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Journal Homepage: www.ije.ir

R. Kumar B.*, M. K. Saranprabhu

PAPER INFO A B S T R A C T

Paper history: In the current study, twin wind blades are designed, fabricated and the effect of various gap ratio (g*)

Received 07 May 2017 at various angle of attacks (α) on a next to each other twin wind blades are examined in an open-

Received in revised form 30 January 2018 channel wind tunnel. Aerodynamic forces and moments are determined by using three-constraint force

Accepted 08 March 2018 balancer. For gap ratio of zero, the aerodynamic attributes are like those of a solitary wind blade edge.

As g* increases, these two wind blades actuate the vertical wake to stage vortex shedding modes. With

Keywords: further increment in g*, the wake stream pattern was like those behind a solitary wind blade. For a

Rotor solitary wind blade, the maximum lift is found to be at α = 30. The pitching moment increases with α.

Flow Characterization The impact of upper aerofoil blade on the lower one diminished as g* increases.

Aerodynamic Performance

CFD Investigation doi: 10.5829/ije.2018.31.05b.18

NOMENCLATURE

g* Gap ratio 𝐶𝑃 Specific heat capacity

Angle of attack (AoA) 𝐶𝑙 Coefficient of lift

A.R Aspect Ratio μ Dynamic viscosity

V Velocity ρ Density

each other significantly affects the machine

In this work, flow study is carried out on twin wind performance. Gap ratio is defined as the ratio between

blades in a low subsonic wind tunnel. The flow velocity the maximum thickness to the chord length of airfoil

is restricted to maximum 58 m/s. This study is a novel profile. The single blade demonstrated a critical

approach to evaluate the effects of various parameters association with the boundary layer on the suction side

on the design and performance of twin wind turbine [1-3]. These aerodynamic phenomena include stream

blades. The blades of a rotor were headed to turn when diversion, reattachment, and vortex arrangements. Also,

fluid flows through the rotor. A bluff body creates a surface flow behavior significantly affects wake vortex

pressure difference around the rotor. The internal stream shedding coming about because of the shear

tube in gas turbines, blowers, and air compressors was unsteadiness wave in the boundary layer [4]. Studies on

used to create the pressure difference. In day to day surface stream and streamlined execution have

applications, fans, wind turbines, and water turbines demonstrated a laminar boundary layer shaped close to

utilize the thrust incited from the pressure distribution. the stagnation point on a wind blade leading edge. As

the stream moves downward, the stream isolates at the

*Corresponding Author Email: ravikumar@mech.sastra.edu (R. minimum pressure point. Behind the detachment point,

Kumar B.) the shear layer enters into a turbulent stream.

Please cite this article as: R. Kumar B., M. K. Saranprabhu, Experimental Study on Flow Characteristics Around Twin Wind Blades,

International Journal of Engineering (IJE), IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 5, (May 2018) 820-825

821 R. Kumar B. and M. K. Saranprabhu / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 5, (May 2018) 820-825

Consequently, the isolated stream re-attaches to the wing as well as on the aircraft. Abbishek et.al [9]

wind-blade edge surface. Between the reattached point carried out a comprehensive structural and flow

and wind blade trailing edge, the surface stream framed analyses using Ansys Fluent and structural workbenches

a turbulent boundary layer. and presented a detailed airfoil design and fabrication

In studies on multi-blade designs, numerous analysts processes.

have numerically presented stream structures and Ashory et al. [10] carried out a computational fluid

streamlined execution. Dong and Lu [5] utilized three dynamic study on turbine blades and have shown that

fish-like profiles to numerically study the impact of blade angles and gap ratio have a significant effect on

crevice proportion on streamlined execution. They the power production capacity of a turbine.

found that the gap ratios affected the arrangement of in- Rajabi et al. [11] represented a comprehensive

stage and hostile to stage vortex regions. At low crevice computational fluid dynamic design and analysis over

proportions, the upper and lower vortex arrangements an axial fan and have shown that the blade angles and

were close and after that pressed to frame an anti-phase gap ratio have significant effects on the pressure

vortex street. Conversely, the high crevice proportion distribution around fans and also affects on the

brought on an in-phase vortex street. Moreover, the drag efficiency of the device. Numerous relevant studies on

coefficient diminished with gap ratio. Hansen and flow analysis using computational fluid dynamics

Madsen [6] utilized the blade element momentum approach and experimental methods are reported in the

method to decide the blade profiles and process literature [12-15].

streamlined coefficients. Sieverding et al. [6] used a

supersonic wind tunnel to concentrate the surface-

pressure dispersion on one next to the other blades. 2.METHODOLOGY

They found the non-uniform pressure dissemination

close to the blade trailing edge at subsonic rates. NACA 0012 airfoil has been chosen for blade design.

