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Part 7.

B3G and 4G Systems

p. 1 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Roadmap

HSDPA HSUPA HSPA+


HSPA+
LTE

IMT-Advanced
(4G)
AIE
AIE

p. 2 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


HSPA Standardization
‰ 3GPP Rel'99: does not manage the radio spectrum efficiently when
dealing with bursty traffic
‰ Need for even better spectral efficiency, improved user experience and
new services => High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) Source: H.
Holma and A.
‰ HSPA: High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) + Toskala,
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) “HSDPA/HSUP
A for UMTS,”
JohnWiley and
Sons, LTD..

p. 3 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


HSPA Deployment
Source: H.
Holma and A.
Toskala,
“HSDPA/HSUP
A for UMTS,”
JohnWiley and
Sons, LTD..

‰ Based on WCDMA network: either on the same carrier (f1) or using


another carrier (f2)
‰ Why using another carrier: a high capacity and high bit rate solution
‰ HSPA and WCDMA share all the network elements in the core
network and the radio network.
‰ Upgrade from WCDMA to HSPA: no core network impacts, new
software package, some new pieces of hardware in the BS and RNC to
support the higher data rates and capacity
‰ Upgrading cost: very low compared with building a new standalone
data network

p. 4 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Commercial HSPA Network
‰ Korea: May 2006, SK Telecom, the world's first commercial HSDPA
service, data rate 1.8Mbps
‰ Hong Kong: June 2006, SmarTone-Vodafone, HSDPA service at
1.8Mbps; Sept. 2006, enhanced 3.6Mbps HSDPA full-coverage
network; 2008: support 14.4Mbps downloading (HSDPA) and 2Mbps
uploading (HSUPA)
‰ SmarTone: Mobile Broadband, provides high speed access to Internet
with your PC or Laptop

USB modem for Express card for laptops


desktops and laptops

p. 5 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


HSDPA - High Speed Downlink Packet Access

p. 6 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction
‰ HSDPA is a UMTS packet air interface (add-on solution on top of
3GPP R99/R4 architecture) that allows up to 3.6 Mbps peak data rate
for a Category 6 Mobile per user with a classical Rake receiver and up
to 14.4 Mbps peak data rate for a Category 10 mobile per user with
advanced receiver solutions.

‰ HSDPA: offers significantly higher data capacity (at least twice per
cell) and data-user speed, lower latency (70ms round trip delay), fully
backward compatible with Rel'99 (WCDMA)
– A new downlink shared transport channel (HS-DSCH) with shorter
frame size (2ms)
– A fast link adaptation controlled by the Node B (BTS): dynamic
adaptive modulation and coding
– A fast scheduler
– A fast physical layer retransmission and transmission combining

Source: Nortel, “HSDPA and beyond,” White paper.

p. 7 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


New Channels (1)
‰ New channel types: HS-DSCH (Downlink Shared Channel), HS-
SCCH (Shared Control Channel), HS-DPCCH (Dedicated Physical
Control Channel)
‰ HS-DSCH: High Speed Downlink Shared Channel
– shared by all users of a sector by a number of SF 16 codes and time
– within each 2 ms TTI, up to 15 parallel code channels can be used for
the HS-DSCH: may all be assigned to one user, or may be split among
several users
– no more power control, HS-DSCH is transmitted at a constant power
– the modulation, the coding and the number of codes are changed to
adapt to the variations of radio conditions
– difference between HS-DSCH and DSCH in WCDMA: the
scheduling of HS-DSCH is done at the Node B (BS) rather than the
RNC

Source: Nortel, “HSDPA and beyond,” White paper.

p. 8 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


New Channels (2)
Comparison of fundamental properties of the DCH and HS-DSCH
Features DCH (WCDMA) HS-DSCH (HSDPA)

Channel coding Convolutional or Turbo Only Turbo


Modulation QPSK QPSK and 16QAM
Variable spreading factor No and SF=4~512 No and SF=16
Fast power control Yes No
Adaptive modulation and No Yes
coding
Multi-code operation Yes Yes, extended
Physical layer No, only at RLC layer Yes, and also at RLC layer
retransmission
BTS-based scheduling and No Yes
link adaptation
Source: H. Holma and A. Toskala, “HSDPA/HSUPA for UMTS,”
JohnWiley and Sons, LTD..
p. 9 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
New Channels (3)

