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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOILS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

FOUR-VOLUME SET

by Daniel Hillel (Editor-in-Chief)

Hardcover: 2200 pages Publisher: Academic Press; 1 edition (November 8, 2004) Language: English ISBN-10: 0123485304 ISBN-13: 978-0123485304

Book Description

More than ever before, a compelling need exists for an encyclopedic resource about soil the rich mix of mineral particles, organic matter, gases, and soluble compounds that foster both plant and animal growth. Civilization depends more on the soil as human populations continue to grow and increasing demands are placed upon available resources. The Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environmentis a comprehensive and integrated consideration of a topic of vital importance to human societies in the past, present, and future.

This important work encompasses the present knowledge of the world's variegated soils, their origins, properties, classification, and roles in the biosphere. A team of outstanding, international contributors has written over 250 entries that cover a broad range of issues facing today's soil scientists, ecologists, and environmental scientists. This four-volume set features thorough articles that survey specific aspects of soil biology, ecology, chemistry and physics. Rounding out the encyclopedia's excellent coverage, contributions cover cross-disciplinary subjects, such as the history of soil utilization for agricultural and engineering purposes and soils in relation to the remediation of pollution and the mitigation of global climate change.

This comprehensive, yet accessible source is a valuable addition to the library of scientists, researchers, students, and policy makers involved in soil science, ecology, and environmental science.

Also available online via ScienceDirect featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.

* A distinguished international group of editors and contributors

* Well-organized encyclopedic format providing concise, readable entries, easy searches, and thorough cross-references

* Abundant visual resources — photographs, figures, tables, and graphs — in every entry

* Complete up-to-date coverage of many important topics — essential information for scientists, students and professionals alike

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Daniel Hillel Columbia University New York, NY USA

EDITORS

Jerry L Hatfield National Soil Tilth Laboratory Ames, IA USA

David S Powlson Rothamsted Research Harpenden UK

Cynthia Rosenzweig NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, NY USA

Kate M Scow University of California Davis, CA USA

Michael J Singer University of California Davis, CA USA

Donald L Sparks University of Delaware Newark, DE USA

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

R Bardgett

K Reichardt

Lancaster University

Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture

Lancaster

Piracicaba

UK

Brazil

J L Boettinger

K Ritz

Utah State University

Cranfield University

Logan, UT

Silsoe

USA

UK

G Gee

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Richland, WA

USA

R Keren

The Volcani Center Bet Dagan

Israel

J Kimble

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Lincoln, NE

USA

M B Kirkham

Kansas State University Manhattan, KS USA

M Kutilek

Prague

Czech Republic

D Martens

Southwest Watershed Research Center Tucson, AZ USA

K Mengel

R Schulin

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich

Schlieren

Switzerland

N Senesi

Universita` di Bari Bari Italy

J T Sims University of Delaware Newark, DE USA

K Smith

University of Edinburgh Edinburgh

UK

R L Tate

Rutgers University

New Brunswick, NJ USA

N van Breemen

Wageningen Agricultural University Wageningen

The Netherlands

W H van Riemsdijk

Justus Leibig University

Department of Soil Quality

Giessen

Wageningen

Germany

The Netherlands

FOREWORD

The Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment is a vitally important scientific publication and an equally important contribution to global public policy. The Encyclopedia brings together a remarkable range of cutting-edge scientific knowledge on all aspects of soil science, as well as the links of soils and soil science to environmental management, food production, biodiversity, climate change, and many other areas of signi- ficant concern. Even more than that, the Encyclopedia will immediately become an indispensable resource for policy makers, analysts, and students who are focusing on one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. With 6.3 billion people, our planet is already straining to feed the world’s population, and is failing to do so reliably in many parts of the world. The numbers of chronically poor in the world have been stuck at some 800 million in recent years, despite long-standing international goals and commitments to reduce that number by several hundred million. Yet the challenge of food production will intensify in coming decades, as the human population is projected to rise to around 9 billion by mid-century, with the increased population concentrated in parts of the world already suffering from widespread chronic under-nourishment. Unlessthebestscienceisbroughttotheseproblems,thesituationislikelytodeterioratesharply.Foodproduction systems are already under stress, for reasons often related directly to soils management. In Africa, crop yields are disastrously low and falling in many places due to the rampant depletion of soil nutrients. This situation needs urgent reversal, through increasing use of agro-forestry techniques (e.g. inter-cropping cereals with leguminous nitrogen-fixing trees)and increasing the efficient applicationsofchemicalfertilizers.Inother impoverished, aswell as rich, parts of the planet, decades of intensive agriculture under irrigation have led to salinization, water-logging, eutrophication of major water bodies, dangerous declines of biodiversity and other forms of environmental degradation. These enormous strains are coupled with the continuing pressures of tropical deforestation and the lack of new promising regions for expanding crop cultivation to meet the needs of growing populations. Finally, there looms the prospect of anthropogenic climate change. Global warming and associated complex and poorly understood shifts in precipitation extremes and other climate variables all threaten the world’s natural ecosystems and food production systems in profound yet still imperfectly understood ways. The risks of gradual or abrupt climate change are coupled with the risks of drastic perturbations to regional and global food supplies. The Encyclopedia offers state-of-the-art contributions on each of these challenges, as well as links to entries on the fundamental biophysical processes that underpin the relevant phenomena. The world-scale and world- class collaboration that stands behind this unique project signifies its importance for the world community. It is an honor and privilege for me to introduce this path-breaking endeavor.

Jeffrey D Sachs Director The Earth Institute at Columbia University Quetelet Professor of Sustainable Development Columbia University, New York, USA

PREFACE

The term ‘soil’ refers to the weathered and fragmented outer layer of our planet’s land surfaces. Formed initially through the physical disintegration and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals by physical and biogeochemical processes, soil is influenced by the activity and accumulated residues of a myriad of diverse forms of life. As it occurs in different geologic and climatic domains, soil is an exceedingly variegated body with a wide range of attributes. Considering the height of the atmosphere, the thickness of the earth’s rock mantle, and the depth of the ocean, one observes that soil is an amazingly thin body – typically not much more than one meter thick and often less than that. Yet it is the crucible of terrestrial life, within which biological productivity is generated and sustained. It acts like a composite living entity, a home to a community of innumerable microscopic and macroscopic plants and animals. A mere fistful of soil typically contains billions of microorganisms, which perform vital interactive biochemical functions. Another intrinsic attribute of the soil is its sponge-like porosity and its enormous internal surface area. That same fistful of soil may actually consist of several hectares of active surface, upon which physicochemical processes take place continuously. Realizing humanity’s utter dependence on the soil, ancient peoples, who lived in greater intimacy with nature than many of us today, actually revered the soil. It was not only their source of livelihood, but also the material from which they built their homes and that they learned to shape, heat, and fuse into household vessels and writing tablets (ceramic, made of clayey soil, being the first synthetic material in the history of technology). In the Bible, the name assigned to the first human was Adam, derived from ‘adama,’ meaning soil. The name given to that first earthling’s mate was Hava (Eve, in transliteration), meaning ‘living’ or ‘life-giving.’ Together, therefore, Adam and Eve signified quite literally ‘Soil and Life.’ The same powerful metaphor is echoed in the Latin name for the human species – Homo, derived from humus, the material of the soil. Hence, the adjective ‘human’ also implies ‘of the soil.’ Other ancient cultures evoked equally powerful associations. To the Greeks, the earth was a manifestation of Gaea, the maternal goddess who, impregnated by Uranus (god of the sky), gave birth to all the gods of the Greek pantheon. Our civilization depends on the soil more crucially than ever, because our numbers have grown while available soil resources have diminished and deteriorated. Paradoxically, however, even as our dependence on the soil has increased, most of us have become physically and emotionally detached from it. Many of the people in the so-called ‘developed’ countries spend their lives in the artificial environment of a city, insulated from direct exposure to nature, and some children may now assume as a matter of course that food originates in supermarkets. Detachment has bred ignorance, and out of ignorance has come the delusion that our civilization has risen above nature and has set itself free of its constraints. Agriculture and food security, erosion and salination, degradation of natural ecosystems, depletion and pollution of surface waters and aquifers, and decimation of biodiversity – all of these processes, which involve the soil directly or indirectly – have become abstractions to many people. The very language we use betrays disdain for that common material underfoot, often referred to as ‘dirt.’ Some fastidious parents prohibit their children from playing in the mud and hurry to wash their ‘soiled’ hands when the children nonetheless obey an innate instinct to do so. Thus soil is devalued and treated

