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INTERNSHIP REPORT

JABBAR KHAN
INTERNSHIP REPORT

INTERNSHIP REPOT
AGRI TECH LIMITED (TARA UREA) ISKINDERABAD
MIANWALI

By

HAFIZ ABDUL JABBAR KHAN


BMTF13E053

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION


UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA, SARGODHA

JABBAR KHAN
INTERNSHIP REPORT

University College of engineering and technology

Department of technical education

Supervised Industrial Training

It is submitted that I have completed my internship at Agri Tech Limited ( Tara Urea)

Learning outcomes:
During internship duration I gained knowledge about following work on given

industrial work training. We get knowledge about the compressor and turbine. There were

obtained more benefits during internship period. . I have gained knowledge about pump. Due

to internship I improved my communication skills and field work.

Signature:
Name of student: Hafiz Abdul Jabbar Khan
Student Id: BMTF13E053

Signature:
Name of supervisor: Engr. Qasim Ali
Dated:

Counter Signed:
Head of departmenent

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

All prayers to ALLAH, the most Gracious and the most Beneficent. I am deeply grateful and
humble to Him for blessing me this opportunity of learning. All respects and honours for the
Holy Prophet MUHAMMAD (S.A.W.W), who forever is a torch of knowledge and symbol
of guidance for humanity. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I would
like to express my gratitude towards my parents & member of (Organization Name) for their
kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this project.

We would like to thank everyone who had contributed to the successful completion of this
internship. Addition, we would also like to express gratitude to our loving parents who have
consistently prayed for us to successfully complete this final year internship. I would also
thank full for Engineer Adnan sahib so cooperate to me.

I would also thank my Supervisor Engr. Qasim Ali for his support throughout internship for
consulting me how to gain knowledge on site and how to write this report in outstanding
manner. Before I finish I would like to give my deepest thanks to all workers from the
contractor and the consultant side starting from engineers to daily labourers.

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Summary:

The main aims of internship with in this industry was to investigate how a structure is maintain
within it a desired properties. We get knowledge about the basic and advanced techniques of
industries’ as well as saw the challenges which a mechanical engineer have to during
construction i.e. labour problems, environmental challenges. face The internship report
includes three chapters in which I have tried to explain my internship experience of four
months. All the contents in chapters are explained thoroughly as learnt from practical
experience gained at industrial site In first chapter, the details about hosting industry that
including industry background, major ongoing projects by company and company official
address are given in such relationship that reader can easily know and access industry. The
second chapter provides safety normal operation tool loading an unloading pumps single
loading pumps and double loading pumps centrifugal pumps pressure and head and different
types of pressure head and pumps efficacy positive displacement reciprocating pumps, rotarty
pumps operation theory. In third chapter detail about types of turbine compressor heat
exchanger conclusion and recommendation of industry.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter Title Page


Supervised Industrial Training i
Acknowledgments ii
Summary iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vi

Chapter #01 BACKGROUND OF INDUSTRY………………………..

1.1 Introduction………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Specialties…………………………………………………………………………..…… 2
1.3 Industry………………………………………................................................ 2
1.4 Type……………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.5 Headquarters…………………………………………………………………………….. 2
1.6 Company size…………………………………………………………………………….. 2
1.7 Mission statement …………………………………………………………………….. 2
1.8 C0mpany statement…………………………………………………………………… 2

Chapter #02 INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE………………………………………


2.1 Safety precaution………………………………………………….3

2.2 Normal operation…………………………………………………4

2.3 Tool loading and unloading…………………………………..4

2.4 Unattended operation…………..……………………………..5

2.5 Pumps……………………………………...……………………………5

2.6 Single stage pumps……………………………………………….5.

2.7 Centrifugal pumps…………………………………………………..6

2.8 Different types of pumps head……………………………….7

2.9 Pumps efficiency…………………………………………………….8

2.10 Turbine…………………………………………………………………11

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2.11 Types of turbine……………………………….……………………15

2.12 Compressor………………………………………………………..…17

2.13 Heat exchanger……………………………………………… ……21

Chapter #03
3.1 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………21

3.2 Recommendation…………………………………………………….22

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List of Figures

Figure No. Title Page

1 Centrifugal pumps …………………………...........................6

2 P D pump…………………………………………………………………10

3 Turbine………………………………………………………………………13

4 Turbine 2………………………………………………………………..…14

5 Steam turbine……………………………………………………………16

6 Gas turbine………………………………………………………………17

7 Compressor………………………………………………………………18

8 Rotary screw compressor………………………………………...20

9 Heat exchanger………………………………………………………..21

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Chapter# 01
1.1 Introduction