Source: Nortel, “HSDPA and beyond,” White paper.

p. 10 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


New Channels (4)

New
functions

Source: H.
Holma and A.
Toskala,
“HSDPA/HSUP
A for UMTS,”
JohnWiley and
HS-DSCH channel coding chain Sons, LTD..

p. 11 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


New Channels (5)
‰ Why is bit scrambling needed?
– HSDPA: QPSK and 16QAM are used

Source: H.
Holma and A.
Toskala,
“HSDPA/HSUP
A for UMTS,”
JohnWiley and
Sons, LTD..

– to recover 16QAM symbols: phase and amplitude (power level)


information is required
– bit scrambling is introduced to avoid having long sequences of '1s' or
'0s'. Otherwise, the terminal would have difficulties with HS-DSCH
power level estimation

p. 12 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


New Channels (6)

‰ HS-SCCH: HSDPA Shared Control Channel


– enables the UE to identify which codes of the HS-DSCH contain its
data
‰ HS-DPCCH: HSDPA Dedicated Physical Control Channel
– responsible of Uplink signaling
– provides Channel Quality Indicator (CQI), ACK and NACK
‰ CQI: reflects the signal to Interference Ratio (SIR)
– provides real time (every 2ms) knowledge of the radio conditions for
each user. Based on CQI, BTS may change every 2ms the modulation,
coding and the number of codes
– makes HSDPA match the exact throughput of the radio bandwidth
available for each user
– higher average throughput and higher spectrum efficiency

Source: Nortel, “HSDPA and beyond,” White paper.

p. 13 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


New Channels (7)

Dynamic behavior of HSDPA


Source: Nortel, “HSDPA and beyond,” White paper.

p. 14 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Link Adaptation (1)

‰ Fast link adaptation at BS: Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC)


(TTI: 2ms)
‰ Principle of AMC: change modulation and coding format in
accordance with variations in the channel conditions which leads to a
higher data rate for users in favorable positions and reduced
interference
‰ Enables bursty traffic => higher average throughput, three to five
times higher than that without HSDPA
‰ Reduces the interferences variation
– link adaptation based on variations in the mod./coding scheme instead
of variations of the transmit power

Source: Nortel, “HSDPA and beyond,” White paper.

p. 15 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Link Adaptation (2)

Example of link adaptation Source: H. Holma and A. Toskala,


“HSDPA/HSUPA for UMTS,”
JohnWiley and Sons, LTD..

p. 16 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Retransmission (1)

‰ Fast
Retransmission:
Hybrid Automatic
Request

‰ 3GPP R'99: ARQ


in RLC layer;
HSDPA: ARQ in
physical layer

Source: H. Holma and A.


Toskala, “HSDPA/HSUPA
for UMTS,” JohnWiley
and Sons, LTD.. BTS retransmission handling
p. 17 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Fast Retransmission (2)
‰ HSDPA: Stop-and-Wait (SAW) => simplest

Waiting for ACK from the receiver Retransmission due to timer expiry

p. 18 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Retransmission (3)
‰ 3GPP R'99: Selective Repeat (SR) => most complex and most efficient

p. 19 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Retransmission (4)
‰ HSDPA: Why SAW instead of SR?
– SR: complex, need high memory, sequence information, high
signaling bandwidth
– SAW: simple, need less memory, no sequence information, less
signaling bandwidth => suitable for UE
– Improved SAW: Dual-Channel SAW

‰ HSDPA: Retransmission combining: Two combining schemes


–Chase combining: BT resends the same packet
–Incremental redundancy: BT provides additional coding by
sending the parity bits in the retransmission, requires more
memory, used with high coding rate

p. 20 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Retransmission (5)

Source: H. Holma and


A. Toskala,
“HSDPA/HSUPA for
Example of Chase combining UMTS,” JohnWiley
and Sons, LTD..

p. 21 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Retransmission (6)

Source: H. Holma and


A. Toskala,
“HSDPA/HSUPA for
Example of Incremental Redundancy UMTS,” JohnWiley
and Sons, LTD..

p. 22 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Scheduling (1)
‰ Fast scheduling: Placed in the Node B in order to quickly respond to the
changes in channel conditions.