PREFACE

ix

as unclean though it is the terrestrial realm’s principal medium of purification, wherein wastes are decomposed and nature’s productivity is continually rejuvenated. Scientists who observe soil closely see it in effect as a seething foundry in which matter and energy are in constant flux. Radiant energy from the sun streams onto the field and cascades through the soil and the plants growing in it. Heat is exchanged, water percolates through the soil’s intricate passages, plant roots extract water and transmit it to their leaves, which transpire it back to the atmosphere. Leaves absorb carbon dioxide from the air and synthesize it with soil-derived water to form the primary compounds of life. Oxygen emitted by the leaves makes the air breathable for animals, which consume and in turn fertilize plants. Soil is thus a self-regulating bio-physio-chemical factory, processing its own materials, water, and solar energy. It also determines the fate of rainfall and snowfall reaching the ground surface – whether the water thus received will flow over the land as runoff, or seep downward to the subterranean reservoir called groundwater, which in turn maintains the steady flow of springs and streams. With its finite capacity to absorb and store moisture, and to release it gradually, the soil regulates all of these phenomena. Without the soil as a buffer, rain falling over the continents would run off entirely, producing violent floods rather than sustained river flow. Soil naturally acts as a living filter, in which pathogens and toxins that might otherwise accumulate to foul the terrestrial environment are rendered harmless. Since time immemorial, humans and other animals have been dying of all manner of disease and have then been buried in the soil, yet no major disease is transmitted by it. The term antibiotic was coined by soil microbiologists who, as a consequence of their studies of soil bacteria and actinomycetes, discovered streptomycin (an important cure for tuberculosis and other infections). Ion exchange, a useful process of water purification, also was discovered by soil scientists studying the passage of solutes through beds of clay. However unique in form and function, soil is not an isolated body. It is, rather, a central link in the larger chain of interconnected domains and processes comprising the terrestrial environment. The soil interacts both with the overlying atmosphere and the underlying strata, as well as with surface and underground bodies of water. Especially important is the interrelation between the soil and the climate. In addition to its function of regulating the cycle of water, it also regulates energy exchange and surface temperature. When virgin land is cleared of vegetation and turned into a cultivated field, the native biomass above the ground is often burned and the organic matter within the soil tends to decompose. These processes release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, thus contributing to the earth’s greenhouse effect and to global warming. On the other hand, the opposite act of reforestation and soil enrichment with organic matter, such as can be achieved by means of conservation management, may serve to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. To an extent, the soil’s capacity to store carbon can thus help to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Thousands of years are required for nature to create life-giving soil out of sterile bedrock. In only a few decades, however, unknowing or uncaring humans can destroy that wondrous work of nature. In various circumstances, mismanaged soils may be subject to erosion (the sediments of which tend to clog streambeds, estuaries, lakes, and coastal waters), to leaching of nutrients with attendant loss of fertility and eutrophication of water bodies, to waterlogging and impaired aeration, or to an excessive accumulation of salts that may cause a once-productive soil to become entirely sterile. Such processes of soil degradation, sometimes called ‘desertification,’ already affect large areas of land. We cannot manage effectively and sustainably that which we do not know and thoroughly understand. That is why the tasks of developing and disseminating sound knowledge of the soil and its complex processes have assumed growing urgency and importance. The global environmental crisis has created a compelling need for a concentrated, concise, and definitive source of information – accessible to students, scientists, practitioners, and the general public – about the soil in all its manifestations – in nature and in relation to the life of humans.

Daniel Hillel

Editor-in-Chief

May 2004

INTRODUCTION

The Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment contains nearly 300 articles, written by the world’s leading authorities. Pedologists, biologists, ecologists, earth scientists, hydrologists, climatologists, geographers, and representatives from many other disciplines have contributed to this work. Each of the articles separately, and all of them in sequence and combination, serve to summarize and encapsulate our present knowledge of the world’s variegated soils, their natural functions, and their importance to humans. Concise articles surveying specific aspects of soils (soil genesis, soil chemistry and mineralogy, soil physics and hydrology, and soil biology) are complemented by articles covering transdisciplinary aspects, such as the role of soils in ecology, the history of soil utilization for agricultural and engineering purposes, the develop- ment of soil science as a discipline, and the potential or actual contributions of soils to the generation, as well as to the mitigation, of pollution and of global climate change. This comprehensive reference encompasses both the fundamental and the applied aspects of soil science, interfacing in general with the physical sciences and life sciences and more specifically with the earth sciences and environmental sciences. The Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment manifests the expanding scope of modern soil science, from its early sectarian focus on the utilitarian attributes of soils in agriculture and engineering, to a wider and much more inclusive view of the soil as a central link in the continuous chain of processes constituting the dynamic environment as a whole. Thus it both details and integrates a set of topics that have always been of vital importance to human societies and that are certain to be even more so in the future.

Daniel Hillel

Editor-in-Chief

May 2004

CONTENTS

Contents are given as follows: CHAPTER NAME Author(s) Page number

A

VOLUME 1

ACID RAIN AND SOIL ACIDIFICATION L Blake 1

ACIDITY N Bolan, D Curtin and D Adriano 11

AERATION D E Rolston 17

AGGREGATION

Microbial Aspects S D Frey 22

Physical Aspects J R Nimmo 28 AGROFORESTRY P K R Nair 35

AIR PHASE see AERATION; DIFFUSION

ALBEDO see ENERGY BALANCE; RADIATION BALANCE

ALLOPHANE AND IMOGOLITE see AMORPHOUS MATERIALS

ALLUVIUM AND ALLUVIAL SOILS J L Boettinger 45

ALUMINUM SPECIATION D R Parker 50

AMMONIA D E Kissel and M L Cabrera 56

AMORPHOUS MATERIALS J Harsh 64

ANAEROBIC SOILS P W Inglett, K R Reddy and R Corstanje 72

ANION EXCHANGE see CATION EXCHANGE

APPLICATIONS OF SOILS DATA P J Lawrence 78

ARCHAEA J E T McLain 88

ARCHEOLOGY IN RELATION TO SOILS J A Homburg 95

B

BACTERIA

Plant Growth-Promoting Y Bashan and L E de-Bashan 103

Soil L J Halverson 115 BACTERIOPHAGE M Radosevich, K E Williamson and K E Wommack 122

BIOCONTROL OF SOIL-BORNE PLANT DISEASES C E Pankhurst and J M Lynch 129

BIODIVERSITY D H Wall 136

BUFFERING CAPACITY B R James 142

BULK DENSITY see POROSITY AND PORE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION

C

CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN SOILS N Bolan, P Loganathan and S Saggar 149

