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Republic of the Philippines



G.R. No. 93868 February 19, 1991




This is a petition seeking the annulment of the resolutions issued by the Civil Service
Commission which disapproved the appointment of the petitioner to the position of Supervising
Human Manpower Development Officer.

Petitioner Ardeliza Medenilla was a contractual employee of the Department of Public Works
and Highways (DPWH) occupying the position of Public Relations Officer II.

In 1987, Medenilla was detailed as Technical Assistant in the Office of the Assistant Secretary
for Administration and Manpower Management.

Pursuant to Executive Order No. 124 dated January 30, 1987, a reorganization ensued within
the DPWH and all the positions therein were abolished. A revised staffing pattern together with
the guidelines on the selection and placement of personnel was issued.

Included in the revised staffing pattern is the contested position of Supervising Human
Resource Development Officer.

On January 2, 1989, the petitioner was appointed to the disputed position.

On January 27, 1989, respondents Amparo Dellosa, Rosalinda Juria and Marita Burdeos
together with Matilde Angeles, Catalina Espinas, Alicia Nercelles and Ramon Racela, all of
whom are employees in the Human Resource Training and Material Development Division,
Administrative and Manpower Management Service of the DPWH, jointly lodged a protest
before the DPWH task force on reorganization contesting the appointment of the petitioner to
the position.

The protestants alleged that since they are next-in-rank employees, one of them should have
been appointed to the said position.
On August 2, 1989, the task force on reorganization dismissed the protest. The dispositive
portion of its decision reads as follows:

Premises considered, the Task Force on Reorganization Appeals finds the instant
protest of Matilde Angeles, et al. without merit and hereby recommends to the Honorable
Secretary that the appointment of Ardeliza Medenilla to the contested position of
Supervising Human Resource Development Officer be upheld. (Rollo, p. 26)

Not satisfied, the private respondents appealed the decision to the Civil Service Commission.
The Commission found:

On the onset, it appears that protestee Medenilla does not possess the required
qualifications for the position. . . . Moreover, her eligibility is PD 907, being a cum laude
graduate. Let it be considered appropriate only for appointment to "second level
positions" which require the application of knowledge and skills within the appointee's
field of study. (Rollo, p. 28-29)

xxx xxx xxx

Further, it also appears that Medenilla is a contractual employee assigned or detailed

with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administrations and Manpower
Management (the appointing authority) as Public Relations Officer II, while protestants
are all permanent employee of the Division (Human Resources Planning) where the
vancancy exist.

Indeed, RA 6656 does not preclude the appointment of contractuals to a new staffing
pattern, however, in the presence and availability of qualified permanent next-in-rank
employees in the organization, the latter has to be preferred, unless a contractual
employee possesses superior qualifications that could justify her appointment. However,
in this case, we see no superior qualifications or any special reasons for preferring
Medenilla over the protestants. (Rollo, p. 29)

We find merit in the protest. While as earlier mentioned, the appointing authority is given
the wide latitude of discretion, to sustain the appointment of Medenilla may give the
appointing power unnecessary opportunities to act capriciously and thus thwart the
natural and reasonable expectation of the officer next-in-rank to any vacant position, to
be promoted to it As held in Millares v. Subido, G.R. No. L-23281, promulgated August
10, 1967, the Supreme Court held:

We, therefore, hold that in the event of there occurring a vacancy, the officer next-in-rank
must, as far as practicable and as the appointing authority sees it in his best judgment
and estimation, be promoted . . . and that it is only in cases of promotion, where an
employee other than the ranking one is promoted, is the appointing power under duty to
give "special reason or reasons" for his action . . . .