Agritech

Agritech limited (formerly Pak American Fertilizer limited) is a urea manufacturing company.
It is located in Punjab province of Pakistan in district Mianwali. Plant is located very close to
mighty river Indus near the famous site of proposed KALABAGH dam. The area is very scenic.
It was the first fertilizers plant build by GOP through PIDC way back in 1955/56. The plant
was Ammonia/Ammonium sulfate based on the local coal and gypsum. Later on it was
transferred to NFC. In 1972 on availability of natural gas in area the coal gasification process
was abandoned. NFC planned its expansion and a new state of the art Ammonia/Urea complex
was erected in 1999 based on Toyo Japan technology. Plant name pate capacities were
600/1050 MTPD Ammonia/Urea. under the disinvestment policy it was privatized and
purchased by a leading textile group of Pakistan Azgard9 in July 2006. Company planned
expansion to 1400 MTPD urea which was carried out by Jan 2011. The Urea plant process was
changed from Toyo to Stamicarbon. Agritech also owns a Single super Phosphate plant located
at Haripur under the name of HAZARA PHOSPHATE Plant.

Having achieved the company’s strategic goal to become a diversified fertilizer manufactures
producing both nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers, the Company’s product are sold under
one of the most celebrated and trusted brand name “Tara” in the fertilizer market. AGL vision
for the 21st Century remains focused on harmonizing the Company with fresh challenges and
encompasses diversification and embarking on ventures within and beyond the territorial limits
of the Country in collaboration with leading business partners

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1.2 Specialties

First Distributed Control system(DCS) in Pakistan, ISO Certified in 9001/14001/OSHA


18000, Tara brand established its value in very short time., under CSR providing education
and medical to local, A welfare Trust established for poor and needy of area.
1.3 Industry
Chemicals

1.4Type
Public Company

1.5 Headquarters
Iskanderabad,

District Mianwali Punjab Head Office,

Ferozepur Road Lahore Lahore,

Punjab 38000Pakistan

1.6 Company Size


501-1000 employer

1.7 Mission statement


To become nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers, significantly contributing to the development
of the agriculture sector of Pakistan a diversified manufacturer of both.
1.8 Company statement
AGL vision for the 21st Century remains focused on harmonizing the Company with fresh
challenges and encompasses diversification and embarking on ventures within and beyond the
territorial limits of the country collaboration with the leading busines

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Chapter# 02
2.1 Safety precaution

Basic Caution:
Only authorized personnel should work on this machine. Untrained personnel present a hazard
to themselves and the machine, and improper operation will void the warranty.
We did the following cautions during the work.
Check for damaged parts and tools before operating the machine. Any part or tool that is
damaged should be properly repaired or replaced by authorized personnel.
Do not operate the machine if any component does not appear to be functioning correctly.
Contact your shop supervisor.
Use appropriate eye and ear protection while operating the machine. ANSI approved impact
safety goggles and OSHA-approved ear protection are recommended to reduce the risks of
sight damage and hearing loss.
Functioning properly. Rotating cutting tools can cause severe injury. When a program is
running, the mill table and spindle head can move rapidly at any time in any direction
The Emergency Stop button is the large, circular red switch located on the Control Panel.
Pressing do not operate the machine unless the doors are closed and the door interlocks are the
Emergency Stop button will instantly stop all motion of the machine, the servo motors, the tool
changer, and the coolant pump. Use the Emergency Stop button only in emergencies to avoid
crashing the machine.
The electrical panel should be closed and the key and latches on the control cabinet should be
secured at all times except during installation and service. At those times, only qualified
electricians should have access to the panel. When the main circuit breaker is on, there is high
voltage throughout the electrical panel (including the circuit boards and logic circuits) and
some components operate at high temperatures. Therefore, extreme caution is required. Once
the machine is installed, the control cabinet must be locked and the key available only to
qualified service personnel.

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It is the owner’s responsibility to make sure that everyone who is involved in installing and
operating the machine is thoroughly acquainted with the installation, operation, and safety
instructions provided with the machine BEFORE they perform any actual work. The ultimate
responsibility for safety rests with the shop owner and the individuals who work with the
machine.
I followed these guidelines while performing jobs on the machine.

