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S Y 2 0 0 0 - 2 0 0 1 V o l . 20 N o . 6

C O N T E N T S
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE REDEFINES MACHINES
The ability to invent intelligent machines has long intrigued
Dear Bato Balani Editor:
humans. With the advancement of computer technology,
the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality.
I’m Sharon L. Manalungsung,
a senior student of Holy Family
Academy in Angeles City.
FROM ROBOCOP TO ROBODOG
I would like to express my warmest
Since time immemorial, humans have been trying to thanks to the staff of Bato Balani
invent the perfect robot; however, for the meantime magazine for their continued support
let’s meet our newest best friend–the robodog.
to all students.
COMPUTER VS. HUMAN BRAIN Thank you for letting us
Computers have proven themselves indispensable students gain more knowledge,
because of their reliable performance, but will they especially in the field of science.
finally outsmart the human brain?

LIQUID CRYSTAL TECHNOLOGY

The “magic” behind LCDs is almost everywhere–


from celfones to calculators and watches to other
important equipment.

R E G U L A R F E AT U R E S BOARD OF ADVISERS
Violeta Arciaga, Jaime F. Bucoy,
3 Science & Technology News Jose C. Calderon, Victoria V. Cervantes,

5 Filipino Scientists and Inventors Juanita M. Cruz, Belen P. Dayauon


CONSULTANT
Medical Facts and Fallacies
Merle C. Tan, Ph.D.
9 Livelihood Technology / I’d Like to Know
DIWA OFFICERS EDITORIAL BOARD
10 Cyber World Saturnino G. Belen Jr. President Lourdes F. Lozano Executive Editor
14 Earth Care Amada J. Javellana PsycheR.MenodozaManaging Editor
Executive Vice President Alfie “eLf” V. Mella Magazine Editor
16 Investigatory Projects
Enrique A. Caballero, Virgie Naigan Art Director
19 Pseudoscience Reynaldo M. de la Cruz, Jose Valeriano P. Linay Cover Design

23 More Activities to Do William S. Fernando, Jose Valeriano P. Linay LayOut Design


Jose Maria T. Policarpio, Elma L. Ropeta, Silvano C. Santiago Illustrator
24 Mind Games
Lourdes F. Lozano Vice Presidents

for Science and Technology is published bimonthly by Diwa Scholastic Press, Inc. Bato Balani is one of Diwa’s Scholastic Enhancement Materials (SEMO). The SEMO
R R
BATO BALANIO R

trademark refers to a new genre of scholastic publication, including a selection of premium-quality magazines. Copyright 2000. Articles in this publication may be reprinted provided due acknowledgment
is given. All communications should be addressed to THE EDITOR, G/F Star Centrum, Gil Puyat Ave., Makati City, Philippines, Telephone numbers: 843-4761 to 66.

2 SENIOR
Have a Toast!
Water on Mars NASA’s Associate Administrator for Space
Science. “If life ever did develop there, and
if it survives to the present time, then these

T
here may be current landforms would be great places to look.”
sources of liquid water Finally, that martian lifeforms had
at or near the surface indeed existed in the past or could just be in
of the red planet. This their early stage of evolution can now be
was suggested by the considered as not mere conjecture. “Relative
imaging scientists to the rest of the martian surface, the gullies
studying the appear to be extremely young,” said Dr.
photographs generated from the Mars Global Michael Malin, principal investigator for the
Surveyor spacecraft. The latest images Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global
show evidences of presence of water—the Surveyor spacecraft at Malin Space Science
size of a car—that are comparable to features Systems (MSSS) in San Diego, California.
left by flash floods on Earth. “They could be a few million years old, but
“The presence of liquid water on we cannot rule out that some of them [water
Mars has profound implications for the features] are so recent as to have formed
question of life not only in the past, but yesterday.”
perhaps even today,” said Dr. Ed Weiler, Source: http://www.nasa.gov/today

Ugly Phenomena Look


Oddly Beautiful from Space
Hurricanes, typhoons, wildfires, and tsunamis are just some of
the natural phenomena that do not leave without causing destruction
to lives and properties; a reason why people all over the world view
them as ugly spectacles. However, scientists from NASA consider
such phenomena as beautiful sights to see. NASA’s Sea-viewing Wide
Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying on the OrbView-2 satellite
has captured images of two destructive events on Earth. Thick plumes
of smoke from forest wildfires in the western United States looked
like weaves of cotton. The same day SeaWiFS also captured an image
of Typhoon Jelawat, with top steady winds of 115 mph. The typhoon
was moving west toward the Ryukyu Islands of Japan when it was
photographed. On top view Typhoon Jelawat looked as if the surface
of a luscious chocolate marble milkshake.
Source: http://www.nasa.gov/today
http://www.msss.com

SENIOR 3
Small Dinosaurs
A
recent discovery made by an had roamed the Earth millions of years ago.
international team of They varied in size from the largest
paleontologists (scientists that sauropods to the smallest chicken-sized
deal with the study of fossils of Compsognathus.
extinct animals, plants, and other living
Digging in Madagascar, the team
things) again emphasized that dinosaurs
unearthed fossilized jaws believed to be
were not necessarily gigantic animals that
230 million years old. They were possibly
the oldest dinosaur bones ever found. The
latest find have not yet been fully analyzed,
Chicago’s Field Museum says these newly
but the bones appear to belong to early
discovered dinosaurs were small. They were
prosauropods, small herbivores that
about the size of a kangaroo and probably
are most likely the ancestors of
walked about on four legs and stood up on
the giant Apatosaurus (once
two legs to feed.
called Brontosaurus).
John Flynn of Source: Time magazine

Searching for Life


in Space
S
cientists have just discovered a the sugar molecule in a cloud from which
simple sugar molecule, new stars are forming means it is highly
glycoaldehyde, in a giant gas and possible that life is formed in such clouds
dust cloud near the center of the even before planets, including Earth, develop
Milky Way Galaxy. The discovery was made around the Sun.
using the radio telescope of the National
The observations were studied by a
Science Foundation on Kitt Peak, Arizona.
group of scientists headed by Jan M. Hollis
Sugar molecules are a known of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
chemical precursor to life. They allow certain in Greenbelt, Maryland. After thorough
forms of life to exist entirely without water. analysis, the group submitted the results to
Some primitive forms of microorganisms the Astrophysical Journal Letters.
are said to have evolved from strains of
Sources: http://www.nasa.gov/today
sugar molecules. Therefore, the presence of
Nature Biotechnology

4 SENIOR
DR. FRANCISCO O. SANTOS
Food and Nutrition Specialist

S
carcity of food comprehensive investigations and publishing notable
has been a articles both here and abroad. His leading researches
major problem dealt with studies on the nutritive values and chemical
not only in our composition of Filipino food and the amount of vitamins
country but in and nutritional contents typical of a Filipino diet. He also
other developing countries formulated a nutrition plan for various families of labor
as well. The lack of this communities in the country, and he investigated on the
basic commodity has probable negative effects of a one-sided diet. He has
brought numerous proven that sweet potatoes have nutritional value and
problems such as malnutrition. Continuous studies anti-beri-beri contents. He also pioneered the promotion
and experiments aimed at solving this major of home gardening. Dr. Santos emphasized that this
problem is being conducted in all parts of the practice is not only a means of livelihood but also the
world. source of essential vitamins and minerals.
Dr. Francisco Santos has devoted his time, talent
and energy to food and nutrition research by conducting

FALLACY: Too much thinking causes baldness.