Moreover, the peak negative pressure was found to exist We selected four different gap ratios between the two

at the trailing edge. On the suction side, the vortex wind blades and three different angles of attack for

framed close to the trailing edge was impacted by the carrying out the wind tunnel experiment. Blades were

nearby blade. Uzol et al. [7] concentrated a transient designed as per the given specifications. Twin blade

stream field by utilizing particle picture velocimetry and models for doing the experimental analysis in the open

a water tunnel. They found that the free-stream velocity channel wind tunnel were fabricated and the analysis

changed by around 13% because of the transverse speed had been carried out. Finally, results are interpreted.

behind the blades. The gap ratio between the blades

significantly affects blade efficiency. A three-force

balancer was utilized to quantify the aerodynamic 3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

loadings. Saranprabhu et al. [8] studied the airflow

interactions and aerodynamic heating on a supersonic Figure 1 shows the wind tunnel and experimental setup

aircraft and they found that airfoil shapes have utilized as a part of this study.

significant effects on the aerodynamic efficiency of the

R. Kumar B. and M. K. Saranprabhu / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 5, (May 2018) 820-825 822

maximum flow velocity of 60 m/s. Its test section size is 0.01

300×300×1500 mm (Figure 2). This open-circle wind

tunnel was operated steadily in the flow speed in the 0.008

range of 1.64 m/s –28.28 m/s. This wind tunnel included 0.006

seven sections: noise separating area, steady segment 0.004

Cl

(settling chamber), nozzle, test segment, vibration 0.002

absorber, development segment (diffuser), and blower

fan. The noise shifting segment included two sections: 0

-0.5-0.002 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

(1) an aluminum-made honeycomb for disposing of

transverse stream fluctuations, and (2) a three-layer -0.004 Gap ratio g*

metal mesh for separating the longitudinal stream noise.

A NACA 00122 [12] aerofoil was utilized to carry out Figure 3. Cl variation with gap ratio at 0º angle of attack

flow analysis. The aerofoil blades were fabricated using

eucalyptus tree wood. The chord length (C) and wind

blade span (S) were 6 cm and 18 cm, respectively. The lift appears to get increase at higher gap ratio

Along these lines, the aspect ratio was 3. The wind between the blades. It shows complete stalling of the

blade surface was cleaned for reducing the surface flow at and above a gap ratio of 2.5 due to a larger area

roughness. of the separated flow on the top surface of the airfoil

The air properties are taken as follows, blades.

Velocity: 2 m/s Figure 4 shows the variation of the coefficient of lift

Density: 1.225 𝐾𝑔⁄𝑚3 with gap ratio at 15-degree angles of attack. At an angle

𝐶𝑃 : 1006.43 of attack 15 degrees and that of increment in gap ratio,

Thermal Conductivity : 0.0242 𝑤 ⁄𝑚 − 𝐾 the Cl tends to increase with angles of attack up to 0.5

Dynamic Viscosity :1.7894𝑒 − 05 𝐾𝑔⁄𝑚 − 𝑠 gap ratio and afterward, the Cl starts decreasing due

stalling of the airfoils. The Cl attains its maximum value

of 0.12 at a gap ratio of 0.5. The Cl starts decreasing

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION because of the development of vortices at high gap ratio.

Figure 5 shows the variation of the coefficient of lift

The coefficient of lift Cl and coefficient of drag Cd are with gap ratio at 30-degree angles of attack. At an angle

the most critical parameters that decide the performance of attack of 30° and that of increment in gap ratio, the Cl

of a rotor or any vehicle moving through the fluids. At increases up to a gap ratio of and afterward, the Cl

whatever point fluid streams across the gas turbine, the shows decrement due to flow separation on the top

crevice proportion between the blades and the angle of surface of blades. The Cl achieves the maximum value

attack plays an important role. of 0.13 at a gap ratio of 1. Based on the above

Figure 3 shows the variation of the coefficient of lift observations it was identified that gap ratio of 1 is the

with gap ratio at zero degree angles of attack. At an optimum gap ratio which gives maximum lift and hence

angle of attack 0 degrees and the gap ratio of 0, these better aerodynamic efficiency.

twin blades can be seen as a solitary body blade and the Figure 6 shows the variation of the coefficient of

flow around a twin wind blade is identical to that of drag with gap ratio at zero degree angles of attack.

flow around a solitary wind blade.