2.2 Normal operation


Keep the door closed and guards in place while machine is operating. Part loading and un
loading: An operator opens the door or guard, completes task, and closes door or guard
before pressing cycle start (starting automatic motion).

2.3 Tool loading or unloading


A machinist enters the machining area to load or unload tools. Exit the area completely
before automatic movement is commanded (for example, next tool, ATC/Turret FWD/REV).
Machining job set-up:
Press emergency stop before adding or removing machine fixtures.

Maintenance / Machine Cleaner


Press emergency stop or power off the machine before entering enclosure.
Do not enter the machining area anytime the machine is in motion; severe injury or death may
result.

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2.4 Unattended Operation


Fully enclosed Haas CNC machines are designed to operate unattended; however, your
machining process may not be safe to operate unmonitored.
As it is the shop owner’s responsibility to set up the machines safely and use best practice
machining techniques, it is also their responsibility to manage the progress of these methods.
The machining process must be monitored to prevent damage if a hazardous condition occurs.
For example, if there is the risk of fire due to the material machined, then an appropriate fire
suppression system must be installed to reduce the risk of harm to personnel, equipment and
the building. A suitable specialist must be contacted to install monitoring tools before machines
are allowed to run unattended.
It is especially important to select monitoring equipment that can immediately perform an
appropriate action without human intervention to prevent an accident, should a problem be
detected

2.5 Pumps
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical
action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to
move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some
mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical
work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual
operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use
in medical applications to large industrial pumps.
Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from
wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-
cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for
operating cooling towers. In the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes
in developing and manufacturing medicine, and as artificial replacements for body parts, in
particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis.

2.6 Single stage pump


When in a casing only one impeller is revolving then it is called single stage pump.

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2.6.1 Double/multi-stage pump


When in a casing two or more than two impellers are revolving then it is called double/multi-
stage pump.
In biology, many different types of chemical and bio-mechanical pumps have evolved, and bio
mimicry is sometimes used in developing new types of mechanical pumps.

2.7 Centrifugal pumps


A centrifugal pump converts input power to kinetic energy by accelerating liquid in a revolving
device - an impeller.
The most common is the volute pump - where fluid enters the pump through the eye of the
impeller which rotates at high speed. The fluid accelerates radially outward from the pump
chasing and a vacuum is created at the impellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into
the pump.
The energy from the pumps prime mover is transferred to kinetic energy according
the Bernoulli Equation. The energy transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the
edge or vane tip of the impeller. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is,
the higher will the velocity of the liquid energy transferred to the liquid be. This is described
by the Affinity Laws.

FIG:1
2.7.1 Pressure and Head
If the discharge of a centrifugal pump is pointed straight up into the air the fluid will pumped
to a certain height - or head - called the shut off head. This maximum head is mainly determined

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by the outside diameter of the pump's impeller and the speed of the rotating shaft. The head
will change as the capacity of the pump is altered.
The kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of an impeller is obstructed by creating a resistance in
the flow. The first resistance is created by the pump casing which catches the liquid and slows
it down. When the liquid slows down the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy.
it is the resistance to the pump's flow that is read on a pressure gauge attached to the discharge
line.
A pump does not create pressure, it only creates flow. The gauge pressure is a measurement of
the resistance to flow.
In fluids the term head is used to measure the kinetic energy which a pump creates. Head is a
measurement of the height of the liquid column the pump could create from the kinetic energy
the pump gives to the liquid.
The main reason for using head instead of pressure to measure a centrifugal pump's energy is
that the pressure from a pump will change if the specific gravity (weight) of the liquid changes.
The pump's performance on any Newtonian fluid can always be described by using the term
head.

2.8 Different Types of Pump Head


Total Static Head, Total head when the pump is not running
Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head) - Total head when the pump is running
Static Suction Head - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the head is higher than the
pump impeller
Static Suction Lift - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the head is lower than the
pump impeller
Static Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with the pump off
Dynamic Suction Head/Lift - Head on suction side of pump with pump on
Dynamic Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with pump on
The head is measured in either feet or meters and can be converted to common units for
pressure - like psi, Pa or bar.
it is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft
is turning at the same rpm

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The only difference between the fluids is the amount of power it takes to get the shaft to the
proper rpm. The higher the specific gravity of the fluid the more power is required.
Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines"
Note that the latter is not a constant pressure machine, since pressure is a function of head and
density. The head is constant, even if the density (and therefore pressure) changes.
The head of a pump can be expressed in metric units as:
h = (p2 - p1) / (ρ g) + v22 / (2 g)
Where
h = total head developed (m)
p2 = pressure at outlet (N/m2)
p1 = pressure at inlet (N/m2)
ρ = density (kg/m3)
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81) m/s2
v2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s

2.8.1 Head described in simple terms


A pump's vertical discharge "pressure-head" is the vertical lift in height - usually measured in
feet or m of water - at which a pump can no longer exert enough pressure to move water. At
this point, the pump may be said to have reached its "shut-off" head pressure. In the flow curve
chart for a pump the "shut-off head" is the point on the graph where the flow rate is zero.