L1: physical layer

Source: H. Holma and


A. Toskala,
“HSDPA/HSUPA for
UMTS,” JohnWiley
and Sons, LTD..

p. 23 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Scheduling (2)
‰ Scheduling algorithm: A compromise between a Round Robin and a Max
C/I scheduler will be used.

TTI

for each user


Received C/I

#1 #2 #3

Time

Max C/I Scheduler

p. 24 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast Cell Selection

‰ Fast cell selection


‰ Soft handoff is impossible for HSDPA
‰ A hard handoff is used for HS-DSCH: the UE indicates the best cell which
should serve it through uplink signaling
‰ While multiple cells may be members of the active set, only one of them
transmits at any time, potentially decreasing interference and increasing
system capacity

Source: Nortel, “HSDPA and beyond,” White paper.

p. 25 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Terminal Capability Categories

Source: Nortel, “HSDPA and beyond,” White paper.

p. 26 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


HSUPA - High Speed Uplink Packet Access

p. 27 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction (1)
‰ Why HSUPA: a complement of HSDPA
‰ HSDPA: provide high speed (up to 14.4Mbps) data transmission in
downlink, increase data usage => the uplink throughput should be
increased accordingly
‰ HSUPA: also called as Enhanced DCH, defines a new radio interface for
the Uplink communication. The overall goal is to improve the coverage
and throughput as well as to reduce the delay of the uplink dedicated
transport channels.
‰ Enhancement of HSUPA over 3GPP R'99 (3GPP Study)
- 50-70% improvement in UL capacity
- 20-55% reduction in end user packet call delay
- Around 50% in user packet call throughput
- max 5.76 Mbps (one UE/cell), typical about 2 Mbps (several UEs/cell)

p. 28 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction (2)
new uplink
transport channel
uplink
SF=2~256
Hybrid ARQ

HSUPA

Node B controlled 10ms TTI (mandatory)


scheduling 2ms TTI (optional)
multicode
transmission

New Features in HSUPA

Note: HSUPA does not support adaptive modulation because it does not support any
higher order modulation schemes. Reason: more complex modulation schemes
require more energy per bit to be transmitted than simply going for multicode
transmission using simple BPSK modulation.

p. 29 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


New Channels

E-D
PD
Phy CH: E
E-D sica -DC
PC lD HD
Phy CH: a ta C edi
sica E-D han cate
Ac E-H lC CH nel d E-DCH
kno ICH ont De
wle ro l C dica
E-A dge : E -D han ted
GC m ent CH H ne l
H: Ind AR
E- R E-D ic
GC CH ato Q
H: A rC
E-D b sol han
for scheduling control CH ute nel
Rel Gr a
ativ nt C
eG han
ran nel
Source: H. Holma and tC
A. Toskala, han
“HSDPA/HSUPA for
n el
UMTS,” JohnWiley
and Sons, LTD..

p. 30 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


E-DCH

0, 8, 12,
24 bits 16, 24 bits

p. 31 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


E-DPDCH (1)
‰ E-DPDCH: similar structure to DPDCH
- support variable spreading factor, multi-code transmission, BPSK
modulation, fast power control loop
‰ Difference between E-DPDCH and DPDCH
- E-DPDCH supports fast physical layer HARQ, fast Node B based
scheduling, spreading factor of 2

Physical channel bit rates for DPDCH and E-DPDCH

p. 32 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


E-DPDCH (2)
‰ Difference between E-DPDCH and DPDCH (Con't)
- E-DPDCH supports TTI of 2ms