FACT:“Grass don’t grow on busy follicle. The hair follicle is a bulb-like vase
streets,” is the common answer of bald men which supplies nutrients to the hair. When a
when teased about their shiny heads. Despite strand of hair becomes mature - about
the belief that baldness may result from too shoulder length or longer- its follicle
much thinking, the truth is that bald persons becomes inactive, thus the strand of hair is
can only blame their ancestors. This shed. The average head loses about 100 hairs
condition is hereditary, that is, inherited from a day. Some drugs and skin diseases like
our ancestors. Chances are, bald persons ringworms may cause excessive hair loss,
have relatives who also have problems with but hair growth resumes when these
their hair. Baldness may start as early as the problems are cured.
teenage period, but it usually begins in the
mid-twenties. Dr. King C. Dulay

The average scalp produces some St. Luke Medical Center


100,000 hairs, each sprouting from a

SENIOR 5
PHYSICS

ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE
REDEFINES
MACHINES
by Raymond A. Oliveros

6 SENIOR
A
rtificial Intelligence (AI) is the area of feedback principle, and was capable of solving greater
computer science focusing on creating extent of common sense problems. While more
machines that can exhibit behavior that programs were being produced, McCarthy came up with
humans consider intelligent. The ability to a major breakthrough in AI history – the LISP (List
create intelligent machines has intrigued Processing) language adopted as the language of choice
humans since ancient times, and today among most AI developers.
with the advent of the computer and 50 years of research The following years showed a multitude of
into AI programming techniques, the dream of smart programs like SHRDLU that could solve spatial and logic
machines is becoming a reality. Researchers are problems; STUDENT that could solve algebra story
creating systems which can mimic human thought, problems; and SIR that could understand simple English
understand speech, beat the best human chess player, sentences. The result of these programs was a
and countless other feats never before possible. refinement in language comprehension and logic.
Although the computer provided the technology In the 70’s, the expert system that can predict
necessary for AI, it was not until the early 1950’s that the probability of a solution under set conditions emerged.
the link between human intelligence and machines was Because of the large storage capacity of computers at
really observed. It was Norbert Wiener who theorized the time, expert systems had the potential to interpret
that all intelligent behaviors was the result of feedback statistics, and to formulate rules. Another development
mechanism. Mechanisms that could possibly be during this time was the PROLOGUE language.
simulated by machines. The most familiar example of In the quest to create intelligent machines, the
feedback theory is the thermostat. It controls the field of Artificial Intelligence has split into several different
temperature of an environment by gathering the actual approaches based on the opinions about the most
temperature of the house, comparing it to the desired promising methods and theories. These rivaling theories
temperature, and responding by turning the heat up or have lead researchers in one of two basic approaches -
down. This discovery influenced much of early bottom-up and top-down.
development of AI. Bottom-up theorists believe the best way to
In late 1955, Newell and Simon developed The achieve artificial intelligence is to build electronic replicas
Logic Theorist that was considered by many to be the of the human brain’s complex network of neurons, while
first AI program. The program, representing each problem the top-down approach attempts to mimic the brain’s
as a tree model, would attempt to solve it by selecting behavior with computer programs.
the branch that would most likely result in the correct It is the aim of AI researchers who prefer this
conclusion. The impact of the logic theorist on both the bottom-up approach to construct electronic circuits that
public and the field of AI had made it a crucial stepping act, as neurons like in the human brain. Although much
stone in developing the AI field. of the working of the brain remains unknown, the
In 1956, John McCarthy, who was regarded as complex network of neurons is what gives humans
the father of AI, organized a conference to draw the intelligent characteristics. By itself, a neuron is not
talent and expertise of other people interested in machine intelligent, but when grouped together, neurons are able
intelligence for a month of brainstorming. He invited them to pass electrical signals through networks.
to Vermont for “The Dartmouth summer research project Warren McCulloch after completing medical
on artificial intelligence.” From that point on, because of school at Yale, along with Walter Pitts a mathematician
McCarthy, the field was known as Artificial intelligence. proposed a hypothesis to explain the fundamentals of
Although the field was still undefined, ideas how neural networks made the brain works. Based on
formed at the conference were reexamined, and built experiments with neurons, McCulloch and Pitts showed
upon. AI research centers were established, and new that neurons might be considered devices for processing
challenges were faced. They placed further research on binary numbers. An important back of mathematic logic,
creating systems that could efficiently solve problems, binary numbers (represented as 1’s and 0’s or true and
by limiting the search, such as the Logic Theorist, and false) were also the basis of the electronic computer.
systems that could learn. This link is the basis of computer-simulated neural
In 1957, the General Problem Solver (GPS) networks, also known as parallel computing.
program was developed. It was an extension of Wiener’s McCulloch and Pitts, using Boole’s principles,