2.9 Pump efficiency


Pump efficiency, η (%) is a measure of the efficiency with wich the pump transfers useful
work to the fluid.

η = Pout / Pin (2)

Where

η = efficiency (%)

Pin = power input

Pout = power output

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2.9.1 Positive displacement


A Positive Displacement Pump has an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing
cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pumps as the cavity on the suction side
expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. The volume is a
constant given each cycle of operation. The positive displacement pumps can be divided in
two main classes

 Rotary
 rotary lobe pump

 progressing cavity pump


 rotary gear pump
 piston pump
 diaphragm pump

 screw pump
 gear pump
 vane pump
 regenerative (peripheral) pump
 peristaltic

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A Positive Displacement Pump, unlike a Centrifugal or Rotor-dynamic Pump, will produce the
same flow at a given speed (RPM) no matter the discharge pressure. A Positive Displacement
Pumps is a "constant flow machineA Positive Displacement Pump must never operate against
closed valves on the discharge side of the pump - it has no shut-off head like Centrifugal
Pumps. A Positive Displacement Pump operating against closed discharge valves continues to
produce flow until the pressure in the discharge line is increased until the line bursts or the
pump is severely damaged - or both. A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the
Positive Displacement Pump is absolute necessary. The relief valve can be internal or external
the pump. An internal valve should in general only be used as a safety precaution. An external
relief valve installed in the discharge line with a return line back to the suction line or supply
tank is highly recommended.

Fig:2

2.9.2 Reciprocating Pumps

Plunger pumps

Plunger pumps consists of a cylinder with a reciprocating plunger in it. In the head of the
cylinder the suction and discharge valves are mounted. In the suction stroke the plunger
retracts and the suction valves opens causing suction of fluid into the cylinder. In the forward
stroke the plunger push the liquid out the discharge valve.

With only one cylinder the fluid flow varies between maximum flow when the plunger moves
through the middle positions, and zero flow when the plunger is in the end positions. A lot of

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energy is wasted when the fluid is accelerated in the piping system. Vibration and "water
hammers" may be a serious problem. In general the problems are compensated by using two
or more cylinders not working in phase with each other.

2.9.3 Rotary Pumps


Typical rotary pumps are
 gear pumps
 lobe pumps
 vane pumps
 progressive cavity pumps
 peripheral pumps
 screw pumps

In a gear pump the liquid is trapped by the opening between the gear teeth of two identical
gears and the chasing of the pump on the suction side. On the pressure side the fluid is
squeezed out when the teeth of the two gears are rotated against each other.

A lobe pump operates similar to a gear pump, but with two lobes driven by external timing
gears. The lobes do not make contact.

A progressive cavity pump consist of a metal rotor rotating within an elastomer-lined or


elastic stator. When the rotor turns progressive chambers from suction end to discharge end
are formed between the rotor and stator, moving the fluid.

2.10 Turbine

A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it
into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power
when combined with a generator or producing thrust, as in the case of jet engines. A turbine
is a turbo machine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or
drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart
rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels.

Gas, steam, and water turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the
working fluid. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to British engineer Sir

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Charles Parsons (1854–1931) for invention of the reaction turbine, and to Swedish
engineer Gustave de Laval (1845–1913) for invention of the impulse turbine. Modern steam
turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit, typically varying
the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery. The word "turbine"
was coined in 1822 by the French mining engineer Claude Burdens from the Latin turbo,
or vortex, in a memo, "Des turbines hydrauliques on machines rotatories à grandee vitesse",
which he submitted to the Academies royally des sciences in Period.

