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The history of film (known variously as film, motion pictures or movies) began in the
late 1880s with the invention of the first movie camera.

Motion pictures were initially exhibited as a carnival novelty and developed to one of
the most important tools of communication and entertainment, and mass media in the
20th century and into the 21st century. Most films before 1930 were silent. Motion
picture films have substantially affected the arts, technology, and politics.

The movie theatre was considered a cheaper, simpler way to provide entertainment to
the masses. Movies became the most popular visual art form of the late Victorian age. It
was simpler because of the fact that before the cinema people would have to travel long
distances to see major dioramas or amusement parks. With the advent of the cinema this
changed. During the first decade of the cinema's existence, inventors worked to improve
the machines for making and showing films.

Television (TV) is a telecommunication

medium for transmitting and receiving
moving images that can be monochrome
(black-and-white) or colored, with or
without accompanying sound.
"Television" may also refer specifically
to a television set, television
programming, or television transmission.

The etymology of the word has a mixed

Latin and Greek origin, meaning "far
sight": Greek tele (τῆλε), far, and Latin
visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to
view in the first person).

Commercially available since the late 1920s, the television set has become
commonplace in homes, businesses and institutions, particularly as a vehicle for
advertising, a source of entertainment, and news. Since the 1950s, television has been
the main medium for molding public opinion. Since the 1970s the availability of video
cassettes, laserdiscs, DVDs and now Blu-ray Discs, have resulted in the television set
frequently being used for viewing recorded as well as broadcast material. In recent years
Internet television has seen the rise of television available via the Internet.

Although other forms such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) are in use, the most
common usage of the medium is for broadcast television, which was modeled on the
existing radio broadcasting systems developed in the 1920s, and uses high-powered
radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the television signal to individual TV

The broadcast television system is typically disseminated via radio transmissions on

designated channels in the 54–890 MHz frequency band. Signals are now often
transmitted with stereo or surround sound in many countries. Until the 2000s broadcast
TV programs were generally transmitted as an analog television signal, but during the
decade several countries went almost exclusively digital.

A standard television set comprises multiple internal electronic circuits, including those
for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a
tuner is properly called a video monitor, rather than a television. A television system
may use different technical standards such as digital television (DTV) and high-
definition television (HDTV). Television systems are also used for surveillance,
industrial process control, and guiding of weapons, in places where direct observation is
difficult or dangerous. Some studies have found a link between infancy exposure to
television and ADHD.

A newspaper is a scheduled publication

containing news of current events,
informative articles, diverse features,
editorials, and advertising. It usually is
printed on relatively inexpensive, low-
grade paper such as newsprint. By 2007,
there were 6,580 daily newspapers in the
world selling 395 million copies a day.
The worldwide recession of 2008,
combined with the rapid growth of web-
based alternatives, caused a serious
decline in advertising and circulation, as
many papers closed or sharply
retrenched operations.

General-interest newspapers typically publish stories on local and national political

events and personalities, crime, business, entertainment, society and sports. Most
traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor
and columns that express the personal opinions of writers. The newspaper is typically
funded by paid subscriptions and advertising.

A wide variety of material has been

published in newspapers, including
editorial opinions, criticism, persuasion
and op-eds; obituaries; entertainment
features such as crosswords, sudoku and
horoscopes; weather news and forecasts;
advice, food and other columns; reviews
of radio, movies, television, plays and
restaurants; classified ads; display ads,
radio and television listings, inserts from
local merchants, editorial cartoons, gag
cartoons and comic strips.