementary lines of transportation.
by Alaskan railways (see profiles, page Five subdivisions are recognized under
179) vary from about 2,000 to 3,000 feet, geographic control. The first is position,
which are low compared with the alti- which pertains chiefly to location and
tudes of 8,000 to 11,000 feet attained by character of terminals and their relation
many railways in the western states. It to other transportation systems. Under
will also be shown that the routes of ap- the second, distances, the different routes
proach to the divides have as a rule low are compared in length. Under relief is
gradients, and that much of the region included the influence of topography,
to be traversed by railways is one of only while larger water-courses must be con-
moderate relief. On the other hand, sidered because they necessitate bridges
most of the proposed routes will demand or ferries. The influence of climate on
bridging of many streams and rivers. cost of construction, operation, and main-
This feature will possibly be the most tenance is obvious. Heavy snowfalls,
difficult for the engineer to contend with, river floods, and the closing of water-
because of (i) the winter ice and (2) ways by winter ice are elements that de-
the spring floods. serve consideration. Political control
The chief factor which will much en- obviously refers to international bounda-
hance the expenditures for railway con- ries alone.
struction in Alaska is the distance of the I have intentionally emphasized the
coastal terminal to the centers of popula- commercial control of railway routes, for
tion, for this increases the cost of all it is evident that without adequate ton-

labor and materials. Shortness of the nage railways cannot be built economic-
summer season and adverse climatic con- ally. On the other hand, given the re-
Railway Routes in Alaska 167
sources to warrant the cost of construc- the territory, but I do believe that these
tion and operation, and the modern en- may be almost neglected in the present
gineer will build a railway almost any- discussion, for the reason that these ara-
where. In this I do not intend to in- ble lands are too remote from centers of
dorse the policy, too often followed, of population to yet compete with the more
railway location which is not preceded by accessible and fertile lands in the states.
comprehensive geographic investigation. The capitalists will certainly look to the
Many railways have been based on routes mines of precious metals and of coal to
chosen by the old adage: "The Indian recoup themselves for outlays on railway
followed the buffalo, the white man the construction. With the mining develop-
Indian, and the locomotive the white ment some agricultural progress will un-
man." As a consequence, nearly every questionably be made and eventually be
transcontinental line has made or is con- a source of traffic for the road. There
templating changes of routes involving is no timber for export except along the

the expenditure of millions of dollars Pacific seaboard (see page 183). In


which might have been avoided by fact, much lumber is annually taken into
proper exploration and survey. The the and this consumption is
interior,
lesson has not yet been learned, however, likely to become greater, if the present
for recently a corporation proposing to ravages by forest fires in the Yukon
build a railway in Alaska, after spending Basin continue.
several hundred thousand dollars in con- The discussion of resources to be de-
struction, abandoned the chosen route veloped by railways, therefore, resolves
for another. In this case a tenth part of itself into a consideration of the mineral
the money spent on what proved to be wealth and its distribution. In 'other
worthless construction would have more words, it is a geologic problem. Though
than paid for the necessary explorations the basal facts are very incomplete, yet
and surveys. some salient features of the economic
It follows from the above that while geology are known, and these bear
the demand for transportation between directly on the problem of mineral re-
certain localities may be such that a rail- sources. It is not my purpose to describe
way will be built in spite of the physical the geology of the territory, but I will
obstacles, yet economic location demands call your attention to the distribution of
the most careful adjustment to the certain terranes which carry minerals of
topography. economic value. The rocks grouped to-
gether as undififerentiated Paleozoic, in-
RESOURCES TO BE DEVELOPED cluding the gold-bearing horizons, occur
It is evident that a discussion of rail- in three belts, one running parallel to the
way routes must consider the resources Pacific seaboard, a second lying centrally
of the territory as well as its physical in the Yukon Province, and a third form-
features that is, on one hand, the possi-
; ing the country rock of the major part
bilities of traffic must be discussed; on of the Seward Peninsula (see map, page
the other, the routes of approach. The 168). Of the $100,000,000 which repre-
question of traffic again resolves itself sents in round numbers the total mineral
into statistics of existing commerce and production of Alaska, over 98 per cent
the foreshadowing of that to come from has been taken from areas underlain by
undeveloped resources. these rocks. In southeastern Alaska
In Alaska the problem is simplified by there is a well-defined contact between a
the fact that the immediately available broad belt of intrusives and these meta-
resources to be developed by railway con- morphic terranes, and this has been
struction are all of a mineral character. proved to be the general locus of aurifer-
I do not by this mean to decry the agri- ous lodes. It should be noted that the
cultural possibilities of certain parts of northern extension of this contact lies in
1 68 The National Geographic Magazine

•°
x!
Railway Routes in Alaska 169

a little-known region, as will be shown Unfortunately, much of the coal in the


later; it close to one of the pro-
is northern province is of a lignitic charac-
posed railway routes into the interior. ter, and though it will eventually find
Another fact bearing on the mineral re- local use, cannot now be regarded as an
sources can be interpreted in terms of important source of tonnage for rail-
geology. On either side of the Wran- ways. There are two coal fields, how-
gell Mountains is a belt of Devonian ever, the Controller Bay and Matanuska,
rocks which are copper-bearing (see aggregating at least 120 square miles,
map, page 169). These are, indeed, the which carry high-grade bituminous and
outcrops of the same terrane along two some semi-anthracite coal. This coal is
areas of a syncline and form the ob- superior to any mined on the Pacific sea-
jective points of several railway projects. board of the continent and is suitable for
The map on page 168 shows the dis- metallurgical purposes. Both fields are
tribution of the auriferous terranes of objective points of railways now under
the territory so far as determined. It construction and are expected to furnish
emphasizes the fact that there is an ex- local tonnage for these roads, to be event-
tensive gold-bearing area lying well ually extended into the interior. Bitumi-
within the heart of the territory and 400 nous coals also occur on the Yukon and
to 500 miles from tidewater. at Cape Lisburne, on the Arctic Ocean.
Only the copper deposits of the inland
COAL AND COPPER
region are important to this discussion,
The totalarea of the known coal- and these include two different districts
"bearing rocks in Alaska is approximately lying north and south of the Wrangell
12,000 square miles (see map, page 170). Mountains, on the two arms of a syncline
lyo The National Geographic Magazine
:

Railway Routes in Alaska 171

(see map, page 169). The southern belt, been presented. The rapid increase in
to which a railway is being built, has been gold production is shown in the diagram
sufficiently developed to indicate a large on page 175. Including 1906, the total
tonnage. output of gold is about $100,000,000,
only about one-quarter of which has come
AGRICULTURAL POSSIBILITIES from the inland districts, as shown in the
have shown that the resources which
I following table
promise to yield a tonnage are gold, cop- Gold Production of Alaska, with Approximate
per, and coal. The forests, except along Distribution
the seaboard, have no value for export
(see map, page 172). Inland the heavy
timber, of which the largest trees are not
Year.
over two feet in diameter, is closely lim-
ited to the river courses. Though there
are sawmills in every placer camp of the
Yukon, that these do not even supply the
local demand is made evident by the fact
that in 1905 upward of $30,000 worth of
lumber was brought to the Yukon from
Puget Sound. The timber map can also
be used to indicate the general distribu-
tion of arable lands, for the areas marked
as timber embrace practically all the
lands which may possess future agri-
cultural value. A region lying adjacent
to and north of Cook Inlet appears to be
best adapted for agriculture, but in the
Copper and Tanana basins, too, there are
considerable tracts of agricultural and
grazing lands. It should be borne in
mind that beyond the coastal barrier the
subsoil usually remains perpetually
frozen and the climate is semi-arid.
These conditions, combined with the
shortness of the growing season and the
liability of frosts, do not invite agri-
cultural pursuits. Nevertheless, the con-
ditions are no more adverse than those
existing in some European countries
which support a thrifty agricultural
peasantry and export agricultural prod-
ucts. The richness of the soil is attested
by the many gardens found throughout
the inland region. These are specially
successful where hot springs have thawed
the soil. One of these is shown in the
illustration on page 183.

4 TONS OF COAL AND 30 TONS OF GOLD


EXPORTED IN 1905
As regards the developed resources,
little can be added to what has already
172 The National Geographic Magazine
Railway Routes in Alaska 173
The custom-house statistics show that except by a line through Canadian terri-
$3,272,411 worth of goods were carried tory (see map, page 176). When the
to the Alaska Yukon from the United new Canadian transcontinental railway,
States in 1905, which probably represents known as the Grand Trunk Pacific, which
between 15 and 20 thousand tons of is to reach to the Pacific coast in latitude
freight. The cost of the freight on this 54°, is completed, a branch could be ex-

tonnage amounted probably to over tended northward, which could reach


$1,200,000 to the consumer. This sum, Fairbanks with 800 to 1,000 miles of
allowing three-quarters for operating ex- track. While such a line would not en-
penses, would pay probably 5 per cent in- counter any serious obstacles, yet many
terest on the cost of constructing 200 watersheds would have to be crossed,
miles of railway, or half the distance and as it would run transverse to the
from tide-water to the Yukon placer larger drainage channels, there would be
camps. I call attention to this to show heavy expense for bridges. A
railway
that, even with the present condition of from Fairbanks to Cape Prince of Wales
development, railway projects are not would require 600 miles of track.
at least
entirely visionary. It is proposed to tunnel Bering Strait,
The important mineral-bearing area of which is 54 miles from headland to head-
Alaska falls into four provinces, most of land, but is broken by the Diomede
which are undergoing rapid development Islands, lying about half way between
(see map, page 181). These are (i) the (see map, page 176). While tunnels of
Pacific littoral, (2) the Seward Penin- the length required are probably not an
sula, (3) the Sushitna-Copper River impossible engineering feat, they are so
province, and (4) the Yukon-Tanana far beyond anything of the kind as yet
region. The Pacific littoral lies for the attempted that it must be a bold group of
most part on tide-water (see map, page capitalists who would undertake it. Fer-
164), open throughout the year, and riage across the strait, difficult in sum-
needs no railway system to develop it, mer because of the strong northerly set-
though there are many places where ting current, is impossible during seven
short lines will eventually be built. The or eight months in the year because of
Seward Peninsula, which in 1906 pro- the ice floes. As the strait seldom freezes
duced about $7,300,000 worth of gold, is over, communication without a tunnel
accessible to ocean-going vessels for fully would be entirely interrupted.
a third of the year. These, with the 100 This intercontinental railway project,
miles of railway already in operation and divested of its glittering generahties,
other projected lines, afiford means of amounts to this: The first 1,000 miles of
communication which, while it leaves track would parallel the Pacific seaboard
much to be desired, yet is sufificient to and reach a point less than 500 miles dis-
enable large mining operations to be car- tant from tide-water by a more direct
ried on. route. An additional 600 miles of track
would be needed to reach Bering Strait,
THE NEW YORK TO PARIS RAILWAY and this, too, would be in direct competi-
Plans for the construction of the so- tion with deep-water navigation for at
called New York to Paris Railway, least a third of each year. Furthermore,
across Alaska and Siberia, have found to connect the two sides of the strait, as
some earnest advocates during the past proposed, would require two tunnels
few years. Though this project rather more than twice as long as any hitherto
falls outside of the present discussion, constructed. The Siberian part of the
yet it deserves mention, if for no other route would appear to have even less
reason than for the publicity it has re- justification, for here 1,500 to 2,000 miles
ceived. Alaska can obviously not be of unsettled and unproductive territory
connected with the United States by rail would have to be traversed.
174 The National Geographic Magazine
URGENT NEED OF RAILWAYS IN COPPER PRESENT LONG WATER-ROUTE TO FAIR-
RIVER DISTRICT BANKS DISTRICT
Whatever the future may bring forth In the Yukon Basin conditions are
leading to a demand for railway connec- somewhat more favorable, because of the
tion with Seward Peninsula, it is certain extensive system of navigable waters
that there is at the present moment an (see map, page 164). Before the freight
urgent need for railways between the reaches the Yukon, however, it has to
Gulf of Alaska and the inland region make a circuitous route to the mouth of
lying to the north. Only by such rail- the river, open to navigation only from
ways can the copper and gold deposits of the end of June to September. During
the Sushitna and Copper rivers and the summer months Yukon River steamers
placer fields of the Yukon reach their full can deliver freight to points 20 to 100
development. Here is an are! about 400 miles distant from the placer districts.
miles square, bounded on the east by the This freight must await the winter snow
international boundary, on the north by before it can be finally sledded to its
the Arctic Circle, on the west by the destination, unless the summer charges
154th meridian, and on the south by the of 20 to 25 cents a pound are to be paid.
Pacific, which contains, as has been Under these conditions, freight which is
shown, valuable copper deposits, the best moved by the cheapest form of trans-
of the known Alaskan coal fields, as well portation (by steamer in summer and
as extensive areas of auriferous gravels. sleds in winter) the miner from
costs
Good grass land is abundant and cattle- 5 to 10 cents a pound, delivered at his
raising can probably be profitably car- mine. Translated into terms more fa-
ried on to supply the local market, which miliar to the average man, this means
is sure to arise with mining develop- that the mine operator may have to pay
ments. The agricultural values, though a rate on all his heavy machinery equiva-
of interest to the economist, will prob- lent to the charges for express between
ably be disregarded by the capitalist, who New York and San Francisco. In fact,
will look to the development of mines for I have known mining enterprises to be
returns on his venture. Certainly with- carried on in localities to which the trans-
out the ore and coal deposits there portation charges were greater than
would be no railways, and without these letter-rate postage. Under such condi-
there will be no agriculture until more tions it is evident only deposits of extra-
accessible regions are settled. ordinary richness can be exploited, and
Though now the annual mineral out- that most extensive mining operations
put of this province is only about must await the reduction of costs that
$10,000,000 in gold, there appear to be can be brought about only by the con-
great possibilities in the way of mining struction of a railway.
developments, provided it can be made
GEOGRAPHIC CONTROL
accessible to commerce.
The mining districts of the Sushitna- Havingset forth the facts which go
Copper River province are only access- to indicate that the resources of central
ible by an overland journey of 100 to 300 Alaska are sufficient to warrant the con-
miles, for the rivers which empty into struction of a railway, it is in order to
the Pacific are for the most part tor- consider the question of geographic con-
rential in character and but few are navi- trol of routes. It has been shown that

gable. All the supplies for these dis- the present demand for transportation
trictshave to be sledded in during the facilities is in the province lying between

winter months, at a cost of 10 to 20 cents the international boundary and the 154th
a pound. The charges for summer trans- meridian, and this district will here alone
portation by pack-horse are from 30 be considered. The rugged mountain
cents to a dollar a pound. mass skirting Alaska's southern border
Railway Routes in Alaska 175