CAPILLARITY D Or and M Tuller 155

CARBON CYCLE IN SOILS

Dynamics and Management C W Rice 164

Formation and Decomposition C A Cambardella 170

CARBON EMISSIONS AND SEQUESTRATION K Paustian 175

CATION EXCHANGE L M McDonald, V P Evangelou and M A Chappell 180

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA A P Schwab 189

CHEMICAL SPECIATION MODELS see SURFACE COMPLEXATION MODELING

CHERNOZEMS see GRASSLAND SOILS

CHILDS, ERNEST CARR E G Youngs 195

CIVILIZATION, ROLE OF SOILS D Hillel 199

CLASSIFICATION OF LAND USE see LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION

CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS R W Arnold 204

CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

Australian R W Fitzpatrick 211

FAO F O Nachtergaele 216

Russian, Background and Principles M Gerasimova 223

Russian, Evolution and Examples D Konyushkov 227

USA D J Brown 235

CLAY MINERALS D G Schulze 246

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS P Bullock 254

CLIMATE MODELS, ROLE OF SOIL P Smith 262

COLD-REGION SOILS C-L Ping 268

COLLOID-FACILITATED SORPTION AND TRANSPORT R Kretzschmar 276

COMPACTION J J H van den Akker and B Soane 285

COMPOST T L Richard 294

CONDITIONERS R E Sojka, J A Entry and W J Orts 301

CONSERVATION see EROSION: Water-Induced; Wind-Induced; SUSTAINABLE SOIL AND LAND

MANAGEMENT; TERRACES AND TERRACING CONSERVATION TILLAGE M R Carter 306

COVER CROPS L Edwards and J Burney 311

CROP ROTATIONS C A Francis 318

CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS L S Pereira and I Alves 322

CROP-RESIDUE MANAGEMENT D C Reicosky and A R Wilts 334

CRUSTS

Biological J Belnap 339

Structural R L Baumhardt and R C Schwartz 347

CULTIVATION AND TILLAGE M R Carter and E McKyes 356

D

DARCY’S LAW D Swartzendruber 363

DEGRADATION C J Ritsema, G W J van Lynden, V G Jetten and S M de Jong 370

DENITRIFICATION D A Martens 378

DESERTIFICATION D Hillel and C Rosenzweig 382

DIFFUSION T Addiscott and P Leeds-Harrison 389

DISINFESTATION A Gamliel and J Katan 394

DISPERSION see FLOCCULATION AND DISPERSION

DISSOLUTION PROCESSES, KINETICS K G Scheckel and C A Impellitteri 400

DRAINAGE, SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE N R Fausey 409

E

EARTHWORMS see FAUNA

EDAPHOLOGY A L Ulery 419

ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE see ELECTRON-SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

ELECTRON-SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY N Senesi and G S Senesi 426

ELECTROSTATIC DOUBLE-LAYER see CATION EXCHANGE

ENERGY BALANCE M Fuchs 438

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING P J Loveland and P H Bellamy 441

ENZYMES IN SOILS R P Dick and E Kandeler 448

EROSION

Irrigation-Induced G A Lehrsch, D L Bjorneberg and R E Sojka 456

Water-Induced J E Gilley 463

Wind-Induced T M Zobeck and R S Van Pelt 470

ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS E A Kirkby 478

EUTROPHICATION A J Gold and J T Sims 486

EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM BARE SOIL C W Boast and F W Simmons 494

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION G Stanhill 502

F

FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION

Biota A H Jahren 507

Climate O C Spaargaren and J A Deckers 512

Human Impacts J Sandor, C L Burras and M Thompson 520

Parent Material K R Olson 532

Time E F Kelly and C M Yonker 536

FAUNA T Winsome 539

VOLUME 2

FERTIGATION U Kafkafi and S Kant 1

FERTILITY J L Havlin 10

FERTILIZERS AND FERTILIZATION H W Scherer 20

FIELD CAPACITY see WATER CYCLE

FLOCCULATION AND DISPERSION I Shainberg and G J Levy 27

FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY N Senesi and V D’Orazio 35

FOLIAR APPLICATIONS OF NUTRIENTS M Tagliavini and M Toselli 53

FOOD-WEB INTERACTIONS P C de Ruiter and J C Moore 59

FORENSIC APPLICATIONS W F Rowe 67

FOREST SOILS J R Boyle 73

FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY D Peak 80

FRACTAL ANALYSIS Y Pachepsky and J W Crawford 85

FREEZING AND THAWING

Cycles B Sharratt 98

Processes G N Flerchinger, G A Lehrsch and D K McCool 104

FUNGI K Ritz 110

G

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS J Bo¨hner, T Selige and R Ko¨the 121

GERMINATION AND SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT A Hadas 130

GLOBAL WARMING see CARBON EMISSIONS AND SEQUESTRATION; CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS;

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

GRASSLAND SOILS J A Mason and C W Zanner 138

GREEN MANURING see COVER CROPS

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS K A Smith 145

GROUNDWATER AND AQUIFERS Y Bachmat 153

GROUNDWATER POLLUTION see POLLUTION: Groundwater

H

HEAT AND MOISTURE TRANSPORT R Horton and A Globus 169

HEAT CAPACITY see THERMAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES

HEAT FLOW see THERMAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES

HEAVY METALS D C Adriano, N S Bolan, J Vangronsveld and W W Wenzel 175

HILGARD, EUGENE WOLDEMAR R Amundson 182

HOOGHOUDT, SYMEN BAREND P A C Raats and R R van der Ploeg 188

HUMIFICATION T C Balser 195

HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES, TEMPERATURE EFFECTS S A Grant 207

HYDRIC SOILS G W Hurt 212

HYDROCARBONS P Kostecki, R Morrison and J Dragun 217

HYDRODYNAMIC DISPERSION see SOLUTE TRANSPORT

HYDRODYNAMICS IN SOILS T P A Ferre´ and A W Warrick 227

HYSTERESIS J H Dane and R J Lenhard 231

I

IMMISCIBLE FLUIDS R J Lenhard, J H Dane and M Oostrom 239

INCEPTISOLS A Palmer 248

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION see POLLUTION: Industrial

INFILTRATION T P A Ferre´ and A W Warrick 254

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY see FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

IRON NUTRITION K Mengel and H Kosegarten 260

IRRIGATION

Environmental Effects S Topcu and C Kirda 267

Methods D L Bjorneberg and R E Sojka 273

ISOTOPES IN SOIL AND PLANT INVESTIGATIONS K Reichardt and O O S Bacchi 280

ISOTROPY AND ANISOTROPY T-C J Yeh, P Wierenga, R Khaleel and R J Glass 285

J

K

KELLOGG, CHARLES J D Helms 301

KINETIC MODELS P M Jardine 307

KIRKHAM, DON D R Nielsen and R R van der Ploeg 315

L

LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW see HYDRODYNAMICS IN SOILS

LANDFILLS see WASTE DISPOSAL ON LAND: Municipal

LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION J A LaGro Jr 321

LAWES, JOHN BENNET AND GILBERT, JOSEPH HENRY A E Johnston 328

LEACHING PROCESSES B E Clothier and S Green 336

LIEBIG, JUSTUS VON R R van der Ploeg, W Bo¨hm and M B Kirkham 343

LIMING E J Kamprath and T J Smyth 350

LIPMAN, JACOB G. J C F Tedrow 358

LOESS A J Busacca and M R Sweeney 364

LOWDERMILK, WALTER CLAY J D Helms 373

LYSIMETRY T A Howell 379

M

MACRONUTRIENTS C W Wood, J F Adams and B H Wood 387

MACROPORES AND MACROPORE FLOW, KINEMATIC WAVE APPROACH P F Germann 393

MAGNESIUM IN SOILS see CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN SOILS