Again, the special reasons advanced by the appointing authority in this case is (sic) not
enough. Considering further that appointee is not meeting the minimum qualification
standards set by his own office, she could not be said to possess far superior
qualification than those permanent next-in-rank employees of the Department. (Rollo,
pp. 30-31)
Thus, on February 28, 1990, the Commission promulgated the assailed resolution, the
dispositive portion of which reads:

WHEREFORE, foregoing premises considered, the Commission resolved to disapprove

the promotional appointment of Ardeliza Medenilla to the position of Supervising Human
Manpower Development Officer. Accordingly, the appointing authority may choose from
among protestants Amparo Dellosa, Marita Burdeos and Rosalinda Juria who to promote
to the said position. The Civil Service Field Office is directed to implement this resolution
accordingly." (Rollo, p. 31)

The petitioner on March 23, 1990 filed a motion for reconsideration of the resolution. On May
30, 1990 a supplement to the Motion for Reconsideration was also filed. However, prior thereto,
the Commission on May 23, 1990 denied the petitioner's motion for reconsideration. The
pertinent portions of the denial are:

xxx xxx xxx

2. Experience of Medenilla

Medenilla alleges that the Commission failed to appreciate her 3 years and 8 months of
experience directly relevant to Human Resource Development. Looking more deeply into
her experience as reflected in her CS Form 212, we could not distinguish her experience
directly relevant to the field of Human Resource Development. The certification of a
certain Elvira H. Villania stated her duties in the Guthrie-Jensen Consultants, Inc. in her
one (1) year and (7) months as Research and Publication Officer of working included
"providing research assistance to our Management Consultants in drawing up
performance appraisal system, merit promotion system and conducting development for
our client-companies." Notwithstanding, assuming that her 1 year and 7 months
experience in the company is relevant, yet, compared to the experience of the
protestants in the field of Human Resource Development, said experience is obviously
outweighed. There is no dispute that Medenilla has experience as a Researcher but said
experience is basically on the field of journalism and information. (Rollo, p. 35)

xxx xxx xxx

4. Education background and eligibility of Medenilla.

. . . Notwithstanding, we are inclined to reconsider our position that the educational

background is not relevant. AB may therefore be taken as a relevant degree for
purposes of qualifying to the position. As such, her PD 907 eligibility may be considered
appropriate." (Rollo, p. 37)

xxx xxx xxx

Granting for the sake of argument that the DPWH adhered to its rules relative to
reorganization, is at this point, no longer material and controlling. What is now the issue
is whether Medenilla indeed possesses superior qualifications over any of the
protestants. (Rollo, p. 38)

xxx xxx xxx

The edge of 1.30% of Medenilla over Dellosa cannot be considered by this Commission
significant enough to presume and declare that Medenilla possesses far superior
qualifications over the protestant and to warrant the appointment of a contractual
employee over a permanent employee of the Department. (Rollo, p. 39)

Hence, this petition.

The petitioner interposes the following grounds:

The resolutions were issued by the Respondent Commission, without giving notice to the
petitioner of the existence of an appeal filed before the CSC, thereby denying the
petitioner due process of law.


The Civil Service Commission committed grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack of
jurisdiction in disapproving the appointment of the petitioner. Its function, is limited only
to determine whether the appointee possesses the appropriate civil service eligibility and
not whether another is more qualified than the petitioner.

Without giving due course to the petition, the Court on July 10, 1990, issued a temporary
restraining order enjoining the Commission from implementing the assailed resolutions.

Anent the first ground, the petitioner contends that she was not notified by the Civil Service
Commission of the existence of the appeal before it. The resolutions, therefore, were allegedly
issued in violation of the petitioner's constitutionally guaranteed due process of law.

The public respondent, on the other hand, advances the argument that what due process
abhors is not lack of previous notice but the absolute lack of opportunity to be heard. Since the
petitioner filed a motion for reconsideration, she cannot now complain that she was deprived of
due process.

The petitioner's first contention is without merit.