,^2 1

^^2 0000000-

1^19 000 000

/18 000 000 -^

^17 000 000

^16000 000

^15 000

^13 000 000.

^IZ 000 000.

jfflO 000000.

^9 000000.

^8000 000.

^7 000000.

^6 000000.

is 000000.

^4 DODOOO.

^ 3 000 ODO,

^3 000000.-

^1 000000.-

I 1^
iSBl iSSa 1883 15S4 1BB5
1SBS iSSe
iSle lOTi
isli i"d
1^8 1889 iB^O
1539 I'f i592
iflo iS5? -1P2 1^3
I's 1P4
1594 1^5 1^5 i597 1 1504 1905 1906.

Annual Production of Gold in Alaska Since 1880


The total amount is considerably over $100,000,000
176 The National Geographic Magazine
Railway Routes in Alaska 177
presents a serious barrier to inland travel shall Pass, about 1,900 feet high. At the
(see plate, page 184). This zone, in- head of the Copper there are several
cluding a number of parallel ranges passes leading into the Tanana Valley,
forming the Pacific Mountain system of of which the lowest is called Mentasta
Alaska, but 50 miles in width at Lynn (3,000 feet), and the next, which is un-
Canal, broadens out to the northwest, named, connects the Gulkana and Delta
and at Cook Inlet attains a width of over valleys. Both of these passes are through
200 miles. Inland of this system lies an- the eastern end of the Alaska Range, and
other province of far less relief, which one or the other will be used by any rail-
has been termed the Central Plateau re- way built from the Copper Basin into
gion (see map, page 176). The drain- the Tanana Valley.
age of this central region is carried, for It will be evident from the matter pre-
the most part, to Bering Sea through the sented that commercial control limits the
Yukon River, while the waters of the choice of inland railway routes to the re-
Pacific Mountain province flow south- gion lying between Lynn Canal on the
ward and through the Chilkat, Copper, east and Cook Inlet on the west (see
Susitna, and smaller rivers to the Pa- map, page 181). Topographic control,
cific. One river alone, the Alsek, finds furthermore, limits the choice to four
its source in the Central Plateau region, general zones, which may be named after
and traverses that entire Pacific Moun- the chief rivers, whose valleys determine
tain system on its way to the sea. Ob- the location. These are named from
viously the valley of the Alsek is from south to north : ( i ) the Chilkat basin,
a topographic standpoint the only logical (2) the Alsek basin, (3) the Copper
railway route into the interior. It will basin, and (4) the Susitna basin.
be shown, however, that the commercial The first requisite for an inland rail-
and political factors are so adverse in way from the Gulf of Alaska is an ade-
case of the Alsek Valley as to appear to quate coastal terminal. This means not
rule it out. only a deep-water harbor, but also op-
Besides the valleys of the larger rivers, portunity for construction of wharfs, as
already mentioned as flowing into the well as a townsite near at hand. Other
Pacific, there are a number of low passes desirable, though not absolutely neces-
breaking through the mountain barriers. sary, conditions are available timber,
Among the most important for the pres- water power, and a favorable climate.
ent discussion are the White Pass (2,800 If possible, the harbor should be access-
feet), a break in the Coast Range north ible to sailing as well as steam vessels,
of Lynn Canal, across which a railway and the routes of approach should be
has already been built. At the head of devoid of dangers to navigation but, be-
;

the Chilkat River, whose valley separates side all these desirable attributes, the dis-
the Coast and Saint Elias ranges, there tance of the coastal terminal to the points
is an unnamed pass about 3,100 feet of shipment on the west coast of the
high (see profiles, page 179). West of United States is of first importance.
Lynn Canal the coastal range represents
an almost unbroken front, except for the
Alsek and Copper River valleys. At the The recent geological history of the
inland front of the Saint Elias Range the Pacific shore-line of Alaska is favorable
Alsek Valley has an altitude of about to the formation of harbors, for it is a
2,000 feet, and is connected with the glaciated region, and, as many have
drainage basin of the White River to the shown, glaciation produces horded coast
west by a pass but 2,400 feet high. lines. This is, however, only true where
Low River, which empties into Valdez sedimentation subsequent to glaciation
Inlet of Prince William Sound, is sepa- has not silted up and smoothed out the
rated from the Copper River by Mar- coast line. The first condition prevails
178 The National Geographic Magazine
Railway Routes in Alaska 179
100 MILES