2.10.1 Operation Theory


A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head).
The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. Several physical principles are employed
by turbines to collect this energy:

Impulse turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid or gas jet. The resulting
impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is
no pressure change of the fluid or gas in the turbine blades (the moving blades), as in the case
of a steam or gas turbine, all the pressure drop takes place in the stationary blades (the
nozzles). Before reaching the turbine, the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by
accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process
exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the
fluid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blades on the rotor. Newton's second
law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Impulse turbines are most efficient
for use in cases where the flow is low and the inlet pressure is high.

Reaction turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas or fluid's pressure or mass. The
pressure of the gas or fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades.

A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage(s)
or the turbine must be fully immersed in the fluid flow (such as with wind turbines). The
casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water turbines, maintains the suction
imparted by the draft tube.

Francis turbines and most steam turbines use this concept. For compressible working fluids,
multiple turbine stages are usually used to harness the expanding gas efficiently. Newton's

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third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Reaction turbines are better
suited to higher flow velocities or applications where the fluid head (upstream pressure) is
low.

In the case of steam turbines, such as would be used for marine applications or for land-based
electricity generation, a Parsons type reaction turbine would require approximately double the
number of blade rows as a de Laval type impulse turbine, for the same degree of thermal
energy conversion. Whilst this makes the Parsons turbine much longer and heavier, the
overall efficiency of a reaction turbine is slightly higher than the equivalent impulse turbine
for the same thermal energy conversion.

Fig:3

In practice, modern turbine designs use both reaction and impulse concepts to varying degrees
whenever possible. Wind turbines use an air foil to generate a reaction lift from the moving
fluid and impart it to the rotor. Wind turbines also gain some energy from the impulse of the
wind, by deflecting it at an angle.

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Turbines with multiple stages may utilize either reaction or impulse blading at high pressure.
Steam turbines were traditionally more impulse but continue to move towards reaction designs
similar to those used in gas turbines. At low pressure the operating fluid medium expands in
volume for small reductions in pressure. Under these conditions, blading becomes strictly a
reaction type design with the base of the blade solely impulse. The reason is due to the effect
of the rotation speed for each blade. As the volume increases, the blade height increases, and
the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip. This change in speed forces a
designer to change from impulse at the base, to a high reaction style tip.

Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid19th century. Vector analysis
related the fluid flow with turbine shape and rotation. Graphical calculation methods were used
at first. Formulae for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well documented and a highly
efficient machine can be reliably designed for any fluid flow condition. Some of the
calculations are empirical or 'rule of thumb' formulae, and others are based on classical
mechanics. As with most engineering calculations, simplifying assumptions were made.

Fig:4

Velocity triangles can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage. Gas exits
the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity Va1.

The rotor rotates at velocity U. Relative to the rotor, the velocity of the gas as it impinges on
the rotor entrance is Vr1. The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to the rotor, at
velocity Vr2. However, in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is Va2.

The velocity triangles are constructed using these various velocity vectors. Velocity triangles
can be constructed at any section through the blading (for example: hub, tip, midsection and so

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on) but are usually shown at the mean stage radius. Mean performance for the stage can be
calculated from the

2.11 Types of turbine

2.11.1 Steam turbines

They are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants, such as plants
using coal, fuel oil or nuclear fuel They were once used to directly drive mechanical devices
such as ships' propellers but most such applications now use reduction gears or an
intermediate electrical step, where the turbine is used to generate electricity, which then powers
an electric motor connected to the mechanical load.

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Fig:5

2.11.2Gas turbines
They are sometimes referred to as turbine engines. Such engines usually feature an inlet, fan,
compressor, combustor and nozzle (possibly other assemblies) in addition to one or more
turbines.

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Fig:6

2.12Compressor
gaseous refrigerant at a low pressure and increases it to a greater pressure. Upon being
compressed, the temperature and pressure of the vapor are increased. The gaseous refrigerant
is An HVACR compressor is a refrigerant gas pump in which the evaporator supplies delivered
to the condenser at a pressure at which condensation occurs at an appropriate temperature.