MANURE MANAGEMENT J T Sims and R O Maguire 402

MARBUT, CURTIS FLETCHER J P Tandarich 410

MATRIC POTENTIAL see HYDRODYNAMICS IN SOILS; WATER POTENTIAL; WATER RETENTION

AND CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

MEDITERRANEAN SOILS J Torrent 418

METAL OXIDES A C Scheinost 428

METALS AND METALLOIDS, TRANSFORMATION BY MICROORGANISMS S M Glasauer,

T J Beveridge, E P Burford, F A Harper and G M Gadd 438

METALS, HEAVY see HEAVY METALS

MICROBIAL PROCESSES

Environmental Factors P G Hartel 448

CommunityAnaly sis C H Nakatsu 455

Kinetics N S Panikov 463

MICRONUTRIENTS L M Shuman 479

MINERAL–ORGANIC–MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS P M Huang, M C Wang and M K Wang 486

MINERALS, PRIMARY P M Huang and M K Wang 500

MINERALS, SECONDARY see CLAY MINERALS

MINIMUM TILLAGE see CONSERVATION TILLAGE

MISCIBLE DISPLACEMENT see SOLUTE TRANSPORT

MORPHOLOGY P R Owens and E M Rutledge 511

MULCHES C L Acharya, K M Hati and K K Bandyopadhyay 521

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI L M Egerton-Warburton, J I Querejeta, M F Allen and S L Finkelman 533

N

VOLUME 3

NEMATODES D A Neher and T O Powers 1

NEUTRON SCATTERING M J Fayer and G W Gee 6

NITROGEN IN SOILS

Cycle M S Coyne and W W Frye 13

Nitrates D S Powlson and T M Addiscott 21

Nitrification J I Prosser 31

Plant Uptake A Hodge 39

Symbiotic Fixation J I Sprent 46 NITROGEN FERTILIZERS see FERTILIZERS AND FERTILIZATION

NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL G W Gee, P D Meyer and A L Ward 56

NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY N K Fageria and V C Baligar 63

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT G D Binford 71

O

ORGANIC FARMING C A Francis 77

ORGANIC MATTER

Principles and Processes M Schnitzer 85

Genesis and Formation K M Haider and G Guggenberger 93

Interactions with Metals N Senesi and E Loffredo 101

ORGANIC RESIDUES, DECOMPOSITION A J Franzluebbers 112

ORGANIC SOILS D L Mokma 118

OVERLAND FLOW T S Steenhuis, L Agnew, P Ge´rard-Marchant and M T Walter 130

OXIDATION–REDUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS C J Matocha 133

P

PADDY SOILS C Witt and S M Haefele 141

PARENT MATERIAL see PEDOLOGY: Basic Principles; FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION: Parent Material

PEDOLOGY

Basic Principles M J Singer 151

PEDOMETRICS I O A Odeh and A B McBratney 166

PENMAN, HOWARD LATIMER J L Monteith 176

PENMAN–MONTEITH EQUATION R Allen 180

PERCOLATION see HYDRODYNAMICS IN SOILS

PERMAFROST see POLAR SOILS

PERMEABILITY see HYDRODYNAMICS IN SOILS

PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPS) see POLLUTANTS: Persistent Organic (POPs)

PESTICIDES R H Bromilow 188

PETROLEUM see HYDROCARBONS

pH N Bolan and K Kandaswamy 196

PHOSPHORUS IN SOILS

Overview J T Sims and P A Vadas 202

Biological Interactions M D Mullen 210

PHYTOTOXIC SUBSTANCES IN SOILS M Qadir, S Schubert and D Steffens 216

PLANT–SOIL–WATER RELATIONS R A Feddes and J C van Dam 222

PLANT–WATER RELATIONS C Gimenez, M Gallardo and R B Thompson 231

POISEUILLE’S LAW see HYDRODYNAMICS IN SOILS

POLAR SOILS J C F Tedrow 239

POLLUTANTS

Biodegradation P B Hatzinger and J W Kelsey 250

Effects on Microorganisms M E Fuller 258

Persistent Organic (POPs) D Johnson 264

POLLUTION

Groundwater H Rubin 271

Industrial S P McGrath 282 POLYMERS AND MICROORGANISMS M C Rillig 287

POORLY CRYSTALLINE ALLUMINOSILICATES see AMORPHOUS MATERIALS

POROSITY AND PORE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION J R Nimmo 295

POTASSIUM IN SOILS P M Huang, J M Zhou, J C Xie and M K Wang 303

PRECIPITATION–DISSOLUTION PROCESSES W P Robarge 322

PRECISION AGRICULTURE see SITE-SPECIFIC SOIL MANAGEMENT

PREFERENTIAL FLOW see UNSTABLE FLOW; MACROPORES AND MACROPORE FLOW,

KINEMATIC WAVE APPROACH PRODUCTIVITY D L Karlen 330

PROFILE see MORPHOLOGY

PROTOZOA W Foissner 336

Q

QUALITY OF SOIL B J Wienhold, G E Varvel and J W Doran 349

R

RADIATION BALANCE J L Hatfield, T J Sauer and J H Prueger 355

RADIONUCLIDES see ISOTOPES IN SOIL AND PLANT INVESTIGATIONS

RAINFED FARMING see DRYLAND FARMING

RANGE MANAGEMENT G L Anderson 360

RECYCLING OF ORGANIC WASTES see POLLUTANTS: Biodegradation

REDISTRIBUTION see WATER CYCLE

REDOX POTENTIAL R D DeLaune and K R Reddy 366

REDOX REACTIONS, KINETICS P S Nico and S Fendorf 372

REMEDIATION OF POLLUTED SOILS E Lombi and R E Hamon 379

REMOTE SENSING

Organic Matter D K Morris, C J Johannsen, S M Brouder and G C Steinhardt 385

Soil Moisture T J Jackson 392

RHIZOSPHERE A C Kennedy and L Z de Luna 399

RICHARDS, LORENZO A. W R Gardner 407

ROOT ARCHITECTURE AND GROWTH L E Jackson 411

ROOT EXUDATES AND MICROORGANISMS B-J Koo, D C Adriano, N S Bolan and C D Barton 421

S

SALINATION PROCESSES I Shainberg and G J Levy 429

SALINITY

Management D Hillel 435

Physical Effects D Russo 442

SALT BALANCE OF SOILS see SALINATION PROCESSES

SALT-AFFECTED SOILS, RECLAMATION R Keren 454

SAND DUNES H Tsoar 462

SATURATED AND UNSATURATED FLOW see HYDRODYNAMICS IN SOILS; VADOSE ZONE: Hydrologic Processes

SCALING

Physical Properties and Processes G Sposito 472

Transport Processes R P Ewing 477

SEPTIC SYSTEMS R L Lavigne 485

SHIFTING CULTIVATION R Lal 488

SITE-SPECIFIC SOIL MANAGEMENT C J Johannsen and P G Carter 497

SLASH AND BURN AGRICULTURE see SHIFTING CULTIVATION

SLUDGE see WASTE DISPOSAL ON LAND: Liquid; Municipal

SODIC SOILS G J Levy and I Shainberg 504

SOIL–PLANT–ATMOSPHERE CONTINUUM J M Norman and M C Anderson 513

SOLUTE TRANSPORT M C Sukop and E Perfect 521

SORPTION

Metals D L Sparks 532

Organic Chemicals B Xing and J J Pignatello 537

Oxyanions C P Schulthess, H Wijnja and W Yang 548 SORPTION–DESORPTION, KINETICS D L Sparks 556

SPATIAL PATTERNS J H Go¨rres and J A Amador 562

VOLUME 4

SPATIAL VARIATION, SOIL PROPERTIES R Webster 1

SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA K D Pennell 13

STATISTICS IN SOIL SCIENCE R Webster 19

STERILIZATION see DISINFESTATION

STOCHASTIC ANALYSIS OF SOIL PROCESSES D Russo 29

STRESS–STRAIN AND SOIL STRENGTH S K Upadhyaya 38

STRUCTURE V A Snyder and M A Va´zquez 54

SUBSOILING R L Raper 69

SULFUR IN SOILS

Overview M A Tabatabai 76

Biological Transformations S D Siciliano and J J Germida 85

Nutrition M A Tabatabai 91

SURFACE COMPLEXATION MODELING S Goldberg 97

SUSTAINABLE SOIL AND LAND MANAGEMENT J L Berc 108

SWELLING AND SHRINKING D Smiles and P A C Raats 115

T

TEMPERATE REGION SOILS E A Nater 125

TEMPERATURE REGIME see THERMAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES

TENSIOMETRY T K Tokunaga 131

TERMITES see FAUNA

TERRA ROSSA see MEDITERRANEAN SOILS

TERRACES AND TERRACING G R Foster 135

TESTING OF SOILS A P Mallarino 143

TEXTURE G W Gee 149

THERMAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES D Hillel 156

THERMODYNAMICS OF SOIL WATER P H Groenevelt 163

TILLAGE see CONSERVATION TILLAGE; CULTIVATION AND TILLAGE; ZONE TILLAGE

TILTH D L Karlen 168

TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY G C Topp and T P A Ferre´ 174

TROPICAL SOILS

Arid and Semiarid H C Monger, J J Martinez-Rios and S A Khresat 182

Humid Tropical S W Buol 187

U

UNSTABLE FLOW T S Steenhuis, J-Y Parlange, Y-J Kim, D A DiCarlo, J S Selker, P A Nektarios,

D A Barry and F Stagnitti 197

URBAN SOILS J L Morel, C Schwartz, L Florentin and C de Kimpe 202

V

VADOSE ZONE

Hydrologic Processes J W Hopmans and M Th van Genuchten 209

Microbial Ecology P A Holden and N Fierer 216

VIRUSES see BACTERIOPHAGE

VOLCANIC SOILS G Uehara 225

W

WAKSMAN, SELMAN A. H B Woodruff 233

WASTE DISPOSAL ON LAND

Liquid C P Gerba 238

Municipal D A C Manning 247

WATER AVAILABILITY see PLANT–SOIL–WATER RELATIONS

WATER CONTENT AND POTENTIAL, MEASUREMENT G S Campbell and C S Campbell 253

WATER CYCLE D K Cassel and B B Thapa 258

WATER EROSION see EROSION: Water-Induced

WATER HARVESTING D Hillel 264

WATER MANAGEMENT see CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS

WATER POTENTIAL D Or, M Tuller and J M Wraith 270

WATER REQUIREMENTS see CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS

WATER RETENTION AND CHARACTERISTIC CURVE M Tuller and D Or 278

WATER TABLE see GROUNDWATER AND AQUIFERS

WATER, PROPERTIES D Hillel 290

WATER-REPELLENT SOILS J Letey 301

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT M D Tomer 306

WATER-USE EFFICIENCY M B Kirkham 315

WEED MANAGEMENT D D Buhler 323

WETLANDS, NATURALLY OCCURRING E K Hartig 328

WIDTSOE, JOHN A. AND GARDNER, WILLARD G S Campbell and W H Gardner 335

WIND EROSION see EROSION: Wind-Induced

WINDBREAKS AND SHELTERBELTS E S Takle 340

WOMEN IN SOIL SCIENCE (USA) M J Levin 345

WORLD SOIL MAP H Eswaran and P F Reich 352

Z

ZERO-CHARGE POINTS J Chorover 367

ZONE TILLAGE J L Hatfield and A T Jeffries 373

Table of Contents, Volume 3

N

1

 

Nematodes

1

Introduction - Life in a Soil Pore

1

Nematode Distribution and Abundance

3

Physiology

4

Ecology

4

Monitoring

5

Further Reading

5

Neutron Scattering

6

Introduction

6

Theory and Instrumentation

6

Field Methodology

9

Calibration

10

Applications

11

Safety and Care

11

Future Use

12

Further Reading

12

Nitrogen In Soils

13

Cycle

13

Introduction

13

Properties and Forms of Nitrogen in Soil

13

N-Cycling Pathways

13

Mineralization (Ammonification)

14

Assimilation (Immobilization)

14

Nitrification

14

Autotrophic nitrification

14

Heterotrophic nitrification

14

Nitrate Reduction

15

Denitrification

15

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium

15

N2 Fixation

15

Fixed (Nonexchangeable) Ammonium

15

Regulation and Environmental Control

16

Cellular and Environmental Regulators of N Transformations

16

Chemical Regulators of N Transformations

17

Routes of N Loss From the Environment

17

Reductive Losses

17

Oxidative Losses

17

Volatilization

17

Interaction of N with Soil Organic Matter

18

Management Practices to Decrease N Losses

18

Nitrification inhibitors

18

Urease inhibitors

19

Environmental and Health Consequences of N Cycling

19

Global Warming and Ozone Destruction

19

Nutrient Losses

20

Groundwater Quality

20

Conclusion

20

List of Technical Nomenclature

20

Further Reading

20

Nitrates

21

Chemical Structure and Physical Properties

23

Biological Transformations in Soil

23

Forms of Nitrogen Fertilizer

24

Management of Nitrate in Agriculture

24

Loss of Nitrate from Fertilizer During the Crop-Growing Period

24

Losses of Nitrate Derived from Soil or Fertilizer Outside the Main Crop Growth Period

26

Improving the Management of Inorganic Fertilizer

27

Regulations Affecting N Use in Agriculture

29

Nitrate and Health

29

Stomach Cancer

29

Methemoglobinemia (Blue-Baby Syndrome)

30

Beneficial Effects of Nitrate on Health

30

Impacts of Nitrate on Ecology of Surface Waters

30

Conclusions

30

Further Reading

31

Nitrification

31

Introduction

31

Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria

32

Taxonomy

32

Biochemistry

32

Carbon Metabolism

32

Ammonia Oxidation under Anaerobic Conditions

33

Autotrophic Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria

33

Heterotrophic Nitrification

33

Analysis of Nitrifiers and Nitrification

34

Nitrification Activity and Rates

34

Enumeration

34

Enrichment and Isolation

35

Soil Communities and Diversity

35

Influence of Soil Characteristics on Ammonia-Oxidizer Communities

36

Soil pH

36

Nitrogen Fertilization

37

Inhibition of Soil Nitrification

38

Summary

38

Further Reading

38

Plant Uptake

39

Introduction

39

Plant-Microbial Competition for N

39

Inorganic N

40

Plant Inorganic N Uptake and Rhizosphere pH

41

Organic N

41

Root Responses

42

Mycorrhizal Contribution to Plant N Uptake

45

Further Reading

46

Symbiotic Fixation

46

Introduction

46

Cyanobacterial Symbioses

46

Lichens

46

Bryophytes

48

Ferns

48

Cycads

49

Angiosperms

49

Nodulated Angiosperms

50

Actinorhizal Plants

52

Legumes

53

The Importance of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses to Soil Fertility

55

Further Reading

55

Nuclear Waste Disposal

56

 

Introduction

56

Categories

56

High-Level Waste

56

Transuranic Waste

57

Low-Level Waste

57

Uranium Mill Tailings

57

Mixed Waste

57

Waste Inventories and Environmental Discharges

58

Radiation Exposures

58

Waste Storage and Disposition

58

Environmental Uncertainties

60

Summary

62

Further Reading

63

Nutrient Availability

63

Introduction

63

Essential Nutrients for Plant Growth and Their Functions

64

Diagnostic Techniques for Nutrient Availability

65

Visual Symptoms

66

Soil Testing

67

Plant Analysis

68

Crop Growth Response

70

Summary

70

Further Reading

71

Nutrient Management

71

Introduction

71

Nutrient-Management Planning

72

Step 1: Creating Maps

72

Step 2: Nutrients Required by Crops or Plants

72

Step 3: Inventory of Available Nutrients on the Operation

73

Step 4: Nutrient Balance

74

Step 5: Emergency Action Plan

75

Step 6: Record Keeping

75

Summary

75

Further Reading

75

O

77

 

Organic Farming

77

Introduction

77

Building Soil Fertility

78

Protecting Plants against Pests

80

Conversion to Organic Production and Certification

81

Biodynamic Farming, Biological Farming, and Integrated Systems

82

Marketing and Consumption of Organic Products

82

Future Perspectives for Organic Farming and Foods

83

Further Reading

84

Organic Matter

85

Principles and Processes

85

Introduction

85

Extraction and Fractionation of Humic Substances

85

Extraction of Humic Substances from Soils

85

Fractionation of Extracted Humic Substances

85

In Situ Analysis of SOM

85

Analytical Characteristics of HAs and FAs

86

Elemental Composition and Functional Group Content

86

Infrared and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry

86

Chemical Structure of SOM

86

13C NMR Spectroscopy

86

Electron-Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

87

Oxidative Degradation

88

Reductive Degradation

88

Pyrolysis-Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry of HAs, FAs, and Humins

88

Curie-Point Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry of HAs and FAs

88

Other Characteristics

89

Model Structures of HA

89

Two- and Three-Dimensional Model Structures of HA

89

Reactions of SOM with Metals and Organics

90

Formation of Water-Soluble Metal-Organic Complexes

90

Other Types of Metal SOM Interactions

91

Nitrogen in Soils and SOM

91

Phosphorus and Sulfur in Soils and SOM

92

Interactions of SOM with Pesticides and Herbicides

92

List of Technical Nomenclature

92

Further Reading

92

Genesis and Formation

93

Introduction

93

Soil Fabric and its Impact on SOM Stabilization

93

Transformation and Stabilization Processes of Free and Occluded Particulate Organic Matter

93

Stabilization of SOM by Sequestration in Microporous Structures or on Hydrophobic Surfaces

94

Chemical Information About Organic Matter in Aggregates and Organomineral Complexes

96

Stabilization of SOM by Humification

97

Biochemical Stabilization Mechanisms of Main Components from Plant Residues in SOM

98

Polysaccharide-related materials

98

Lignin-related materials

98

Impact and Function of the Soil Microflora in Relation to SOM Stability

99

Further Reading

100

Interactions with Metals

101

Introduction

101

Molecular and Mechanistic Aspects

101

Metal Reactivity, SOM Binding Sites, and Complexation Stoichiometry

101

Experimental Evidence

102

IR, UV-VIS, and fluorescence spectroscopies

102

ESR, XAS, Mossbauer, and NMR spectroscopies

104

Quantitative Aspects

107

Metal-Binding Capacity of HS

107

Stability Constants and Related Parameters of Metal-HS Complexes

108

Modeling and Models

110

Experimental Methods

110

List of Technical Nomenclature

111

Further Reading

112

Organic Residues, Decomposition

112

Introduction

112

Types of Organic Residues

112

Environmental Factors

114

Organism Interactions

116

Nutrient Cycling

116

Future Advances

117

List of Technical Nomenclature

117

Further Reading

118

 

Organic Soils

118

Introduction

118

Formation

118

Parent Materials

119

Topography

119

Organisms

119

Climate

119

Time

119

Distribution

120

Utilization

121

Classification

128

Further Reading

129

Overland Flow

130

Introduction

130

Saturation-Excess Overland Flow

130

Calculation Method

131

Water Quality Impacts of Variable Source Area Hydrology

132

Further Reading

132

Oxidation-Reduction of Contaminants

133

Introduction

133

Redox Status of Reactive Fe and Mn Species

133

Kinetics and Mechanism

134

Inorganic Contaminants

135

Manganese as an Oxidant

135

Fe(II) as a Reductant

136

Organic Contaminants

137

Background

137

Oxidation and Reduction in Soil Organic Matter

137

Manganese and Iron as Oxidants

138

Adsorbed Fe(II) as a Reductant

139

Further Reading

139

P

141

 

Paddy Soils

141

Introduction

141

Cropping Environments in Asia’s Lowlands

141

Distribution and Important Characteristics of Paddy Soils

142

Paddy Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management

144

Lowland Rice Systems and Declining Water Availability

147

Sustainability and Environmental Issues

147

Summary

149

List of Technical Nomenclature

149

Further Reading

150

Pedology

151

Basic Principles

151

Introduction

151

History

151

Overview

152

Soil Classification

152

Soil Genesis

153

Soil Morphology

154

Soil Mapping

155

Summary

155

List of Technical Nomenclature

155

Acknowledgments

156

Further Reading

156

Dynamic

156

Early Stages of Soil Development on Recent Volcanic Ejecta

157

Migration of Particles in the Process of Podzolization

158

Evidence of Catastrophic Events and Horizon Inversion

159

Effects of Species Substitution

160

Impact of Burial by Volcanic Ash on Preeruption Soils

161

Testing New Theories of Soil Formation

162

Summary

164

List of Technical Nomenclature

165

Further Reading

165

Pedometrics

166

Introduction

166

Methods and Problems

166

Pedometrics: Principles and Hypotheses

166

Soil Measurements and Properties

167

Soil color and spectroradiometry

167

Field properties: hard and fuzzy descriptors?