OAUON

Compiled by A. C. Madden
SEWARD TO FWRBANKS ROUTE

Generalized Profiles of Proposed Railway Routes

in southeastern Alaska and on Prince therefore not favorable for sailing ves-
William Sound, where the coast is char- sels. The same holds true, in a less de-
acterized by deep fiords with many tribu- gree, of the upper part of Prince William
tary embayments (see map, page 176). Sound. Resurrection Bay, which pene-
In the intervening region the retreat of trates the mainland to a much shorter
the larger ice-sheet left many large gla- distance, afifords an almost ideal harbor.
'Cierson the coastal slope of the Saint Though the shore-line between south-
Elias Range and in the Piedmont belt, eastern Alaska and Prince William
and having access to bed rock
these, Sound is not favorable for harbors, yet
along their margins, have contributed a two indentations, Yakutat Bay and Con-
large amount of sediment. This sedi- troller Bay, furnish some protection for
ment has been deposited as extra-glacial vessels (see map, page 178).
material and has buried much of the In the comparison of distances it will
fiorded coast line. Therefore the phys- be convenient to use Puget Sound as a
iographic features make southeastern reference point (see map, page 176).
Alaska or Prince William Sound the Lynn Canal is less than 1,000 miles (stat-
most favored locality for coastal termi- ute) from Puget Sound, as compared
nals. with 1,150 for Yakutat Bay, 1,350 for
Other factors have to be considered. Cordova Bay, 1,400 for Valdez Inlet and
Lynn Canal is a superb deep waterway, Resurrection Bay. The route to Lynn
but its funnel shape causes it to be sub- Canal is by an intricate and somewhat
ject to severe wind-storms, and it is dangerous inland waterway, and the
J »o The National Geographic Magazine
actual time consumed in the voyage is route beyond the west fork of the Alsek.
not very much greater to the western The route would probably skirt the south
harbors than to Lynn Canal. As re- shore of Lake Kluane 2,400 feet above
gards climate, there is little to choose be- sea-level and enter the White River Val-
tween the various coastal terminals. ley near the international boundary.
Throughout the Pacific seaboard there is After crossing White River at the can-
a heavy precipitation, varying from yon the line would be extended through
about 90 inches on Lynn Canal to about a broad, flat depression to the Tanana
125 inches in Prince William Sound. Valley, which would be followed to Fair-
Heavy storms are usually from the banks. As indicated in the profile, there
southwest,, and more commonly occur are no very heavy grades to be overcome
from October until May. As soon as the in this route. Branch lines could be
mountains are entered, very heavy snow- built to the copper deposits of the White
falls are to be expected. The coastal River and to the Fortymile, Birch Creek,.
belt is usually heavily forested with tim- and Rampart placer districts.
ber which can be used in construction. Pyramid Harbor, which affords shel-
It remains to describe the individual ter for vessels and opportunities for
routes and compare their respective ad- wharf construction, can be reached by a
vantages. For this purpose the general 1,000-mile journey from Puget Sound,
location of the different routes has been entirely within sheltered waterways. The
indicated on the map (see page 181), to- Chilkat basin is well timbered (chiefly
gether with their relation to the moun- spruce and hemlock) (see map, page
tain barriers and to the distribution of 172) and contains some auriferous grav-
the known mineral resources. Profiles els, though the producing district lies
(page 179) have also been constructed of somewhat off the proposed railway route.
the more important projects, and these The copper deposits of Rainy Hollow,
have been grouped together for purposes which are undeveloped, lie about 20'
of comparison. It should be distinctly miles off the main route. In the inland
stated, that while in the construction of region there are no developed mineral
these profiles the best available data has resources except a small placer district.
been assembled, yet this is so incomplete However, the meager knowledge of the
that the results must be regarded as an geology indicates that there may be here
approximation. Many of the distances a continuation of the mineralized belt of
and altitudes here presented will un- southeastern Alaska, and that workable
doubtedly be found inaccurate when de- ore deposits may yet be found.
tailed surveys are made. There can be no doubt that this is a
natural route into the interior, and it was
PYRAMID HARBOR, TANANA RIVER
long used by the natives in their inter-
Chilkat River debouches into a west- tribal intercourse.. It has one grave dis-
ern arm of Lynn Canal, called "Pyramid advantage, namely, that for about 30O'
Harbor," and its valley separates the miles it traverses Canadian territory, and
Saint Elias Range on the west from the would therefore not afford an all-
Coast Range on the east. A broad pass Alaskan route. Under the custom laws,
about 3,000 faet high, 50 miles from the international railways are always at a
coast, separates its headwaters from in- disadvantage. Moreover, it would not
land-flowing streams. Beyond this pass help to develop the resources of the Cop-
the route would enter the Alsek basin per River and Sushitna River basins.
and follow the inland front of the Saint
Elias Range. Two forks of the Alsek YAKUTAT BAY-ALSEK-TANANA RIVER
will have to be crossed, but present no
ROUTE
serious engineering difficulties. Aseries The lower Alsek River valley, which is
of depressions, part of a system of aban- transversed to the Saint Elias range, af-
doned valleys, affords an ideal railway fords a possible route into the interior.
Railway Routes in Alaska i8i
I«2 The National Geographic Magazine
The line would run southeastward from A rival company has made a survey
Yakutat Bay for about 50 miles, to the for a railway from near the mouth of
mouth of the Alsek. A narrow-gauge Katalla River, 30 miles east of the Cop-
railway has already been built for about per, which is to run northwestward to the
10 miles of this distance, for the purpose head of the Copper River delta. single A
of bringing fish to the salmon cannery at bridge will be needed to avoid the gla-
Yakutat. The Alsek Valley is almost ciers, beyond which point the route will
unexplored, but no doubt a railway could coincide with the one above described.
be built through it. It would intersect This route has the advantage of the one
the Pyramid Harbor-Tanana route about above described, inasmuch as it is some-
200 miles from the coast, and would what shorter and has to bridge the Cop-
there attain an altitude of about 2,400 per but once. Katalla is only 1,200 miles
feet (see profile, page 179). distant from Puget Sound, as compared
Yakutat Bay, which is about 1,150 with 1,350 for Cordova Bay. On the
statute miles (1,000 nautical miles) by other hand, at Cordova there is an excel-
sea from Puget Sound, is only a fair lent natural harbor, while at Katalla a
harbor, and, so far as known, the pro- breakwater will have to be constructed.
posed railway would not tap any mineral On the other hand, again, a harbor at
deposits, though such may exist in the Katalla would serve the Controller Bay
unexplored Saint Elias Mountains. At coal field. Whichever line is built, cer-
170 miles from Yakutat it joins the tain it is that there is not room for two
Pyramid Harbor route, and is open to railways along this Copper River route.
the same objection, inasmuch as it passes
V.\LDEZ-C0PPF,R RIVER ROUTE
through Canadian territory.
An
alternate plan for reaching the cop-
CORDOVA BAY, OR CONTROLLER BAY, COP- per belt of the Chitina region is to build
PER RIVER a railway from Valdez. Valdez Inlet, a
Cordova Bay, an eastern arm of Prince northeastern arm of Prince William
William Sound, lies about 30 miles west Sound, is 1,400 miles distant from Puget
of Copper River. A railway, now in Sound. Surveys have been made and
construction, is to follow a route skirt- some construction work has already been
ing the coastal margin of the mountains done on two railway projects which are
to the Copper River, and then, turning planned to cross Marshall Pass, about
northward, to traverse the Chugach 1,900 feet high and 30 miles from Val-
Mountains through the valley of that dez, and thence down the Tasnuna River
river. A distance of about 200 miles to the Copper (see profile, page 179).
will bring it to the mouth of the Chitina, From the mouth of the Tasnuna the
and with 100 miles more of track it will route would correspond with the route
be able to tap the copper belt, which up the Copper River. The distance from
skirts the southern margin of the Wran- Valdez to the mouth of the Chitina is
gell Mountains. The route to the mouth about 20 miles less than from Cordova,
of the Chitina follows the river grade, but a pass 1,900 feet in height has to be
and there are no serious engineering diffi- crossed on the other hand, two expen-
;

culties, with the exception of the two sive bridges over the Copper would not
bridges, 800 and 1,200 feet in length, be needed. This line would not reach
which will have to be built across the the Controller Bay coal field.
Copper to avoid the Miles and Childs Most of the railway projects into the
glaciers (see illustration, page 190). Copper River have been planned with the
A corollary to this plan is to construct ultimate object of extension into the
a branch line about 35 miles in length Yukon ba^in. Some of these have chosen
from the Copper River to the Controller Eagle, other Fairbanks, as their ultimate
Bay coal field (see map, page 178). objective point. Of the two. Eagle ap-
Photos by W. C. Mendenhall and L. M. Prindle