"Due process of law implies the right of the person affected thereby to be present before the
tribunal which pronounces judgment upon the question of life, liberty, and property in its most
comprehensive sense; to be heard,by testimony or otherwise, and to have the right of
controverting, by proof, every material fact which bears on the question of the light in the matter
involved." (Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Edition, p. 590)

The essence of due process is the opportunity to be heard. The presence of a party is not
always the cornerstone of due process. (Asprec v. Itchon, 16 SCRA 921 [1966]; Auyong Hian v.
Court of Tax Appeals, 59 SCRA 110 [1974]; Assistant Executive Secretary for Legal Affairs of the
Office of the President of the Philippines v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 76761, January 9, 1989).
What the law prohibits is not the absence of previous notice but the absolute absence thereof
and lack of opportunity to be heard. (Tajonero v. Lamarosa, 110 SCRA 438 [1981])
In the case at bar, any defect was cured by the filing of a motion for reconsideration. ( see De
Leon v. Comelec, 129 SCRA 117 [1984])

The second contention of the petitioner alleges that the Commission acted with grave abuse of
discretion in disapproving her appointment.

The public respondent views it otherwise. The Civil Service Commission asserts that being the
Central Personnel Agency of the Government, it is the final arbiter on civil service matters.

The Commission alleges, that, pursuant to RA 6656, the Commission is authorized to act on
appeals by aggrieved employees in the course of reorganization and, therefore, it has the power
to reverse or modify any decision brought before it on appeal.

The petitioner's second contention is impressed with merit.

The qualification standards for the contested position are as follows:



Bachelor's degree 2 years of Manpower-Youth

relevant to the job experience in Development

with at least human resource Officer

9 units in post development Manpower



Relevant RA



Second Level


Career Service


First Grade

It is not disputed that the petitioner possesses the appropriate civil service eligibility and
requisite educational background. The public respondent itself, in its resolution dated May 23,
1990, considered the petitioner's PD No. 907 eligibility appropriate for the position. (Rollo, p. 37)

The controversy then centers on the experience of the petitioner.

The Commission contends that the experience of Medenilla is basically in the field of journalism
and not in Human Resource Development. The Commission also alleges that since the
petitioner is merely a contractual employee, in the absence of superior qualifications, the private
respondents must be preferred not only for the reason that they are permanent career service
employees but most especially because they are next-in-rank to the disputed position.

In support of its argument, the Commission cited in the disputed resolution, the case of Millares
v. Subido, 20 SCRA 954 where this Court held:

. . . A vacant position shall be filled by promotion of the ranking officer or employee. And
only where, for special reason or reasons of which the affected officer or employee will
be notified, this mode of recruitment on selection cannot be observed, that the position
may be filled by transfer, or re-employment, or by getting from the certified list of
appropriate eligibles, in that order.

Finally, the public respondent advances the view that, since the Revised Administrative Code of
1987 now provides that the Commission shall "take appropriate action on all appointment" its
authority, therefore, is no longer limited to the mere approval or disapproval of appointments
submitted to it.

A careful review of the records of the case, will reveal that the petitioner possesses the requisite
experience for the contested position.

The petitioner, not only was a cum laude graduate from the University of the Philippines, she
has also acquired plenty of experience in the field of Human Resource Development, to wit:

She was rated and ranked number one in the Trainor's Training Program (120 hours)
conducted for the DPWH by the Phil-Tao, Inc., a private firm. Ms. Dellosa was ranked
number 7, Mrs. Juria was ranked number 10; Mrs. Burdeos did not attend the seminar.
This training program was undertaken to strengthen the capabilities of HRD personnel,
and to make them more effective in the discharge of their functions.

She is a recipient of a special commendation, given by Executive Director Remedios I.

Rikken of the National Commission in the Role of Filipino Woman, for her efficiency and
exemplary performance as a facilitator in the conduct of the workshops during the
Second Congress of Women in Government. (Letter of Ms. Rikken addressed to Sec.
Estuar attached as ANNEX "B".).