SENIOR 7
PHYSICS

also wrote a paper on neural network theory. The thesis Dyess also warns that we need to be prepared
dealt with how the networks of connected neurons could for the worst of AI. “Something as revolutionary as AI is
perform logical operations. It also stated that, one the sure to have many kinks to work out. There is always
level of a single neuron, the release or failure to release that fear that if AI is learning based, will machines learn
an impulse was the basis by which the brain makes that being rich and successful is a good thing, then
true / false decisions. Using the idea of feedback theory, wage war against economic powers and famous people?
they described the loop that existed between the sense- There are so many things that can go wrong with a new
brain-muscles, and likewise concluded that memory system so we must be as prepared as we can be for
could be defined as the signals in a closed loop of this new technology.”
neurons. Their contributions were important to AI because However, even though the fear of the machines
they showed how the firing of signals between connected are there, their capabilities are infinite. Whatever we
neurons could cause the brains to make decisions. teach AI, they will suggest in the future if a positive
McCulloch and Pitt’s theory is the basis of the artificial outcome arrives from it. AI is like children that need to
neural network theory. be taught to be kind, well mannered, and intelligent. If
Theorists of the top-down approach on the other they are to make important decisions, they should be
hand are developing the expert system. This expert wise. We as citizens need to make sure AI programmers
system had the potential to interpret statistics, in order are keeping things on the level. We should be sure
to formulate rules. An expert system works much like a they are doing the job correctly, so that no future
detective solves a mystery. Using the information, and accidents occur.
logic or rules, an expert system can solve the problem.
Moreover, a computer system can be trained
quickly, has virtually no operating cost, never forgets
what it learns, never calls in sick, retires, or goes on
vacation. Beyond those, intelligent computers can
consider a large amount of information that may not be
considered by humans.
People have been studying this issue of AI
application for quite some time now and know all the
terms and facts. But what they are really trying find out
is what can we do to get our hands on some AI today. 1. What is the significance of John McCarthy
How can we as individuals use our own technology? being the father of Artificial Intelligence?
According to Adam Dyess, we should be 2. How is AI being applied nowadays?
prepared for a change. Our conservative ways stand in
the way of progress. “AI is a new step that is very helpful
to the society. Machines can do jobs that require detailed
instructions followed and mental alertness. AI with its
learning capabilities can accomplish those tasks but
only if the conservative people are ready to change and
allow this to be a possibility. It makes us think about feedback - the transfer of part of the output
how early man finally accepted the wheel as a good back to the input, as of electricity or of
invention, not something taking away from its heritage information
or tradition,” Dyess said.
People must also be prepared to learn about
the capabilities of AI. Dyess added, “The more use we
get out of the machines the less work is required by us.
References:
In turn less injuries and stress to human beings. Human
1. Artificial Intelligence Will Evolve by Mick Dobra
beings are a species that learn by trying, and we must 2. Artificial Intelligence Web Site by Tim Dunn, Adam Dyess and Bill
be prepared to give AI a chance seeing AI as a blessing, Snitzer
not an inhibition.” Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99

8 SENIOR
Why do we sneeze when Sender:
Joana V. Habal

we look at the sun? Colegio de Sta. Isabel


Naga City

A sneeze is usually brought about by an irritant in the nasal passages.


The irritant may be dust, pepper, mucus, or any kind of pollen to which a
person may be allergic. The body reacts involuntarily, by forcing air from the
nose and mouth, to get rid of whatever is causing this discomfort.
When we look up at the sun, a high intensity of light reaches our
eyes. This light causes a high-frequency electrical signal to run through the
optical nerves. Some of this electrical impulse is picked up by the nasal
nerves located nearby. The nasal nerves send a signal to the brain. The brain
triggers the same response as it would when the nasal cavity is irritated. The
result: aaaaachooo!!!

TAHO Making
Soybean is a good source of protein, fats and oil. The famous PROCEDURE
“taho,” introduced to us by Chinese traders in the early times, makes 1.Wash and soak the soybeans in water for five to seven hours. The
use of soybeans as its basic ingredient. water should be free from impurities to prevent the taho from
Here are the ingredients and the simple steps in making taho. curdling.
2. After soaking, drain and peel the beans.
INGREDIENTS 3. Using a cornmill grinder or an osterizer, grind the
3 cups of fresh soybeans soybeans finely while gradually adding six cups of water.
6 cups of water for grinding 4. Add the two bars of white gulaman to seven cups
7 cups of water for boiling of boiling water. Stir until dissolved.
2 bars of white gulaman 5. Pour the grounded soybeans. Boil for several
3 cups of dissolved minutes until the bean-like flavor is removed.
brown sugar 6. Separate the soya milk by straining the mixture using the cheese
cheese cloth cloth.
pot for boiling 7. Set aside the soya milk and allow the curd to
stove ladle form.
8. To make the syrup for the taho, dissolve brown sugar in a small
amount of water and bring this to a boil.
9. Stir the mixture constantly until thick.

SENIOR 9
Making a Guessing
Game Program by Wacky Salazar

In this issue we will focus on some simple SCORE = SCORE + 10


sample programs that utilize the techniques we have ELSEIF MAX = 2 THEN
learned in the past issues. SCORE = SCORE + 5
ELSEIF MAX = 1 THEN
REM HERE IS A SCORED GUESSING GAME SCORE = SCORE + 2
PROGRAM ELSE
GOTO FIN
CLS END IF
RANDOMIZE TIMER PRINT “Your current score is:”; SCORE
GOTO TOP
TOP: FIN:
X = INT(RND * 20) + 1 PRINT “Sorry Game Over!!! Your score is:”;
MAX = 3 SCORE
GAME = GAME + 1 OPEN “scores.dat” FOR INPUT AS #1
PRINT INPUT #1, top
PRINT “GAME #”; GAME CLOSE
DO UNTIL MAX = 0 OR N = X IF TOP < SCORE THEN
PRINT “You have”; MAX; “tries to guess my PRINT “You have a new high score!!!”
number” PLAY “c6f6”
PRINT “My number is between 1 and 20” OPEN “scores.dat” FOR OUTPUT AS #1
INPUT “What is your guess”; N PRINT #1, SCORE
IF N <> X THEN CLOSE
MAX = MAX - 1 ENDIF
IF N < X THEN END
PRINT “HIGHER” Please note that you have to make a file called
ELSE scores.dat for this program to work. You can do this
PRINT “LOWER” with the following steps:
END IF
END IF STEP 1: At the command prompt go to the
LOOP directory where your file is located
IF MAX = 3 THEN STEP 2: Create a file by typing COPY CON