Camp on Bank of Copper River, Showing Character of Timber

Potato Patch at Baker Hot Springs, Tanana Valley


Photos by G. K. Gilbert and F. C. Schrader

Mt Perouse and Glacier


A typical view of the coastal barrier of Alaska

Mentasta Pass, on the Railway Route from Copper River to the Yukon
Railway Routes in Alaska 185
pears to be the less logical, as a line built jective point of the railway (see map,
to it would pass through the eastern part page 170). proposed to extend the
It is
of the auriferous district, while Fair- Yukon trunk line up the Susitna, across
banks is much more central. the depression above mentioned, down
From themouth of the Chitina a line the Cantwell to a terminal which will be
to Eagle would follow the Copper River on the south side of the Tanana River,
valley and cross to the Tanana through near Fairbanks. The total mileage from
Mentasta Pass, 2,900 feet high (see illus- Resurrection Bay to Fairbanks is about
tration, page 184). Crossing the Tanana 500. While this route is one of the
A'^alley, the line would enter an upland shortest from the coast to Fairbanks and
region not well known and would prob- also has the best grades, it does not tap
ably have to cross two passes, 3,000 feet the copper deposits of the Copper River,
high, before it descended to the Yukon. and, with the exception of the Matanuska
A line to Fairbanks would be built up coal field and some placer districts, does
the Copper and Gakona River valleys not traverse an area now known to carry
across a pass 3,000 feet high, and down mineral in commercial quantities.
the Delta to the Tanana. Crossing that
CONCLUSIONS
stream, it would continue down it to
Fairbanks. The matter presented shows that there
is justificationfor a trunk line railway
RESURRECTION BAY-SUSITNA VALLEY from the Pacific seaboard to inland
ROUTE points, for it is only by rendering access-
The upper waters of the Susitna ible the vast mineral wealth of the in-
River, which empty into Cook Inlet, are terior that its full measure of develop-
separated by a broad, low pass, about ment can be attained. It is evident that
2,400 feet high, from the Ninana, or the value of such a trunk line would de-
Cantwell, River, which flows into the pend on the construction of many
Tanana. This is one of the lowest de- branches and feeders, which have not
pressions in the watershed between the here been considered. Furthermore,
Pacific and the Yukon. these railways must be supplemented by
Unfortunately the upper part of Cook many wagon roads.
Inlet is closed by the winter ice, so that The history of railway expansion in
a coastal terminal would have to be the United States has shown that the nat-
sought on the east side of the Kenai ural development is, first, railroads built
Peninsula, which separates Cook Inlet supplementary to established lines of
from the Pacific. Such a one has been water transportation second, the binding
;

found in Resurrection Bay, an excellent together of such auxiliary lines by a


harbor, 1,400 miles distant from Puget trunk system. In Alaska the same evo-
Sound. Here the town of Seward was lution is witnessed. The White Pass
located two years ago and construction and Yukon Railway, traversing the
begun on the so-called Alaska Central coastal barrier, links tide-water with nav-
Railway, of which about 50 miles has igable waters of the Yukon system. The
been completed and considerable work heavy traffic being all down stream, what
done on 20 miles more. This route should be a comparatively cheap form of
stretches northward from Resurrection transportation is established to Dawson,
Bay and, crossing a pass, about 1,000 a distance of 700 miles. A
placer field
feet high,about 40 miles from the coast, such as the Klondike yields practically
descends again to tide-water at the head no outgoing tonnage. When, however,
of Turnagain Arm. After swinging lode or coal mines are developed, there is
around Turnagain Arm, it bends north- a return traffic which the upstream river
ward, crossing the Matanuska near its steamers cannot handle economically.
mouth. Here a branch is to be built to Moreover, freight shipped to Alaskan
Matanuska coal field, the immediate ob- points on the Yukon must run the gamut
;

i86 The National Geographic Magazine


of two custom-houses, with all the at- abandoned valleys such as are every-
tending annoyances of delays and formal- where recognized as ideal topographic
ities. It should be remembered, too, that conditions.
the route to Fairbanks via the White Geographically, therefore, these routes
Pass Railway involves the transhipment would appear to have the advantage, and
of freiglit at White Horse to Canadian would, moreover, render accessible a
steamers, a journey of 500 miles to Daw- large area in the interior of Alaska and
son, then a transhipment to American northwest Canada not reached by any
boats and another journey of 800 miles, railways of the other group. When,
of which 200 miles is upstream. If good however, the developed resources are
connections are made, some eight days considered, they are at a disadvan-
are consumed in going from tide-water tage, for while they would tap the upper
on Lynn Canal to Fairbanks, which by a copper-bearing region, they would reach
direct line could be reached in 450 miles. neither the valuable southern copper belt
As a rule, freight is at least a month in nor the coal fields.
transit. The journey up the river, while The transverse lines, including the
it avoids one transhipment, involves Copper and Susitna routes, appear, as
changing from ocean vessels to river has been shown, to follow the laws which
steamers at the mouth of the Yukon, and govern the location of pioneer railways
then a 1,200-mile upstream journey. that is, they cross the watersheds and
Moreover, these routes are only open connect existing lines of water trans-
. from the first of June to the middle of portation.
September. It would seem, therefore, In any event, it is clear that a properly
that if the resources of the Yukon are located transverse line must follow one
sufficient to warrant the construction of of the rivers which traverses the coast
a railway, such a railway should hold its ranges. Two such railways, one up the
own against the competition of water Copper and one up the Susitna, are
transportation. In any event, a railway already under construction. The rival
into the Susitna-Copper River province interests financing the two projects have
would encounter no competition with been loud in claiming that each route was
steamboat transportation. the best. In point of fact, the two sup-
Considered geographically, the routes plement each other. It is certain that a
described fall into two classes, namely, railway by way of the Copper River fol-
the one comprising those parallel to the lows the only feasible route to copper
lines of height, and the other those trans- deposits of the Wrangell region. It is
verse to the lines of height. In the first equally certain that as a route to the
group belong the trans-Alaskan-Siberian Yukon a railway up the Susitna River
line, the Lynn-Canal-Fairbanks line, to- has the best of it. Again, neither of
gether with its alternate, the Alsek- these lines bisect Alaska as would a rail-
Fairbanks line. way extending from Lynn Canal to Fair-
These routes, as has been shown, are banks and to the Seward Peninsula.
parallel to the dominant axes of uplift, The matter presented in the foregoing
and therefore harmonious with the pages indicates that more facts are
topography. As a matter of fact, how- needed before scientific deductions can be
ever, pioneer railways are usually trans- drawn of the best route for immediate
verse to the watersheds, for the reason construction. Meanwhile, however, in
that they are located to supplement and view of the large amount of capital ready
not to supplant water transportation. for investment in any promising enter-
The history of railway development in prise, it is only too likely that the prob-
the United States shows that piedmont lem will be solved by experimentation
lines are the last to be built. A railway alone, as has been done at great cost else-
parallel to the inland front of the Saint where; in other words, by the survival
Elias range would traverse a series of of the fittest.
Photos by W. C. Mendenhall and L. M. Prindle

Copper River Valley at Copper Center, on the Railway Route from Copper River to
the Yukon
Freight Steamer and Barges on the Yukon River
The National Geographic Magazine

^ <u
Railway Routes in Alaska i«9
190 The National Geographic Magazine
The Maori Tribes 191

A Macri Girl (see page ic


102 The National Geographic Magazine

The Chief of One of the Most Celebrated Maori Tribes, Showing Their Remark-
able Tatooing
The Maori Tribes 193

A Maori Mother and Child


194 The National Geographic Magazine
The Maori Tribes 195
196 The National Geographic Magazine

Two Maoris Saluting


The Maori Tribes 197
:

THE MAORIS OF NEW ZEALAND


THE the
Maoris are in many respects
most remarkable savages
and perfection in the execution of rock
paintings, and in carving the ornamental
with whom the white man has figures of their dwellings, their boats and
come in contact. Fifty years ago can- sacred inclosures. Many of these objects
nibalistic feasts, at which the flesh of their are carefully preserved in museums.
fallen enemies was served, were not un- But the Maoris were also noted for
common. Today several members of their remarkable tattooing, which was
their race aremembers of the New Zea- designed to clothe as well as decorate the
land Parliament, and Maori women, as bod}'. The Maori artist knew how to
well as the white women of New Zealand, give endless variety to the curves of his
exercise the right to vote. drawings the natural furrows, the move-
;

When the English first occupied the ments of the countenance, the play of
islands, in the early part of the nineteenth —
muscles everything was made to en-
century, it is estimated that there were hance the charm of the design and a;

about 100,000 Maoris in New Zealand. hale young man certainly presented a fine
They were divided into tribes, each tribe sight, draped only in this delicate net-
having its own unwritten laws regarding work of blue lines on the ruddy brown of
land, cultivation, and other social mat- his skin. Whoever refused to undergo
ters. The tribes were constantly fight- the protracted tortures of tattooing re-
ing. The English found that they had a quired at everv important event of his
genius for war, showing unusual ability life was regarded as a person by his own
in building, fortifying, and defending consent foredoomed to slavery. The men
stockades, and they experienced consid- were actually depilated in order to in-
erable difficulty in subduing them. The crease the surface to be covered with or-
Maoris were also skilled in several arts namental tattooing, while for young
They the soil with great care as
tilled ; women the operation was limited to the
carvers and decorators they were un- lips, whence the term Blue lips applied to
rivaled in the Oceanic world, and they them by the English.
displayed great originality in the design There are about 35,000 Maoris left.

Maoris Practicing- the Old War Dance


The Great Natural Bridges of Utah 199
These have retired to the northern prov- proud of their right to vote, and espe-
inces of New Zealand, where certain cially of the fact that their women were
"reservations" have been set apart as given this privilege at the same time that
their exchisive property. Schools have it was given to the white women of New

been established which the Maori children Zealand, in 1893.


attend regularly. It is said that such of The preceding illustrations of the
them as continue into the higher branches Maori of New Zealand were taken by Mr
of learning are worthy rivals of white J. Martin, of Auckland, and were sent to
students. Some of the Maoris have be- this magazine by M. Maurice Loir, editor-
come large landed proprietors they are ; in-chief of Le Tour du Mond, of Paris.

THE GREAT NATURAL BRIDGES OF UTAH


the summer of 1904 the first public and on to Moab on the Grand and to
IN announcement was
Century Magazine
made
and the Na-
in the Thompson's Spring on the main line of
the Denver and Rio Grande Railway.
GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE by Mr
TIONAI, The country of the natural bridges can
W. W. Dyar of the discovery in Utah be reached via Bluff by either of these
of three great natural bridges, far sur- routes, going by wagons to the latter
passing in size the great Natural Bridge place, then by horses with pack train,
of Virginia and all other similar bridges taking a northwesterly direction from
known in the world. The article was Bluff for a distance of about 65 miles,
illustrated from small photographs, and going south of the Blue Mountains and
was based on a hurried view of the Elk Ridge, crossing Cottonwood Creek,
bridges. Last year a member of the and going up Comb Wash.
National Geographic Society, Mr There might be a way of reaching this
Edwin F. Holmes, equipped an expedi- section by crossing the Colorado at
tion with surveyors and artists and sent Dandy Crossing, near Hite, in Garfield
it out to make a careful study of the County, striking the White River Canyon
bridges. Mr Holmes' report of the work some 60 miles below the Caroline Bridge,
done is printed below. which, with the Augusta, is situated on
The three great natural bridges are the main canyon of the White River,
located in an almost inaccessible portion while the Edwin Bridge is situated on
of southeastern Utah, in San Juan Armstrong Creek at its confluence with a
County, lying south of the Colorado and small stream coming in from the north.
Grande rivers. Armstrong Creek itself discharges in
The country uninhabited and unin-
is White River a few miles lower down.
habitable for the greater part, the only All three bridges are within a radius of
settlement of any account being the small about 20 miles.
town called Bluff, on the San Juan River, A few miles above the Edwin Bridge,
and the nearest railroad being Dolores, in on Armstrong Creek, are the remains of
Colorado, some 105 miles eastward, on a ancient ruins, and about here are hiero-
narrow-gauge branch of the Denver and glyphics cut into the rocks. No person
Rio Grande and Rio Grande Southern, should think of going into this region
extending from Grand Junction to Du- without having thoroughly studied all
rango, in the silver San Juan country. the conditions. The few guides that
There is another small settlement, called have been there have a very limited
Monticello, to the north of Bluff, with knowledge of the country, and the main
which it is connected by a wagon road, and side canyons so cut up the country
200 The National Geographic Magazine
The Great Natural Bridges of Utah 201

•a ja
202 The National Geographic Magazine

'5
.a
The Great Natural Bridges of Utah 203

that a party may easily become lost. The The measurement of the Caroline
absence of forage and at times of water Bridge the party found to be: Height,
make it necessary to undertake the trip 182 feet; span, 350 feet; width, 60 feet,
as early in the spring as possible, ten or and thickness, 60 feet, while of the
fifteen days being about the limit of time smaller bridge, named by the Culmer
one can spend here because of the im- party as the Edwin Bridge, for Col.
practicability of packing a sufficient sup- Edwin F. Holmes, of Salt Lake City,
ply of forage and provisions. Of course, they found the measurements to be:
a more extended trip could be provided Height, III feet span, 205 feet width,
; ;