167

Pedotransfer functions

168

Quantitative Soil Geography - Classification Models

168

Soil Classification and Soil Map Units

168

Fuzzy classes and the breakdown of the classification paradigm

170

Spatial Prediction of Soil Classes

170

The corpt approach

170

Spatial Prediction of Soil Attributes

171

The scorpan approach

171

Geostatistics

171

The hybrid of scorpan and geostatistics

172

Soil Utility and Quality

173

Land Evaluation, Soil Quality, and Soil Utility

173

Recent Advances: Quantitative Pedogenesis

173

Process Models

173

Further Reading

175

Penman, Howard Latimer

176

Further Reading

179

Penman-Monteith Equation

180

Derivation of the Penman-Monteith Equation

180

Other Parameters in the Penman-Monteith Equation

183

Aerodynamic and Surface Parameters

183

Parameterization of Surface Resistance

184

Multilayer ET Models

185

Net Radiation

185

Soil Heat Flux

186

Application of the Penman-Monteith Equation

186

Further

Reading

187

Pesticides

188

Introduction

188

Physicochemical Properties of Pesticides

189

Persistence in Soil

190

Loss Processes and Factors of Influence

190

Methods for Studying Pesticide Breakdown

192

Sorption of Pesticides by Soil

192

Movement of Pesticides in Soil

193

Uptake of Pesticides from Soil by Plants

194

Effects on Soil Processes

194

List of Technical Nomenclature

195

Further Reading

195

Introduction

196

Theoretical Basis of pH

196

Measurement of pH

196

Potentiometric Method

197

Determination of pH Using pH-Sensitive Dyes

198

Measurement of Soil pH

199

Factors Affecting Soil pH

200

Carbon Dioxide

200

Salt Effect

200

Suspension Effect

200

Importance of Soil pH

201

Summary

201

Further Reading

201

Phosphorus in Soils

202

Overview

202

Introduction

202

The Soil Phosphorus Cycle

202

Major Forms of Phosphorus in Soils

202

Overview of Soil Phosphorus Cycling and Transformations

203

Phosphorus Additions to Soils

203

Phosphorus Losses from Soils

204

Soil Phosphorus Management

204

Soil Testing for Phosphorus

204

Characteristics of Phosphorus Fertilizer Sources

204

Nutrient Management Practices for Phosphorus

205

Soil and Water Conservation Practices for Phosphorus

207

Plant Cover, Crop Rotation, and Strip Cropping

207

Companion Crops, Cover Crops, Green Manures, and Crop Residues

207

Conservation Tillage, Contour Cultivation, and Deep Plowing

208

Terraces, Vegetated Waterways, and Buffer Strips

208

Innovations in Soil Phosphorus Management

208

Animal Feed Formulations

208

Soil and Manure Testing

208

Soil and Manure Amendments

208

Water-Quality Modeling and the Phosphorus Index

209

Further Reading

209

Biological Interactions

210

Introduction

210

Forms of Soil Phosphorus

210

The Phosphorus Cycle

212

Mineralization and Immobilization of P

213

Microbial Solubilization of Inorganic P

213

P-Solubilizing Microorganisms and Plant Growth

214

Phosphorus and the Environment

215

Further Reading

215

Phytotoxic Substances in Soils

216

Introduction

216

Pesticides

216

Metals and Metalloids

217

Soil Acidity and Aluminum and Manganese Toxicity

218

Soil Flooding and Manganese and Iron Toxicity

219

Soil Salinity and Sodium Toxicity

220

Remediation Strategies for Phytotoxic Substances

220

Further Reading

222

Plant-Soil-Water Relations

222

Introduction

222

Liquid Water Flow Inside the Plant

223

Measurement of Root Water Uptake

225

Modeling Root Water Uptake in Ecologic, Hydrologic, and Atmospheric Communities

227

Ecologic Communities: Detailed Radial Root Model

227

Hydrologic Communities: General Root System Model

228

Atmospheric Communities: Large-Scale Root System Model

229

Further Reading

230

Plant-Water Relations

231

Introduction

231

Water in Plants

231

Plant Water Status Indicators

232

Direct Indicators of Plant Water Status

232

Relative water content

232

Water potential and components

232

Indirect Indicators of Plant Water Status

233

Stomatal conductance

233

Stem diameter variations

233

Sap flow

233

Leaf or canopy temperature

234

Other Methods

234

Water Deficits in Plants

234

Expansive Growth

235

Stomatal Responses

235

Root Signals

236

Applications of Plant-Water Relations to Irrigation Scheduling

236

Further Reading

238

Polar Soils

239

Introduction

239

Climate

239

Biotic Factors

239

Permafrost

239

Soil Development and Classification

240

Systems of Classification

240

Tundra Zone

241

Polar Desert Zone

242

Subpolar Desert Zone

244

Patterned Ground

244

Cold Desert Zone

245

Further Reading

249

Pollutants

250

Biodegradation

250

Introduction

250

Biodegradation

250

Aerobic Transformation Processes

251

Anaerobic Transformation Processes

252

Chemical Properties Affecting Biodegradation

253

Environmental Factors Affecting Biodegradation

254

Bioavailability

254

Sorption

254

Entrapment within the soil matrix

255

Nonaqueous-phase liquid

256

Nutrient Availability

256

pH

256

Temperature

256

Water Content

256

Presence of Appropriate Microorganisms

257

Predation

257

Presence of Other Compounds

257

Summary

257

Further Reading

258

Effects on Microorganisms

258

Introduction

258

Types of Effects

258

Microbial Community Composition

258

General

258

Specific

259

Microbial Community Function

260

General

260

Specific

260

Effects of Different Classes of Pollutants

262

Petroleum Products

262

Halogenated Compounds

262

Pesticides

262

Explosives

262

Metals

264

Further Reading

264

Persistent Organic (POPs)

264

Introduction

264

Persistent Organic Pollutants

265

Physicochemical Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Soils

265

Persistence and Aging Behavior of Organic Chemicals in Soils

265

The 'Aging' of Persistent Organic Pollutants Within Soils

266

Mechanisms Contributing to the Persistence of Organic Chemicals in Soils

267

Sorption-Related Mechanisms

267

Sorption Retarded Intraparticle Diffusion

267

Intraorganic Matter Diffusion

269

The (Bio)availability of Organic Chemicals in Soils

269

Availability to Plants

270

Availability to Soil Microflora

270

Grazing Animals

270

Availability to Earthworms

270

Further Reading

271

Pollution

271

Groundwater

271

Introduction

271

Association of Pollutant Transport with the Water Cycle

272

Simplified Mass Budget and Flux Balances in Phreatic Aquifers

274

Penetration of Solutes into the Phreatic Aquifer

277

Pollutant Transport in the Aquifer

277

Contamination of Groundwater by NAPLS

278

Summary

280

List of Technical Nomenclature

281

Further Reading

281

Industrial

282

Introduction

282

Origins of Industrial Pollution

283

Types of Pollutant

283

Inorganic Pollutants

284

Organic Pollutants

285

Examples of Pollutants

285

Legislative Controls on Pollution

285

Source-Pathway-Receptor Principle

285

Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Pollutants

286

Further Reading

287

Polymers and Microorganisms

287

Introduction

287

Extracellular Polymers: Definition and Overview

287

Hydrophobins: Secreted Fungal Proteins

289

Structure and Properties

289

Functions

289

Hydrophobins allow fungi to escape their aqueous environment

289

Glomalin: An Abundant Glycoproteinaceous Substance Produced by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

291

Properties

291

Functions

291

Soil aggregation

291

Role in the biology of AMF and symbiosis

292

Exopolysaccharides

292

Structure

292

Functions

292

EPS mediate attachment to roots

292

EPS as symbiotic signals: Rhizobium

292

Desiccation resistance

292

Soil aggregation

293

Alginate: a model system for EPS biology

293

Extracellular Lipid Compounds

294

Further Reading

294

Porosity and Pore-Size Distribution

295

Porosity

295

Porosity in Natural Soils

295

Measurement of Porosity

296

Pores and Pore-Size Distribution

296

The Nature of a Pore

296

Measurement

298

Representation

299

Typical Features of a Pore-Size Distribution

300

Significance to Soil and Water Behavior

300

Significance of Porosity

300

Significance of Pore-Size Distribution

300

Pore Dynamics

301

Applications to Soil Transport Properties

301

Summary

302

Further Reading

302

Potassium in Soils

303

Introduction

303

Forms of Soil Potassium

303

Solution K

303

Exchangeable K

303

Fixed K

304

Structural K

304

Ion Selectivity and Fixation of Potassium in Soils

304

Ion Selectivity

304

Mineralogical properties

304

Chemical properties

306

Fixation of Potassium

306

Potassium Release from Soils

307

Primary Minerals

307

Micas

307

Potassium-bearing feldspars

308

Natural Soils

309

Availability of Soil Potassium

309

Quantity/Intensity Relationships

309

The Rhizosphere Chemistry and Labile Pool of Soil Potassium

311

Assessing Potassium Availability by Soil Tests

312

Plant Analysis for Potassium

312

Further Reading

313

Precipitation, Watershed Analysis

314

Introduction

314

Measurement of Precipitation

314

Precipitation Sensing and Resolution

314

Precipitation-Measurement Representativeness

315

Characterization of Precipitation

316

Dry Times Between Storms

316

Storm Depths and Durations

317

Within-Storm Intensities and Mass Curves

317

Spatial

Variability

318

Watershed Response to Precipitation due to Physical Characteristics

319

Precipitation and Soil Variability

319

Watershed Processes

319

Watershed and Weather Modeling

320

Watershed-Precipitation Interactions

320

Watershed Models

320

Weather and Precipitation Modeling

320

Spatial Variability of Weather and Precipitation

321

Summary

321

Further Reading

321

Precipitation-Dissolution Processes

322

Introduction

322

Macroscale Processes

322

Ion Activity Products

323

Activity Diagrams

323

Microscale Processes

326

Precipitation

326

Dissolution

327

Rate law

328

Summary

328

Further Reading

329

Productivity

330

Introduction

330

Productivity Effects of the Inherent Soil-Forming Factors

330

Humankind’s Impact on Productivity

331

Soil Productivity Comparisons

333

Productivity Ratings

334

Processes Reducing Soil Productivity and Practices for Restoring It

334

Summary

336

Further Reading

336

Protozoa

336

Introduction

336

A Brief History of Soil Protozoology

337

Diversity and Biology

337

Diversity and Geographic Distribution

337

Morphological and Physiological Adaptations

337

 

Morphological adaptations

337

Physiological adaptations

338

Food and feeding

338

r/K-selection

338

Cysts

339

Anabiosis

341

Number and Biomass

341

Vertical and Horizontal Distribution

342

The 'Water Paradox'

343

Ecological Significance

343

Standing Crop, Respiration, and Annual Production

343

Mineralization and Plant Growth

344

Earthworm Growth

344

Protozoa as Bioindicators in Terrestrial Environments

345

Soil Protozoa as Indicators in Natural Ecosystems

345

Protozoa as Indicators in Reclaimed Open-Cast Coal Mining Areas

346

Protozoa as Indicators of Soil Decontamination

346

Effects of Biocides

346

Further Reading

347

Q

349

 

Quality of Soil

349

Introduction

349

Management Systems

349

Soil Quality Assessment

350

Soil Function-Soil Indicator Relationship

351

Summary

352

List of Technical Nomenclature

353

Further Reading

353

R

355

 

Radiation Balance

355

Incoming Solar Radiation

355

Albedo

356

Incoming Longwave Radiation

358

Terrestrial Longwave Radiation

358

Radiation Balance

358

Implications

359

Further Reading

359

Range Management

360

Introduction

360

What are Rangelands?

360

How Much Area is Covered by Rangelands?

360

What Determines How Rangelands are Managed?

360

Biological Diversity

362

Introduction of Undesirable Plant Species

362

The Role of Disturbance in Rangeland and Soil Health

364

Livestock Grazing

364

No Domestic Grazing

364

Domestic Grazing

364

Overgrazing

365

Summary

365

Further Reading

365

Redox Potential

366

Introduction

366

Theoretical Relationships

366

Redox-pH Relationships

366

Normal Limits of pH and Redox Potential (Eh) in the Environment

367

Aerobic and/or Anaerobic Redox Potential Range in the Environment

368

Redox Couples in Wetlands

368

Predicting Mineral Stability

369

Intensity and Capacity of Reduction

369

Intensity

369

Capacity

370

Redox Condition and Metal/Metalloid Chemistry

370

Measurement of Redox Potential

371

Further Reading

371

Redox Reactions, Kinetics

372

Kinetic Rate Laws

372

Integrated Rate Laws

373

Initial Rates

374

Pseudo nth-Order Reactions

375

Second-Order, Two-Reactant Rate Laws

375

Reaction Diagrams and Activation Energies

375

Reaction Mechanism (Rate-Limiting Step and Preequilibria)

376

Biologically Controlled Redox Reactions

377

Conclusion

378

Further Reading

378

Remediation of Polluted Soils

379

Introduction

379

Containment Versus Clean-Up Strategies

379

In Situ Versus Ex Situ Strategies

379

Physical Treatment Technologies

380

Excavation and Off-site Disposal (Ex Situ, Requires Ongoing Monitoring)

380

Dilution (In Situ or Ex Situ)

380

Capping and Encapsulation (In Situ, Requires Ongoing Monitoring)

380

Separation-Fractionation (Ex Situ)

380

Electrokinetic Separation (In Situ)

380

Soil-Flushing (In Situ)

381

Vitrification (In Situ or Ex Situ, Requires Ongoing Monitoring)

381

Solidification (In Situ or Ex Situ, Requires Ongoing Monitoring)

381

Incineration (Ex Situ)

381

Soil Vapor Extraction (In situ or Ex situ)

381

Photo-oxidation (Ex Situ)

381

Chemical Treatment Technologies

381

Monitored Natural Attenuation (In Situ, Requires Ongoing Monitoring) .381 Fixation-Stabilization (In Situ or Ex Situ, Requires Ongoing

Monitoring)

382

Chemical Oxidation-Reduction (Ex Situ, may Require Monitoring (Inorganics))

382

Aqueous and Solvent Extraction (Ex Situ)

382

Dehalogenation (Ex Situ)

382

Biological Treatment Technologies

383

Biodegradation Techniques (In Situ)

383

Composting and Biopiles, and Slurry-Phase Biological Treatment (Ex Situ)

383

Phytoremediation (In Situ)

383

Selection of Remediation Technologies and Future Directions

384

Further Reading

385

Remote Sensing

385

Organic Matter

385

Introduction

385

Mapping of Soils

386

Remote Sensing for Soil Mapping

387

Organic Matter Detection

388

The Future

391

Further Reading

392

Soil Moisture

392

Microwave Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture

392

Reflectivity and Soil Moisture

393

Passive Microwave Techniques

394

Active Microwave Methods

394

Aircraft Platforms and Application Example

395

Passive Microwave Satellite Observing Systems and Products

396

Special Satellite Microwave/Imager

396

Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager

397

Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

397

Future Passive Systems

398

Active Microwave Satellite Observing Systems

398

Current Active Systems

398

Future Active Systems

398

List of Technical Nomenclature

398

Further Reading

398

Rhizosphere

399

Introduction

399

Organisms in the Rhizosphere

400

Bacteria

400

Fungi

401

Fauna

401

Microfauna (protozoa)

401

Mesofauna (nematodes and microarthropods)

402

Interactions in the Rhizosphere

402

Dinitrogen-Fixation Symbiosis

402

Mycorrhizal Associations

402

Plant Growth-Promoting Organisms

403

Plant Growth-Inhibiting Organisms

403

Bioremediation

403

Biological Control

405

Summary

406

Further Reading

406

Richards, Lorenzo A

407

Further Reading

410

Root Architecture and Growth

411

Introduction

411

Description of Roots and Root Architecture

412

Tradeoffs in Root Form

413

Root Traits for Stress Tolerance

414

Genetic Analysis of Root Traits

418

Root Architectural Effects on Plant Communities and Ecosystem Processes

418

Further Reading

420

Root Exudates and Microorganisms

421

Introduction

421

Rhizosphere Microzone

421

Microorganisms and Structure of Microbial Communities in the Rhizosphere

422

Composition of Root Exudates

423

Collection and Quantitation of Root Exudates

424

Factors Affecting Root Exudates

424

 

Role of Root Exudates on Plant Nutrient and Metal Dynamics

425

Root Exudates and Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants

426

Summary

428

Acknowledgments

428

Further Reading

428

S

429

 

Salination Processes

429

Origin and Distribution of Saline Soils

429

Properties of Saline and Sodic Soils

429

Total Salt Concentration

430

Sodicity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio

430

Anionic Composition

431

Concentration of Elements Toxic to Plants

431

Response of Crops to Salinity

432

Response of Soils to Salinity and Sodicity

432

Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soils

433

Reclamation of Sodic Soils

433

Summary

434

Further Reading

434

Salinity

435

Management

435

Natural