E-DPDCH frame structure

p. 33 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


E-DPCCH (1)
‰ E-DPCCH and DPCCH
- both deliver the information needed to decode corresponding data
channel transmission
- DPCCH also provides common information related to channel estimation
and power control
‰ E-DPCCH
- fixed spreading factor: 256
- (30,10) Reed-Muller coding, 10 information bits every 3 slots
E-TFCI: 7 bits, E-DCH transport format combination indicator, telling the
receiver the transport block size coded on the E-DPDCH
RSN: 2bits, retransmission sequence number, initial transmission RSN=0,
the first with RSN=1, the second with RSN=2, all subsequent RSN=3
Happy bit: 1 bit, whether the UE is content with the current data rate or
relative power allowed to be used for E-DPDCHs

p. 34 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


E-DPCCH (2)

(30, 10) Reed Muller coding

E-DPCCH frame structure

p. 35 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


E-DPCCH (3)
‰ Why use two TTI lengths?
- 2ms: potential delay benefit
- 10ms: needed for range purpose to ensure cell edge operation.

At the cell edge, signaling using a 2-ms period starts to consume a lot of
transmission power, especially at the BTS end. HSDPA: the number of active
users is relatively small. HSUPA: a large number of active users

p. 36 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Comparison
Features Uplink DCH E-DCH HS-DSCH
(WCDMA) (HSUPA) (HSDPA)
Channel coding Convoultional (1/2 or Turbo (1/3) Turbo
1/3) and Turbo (1/3)
Variable spreading factor Yes Yes No
Fast power control Yes Yes No
Adaptive modulation and No No Yes
coding
Multi-code operation Yes Yes Yes
Physical layer No Yes Yes
retransmission
BTS-based scheduling No Yes Yes
Soft handover Yes Yes No
TTI length (ms) 80, 40, 20, 10 10, 2 2

p. 37 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Fast HARQ
‰ Fast physical layer retransmission (Hybrid ARQ)
- basic principle is the same as that for HSDPA
- both Chase combining and Incremental Redundancy are permitted
‰ HARQ and soft handover
- special for HSUPA, similar rules to those for uplink power control:
single ACK from the active set => successful transmission

HSUPA ARQ operation in soft handover


p. 38 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Fast Scheduling
‰ BTS based fast scheduling
- scheduling is moved from RNC to Node B, small latency
‰ Principle different to HSDPA
- HSDPA: one to many scheduling. All the cell power can be directed to a
single user for a short period of time and reach very high data rates, then
to another user
- HSUPA: many to one scheduling. Users have their own power resource
that cannot be shared. The shared source of uplink is the uplink noise rise,
or the total received power seen in the Node B.
‰ Tasks for uplink scheduler
- avoid overload
- use as much of the uplink capacity as possible without the risk of the cell
becoming overloaded

p. 39 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


HSUPA Terminal Categories

p. 40 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Summary of HSPA

‰ HSDPA employs mainly four measures to increase the packet data rate:
new channel HS-DSCH; fast link adaptation; fast scheduler; fast
retransmission and combinations.
‰ HS-DSCH: comparison to DCH in WCDMA; new function blocks needed
to generate signals on HS-DSCH.
‰ Advantages of fast link adaptation
‰ Fast retransmission: HARQ schemes employed in HSDPA; combining
schemes
‰ Advantages of fast scheduler
‰ HSUPA: only BPSK supported, no adaptive modulation and coding
‰ Reason for E-DPCCH in HSUPA supporting two TTI lengths, 10ms and
2ms.

p. 41 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and System
Architecture Evolution

p. 42 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction
‰ With HSPA, UTRA will remain highly competitive for several years
‰ Threat from WiMAX to cellular systems
– WiMAX provides high speed wireless data services: up to 20Mbps
– Advantage of WiMAX: high speed, low cost to construct, various
services including voice over IP, video, multimedia transmission, etc.
– Vendor strategy: Leading 3G vendors backing LTE, vendors that are not
3G leaders using WiMAX as an end around
– WiMAX: big threat to 3G
‰ Current 3GPP standards should be further developed to maintain
the competitiveness of 3G in long term future
WiMAX HSPA
Peak DL Throughput 20.1Mbps 3.6Mbps
Peak UL Throughput 5.0Mbps 2.3Mbps
Average DL Throughput 2.3Mbps 2Mbps
Average UL Throughput 2.2Mbps 700kbps

p. 43 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


3GPP LTE and SAE
‰ LTE focuses on
– enhancement of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)
– optimization of the UTRAN architecture