for by keeping pack animals on the road 30 feet, and thickness, 10 feet, this bridge
to and from the base of supplies at Bluff, being the much more graceful and slen-
the only or nearest place where a suitable der of the three.
outfit can be obtained. Oil paintings of the three bridges have
The Augusta Bridge was so named in now been completed by artist H. L. A.
honor of the wife of Horace J. Long, who Culmer, from photographs, sketches,
in 1903 visited the bridges in company water colors, and measurements taken at
with James Scorup. They made approx- the time of the visit, the measurements
imate measurements, but, not having ac- having been corroborated from the rec-
curate instruments, their work was neces- ords kept by two different persons of the
sarily faulty, and their pictures were expedition. The painting of the Augusta
taken with a small Kodak, much too small is a canvas 60 x 90 inches and has the

for the purpose. Mr Scorup, it appears, noonday or mid-afternoon tints, with


had visited these bridges previous to this storm-cloud approaching from the south-
time, and in showing Long the way to east —an incident that actually occurred
them stipulated that the second one at the time of their visit. Great buttes
should be named the Caroline, after his and the high canyon walls are seen un-
(Scorup's) mother. derneath the arch and great Cottonwood
So far as Scorup knew, the bridges trees in the distance.
were first discovered by Emery Knowles The two other bridges are on canvases
in 1895, and he himself visited them in 42 X 60 inches in size, the Caroline being
company with two cowboys, Tom Hall in a rich sunset glow of color, with parts
and Jim Jones, in the fall of that year. in shadow, very dark, somber, and heavy
The next party to visit this section, so in tone the sky without clouds, but
;

far as known, was that promoted by the luminous with light from the setting sun.
Salt Lake City Commercial Club during Little but rock and sky appear in the
the winter and spring of 1905. The picture, the little green foliage in the dim
members of the party were H. L. A. Cul- distance being so far away as to show but
mer, artist; S. T. Whitaker, photogra- faintly.
pher; Carleton Woods Holmes, son of Of the Edwin Bridge the dominant
Col. Edwin F. Holmes, ex-president of tone of rock color is a creamy gray, with
the Salt Lake Commercial Club, who a purplish tint in shadow and interesting
first suggested the trip, and Scorup, perspective beneath the arch, showing
guide, together with two packers and a trees of mountain pine and cedar in the
cook. The party was well equipped with distance and near foreground. The sky
scaling ladders and all the necessary par- of blue is marked by cloudlets of indis-
aphernalia. tinct outline, all in the sunshine of mid-
The measurements taken of the Au- day.
gusta Bridge were as follows Height, : These bridges, composed as they are of
265 feet; span, 320 feet; width in nar- light sandstone,might seem to be wear-
rowest part, 35 feet, and thickness, 83 ing away very rapidly. Such, however,
feet. is not the case, as is evidenced in the

204 The National Geographic Magazine


caves beneath the CaroHne abvitments, \vith some excellent stone dwellings, some
especially that to the south or west, where of them costing $5,000 to $10,000. The
was found what may have been a work- inhabitants of the town are generally well
shop of the ancients, for evidences of to do and kind in their treatment of stran-
their pottery work were scattered around, gers, and their prosperity is largely due
and at one place a number of fiber san- to the cattle industry. They are on the
dals were found in a fair state of preser- northern border of the Navajo Indian
vation. reservation, having considerable barter
A few miles above the Edwin Bridge a trade with the Indians, who work for
considerable settlement of Cliff-Dwellers them cheapl}' and keep their dwellings
once existed, and rude s\ mbols are found for them. The people are mostly jNIor-
on the rocks in the vicinity of the bridges. mons. Their young people are educated
abroad and compare favorably with the
A NATIONAL PARK SUGGESTED young people anywhere.
From all that is learned of this won- Quite the opposite is the little town of
derful country, it is believed that its Monticello, some 50 miles to the north
preservation and care should be under- and the county-seat of San Juan County,
taken by the United States Government, which is a town of about a dozen houses,
as in the case of the Yellowstone National some occupied and some not, built upon
Park, so that roads may be opened and the apex or divide of a mountain range
these greatest of the world's natural and formerly the headquarters for the
bridges can be made accessible for the .
cattle interest of this section.
Its nearest
tourists from our own country and from point also Dolores, which is south and
is

all over the world, who would flock east some hundred miles or so and con-
thither were the road made easier. The nected by a wagon road little used.
difficulties of railroad building do not There are mountains about here
seem to be unsurmountable, and an ex- Abajo, 11,445 feet, and Mount Linnaeus,
tension from Dolores, on the main line, —
11,000 feet while farther north, toward
is possible, even to a continuation through Moab, are Mount Tukuhnikivatz, 12,034
to the Santa Fe System, embracing all of feet; Mount Tomaskia, 12,218 feet;
the upper part of the Grand Canyon of Mount Wass, 12,586 feet, and Mount

Arizona a scenic route comparable to Peak, 13,089 feet. Much of this portion
has been surveyed, though the townships
nothing else in the world.
More than a passing word should be have not been sub-divided, but nearly all
said about the little town of Bluff, on the of the western part of the country is still
San Juan River, from which point an ex- unsurveyed and no very accurate maps
pedition can best be fitted out for the exist, excepting of the courses of the
Bridge Country. This is a place of about Green, the Grand, and the Colorado
fifty houses, and is a thrifty little town rivers.
: —

A RECENT REPORT FROM THE "DOUBTFUL


ISLAND REGION"
By James D. Hague

THE San Francisco Chronicle of


February 5, 1907, contained the
of reefs and islands, which have been re-
ported, mainly by whalemen, from time
following item to time during the past hundred years,
"Captain Maurice Rose, of the French but so far never found by any of the ex-
bark Michelet, reports to the branch ploring vessels sent to look for them.
hydrographic office that at 9 a. m., Jan- On such a reef as this the long-lost
uary 18, when in latitude north 22 de- Levant may have met her mysterious fate
grees 19 minutes, longitude west 131 in i860, and in this still unexplored sea
degrees 6 minutes, off the Mexican coast, there well may be not onl}' similar reefs,
he passed within 200 yards of a reef but, as reported, larger and higher
over which the sea was breaking for an islands —
possibly some habitable island
extent of about fifteen yards. The on which surviving castaways of the ship-
weather was clear, wind northeast, light, wrecked Levant may .«till be watching
with a light swell. He took no sound- for a sail.
ings. The chronometer was correct upon This new report is one more call from

arrival in port. The observations by far midocean for renewed search and
wliich the position was fixed were good." thorough survey of this unexplored
The locality thus indicated by the region, with the purpose either to prove
above-stated latitude and longitude the non-existence of these most dan-
would be little less than 3J4 degrees of gerous menaces to navigation or, if found
latitude north and about 5 degrees of existing, to locate them correctly on the
longitude east of the reported shoal charts, in the interest of commerce and
which Captain Lawless thought he saw for the benefit and safety of mariners.
on the morning of March 17, 1902, in The brief and only partial search of
latitude 18 degrees 56 minutes north and this region, made by the Tacoma in 1904,
longitude 136 degrees 10 minutes west, occupied only four days in cruising and
but which the U. S. S. Tacoina, when covered but a comparatively small part,
searching for it two years later, failed about 8,000 square miles, of this doubt-
to find in that position or near neigh- ful island region, leaving 20,000 to
borhood. May 28, 1904, as set forth in 30,000 square miles still unexplored and
the National Geographic Magazine almost wholly unseen by any of the
for December, 1904. several vessels sent there for exploration.
The recently reported reef, over which Every square mile of this region must
the sea was breaking, as -above stated, yet be seen in daylight before it can be
would not be far distant (2 or 3 degrees certainly known that there are no reefs
northeasterly) from "Cooper's," one of a or islands to be found or feared there by
number of small islands, of doubtful posi- passing navigators. The search of the
tion and questionable existence, indicated Tacoma was conclusive only for a part
on the older charts, published 50 years of the field, as above stated, and there
ago or more, and it furnishes one more are better reasons now for completing
new item of evidence, certainly indicat- the exploration than there were originally
ing the possible existence of a shoal for beginning it.