She obtained in her on-going MBA studies at the De La Salle University, which she
pursued as an entrance scholar, the highest grade of 4.0, equivalent to "Excellent" in 2
HRD related subjects –– Organizational Management –– which call for the integration of
concepts with concrete experience.
She participated in the preparation and dissemination of the corporate planning
processes installed and institutionalized in the DPWH. Corporate Planning was
introduced by Secretary Fiorello R. Estuar and is now being implemented in all
government offices as instructed by the President.

She conducted orientation/reorientation courses in DPWH Regional Offices on (a)

Management By Objectives and Results Evaluation, the Performance Appraisal System,
and (b) a specifically designed Performance Appraisal System for DPWH District
Engineers and Division Chiefs, being officially used by the DPWH.

She participated in the conceptualizing and drafting of the Department Order on the
DPWH Incentives and Awards System, set up in compliance with RA No. 6713." (Rollo,
p. 63)

The public respondent failed to consider that the petitioner, in her one year and seven months
experience with Guthrie-Jensen was engaged in research relating to performance appraisal
systems and merit promotion systems which duties are all related to Human Resource

Precisely, it was because of her experience with Guthrie-Jensen that the petitioner was detailed
from January 1987 until December 1988 in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for
Administration and Manpower Management, where she was asked to assist in human resource

The rejoinder filed during the proceedings before the Commission, by the Assistant Secretary
for Administrative and Manpower Management, Carolina Mangawang, is very revealing. The
disputed position requires of the holder of the office, skills in human resource developmental
planning, research and statistics. The petitioner possesses these skills in more than appropriate

The argument of the public respondent that the petitioner must possess superior qualifications
in order to be preferred over the private respondents deserves no credit.

It can be readily seen that the petitioner possesses superior qualifications. As earlier stated, she
is a cum laude graduate of the University of the Philippines. She was ranked No. 1 in the
department wide training program handled by a private firm. Two of the respondents were
ranked way below while a third did not even participate. She was commended for exemplary
performance as facilitator during the Second Congress of Women in Government. She received
the highest grades from De la Salle University in her MBA studies. She helped draft the human
resource program for the entire DPWH. Inspire of her being a new employee, she was assigned
to conduct seminars on Performance Appraisal Systems and on Management by Objectives and
Results for the DPWH. She was precisely drafted from a private firm to assist in human
resource planning for the DPWH. Her work is apparently highly satisfactory as the top
administrators of the DPWH not only appointed her but have asked the respondent Commission
to validate the appointment.

The respondents rely on Section 4 of R.A. 6656, which reads:

xxx xxx xxx

Sec. 4. Officers and employees holding permanent appointments shall be given
preference for appointment to new positions in the approved staffing pattern comparable
to their former positions or if there are not enough comparable positions, to position next
lower in rank.

Undoubtedly, old employees should be considered first. But it does not necessarily follow that
they should then automatically be appointed.

The preference given to permanent employees assumes that employees working in a

Department for longer periods have gained not only superior skills but also greater dedication to
the public service. This is not always true and the law, moreover, does not preclude the infusion
of new blood, younger dynamism, or necessary talents into the government service. If, after
considering all the current employees, the Department Secretary cannot find among them the
person he needs to revive a moribund office or to upgrade second rate performance, there is
nothing in the Civil Service Law to prevent him from reaching out to other Departments or to the
private sector provided all his acts are bona fide for the best interest of the public service and
the person chosen has the needed qualifications. In the present case, there is no indication that
the petitioner was chosen for any other reason except to bring in a talented person with the
necessary eligibilities and qualifications for important assignments in the Department.

The reason behind P.D. No. 907 (which grants civil service eligibility to college graduates with at
least cum laudehonors) of attracting honor graduates into the public service would be negated if
they always have to start as Clerk I and wait for hundreds of deadwood above them to first go
into retirement before they can hope for significant and fulfilling assignments.