‰ SAE focuses on
– enhancement of Packet Switched technology to cope with rapid
growth in IP traffic
– higher data rates
– lower latency
– packet optimized system
through
– fully IP network
– simplified network architecture
– distributed control

p. 44 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Targets of LTE (1)
‰ 3GPP has concluded a set of targets and requirements for LTE
– Peak data rates exceeding 100 Mbps for the downlink direction and 50
Mbps for the uplink direction
– Mean user throughput improved by factors 2 and 3 for uplink and
downlink respectively
– Cell-edge user throughput improved by a factor 2 for uplink and
downlink
– Uplink and downlink spectrum efficiency improved by factors 2 and 3
respectively
– Significantly reduced control-plane latency
– Reduced cost for operator and end user
– Spectrum flexibility, enabling deployment in many different spectrum
allocations

p. 45 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Targets of LTE (2)

p. 46 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


New Technologies for LTE
‰ The reference system of LTE is a basic WCDMA system
– new radio transmission technologies are needed
‰ Downlink: OFDM with frequency domain adaptation
– OFDM supports varying spectrum allocations, ranging from 1.4MHz to
20MHz
– OFDM is suitable for broadcast services
– Channel-based adaptation in frequency domain
‰ Uplink: Single carrier FDMA with dynamic bandwidth
– to satisfy the requirement for uplink transmission: power-efficient user-
terminal transmission to maximize coverage
– the base station assigns a unique time-frequency interval to the terminal
for the transmission of user data
– Channel-based adaptation in frequency domain
‰ Multi-Antenna solutions
– to increase data rates, improve coverage and capacity

p. 47 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Further Agreement on LTE

‰ Currently no more macro diversity


– no soft handover required

‰ Security
– Control Plane: Ciphering and Integrity provided by enhanced Node B
(BTS), RLC and MAC provided directly in the enhanced Node B
– User plane: Ciphering and integrity in the enhanced Access Gateway
functionality

p. 48 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


4G Scenarios
‰ People’s Expectation on 4G Mobile Communications
– High-data-rate transmission: up to 100Mbps and 1Gbps for macro and hot
spot areas
– High mobility
– A wide coverage area and seamless roaming among different systems
– 4G will be a mixture of different communication systems, such as cellular
systems, wireless LANs, personal communication systems, etc.
– Higher capacity and lower cost per bit
– Expected to be at least 10 times of that of 3G in capacity
– Wireless QoS control
‰ Features of 4G
– New mobile access scheme
– New spectrum for 4G with broader band, e.g., 100MHz
‰ Key 4G technologies
– LTE uses 4G technologies on 3G systems, key 4G technologies similar to
LTE: OFDM, Multiple Antenna

p. 49 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Layered Architecture of 4G
Digital audio/video broadcasting (DAB, DVB), Satellite comm.

Distribution
Layer

GSM, 3G, 4G-cellular

Cellular Layer

WLANs
Hot-Spot
Layer

Personal
Network
Layer Bluetooth, DECT
Handover
Fixed (Wired)
Layer
p. 50 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Summary

‰ HSDPA employs mainly four measures to increase the packet data rate:
new channel HS-DSCH; fast link adaptation; fast scheduler; fast
retransmission and combinations.
‰ HS-DSCH: comparison between HS-DSCH and DCH in WCDMA; new
function blocks needed to generate signals on HS-DSCH.
‰ Fast link adaptation: principle of AMC; advantages of fast link adaptation
‰ Fast retransmission: HARQ schemes employed in HSDPA; combining
schemes
‰ Advantages of fast scheduler
‰ HSUPA: only BPSK supported, no adaptive modulation and coding
‰ Reason for E-DPCCH in HSUPA supporting two TTI lengths, 10ms and
2ms.

p. 51 ELEC6040 Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU