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The Grolier International Dictionary

Capitalism – An economic system in which the means of production, distribution and exchange are
privately owned and operated for private profit. It’s the value added in every products made by the
workings class, who receive only small wages than the profits of the owners class (bourgeoisie) it is
called the surplus value.

Socialism –a political and economic theory advocating collective ownership of the means of production
and control of distribution. It is based on the belief that all, while contributing to the good of
community, are equally entitled to the care and protection which the community can provide

Democracy- a government by the people, usually through elected representatives a state so governed.

Communism – The owner ship of property or means of production, distribution and supply, by the
whole of a classless society with health shared on the principle of to each according to his needs, each

Liberalism- is critical of institutions, whether political or religious, which tend to restrict individual liberty
and places its faith in man’s goodness and rationality. This has often expressed itself in demands for
freedom of expression, equality of opportunity and universal education.

Conservatism- a political philosophy based on the maintenance of existing institutions and preferring
gradual change to abrupt change.

Fascism- Any political or social ideology of the extreme right which relies on a combination of pseudo-
religious attitudes, and the brutal use of force for getting and keeping power. (facismo)


Anarchism- the political theory and individual freedom should be absolute and that all government and
law is evil. Capitalism and private property would be abolished and be replaced by voluntary

Syndicalism- a political and economic theory advocating the use of general strikes and force by the
workers to enable them to overthrow parliamentary government and establish a dictatorship of the
proletariat, in which the means of production would be controlled by the trade unions.


The socialist movement was founded not by the workers, but the members of the middle class. Robert
Owen was one of the earliest socialist. Two other pioneers were Saint-Simon and Fourier. These men
were known as utopians because they dreamed of a perfect world in which employers would so co-
operate with one another. Unfortunately, co-operative communities established by the utopian socialist
failed. The ideal systems which they worked out on paper failed in practice.