A compressor consists of two components: the power source and the compressing mechanism
(piston, vane, etc.). In the case of an air compressor, the compressing mechanism is in fact
compressing the atmospheric air. The air compressor works in the following way:

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Fig:7

Air enters the piston or vane, and it is compressed by increasing its pressure and at the same
time decreasing its volume. As soon as the pressure reaches a maximum set by the operator or
the manufacturer, a switch mechanism prevents any further air intake in the compressor. The
compressed air is used and pressure levels decrease. As soon as the pressure reaches a
minimum, also set by the operator or the manufacturer, the switch allows air to enter the
compressor. This procedure is repeated as long as the compressor is being used

2.12.1 Performance Factors for Compressors

Factors which affect the performance of compressors are:


 speed of rotation
 pressure at suction
 pressure at discharge and
 type of refrigerant being used

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Similar compressors can operate at different capacities by varying their refrigerants and
compressor horsepower input. When purchasing any type of compressor, the buyer should
check certain characteristics that include the machine configuration, the operation type, the
price, and the operating cost. In any case, he should check the performance of the compressor
and consult with the manufacturer about the most suitable and safest compressor for his budget
and requirements.

2.12.2Types of Compressor

2.12.3 Reciprocating compressors


Use pistons driven by a crankshaft. They can be either stationary or portable, can be single or
multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines.

Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in


automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Larger reciprocating
compressors well over 1,000 hp (750 kW) are commonly found in large industrial and
petroleum applications. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure
(>18000 psi or 180 MPa). In certain applications, such as air compression, multi-stage double-
acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available, and are typically
larger, and more costly than comparable rotary units.[4] Another type of reciprocating
compressor is the swash plate compressor, which uses pistons moved by a swash plate mounted
on a shaft (see axial piston pump).

Household, home workshop, and smaller job site compressors are typically reciprocating
compressors 1½ hp or less with an attached receiver tank.

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2.12.4 Ionic liquid piston compressor


Based on an ionic liquid piston instead of a metal piston as in a piston-metal diaphragm
compressor.[5 An ionic liquid piston compressor, ionic compressor or ionic liquid piston
pump is a hydrogen compressor]

2.12.5Rotary screw compressors


Rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space. These are
usually used for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be
either3. stationary or portable. Their application can be from 3 horsepower (2.2 kW) to over
1,200 horsepower (890 kW) and from low pressure to moderately high pressure (>1,200 psi or
8.3 MPa).

Rotary screw compressors are commercially produced in Oil Flooded, Water Flooded and Dry
type. The efficiency of rotary compressors depends on the air dried. The selection of air drier
is always 1.5 times volumetric delivery of the compressor.

Fig:8

2.12.6 Rotary vane compressors


Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots in
the rotor. The rotor is mounted offset in a larger housing that is either circular or a more
complex shape. As the rotor turns, blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contact with the
outer wall of the housing.[1] Thus, a series of increasing and decreasing volumes is created by
the rotating blades. Rotary Vane compressors are, with piston compressors one of the oldest of
compressor technologies.

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INTERNSHIP REPORT

With suitable port connections, the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump.
They can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by
electric motors or internal combustion engines. Dry vane machines are used relatively low
pressures (e.g., 2 bar or 200 kPa or 29 psi) for bulk material movement while oil-injected
machines have the necessary volumetric efficiency to achieve pressures up to about 13 bar
(1,300 kPa; 190 psi) in a single stage. A rotary vane compressor is well suited to electric motor
drive and is significantly quieter in operation than the equivalent piston compressor.

Rotary vane compressors can have mechanical efficiencies of about 90%.

2.13 Heat Exchanger


Heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between a solid object and a fluid A , or
between two or more fluids. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or
they may be in direct contact.[1] They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air
conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum
refineries, natural-gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat
exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known
as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools the
coolant and heats the incoming air. Another example is the heat sink, which is a passive heat
exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid
medium, often air or a liquid coolant.

Fig:9

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Capter#03

3.1 Conclusion
I have completed my sixteen week internship in Agritech Ltd (TARA UREA) Iskanderabad
Mianwali. I completed my work compressor and turbine while working on compressor .I learnt
maintenance compressor and turbine after that I concluded without the maintenance of the
compressor .It is impossible to run an industry weekly inspection is necessary. There were
obtained more benefits obtain during internship period. Along my training period, I realize that
observation is a main element to find out the root cause of problem. There were obtained more
benefits obtain during internship period. The site work especially for practical work is more a
matter-of-fact than theoretical but I had known much the theoretical only before the internship
program because of this gap challenges are the beginning point to gain knowledge, or to fit the
career goals. So we are grateful to all the staff of industry, as well as we are so thankful to our
mechanical engineering for their kind support.

3.2 Recommendation
 Immediate" actions are taken to prevent unsafe conditions and are intended to return
structural capacity.
 There must be a safety room along the work side.
 There must be some work for due to maintain of machinery.
 To improve the industry management system.

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