10 SENIOR
SCORES.DAT IF C1 = 700 THEN GOSUB CHASE1
STEP 3: Enter 1 LOCATE E1Y, E1X
STEP 4: PRESS CONTROL – Z PRINT “@”
LOCATE E2Y, E2X
By now you should have the tools to create PRINT “ “
other programs on your own. There are several sites on C2 = C2 + 1
the internet which can help you learn more about IF C2 = 500 THEN GOSUB CHASE2
programming in QBASIC. The language may seems LOCATE E2Y, E2X
simple but that’s what makes it very powerful. If you PRINT “@”
have the time visit sites like WWW.QBASIC.COM and LOOP
see the potential of programming with QBASIC.
CHASE1:
Well Let’s leave you with one last program to IF MX > E1X THEN E1X = E1X + 1
think about and have fun with. This program has no end IF MX < E1X THEN E1X = E1X - 1
so why not complete it. IF MY > E1Y THEN E1Y = E1Y + 1
IF MY < E1Y THEN E1Y = E1Y - 1
MX = 5 C1 = 0
MY = 12 RETURN
E1X = 70
E1Y = 1 CHASE2:
E2X = 70 IF MX > E2X THEN E2X = E2X + 1
E2Y = 23 IF MX < E2X THEN E2X = E2X - 1
CLS IF MY > E2Y THEN E2Y = E2Y + 1
PRINT “The object of the game is to move IF MY < E2Y THEN E2Y = E2Y - 1
around the screen without getting caught” C2 = 0
PRINT “U - you” RETURN
PRINT “@ - Enemies”
INPUT “PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE”, xyz$
CLS
DO WHILE DONE = 0
MV$ = INKEY$
LOCATE MY, MX
PRINT “ “
SELECT CASE MV$
CASE “I”:
IF MY > 1 THEN MY = MY - 1 ELSE MY = 1
CASE “M”:
IF MY < 23 THEN MY = MY + 1 ELSE MY =
23
CASE “K”:
IF MX < 80 THEN MX = MX + 1 ELSE MX = 80
CASE “J”:
IF MX > 1 THEN MX = MX - 1 ELSE MX = 1
END SELECT
LOCATE MY, MX
PRINT “U”
LOCATE E1Y, E1X
PRINT “ “
C1 = C1 + 1

SENIOR 11
by Alfie Vera Mella
Have you met Robocop? perfect assistant worker for centuries. Someone or
“Robo who?” something that can do an enormous amount of work
without getting tired and worn out. This was the primary
Robocop. That police officer who after being reason why robots came into being. The term “robot,”
pronounced dead was revived into a half-human, half which was derived from the Czech word robota meaning
machine marvel of law enforcer. “forced labor,” was first introduced in 1920 in a play written
“Really?” by a Czechoslovakian science fiction author.

Hey, have you not seen the movie? Since then, or even before that, many attempts
to invent an ultimate robot proliferated both in movies
“Yeah, yeah. Now I remember. and in real life. Movies like Phantom Empire (1935),
Target Earth (1954), and the most popular Star Wars
It was in 1987 when the movie Robocop was
(1977) are just some of those that introduced robots as
shown in theatres. Set in Detroit, Michigan, USA, the
being able to act and operate in the same manner
story was about police officers that were required to
humans can.
sign a waiver as they join the force. The waiver gave
OCP, the employer of the police force, control over the However, these robots, like C-3PO and R2D2
lives of the officers. But little did they know that OCP from Star Wars and our cop hero Robocop, are not real.
also had control over their bodies. So when Alex Murphy, They are just characters in film. In real life though,
an officer, was wounded in the line of duty and scientists have already gone a long way in inventing
pronounced dead, he was transformed into a half-human, robots.
half machine perfect cop called Robocop. The plan was
to create a 24-hour serving cop. While sitting in a A robot is an automatically operated machine.
specialized chair, technicians “remade” Murphy into a It is a computer that simulates a human brain. It can be
cyborg. Equipped with a gridlike targeting system that taught or programmed to perform human tasks efficiently.
was his vision, Robocop shot with accuracy. He also And if you think robots are mainly amazing characters
had perfect audio recording and playback capabilities. of sci-fi movies, you are wrong. Presently robots in varied
Ultimately Robocop served as the perfect cop. forms and for various purposes are all over the world.
From robots that paint cars at Ford plants to driving
“Wow! Amazing.” trains in Paris, France to defusing bombs in Northern
Ireland, the once imaginary creations are really helping
Unfortunately, Robocop is just a fiction of the
humans in many ways. However, robots are now also
mind, just intended for the movie.
invading homes, as pets! Yes, it is a common trend
Actually humans have dreamed of having a

12 SENIOR
nowadays not only among children but adult alike. If we
have Robocop in the silver screen, we can have a
robodog there in our homes—which is just among the
list of today’s cyberpets.
Among the robodogs two are competing for
popularity—Sony Entertainment’s Aibo ERS-111 and
Tiger Electronics’ Poo-chi. The technological features
of these two robodogs are basically the same, however,
Aibo is a little more “trained” than Poo-chi.
Aibo ERS-111, according to its makers, is an
autonomous robot that acts in response to external
stimulation. It has a 64-bit RISC processor and its own
operating system. It also has 16 MB of RAM, a 180,000-
pixel-CDC color camera, stereo microphones, heat and
touch sensors, 18 joints, and perfect pitch.
Poo-chi, on the other hand, knows six songs,
has flapping ears, can sit, stand, or dance, and projects
wide, expressive eyes.
With these new entries in the world of robots, it
is quite sure that robots, which once were just confined
to too technical tasks, can already be enjoyed as “pets”
by anyone who would care to have a new best friend.
“Arrf, arrf!”
Oops, here barks my robodog.

1.How are robots important to humankind?


2.What are the main features of Aibo and Poo-chi?
3.Cite examples of robots in film.

cyborg - cybernetic organism; electric computer that


can simulate the human nervous system

References:
1.http://www.movieprop.com/tvandmovie/robocop
2.Robots. Shabnam Gupta. 1993 Learners Press.

SENIOR 13
Global Cooling:
Into Another Ice Age?
by Ernesto Buensuceso Ferreras Jr.

W
hen you park your car outside in the The chief greenhouse gases are water vapor,
sun, the car soon gets warm inside. carbon dioxide, methane, and ozone. The greenhouse
Visible light from the sun penetrates particles include cloud droplets, soot, and dust.
the car windows and the interior of
the car gets hot by absorbing and Global Warming
converting the light into heat or infrared Today, there is a global clamor against the
radiation. In effect, the interior of the car becomes a continued pumping of human-made greenhouse gases
greenhouse. Glass is opaque to infrared, and heat does into the atmosphere. It has been estimated that since
not escape. the 1800’s, when modern industry became widespread,
In a similar process, the Earth with its the average temperature of the Earth’s surface has
atmosphere is like a giant greenhouse. The atmosphere increased by 0.3 to 0.8 degree Celsius. And by 2100,
is nearly transparent to short wave and visible solar the Earth’s surface temperature is expected to rise
radiation from the sun. Part of the energy absorbed by between 1.5 and 4.5 degrees Celsius.
the Earth is radiated to the atmosphere as long wave Many experts believe that the rise in the average
infrared radiation. And the atmosphere, like glass, global temperature is brought about by the increase of
prevents heat from escaping, thus warming the Earth’s greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon
surface. dioxide and methane. For instance, measurements
The Natural Greenhouse Effect revealed that the amount of carbon dioxide in the
About 40 percent of the energy coming from atmosphere has risen by about 25 percent and that of
the sun reaches the Earth’s surface. Of this, the Earth’s methane by 150 percent.
surface reflects about 15 percent of the solar radiation Human activities, like burning of fossil fuels and
back toward space. The remaining energy heats the clearing of forests through kaingin system, have been
surface, which then sends most of the heat back into pointed out as the main culprit in the increase of
the atmosphere, mostly as infrared rays and water vapor. greenhouse gases.
When the rays from the lands and seas are This increase in surface temperature is called
reflected back into the atmosphere, greenhouse gases global warming and its effects could alter the face of the
and particles absorb the rays. As a result, the gases Earth. For example, people could begin to farm in regions
and particles are heated. Some of the infrared rays from where it is currently too cold. The change could also
the gases and particles radiate back toward the Earth’s affect the survival of many species. A great number of
surface and contribute to the warming of the surface species are already struggling to survive due to
layer of air. This is known as the natural greenhouse destruction of their habitats. Global warming could further
effect, which keeps the Earth’s surface warm with an push them to extinction.
average temperature of about 15 degrees Celsius. Global warming could also alter rainfall patterns,
Without this natural process, the average surface melt enough polar icebergs to raise the sea level, and
temperature would be 33 degrees Celsius colder than it intensify tropical storms.
is now.

14 SENIOR
Global Cooling More controversial strategies have been
It seems obvious then that by increasing considered. For example, governments could promulgate
greenhouse gases and particles, the Earth will become laws that specify the type of technologies to be used or
hotter. However, according to some scientists, global the amount of fossil fuels to be burned. Governments
warming might plunge us into the opposite condition, may also levy taxes on emission of greenhouse gases.
that is, an ice age. How is this possible? Another option is to limit the amount of
The main player is the Gulf Stream, the ocean greenhouse gases that would be emitted by every
current that brings warm surface water northwards country. Each nation would be issued “emissions
Europe from the Caribbean. Normally, as the Gulf Stream permits” that could be bought and sold. Richer nations
flows, some of its water evaporates. The rest becomes could purchase permits from poorer nations. More
saltier and thus denser. Eventually the dense surface developed countries would have incentives to use more
water sinks to the bottom, where it flows back southward. efficient technologies, and less developed countries
(The water returning south is called the Canaries current.) would receive money to aid their development.
Near the equator, the returning water is diluted once At the moment, though, the dangerous plumes
again by warm, fresh water from tropical rivers and rain, of heat-trapping gases are still increasing in volume.
allowing the water to rise to the surface. The water warms Earth is predicted to warm by 0.5 to 1.6 degrees Celsius
up and the cycle begins again. due to past greenhouse gas emissions. However, beyond
Moreover, global warming can wreak havoc on that, additional warming could be lessened if not
the Polar Regions by melting the icebergs. Melted ice prevented. The choice is ours to make.
from the Arctic will supply fresh water into the North
Atlantic. Added to this, it is predicted that global warming
can also increase the amount of rainfall in northern
latitudes. The result is that the Gulf Stream’s water will
be diluted and thus become less dense. It will not sink 1. In what way may global warming usher in another ice
so easily to the sea bottom. The Gulf Stream’s age?
underwater current, without this renewing supply, will 2. Explain briefly how the Gulf Stream warms the
stop flowing south. This in effect will shut off the great European continent.
ocean current. 3. What should be done to reduce emissions of
If that happens, the European continent will get greenhouse gases?
very cold. More snow will fall, and snow will reflect more
of the sun’s energy back into space. That will make the
temperature even lower. Furthermore, the Gulf Stream
will change the global ocean current patterns because
greenhouse effect - the trapping of the sun’s warmth in the
it is tied into them. The effect of this is less overall
lower atmosphere caused by high levels of carbon dioxide
evaporation. The loss of water vapor, an important and other gases more transparent to incoming solar radiation
greenhouse gas, will mean even more dramatic cooling than to reflected infrared radiation
— a decrease of perhaps as much as 8 degrees Celsius. opaque – blocking the passage of radiant energy and especially
light
Worst of all, experts believe such changes could
short wave – electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength
come on quickly — perhaps within a decade or less. equal to or less than that of visible light
There’s no need to say then that an ice age by the long wave - electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength greater
middle of the century would gravely endanger most of than that of visible light
solar radiation – radiation produced by the sun
life on Earth — a sort of biological apocalypse.
kaingin - process of clearing the forest through burning
The Search for Solutions
Because global warming might do much harm, References:
many scientists recommend a reduction in the emission
of greenhouse gases. Popular ways adopted to curb 1. Wilbraham, Antony C. et al. 1997. Chemistry, 4 th Edition.
the greenhouse effect include the planting of trees to California: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
2. World Book Millennium 2000 Encyclopedia. 1999 Chicago:
absorb carbon dioxide, the development of more fuel- World Book, Inc.
efficient cars, and the installation of electricity-generating 3. Lemonick, Michael D. “…And Then How Cold.” Time, November
solar panels, among others. 8, 1999.

SENIOR 15
I N C O O P E R AT I O N W I T H T H E
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

PRODUCTION OF CARBON PAPER


USING CHARCOAL AND BLACK MIX OF
USED BATTERY AS PIGMENT

ABSTRACT as the medium. The pigment (carbon black) to vehicle


The objective of the (glycerol) ratio of 1 g : 6 mL and 1 g : 7 mL was used
first part of the study was using carbon black as pigment with glycerol as vehicle.
to find the best ratio of ink Although the commercial bond paper has better quality,
using carbon from used since it uses more technologically advanced methods,
batteries and charcoal as the use of the experimental carbon paper was
pigments. The ink was acceptable.
evaluated on the basis of INTRODUCTION
how much pigment is Carbon paper has many uses. It has a high
suspended in the mixture and demand in schools, offices and other institutions. The
their shelf life. ink used in the production of commercial carbon paper
The second part was is expensive due to its high production costs. Because
aimed at the production of of its high cost and increasing demand, there arises a
carbon paper. The best kinds need for a cheaper substitute. The study also aims
of ink were tested on two to help reduce the problems in disposing
mediums, coupon bond and onion skin. They were also used batteries making good use
tested for efficiency in terms of the number of coatings of them.
needed. The carbon paper was evaluated on the basis
of clarity, neatness of the print and general acceptability.
The final sample made use of two coatings of
the ink mixture using carbon black, with coupon bond