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

Cl

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Gap ratio g*

Figure 2. Subsonic wind tunnel test section Figure 4. Cl variation with gap ratio at a 15º angle of attack

823 R. Kumar B. and M. K. Saranprabhu / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 5, (May 2018) 820-825

0.14 which is found to be the least value.

0.12 Figure 8 shows the variation of the coefficient of

0.1 drag with gap ratio at 30-degree angles of attack. The Cd

0.08 at an angle of attack 30 degree and at different gap

Cl

0.04

It is found that the Cd has the least value at 0 gap ratio.

0.02

The experimental results for the variation of

0

-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

coefficient of lift at different angles of attack and gap

Gap Ratio g* ratios are shown in Table 1. It is clearly visible that the

Figure 5. Cl variation with gap ratio at a 30º angle of attack

coefficient of lift Cl increases as the angle of attack and

the gap ratio increases. The intake air velocity in the

wind tunnel was maintained at 2 m/s.

The maximum lift seemed to be occurring at an a 30º

angle of attack and at gap ratio =1.

0.008

Table 2 shows the experimental results for the

0.007

variation of coefficient of drag at different angles of

0.006

attack and gap ratios.

0.005

Cd

0.004

0.003

0.002 0.09

0.08

0.001 0.07

0 0.06

-0.5 0 10.5 1.5 2 2.5 0.05

Cd

Figure 6. Cd variation with gap ratio at 0º angle of attack 0.03

0.02

0.01

0

At the point when stream attaches over twin-sided -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

blades the Cd appears to show increasing trend and

Gap Ratio g*

reaches its maximum value of 0.007 at 0 gap ratio,

Figure 8. Cd variation with gap ratio at a 30º angle of attack

which is because of the development of vortices at the

trailing edge of the blade surfaces. The vortices

arrangements are the main reason for the production of

the drag and it shows that the drag reduces as the TABLE 1. Cl at different AoA & gap ratio

crevice proportion increments. Gap Cl

Figure 7 shows the variation of the coefficient of Ratio = 0º = 15º = 30º

drag with gap ratio at 15-degree angles of attack. The Cd

0 -0.0025678 0.04835 0.04274

achieves its maximum value of 0.08 near approximately

a gap ratio of 0.7 and it decreases as the gap ratio 0.05 0.00649784 0.08309 0.06021

increases. 0.5 0.00838782 0.13043 0.1151

1 0.00946381 0.12263 0.13908

0.035

0.03 TABLE 2. Cd at different AoA & gap ratio

0.025 Cd

Gap

0.02 Ratio = 0º = 15º = 30º

Cd

0.015

0.01 0 0.00367 0.01694 0.03388

0.005 0.05 0.00773 0.03087 0.05149

0 0.5 0.00392 0.04479 0.07511

-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

1 0.00346 0.03938 0.08672

Gap Ratio g*

2 0.00312 0.03376 0.07363

Figure 7. Cd variation with gap ratio at a 15º angle of attack

R. Kumar B. and M. K. Saranprabhu / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 5, (May 2018) 820-825 824

From Table 2, it is clearly visible that coefficient of 2. Lissaman, P., "Low-reynolds-number airfoils", Annual Review

of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 15, No. 1, (1983), 223-239.

drag has its least value at a gap ratio of 0 at various

angles of attack. 3. Goldstein, R., Flow visualization by direct injection, in Fluid

mechanics measurements, second edition. 2017, Routledge.391-

474.

4. Crabtree, L., "Effects of leading-edge separation on thin wings

4. CONCLUSION in two-dimensional incompressible flow", Journal of the

Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 8, (1957), 597-604.

The present work reported an experimental investigation 5. Dong, G.-J. and Lu, X.-Y., "Characteristics of flow over

on flow characteristics on twin wind blades. The flow traveling wavy foils in a side-by-side arrangement", Physics of

Fluids, Vol. 19, No. 5, (2007), 057107.

attributes of one blade next to the other twin wind blade

6. Hansen, M.O. and Madsen, H.A., "Review paper on wind

demonstrate the comparative flow properties of single

turbine aerodynamics", Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol.

wind blade. As gap ratio g* increases, the association 133, No. 11, (2011).

amongst upper and lower wind blades instigates vertical 7. Sieverding, C.H., Richard, H. and Desse, J.-M., "Turbine blade

wake, crevice stream and hostile to stage vortex trailing edge flow characteristics at high subsonic outlet mach

shedding modes. Moreover, the wake stream behind one number", Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 125, No. 2, (2003),

next to the other twin wind blade is like those behind 298-309.