region in this neighborhood, within Although no sign of shoal water was


which there may yet be found and def- found by the Tacoma at the place in-
initely located one or more of the score dicated by Captain Lawless, he still be-
: :

2o8 The National Geographic Magazine


lieves that what he saw and reported where there might be islands, possibly
was in fact a shoal, but probably located habitable, and, in that case, now inhabited
a few miles out of his reckoning. He by the survivors of shipwreck. In fact,
did not stop his ship to sound, but esti- during the three hundred and sixty years
mated the depth of water on the shoal of elapsed time a coral island may have
to be thirty to forty feet, or, sa_v, five been formed on this same shoal. Such
to seven fathoms; and it is curiously in- an island, developing conditions favor-
teresting to note the singular coincidence able to the support of life, like scores of
between this estimate and the depth of tropical islands elsewhere, might have
"six or seven fathoms" actually found become habitable long ago.
by sounding on another remotely related The region from which this report
shoal observed and reported many years apparently comes (two hundred leagues
since, a recent reference to which is con- westerly from Roca Partida, shown on
tained in a letter from Professor George the charts) is perhaps ten degrees east
Davidson, at San Francisco, an eminent and eight or more degrees south of the
authority on oceanography, who writes assigned position of the reef over which
"Yesterday (January 9, 1906) I was the sea was breaking, as recently re-
browsing among old navigators, and in ported by Captain Rose of the bark
Burney, vol. I, pages 228 and 229, I came Michelet; but it is within the great, gen-
on the following, in the voyage of Vil- erally landless, ocean area of which we
(1542) they discovered
lalobos: 'Dec. 3 have but comparatively little information
banks on which they had only six or and hardly any knowledge concerning
seven fathoms.' The pilot's statement the elevations and depressions of the sea
'and we sailed beyond Roca Partida bottom.
about two hundred leagues, when we had The traffic of this hitherto-unfre-
soundings in seven fathoms, being then quented region is steadily increasing.
in 13 degrees or fourteen degrees north Steamships between San Francisco and
latitude, and no land in sight but we be-
; Tahiti traverse it occasionally in north-
lieved ourselves to be near the Island San erly and southerl)^ directions, and the
"
Bartholomeo.' American-Hawaiian Steamship Company
This observation antedates Captain has just now inaugurated a fortnightly
Lawless's by three hundred and sixty service between Hawaii and the Mexican
years but it is somewhat more reliable
; coast, which will pass through this region
than his, because of the actual soundings in and westerly courses and
easterly ;

that were taken at the <-ime, which have when the Panama Canal is open for busi-
the same important significance as if ness the movement of ships in these
made yesterday. Such a shoal is evi- waters will be constant. With these con-
dence of an elevated sea bottom and is ditions in view, it seems obvious that a
an indication of a shoal region, in which complete survey of the region should
there may be coral reefs near enough to presently be made in the interests of com-
the surface to menace navigation, and merce and navis;ation.
THE POSSIBILITIES OF THE HUDSON BAY
COUNTRY
THE Canadian Geological Survey
has issued a popular narrative
and report of its recent expedi-
nary iron steamships through
Strait and across Hudson Bay
of Churchill may
Hudson
to the port
be taken to extend from
tion to Hudson Bay and the Canadian the 20th of July to the ist of November.
Arctic Islands by Hon. A. P. Low, the This period might be increased without
leader of the expedition and now Director much risk by a week in the beginning of
of the Geological Survey of Canada.* the season and by perhaps two weeks at
One reason for the expedition was the the close.
formal assertion and installation of Cana- The fur trade with the Indians and
dian authority over that drear coast and Eskimos living about Hudson Bay or
its adjoining waters, a domination which along interior routes tributary to it has
previously had been largely taken for for a period extending over two centuries
granted, so far as the islands north of and a half furnished cargoes for two or
Hudson Bay were concerned. Another more ships belonging to the Hudson's
important reason for the expedition was Bay Company. At the present time two
the securing of further information about ships are engaged in this trade for the
the navigability of Hudson Bay. Other company, while Revillon Brothers em-
reasons were to obtain scientific informa- ploy two more. The whale fishery now
tion about the geology, botany, and nat- supports two ships. These four ships
ural history, minerals, and timber of the represent the developed trade of the bay
vast territory, about its inhabitants, the and strait at the present time.
Eskimos, and about the possibilities of The undeveloped resources of the re-
fishing and whaling, the latter of which gion surrounding these waters appertain
has been the sole industry of the northern to mining and fisheries and to the forests,
seas or their neighborhood. which include large areas of pulp wood
The report makes an exceedingly val- and merchantable spruce. Iron ores and
uable volume of 350 pages and is illus- copper-bearing rocks have been found in
trated with about 75 pictures of Arctic several places and a valuable mica mine
scenery, of the Eskimos, and whaling is being worked. Not much is known
views. There are excellent chapters on about the fisheries, but sea run trout,
the Eskimos, the whaling industry, and a whitefish, Arctic salmon, etc., are believed
very good historical summary of previous to be abundant.
explorations of the Hudson Bay region. These undeveloped resources of the
Mr Low also publishes a large map of the north will no doubt, when developed, add
region. greatly to the annual shipping of Hudson
All that is needed to open Hudson Bay Bay, but the main increase to the fleet
for ordinary commercial navigation, says will be due to the products of the great
Mr Low, is a line of rails to carry freight plains of the Northwest, now rapidly fill-
to one of its ports. At present the Hud- ing with robust settlers. These products
son's Bay Company and the Revillon Fur of the western farms — grain, butter, and
Company have ships going annually to cattle —
will naturally seek the shortest
the bay, and a greater amount of freight road to the European markets a road;

would attract more steamers. not only shorter, but, owing to its cool
The period of safe navigation for ordi- climate, capable of landing perishable
products and grain in better condition
* The Cruise of the Neptune. By A. P. Low, than the more southern routes.
Officer in Charge. Pp. 350. 6x9 inches. 75
illustrations and one map. Ottawa, Govern- Taking Regina as a convenient center
ment Printing Bureau, 1906. for these northwestern farming lands, the
2 lO The National Geographic Magazine
The Hudson Bay Country 2 11

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