16 SENIOR
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In order for the pigment to thoroughly dissolve
Ink is a mixture of vehicle (liquid component with the vehicle, the pigment must be pulverized to very
and solvent), pigment (coloring matter) and other fine particles. The pigment affects the properties of
substances added to impart special qualities such as a ink such as gloss and opacity. The vehicle on the other
binder. Carbon is usually used as pigment because of hand must suit the following conditions: (1) the printing
its low oil absorption, ease of dispersion and low system used; (2) class and speed; (3) drying press
abrasion to plate ware. Carbon is chemically inert and required; (4) class and texture of the surface to be
infusible at atmospheric pressure, which makes it an printed; and(5) nature of pigment. Glycerol is viscous
essential part in the black pigment used in books, and is easily absorbed by paper and, thus, makes it a
magazines, newspapers, carbon paper, etc. Two good good vehicle.
sources of pigments that are carbonaceous in nature Burned wood is a good source of charcoal.
are charcoal and the black mix found in used batteries. Batteries have black particles called black mix, which
These sources are much cheaper than the usual black is primarily composed of carbon black, acetylene black
pigments such as carbon black in graphite and and manganese dioxide. The carbons obtained from
lampblack. both sources are carbonaceous in nature, making them
good sources of black pigment.
Coconut oil and dextrin were tested for their
potential as ink binders. According to the results,
coconut oil was a better binder than dextrin.
METHODOLOGY
Black mix was obtained by opening the
protective housing of a drycell battery and exposing its
carbon content. Then, the black mix was removed and
ground into very fine particles using a mortar and pestle.
Afterwards, it was sieved through a fine screen to obtain
the finest consistency.
On the other hand, charcoal was also finely
pulverized. It was then mixed with water and placed in
a one-litre beaker. The mixture was allowed to settle
for two days inside the covered by beaker. After two

SENIOR 17
days, the charcoal pigments were heated to allow torn even after one coating. The coupon bond was
evaporation of excess moisture. proven to be the better alternative. It takes five (5)
In preparing the ink, the charcoal and carbon minutes for a solution with a ratio of 1 gram (pigment):
black pigments were combined with glycerol (vehicle) 6 mL (vehicle) to dry up. The solution with a ratio of
and coconut oil (binder) in different proportions ranging 1g : 7 mL took six (6 ) minutes to dry. The sample
from 1 g : 10 mL : 1 mL (pigment : vehicle : binder which used two coatings was
ratio) to 2 g : 14 mL : 2 mL. The solution was thoroughly proven to be most practical.
mixed using a stirring rod until totally dispersed. Finally, SUMMARY AND
the mixture was heated for five (5) minutes under CONCLUSION
medium heat and was allowed to cool down The experimental
before evaluation. carbon paper is acceptable
The best ratio using each enough to be used as a substitute for
pigment was then compared commercial carbon paper. The experiment
to determine which ink was able to prove that the pigment obtained
is more suitable for from battery carbon is better and cheaper than those
carbon paper from charcoal.
production. The
samples were evaluated
for smoothness, consistency, and absorption.
The ink samples, ranging from one to four Researchers:
coatings, were applied on the onion skin and coupon Jonas Don Castelo
Lloyd Gonzales
bond. Marcelino Quito, Jr.

The different carbon papers were tested and


Miss Juanita Cruz
observed for their drying time, firmness and clarity of Research Adviser
print. After determining the best sample, a survey was
Note:
conducted on 20 students using the experimental carbon
No part of this article may be used or reproduced
paper and a commercial carbon paper. in any form whatsoever without written permission
from the Philippine Science High School, Diliman,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Quezon City, except in the case of brief citation as
The onion paper appeared to be too thin to be embodied in the laws of scientific articles and
reviews.
used as a medium because it has the tendency to be

18 SENIOR
Literally means “false science.” Therefore, it is best for the public to be made aware of the facts behind pseudosciences –
practices and beliefs that have no reliable scientific bases. These include false beliefs that are, almost always, results of the ignorance and
gullibility of the oldfolk, who tend to rely strongly on “coincidence mentality.” However, more baffling is to know that despite the
advancement of science – the foundation of human knowledge – many continue to patronize pseudosciences.
This section aims to expose these pseudosciences, which do not only hamper progress, but may also pose harm to the health
and sound judgment of those who get influenced by them. But worry not, just a dose of true science cures the most ignorant of minds.

Backmasking
J
by Alfie Vera Mella

ust a few years ago, some song for our new album. Let’s say the song
most likely “reveal” unsavory messages is about a plea to the government to lower
local alternative bands, the
when backmasked. the cost of consumer products. The song
likes of Eraserheads, Yano,
the Youth, and Rivermaya, Rock songs are the favorite victim would probably have a line which goes like:
caused quite a stir when some of such propesterous allegation. The sole Huwag na sana taasan pa ang presyo ng
groups alleged that their songs reason is that rock music and other forms of mga bilihin.
contained subliminal demonic messages. alternative music has long been associated For example, we were able to
The accusers delved on the issue of with sex, drugs, and fast life. However, time record the song and produce it commercially.
backmasking. Backmasking is the process and liberal thinking proved that such Since our musical style generally falls under
of playing a piece of music on compact disc, assumption is baseless and unfair. Rock the category of rock, some “moralists” might
vinyl, or cassette tape in reverse. This music analysts say the ideas of backmasking accuse us of putting demonic messages in
process, according to moralists, reveals is just an attemp by several “conservativists” our songs. They would probably backmask
demonic and other blasphemous messages. to discredit rock music. Rock music, like our songs. Say they have chosen the new
They say that such messages are put there folk, classical and other types of music, is song we recorded. Most likely they will find
either intentionally or subconsciously by already regarded as a musical artform. Thus, what they are looking for. Why?
rock bands, especially by whoever subliminal messages believed to be revealed
composed the particular song. through backmasking are just a fiction of Okay, let us read the following
the mind of fault finding moralists who hate line in reverse (from end to beginning):
The issue of backmasking was
rock music.
already hyped in the past. The same Huwag na sana taasan pa ang
accusation hurled on our local alternative Being a musician myself, as the presyo ng mga bilihin
bands was already slapped onto the faces of vocalist of a local new wave band named
You would have read it as:
famous rock bands of the 70’s. Seventies’ halflifehalfdeath, I have also done thorough
rock bands like Led Zeppelin, The Eagles, study about backmasking. According to my NIHILIB ANGAM NGAN
and Black Sabbath were also accused of findings, the supposed “demonic message” OYSERP NGA AP NASAAT ANAS AN
putting demonic messages into their songs. deciphered through backmasking is just the GAWUH
The accusation was, of course, vehemently lyrics of the song read in reverse, from
Fault finders would probably hear
denied by the bands. It was not proven. The beginning to end. Following this logic, any
this as: NILILIBANG ANG AY SARAP NGA
same accusation lodged on our very own piece of music, poetry, or a mere spoken
NA SATANAS ANG GAWIN.
local alternative bands has not been proven sentence when recorded then played in
as well. Why? For the simple reason that the reverse will definitely sound weird. And in See? This is just one sentence.
idea of backmasking is not true at all. Music some instance, just like what happens to a What more if the entire lyrics of the song is
experts and sound engineers say that the rock song when played in reverse, might hit read in reverse?
message being deciphered through playing a blasphemous word or two.
the music in reverse is only accidental. They
Let us have an example:
even defended rock bands by saying that
any piece of music, rock songs or not, will Suppose I will compose a new