single twist blade as g* increments to the particular 8. Saranprabhu, M., Tirumalaisamudram, T., Kumar, B.R. and

Sreehari, V., "Aero-thermodynamic analysis of a supersonic

value. For one next to the other twin wind blades, the aircraft", Journal of advanced research and dynamical control

streamline pattern of the flow on the upper wind blade special issue 11, (2017),120-127.

was like those on single wind blade. The lift, drag on 9. Abbishek, R., Kumar, B.R. and Subramanian, H.S., "Fatigue

the lower wind blade diminished altogether because of analysis and design optimization of aircraft’s central fuselage",

the pressure distribution of upper wind blade. The in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering,

IOP Publishing. Vol. 225, (2017), 012031.

impact of upper twist blade on the lower wind blade

perished as gap ratio g* increases. For crevice 10. Ashory, M., Talebi, F. and Ghadikolaei, H.R., "A computational

study about the effect of turbines pitched blade attack angle on

proportion of zero, the stream qualities were like those the power consumption of a stirred tank", International Journal

of a solitary wind blade. As gap ratio increases, these of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 31, No. 1, (2017),

two wind blades actuate wake structures, i.e., vortices 65-70.

behind the blades. The maximum lift coefficient occurs 11. Rajabi, N., Rafee, R. and Frazam-Alipour, S., "Effect of blade

at = 30º and the least value of drag coefficient is found design parameters on air flow through an axial fan",

International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics,

to be 0.025. Vol. 30, No. 10, (2017), 1583.

The current experimental study could be used to 12. Uzol, O., Chow, Y.-C., Katz, J. and Meneveau, C.,

design more streamlines airfoil shaped wind blades for "Experimental investigation of unsteady flow field within a two

effective utilization of energy. Future study would focus stage axial turbomachine using particle image velocimetry", in

on the experimental and theoretical analysis of wind ASME Turbo Expo 2002: Power for Land, Sea, and Air,

American Society of Mechanical Engineers., (2002), 1201-1214.

turbine under variable air loading and with side wind

13. Yen, S.C. and Liu, J.H., "Wake flow behind two side-by-side

effects. square cylinders", International Journal of Heat and Fluid

Flow, Vol. 32, No. 1, (2011), 41-51.

14. Nejad, A.Z., Rad, M. and Khayat, M., "Numerical and

experimental investigations for design of a high performance

5. REFERENCES micro-hydro-kinetic turbine", International Journal of

Engineering-Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 30, No. 5,

1. Batill, S.M. and Mueller, T.J., "Visualization of transition in the (2017), 785.

flow over an airfoil using the smoke-wire technique", American 15. Amanifard, N., "Stall vortex shedding over a compressor

Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Vol. 19, cascade (research note)", International Journal of

No. 3, (1981), 340-345. Engineering-Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 18, No. 1, (2004),

29-36.

825 R. Kumar B. and M. K. Saranprabhu / IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 5, (May 2018) 820-825

R. Kumar B., M. K. Saranprabhu

Paper history: در مطالعه حاضر ،تیغه های دوقلو بادی طراحی و ساخته شده اند و اثر نسبت فاصله گشتاور ( )* gدر زاویه های مختلف

Received 07 May 2017

Received in revised form 30 January 2018 حمالت ( ) αدر کنار یکدیگر تیغه های دوقلوی باد در یک تونل باد باز کانونی بررسی می شود .نیروها و ممانت آیرودینامیکی با

Accepted 08 March 2018

استفاده از سه برابر کننده تعادل نیروی محدود تعیین می شود .برای نسبت شکاف صفر ،مشخصه های آیرودینامیک مانند لبه ی

Keywords:

تیغه ی انفرادی است .همانطور که * gافزایش می یابد ،این دو تیغه باله به سمت عمودی حرکت می کنند تا حالت های انفجار

Rotor گردابه را کنترل کنند .با افزایش بیشتر در ،* gالگوی جریان پی در پی همانند کسانی بود که پشت یک تیغه ی هوای انفرادی

Flow Characterization

Aerodynamic Performance بودند .برای یک تیغه ی هوای انفرادی ،حداکثر لیفت در α = 30دیده می شود .لحظه ی پچینگ با αافزایش می یابد .تاثیر تیپ

CFD Investigation

باالیی هواپیما بر روی پایین تر به عنوان * gافزایش می یابد.

doi: 10.5829/ije.2018.31.05b.18

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