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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter highlights the relevant information from various

sources on contraception methods used in family planning. That is,

how they work their benefits and their risks. By doing this, it is one

way of providing information on the objectives of the study.

Furthermore, the first objective, which is to explain the ethical

debate on contraception as means of family planning.

LITERATURE. ​The ​reviewed materials were taken from books,

newspapers, blog sites both foreign and local that the researchers

used to have significant foundation ideas regarding this study.

Chaudhuri(2004) said that,

“Family planning is essential for the welfare of the individual

family, and the population control for the socioeconomic

development of the nation. Family planning also means limitation of

pregnancy and family size. And it can be achieved by contraception


methods. Using any form of contraception significantly reduces a

woman’s chance of getting pregnant and either having an abortion

or giving to a child, she did not intend to have.”

He said that it will help to control the population growth in

the nation.

Carvino(2008) said that,

“In the less developed countries, unintended pregnancies are

largely the results of low rates of contraceptives use. About 200

million women worldwide have an unmet need for effective methods

of contraception. Worldwide, a third or more of all pregnancies are

unplanned, resulting in high rates of abortions that are often unsafe

when they occur in developing countries.”

He said that there are less developed countries that has low

rates of using contraceptives that’s why high rates of abortion are

often.
Paed(2005) said that,

“Oral contraceptives have been use for over 35 years and 65

million women are now regular users. When pills have been

manufactured to acceptable standards or stored properly and used

correctly, they were virtually hundred percent (100%) effective.

Another advantage of applying pills as a method of contraceptives is

that they can be stopped any time if the couple wants to have a

child.”

He states that oral contraceptives have been used for over

35 years and 65 million women are now regular users, and discuss

about the advantage of applying method of contraception can be

stopped.
RELEVANCE OF THE REVIEWED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

The studies shown above gives us further ideas and

information about the topic. It gave us detailed information about

family planning and contraceptives.

Chaudhuri(2004) gives us an idea that using family

planning can control limitation of pregnancy and family size.

Carvino(2008) ​his study informed us that in the less

developed country there are more unintended pregnancy and low

rates of contraceptives use.

Paed(2005) ​states that when pills have been stored properly

and used correctly, they are 100% effective.


CHAPTER 3

METHODS OF RESEARCH

The chapter that is about to be discussed is about the

analysis and survey conducted about Family planning. Family

Planning concludes different opinion, experiences, and knowledge of

other people. We conducted researches and received data about

Family Planning. Therefore throughout the chapter, we will explain

how the data are used, processed, and interpret through our

research method.

RESEARCH DESIGN
In the survey we created, our group used descriptive

research method. Descriptive research method described the facts

and information that exist about a topic, Family Planing. The survey

will provide answers to the questions: who, what, where, and how

it's associated with a particular research problem.

SUBJECT OF THE STUDY

The subject of the study are the students of Escuela

San Gabriel de Arcangel, 10th grade level, with the total of 25

students. The questionnaire will be equally distributed from grade

10,section magsaysay, garcia, quezon, quirino and laurel.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
The respondent of the survey were chosen because

of their unique behavior and action in school. In addition the

respondent were recommended by our teachers and schoolmates

due to there potential and the requirements of the research. Our

group believes that the chosen students have ability to answer the

questions in the survey with the help of there childhood experiences.

INSTRUMENTS USED

The questionnaire will be the major instrument used in this

study so that we are secure despondence to certain questions. The

questionnaire that was used in this study was designed to obtain

information on the effect of family planning on the education of

grade 10 students.
Open-minded questions will be use to give the respondents

the opportunity to give their responses and suggestions.

The questionnaire will prepare by the researcher was develop

by reading reference materials and related about the effects of

different psychological factors affecting their learning process.

1.RESEARCHER MADE TEST

The survey form is to determine the effects of family

planning in their education. It contained questions which determine

if their parents are practicing family planning and if the students

have enough knowledge about it. To inform the authorities and the

parents the importance of family planning in their children especially

in their education.
CONTSRUCTION OF THE INSTRUMENT

​The instrument used is made of group brain storming. The

ideas were gathered up that makes sure it can bring their inner

thoughts about family planning. The worksheet is composed of 3

multiple choice questions and 1 essay type question, we put 1 essay

type question so that the respondents will have the opportunity to

write their own thoughts and suggestions.

VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

The researchers gathered up their ideas and form a

questionnaire to continue the study of the family planning issue; it

was to see the responds of the students. It was submitted and


checked by the subject teacher for other suggestion , revision and

approval.

ADMINISTRATION AND RETREIVAL OF QUESTIONARIES

A letter of permission was given to the administration of

Escuela San Gabriel de Arcangel Foundation, Inc. prepared by the

researches distributed the questionnaires to the chosen students to

continue the stated study.


STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA

The informinformation and data gathered were tabulated

and processed manually and with the aid of computer to determine

the precise interpretation of the result conducted. Tables and graph

were made to organize,analyze and summarize for the data had

been collected

1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution

Frequency and percentage Frequency is the correspondent

on the data gathered with the use of questionnaires. Somehow,

researchers ensure to seek for the percentage to summarize the

results.
The statistical tools were used in analysis of data:

Percentage

The profile of the respondents, the percentage will be computed.

Formula​:
Where:

P=percentage

F=fequency

N=number of respondents

CHAPTER 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter engaged in the presentation, analysis and

interpretation of gathered numerical data via statistical,


mathematical or computational techniques. The data were gathered

and measured through the instruments and techniques. The

numerical data were presented in an organized manner following the

sequence of questions in the statement of the problem found in

CHAPTER I.

TABLE 1

RESPONDENTS AS TO GENDER

GENDER FREQUENCY %
MALE 8 32%

FEMALE 17 68%

TOTAL 25 100%

Table 1 s​ how the profile of the respondents regards to their

gender. The twenty-five (25) respondents are composed of eight

males and seventeen females. Which it shows that there are many

females having 68% than to males that are only 32%.

TABLE 2

AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS


AGE FEMALE MALE TOTAL %

15 8 6 14 56%

16 9 2 11 44%

TOTAL 17 8 25 100%

The ​Table 2 s​ hows the age of each respondents frequencies. It is

obvious that age 15 have the most number of frequencies having

56% while age 16 have 44%.

TABLE 3

RESPONDENTS’ NO. OF SIBLINGS


NO.OF FEMALE MALE TOTAL %
SIBLINGS

0-2 11 5 16 64%

3-5 5 2 7 28%

6-8 1 1 2 8%

TOTAL 17 8 25 100%

The ​Table 3 s​ hows the no. of siblings of the respondents. It is


obvious that the respondents having 0-2 siblings have the most
number of frequencies having 64% while respondents having 3-5
siblings have 28% and respondents having 6-8 siblings have only
8%.

TABLE 4

PARENTS’ MONTHLY INCOME


MONTHLY 0-2 % 3-5 % 6-8 %
INCOME

2-5k 2 12.5% 1 14.29% 1 50%

6-10K 3 18.75% 3 42.86% 1 50%

11-above 11 68.75% 3 42.86% 0 0

TOTAL 16 100% 7 100% 2 100%

The ​Table 4 s​ hows the parents’ monthly income of the respondents


according to the number of siblings.

TABLE 5

PARENTS PRACTICING FAMILY PLANNING

YES 0-2 % 3-5 % 6-8 %


OR NO

YES 10 62.5% 5 71.43% 1 50%

NO 6 37.5% 2 28.57% 1 50%

TOTAL 16 100% 7 100% 2 100%

TABLE 6
PARENTS’ EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

EDUCATIONAL MOTHER % FATHER %


ATTAINMENT

COLLEGE 11 44% 11 44%


GRADUATE

UNDERGRADUATE 4 16% 3 12%

VOCATIONAL 0 0 1 4%
GRADUATE

HIGHSCHOOL 7 28% 9 36%

ELEMENTARY 1 4% 0 0

NOT SPECEFIED 2 8% 1 4%

TOTAL 25 100% 25 100%

TABLE 7
PARENT’S OCCUPATION

OCCUPATION 0-2 % 3-5 % 6-8 %

WITH 4 25% 1 14.29% 1 50%


JOB(BOTH)

WITHOUT 1 6.25% 0 0 0 0
JOB(BOTH)

WITH 11 68.75% 6 85.71% 1 50%


JOB(ONE)

TOTAL 16 100% 7 100% 2 100%

TABLE 8.1

WHAT IS FAMILY PLANNING?

CHOICES FEMALE % MALE %

A 9 52.94% 5 62.5%

B 1 5.89% 0 0

C 7 41.18% 3 37.5%

TOTAL 17 100% 8 100%

TABLE 8.2
WHAT IS THE BEST METHOD IN PTRACTICING FAMILY
PLANNNING?

CHOICES FEMALE % MALE %

A 16 94.12% 4 50%

B 1 5.89% 4 50%

TOTAL 17 100% 8 100%

TABLE 8.3

WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF FAMILY PLANNING ESPECIALLY


ON THEIR CHILD’S EDUCATION?

CHOICES FEMALE % MALE %

A 9 52.94% 4 50%

B 0 0 0 0

C 8 47.06% 4 50%

TOTAL 17 100% 8 100%

TABLE 8.4
WHAT ADVICE WOULD YOU GIVE TO YOUR FELLOW
STUDENTS?

ADVICES FEMALE % MALE %

A 4 23.53% 3 37.5%

B 6 35.29% 1 12.5

C 6 35.29% 2 25%

D 1 5.88% 2 25%

TOTAL 17 100% 8 100%

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Based on the gathered data, the researchers came up with the


following findings:

1. Profile of the respondents as to:

1.1 Gender

​Most of the respondents ​are female while male is


the least.

1.2 Age

​The majority of respondents were age 15 years


old.
1.3 Respondents’ no. of siblings