SENIOR 19
PHYSICS

Computer vs. Human Brain


by Ernesto Buensuceso Ferreras Jr.

C
onsider this: The human brain can handle computers have proven themselves indispensable
a few thousand instructions per second. because of their reliable performance. For instance,
The fastest computers can race through computers can diagnose some diseases, manage
a whopping 2 trillion operations per investment funds, play chess, and do other things that
second, or 2 teraflops. seem impossible to us. Some computers can even learn
Needless to say, computers and their performance improves with experience.
work faster than our brains. Does this mean that they The rapid growth of computer technology has
will ultimately become more intelligent than the human spurred scientists to build machines that possess some
brain? Can they achieve a sense of “I,” the way we characteristics of the human brain. Yet, no computer
perceive ourselves? has been able to equal the capacity of the human brain
There are already computers that can “out- to handle information. The human brain, with its 100
think” the most brilliant of human minds. Given the pace billion neurons and roughly 100 trillion connections,
of today’s technology, what will it take to make a requires a lot of computing power. At best, however,
computer that thinks on its own? To create a machine scientists invented a computer, called the Perceptron,
that simulates the human brain, some scientists that was modeled after the human brain. It has been
speculate that about 20 million billion calculations per used to study the principles that underlie natural
second are required. intelligence.
Scientists apply the principles behind the
Parallel Processing: Models for Information functioning of the brain at the neuron level to computer
Processing design. A neuron is a cell that processes information.
But the neuron is too small to carry much information.
In almost every aspect of human activity, To compensate for this setback, however, neurons
function in parallels. This increases the capacity of the
nervous system, of which the brain is the information-
processing center. Computer scientists are applying
parallel processing to the design of more advanced
machines.
Most of today’s computers process information
serially, one element at a time. In parallel computers,
hundreds of small microchips are structurally linked.
The computers break tasks into their smallest units and
assign each unit to a separate processor. Thus, the
problem can be solved much more quickly with many
processors simultaneously working on a given task. One
parallel computer design called the Thinking Machine
uses several thousand inexpensive microprocessors and
can outperform many of today’s supercomputers.

Computer Software: Artificial Intelligence


and Expert Systems

The development in computer hardware


depends on the efficiency of the software that goes with
it. Software programs control the hardware and form the

20 SENIOR
interface between the computer and you, as the user. intelligent is to perform the Turing Test, named after the
Software is now becoming increasingly user-friendly and Alan Turing, an English scientist. To conduct the test,
intelligent. They are able to adapt to your personal habits. you ask questions of two entities, which are hidden from
There are a few word-processing programs that can learn you as the human questioner. One entity is a human,
your writing style and offer suggestions. In playing games and the other is a computer. If you were not able to
with computers, you will have to concentrate more each distinguish which entity is the human and which is the
time you start a new game because game programs computer, then the computer has proven itself intelligent.
can learn by experience and become difficult opponents. A computer usually reflects the mental
However, for a computer program to convincingly processes of its human programmer. The human
respond, it would have to be as complex as a human programmer creates the software, which instructs the
brain. It is widely believed that human intelligence has computer to solve problems or perform its assigned jobs.
three principal components: consciousness, the ability When a computer is used to solve special problems,
to classify and retain knowledge, and the ability to make the methods of experts are incorporated into its program.
choices based on accumulated memories. Some scientists believe it is unlikely computers
Today’s computers possess artificial will start thinking for themselves. A computer is
intelligence or the ability of a computer to imitate human technically a machine that uses symbols to compute,
actions or skills. Human skills include problem solving, which is nothing like the way human or animal brains
decision-making, learning, reasoning, and self- work. Computers operate by manipulating symbols, the
improvement. Computers can duplicate some aspects 1’s and 0’s of the binary language. To mean something,
of intelligence: for example, they can find the most it is necessary to have causation. In other words, the
efficient solution to a complex problem, or they can symbols the computer manipulates would have to mean
improve their performance with experience, such as with something to the computer. But instead, they only mean
chess-playing computers. However, you, as the something to the human programmers. The symbols in
programmer, choose the goal, establish the method of the computer mean nothing at all to the computer. In
operation, supply the raw data, and set the process in this regard, the computer cannot be said to be thinking.
motion. Computers are not in themselves intelligent. A computer that only seems to be thinking and
acting like a human is really not conscious. Therefore,
Evolvable Computers in this final regard, building a computer that would
eventually replace the human brain in all its guises is
Experts believe that the final step to intelligence still far-fetched.
is achievable. To achieve this, engineers devise new
designs in both hardware and software. One advance
design in computer hardware is in a field of research
known as evolvable hardware, or evolutionary electronics.
In this area, the hardware evolves to solve problems,
1. How do neurons in the brain process information?
like the way our own neurons evolved to solve problems
and to contemplate ourselves. A type of silicon 2. Why do you think a machine can never become as
processor, called Programmable Field Array (FPGA), intelligent as the huiman brain?
can change its wiring in a few billionths of a second.
You can reconfigure the FPGA chip. You can
change the logic elements by reprogramming the bits
in the chip’s memory, known as configuration bits. For
example, OR gates can be changed to AND gates or computer logic – the arrangement of circuit elements needed for
NOT gates, input wires can be reprogrammed to be computation
output wires, etc. This gives an FPGA extraordinary interface – the place at which independent systems meet or
flexibility. communicate with each other
Since all this manipulation is carried out microchip – an integrated circuit
electronically, the wiring of the processor can evolve for
References:
thousands of generations, eventually becoming a circuit
that is very efficient at solving the task. It uses the 1. Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia. 1999. The Learning
process of evolution to explore new ways of computing. Company.
But could computer engineers actually end up 2. Discover, June 1998.
with a thinking machine as conscious as you or I?
A way to test whether a computer has become 3. Popular Science, March 2000.

SENIOR 21
PHYSICS

Liquid Crystal Technology


by Alfie Vera Mella

S
urely you have already used a thin sheet. In this way, there are only a few layers of
cellphone or, at least, have seen one. molecules, which are structured so rigidly that they
You might even have one of your own. hardly move at all.
Text. Text. Text. Turn it on. Enter PIN The liquid crystal can change very easily in the
code. •••• Press OK. Code accepted. way it reacts to light. It can be transparent one moment
Check the view screen. Signal? OK. and opaque the next. It may be single-colored now, then
Battery indicator? Full. Press Menu. multi-colored after a short while. These changes can be
Select Messages. OK. Now compose your message brought about by factors such as a rise or fall in
on the view screen…helö! batobalani ed. i’v a question? temperature, a slight electric current, or a small change
Send. Enter number. 09192170526. OK. Message in pressure. And by controlling such changes, the liquid
sending failed. Try again. Message sent. At last! crystal can be put to work in so many ways.
But have you taken a closer look at the view The most common application of the liquid
screen of the cellular phone? At that gray substance crystal is in the LCD of cellular phones, calculators,
where all those letters, numbers, symbols, and icons and some watches. How does the liquid crystal work?
are being displayed? This is what is known as the LCD. The liquid crystal is placed between two panes of thin
The LCD, or liquid-crystal display, is a constantly glass. The molecules of the liquid crystal line up in an
operating display that consists of segments of a orderly manner, and light passes through the material
substance known as liquid crystal. And this liquid crystal without any trouble. Remember, the glass pane is
is the “magic” behind the LCD and other similar transparent. However, when a small electric current is
materials. In fact, it is almost everywhere: in hospital caused to pass through the liquid crystal, its molecules
equipment, in road signs and billboards, and in ad break apart. Now light is scattered and the glass pane
displays. However, before we can truly appreciate its becomes opaque. In the LCD, the electric current is
usefulness, we should first learn what kind of a applied only to certain parts of the liquid crystal in
substance the liquid crystal really is. between the glass panes. The parts are designed into
Liquid + crystal. An unlikely letters, numbers, etc. When the current passes through
pair. A crystal is known to be them, they become opaque and “spell out,” as in the
generally solid and rigid. cellphone, the typed message. The LCD in some road
Liquid is not. Being signs, billboards, and ad displays also works this way.
solid, a crystal has Being sensitive to temperature changes, the
molecules that are liquid crystal is also used in some hospital equipment,
arranged in a very particularly in temperature-monitoring tools. For
orderly way. Its example, a disk made of a liquid-crystal material is
molecules are locked placed on the patient. The body temperature of the patient
into a rigid structure affects the color of the disk. Change in the color of the
by electrical forces disk, in turn, determines the body temperature of the
between the molecules. patient, indicating whether the patient is afebrile or not.
Liquid molecules, on the In fact, disposable liquid-crystal thermometers based
other hand, can move on this technology are already available in the market.
around freely. Remember?
A liquid has no structure Significant advancement in the liquid crystal
and takes the shape of its container? technology is now seen in appliances such as video
games, flat televisions, and computers and in the field
The usefulness of the liquid crystal is of medicine, as coatings placed on the skin to reveal
attributed to its molecular arrangement and underlying tumors.
behavior. In the liquid crystal, molecules behave as
a solid and a liquid at the same time. They can move References:
around freely but tend to remain rigid. Thus the liquid
crystal is usually thick and flows slowly. However, the 1. Encyclopedia Americana Intl Ed. 1983 Grolier
liquid crystal is more effective when it is spread out in a Incorporated.

22 SENIOR
HOW TO MAKE AN
ELECTRO MAGNET
By using electricity, you can have your own electromagnet.
Unlike any ordinary magnet which remains magnetic at all times, this electromagnet may
be switched on and off.

MATERIALS:
2 metres of coated wire , 4.5V battery (or 3 pcs. 1.5V batteries), pliers or pocket knife,
scissorrs, paperclips or any small metal objects, long screwdriver, adhesive tape

1. Strip both ends of the coated wire and tape part of it to the handle of the screwdriver.

2. Wrap the rest of the wire around the screwdriver. Tape the other end.

3. Connect one end of the wire to one of the battery terminals. Then,

connect the other end of the wire to the other terminal 4. The screwdiver is now an

electromagnet. Watch as it attracts some paperclips! Detach one of the wires from the

battery and the paperclips fall off.


SENIOR 23
COMPLETE THE SQUARES
WHO’S WHO
Identify each robot and tell what movie each
appeared in.

ACROSS C R O S S W O R D DOWN
1 movement of a solvent through a semi- 1 same as 1 across
permeablemembrane 2 a power-driven mechanism that
8 correction (abbreviation) supplements a primary control
10 coating or fastening agent 3 master of arts
11 the neverending question asked by 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 8 9 4 oil (prefix, combination form)
children 5 sixth planet of the solar system
12 map reference 10 1 11 nearest to the sun
13 extraterrestrial 6 not out
14 postal letters 12 1 13 1 1 14 15 7 standard time
16 female egg cells 8 22d letter of the Greek alphabet
18 break in skin or mucous membrane 16 17 1 18 19 20 1 21 9 part of the plant stem that carries
21 Erbium nutrients
22 1
22 the sun with the nine planets and other 11 horny projections on the skin
heavenly bodies 14 the fabric of a net
23 1 24 1 1 25
23 international monetary unit 15 Strontium
24 _ _ _ _ _ Ark; carried living 17 _ _ _ _ _ _ _m; chemical element Al
26 27 1 28 1 1 29 30
creatures of every kind during the 19 _y_ _ _; a brand of disinfectant
Great Flood 1 31 32 1 33 34 20 poison usually used in illegal fishing
26 the body of an organism 25 _ _ _ _ dixit; an assertion made but
28 _ _G; liquefied natural gas 35 36 1 37 not proved
29 indicates a sudden occurrence 27 _ _ _ _e; same as 37 across
31 lighter or darker shades of a color 1 38 1 1 29 a form of meditation
33 _ _ _ _ _ _ of Langerhans 30 smallest particle of an element
35 given recognition 32 three (prefix, combination form)
37 _ _ _d_; positive terminal of an 34 _ _ _ex; synthetic rubber products like
electrolytic cell surgical gloves are made of
38 a basic principle or a fundamental skill 36 electromagnetic

24 SENIOR