The Commission's reliance on the dictum in Millares v. Subido, 20 SCRA 954 [19671 is
misplaced. The ruling in Millares has already been superseded by later decisions. We have
already held in cases subsequent to Millares that the next-in-rank rule is not absolute; it only
applies in cases of promotion (see Pineda v. Claudio, 28 SCRA 34 [19691). And even in
promotions, it can be disregarded for sound reasons made known to the next-in-rank. The
appointing authority, under the Civil Service Law, is allowed to fill vacancies by promotion,
transfer of present employees, reinstatement, reemployment, and appointment of outsiders who
have appropriate civil service eligibility, not necessarily in that order. (see Pineda v.
Claudio, supra; Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 SCRA 327 [1986]) There is no legal fiat
that a vacancy must be filled only by promotion; the appointing authority is given wide discretion
to fill a vacancy from among the several alternatives provided for by law.

In this case, the contested position was created in the course of reorganization.1âwphi1 The
position appears to be a new one. The applicability, therefore, of the next-in-rank rule does not
come in clearly. Besides, as earlier stated, said rule is not absolute. There are valid exceptions.

Granting for the sake of argument that the case involves a promotional appointment, the next-in-
rank rule must give way to the exigencies of the public service. The intent of the Civil Service
Laws not merely to bestow upon permanent employees the advantage arising from their long
employment but most specially, it is to foster a more efficient public service. Any other factor
must, therefore, yield to the demand for an effective government, which necessarily entails the
appointment of competent, qualified and proficient personnel. The deliberation of this Court in
the case of Aguilar v. Nieva, Jr., 40 SCRA 113 [19711 is illuminating, to wit:

xxx xxx xxx

. . . It is not enough that an aspirant is qualified and eligible or that he is next-in-rank or
in line for promotion, albeit by passive prescription. It is just necessary, in order for public
administration to be dynamic and responsive to the needs of the times, that the local
executive be allowed the choice of men of its confidence,provided they are qualified and
eligible, who in his best estimation are possessed of the requisite reputation, integrity,
knowledgeability, energy and judgment. (Emphasis supplied, p. 121)

The point raised by the public respondent that, pursuant to the Revised Administrative Code of
1987, it is authorized to revoke appointments, must necessarily fail.

We have already ruled on several occasions that when the appointee is qualified, the Civil
Service Commission has no choice but to attest to the appointment. It is not within its
prerogative to revoke an appointee on the ground that substituting its judgment for that of the
appointing power, another person has better qualifications for the job.

Once the function is discharged, the participation of the Civil Service Commission in the
appointment process ceases. The only purpose of attestation is to determine whether the
appointee possesses the requisite civil service eligibility, no more than that is left for the Civil
Service Commission to do. (see Luego v. CSC, 143 SCRA 327 [1986]; Central Bank of the
Philippines v. CSC, 171 SCRA 744 [1989]; Secretary Oscar Orbos v. CSC, G.R. No. 92561,
September 12, 1990; Gaspar v. CSC, G.R. No. 90799, October 18, 1990).

The rationale of this doctrine is that the power of appointment is essentially discretionary. The
discretion to be granted to the appointing authority, if not plenary must at least be sufficient.

After all, not only is the appointing authority the officer primarily responsible for the
administration of the office but he is also in the best position to determine who among the
prospective appointees can efficiently discharge the functions of the position (see Villegas v.
Subido, 30 SCRA 498 [1969]). As between the Commission which only looks into paper
qualifications and the appointing authority who views not only the listed qualifications but also
the prospective appointees themselves, the work to be accomplished, the objectives of the
Department, etc., the Court sustains the Department Head.

WHEREFORE, the petition is hereby GRANTED. The resolutions issued by the Civil Service
Commission dated February 28, 1990 and May 23, 1990 are SET ASIDE. The restraining order
issued by this Court on July 10, 1990 is made permanent.


Fernan, C.J., Narvasa, Melencio-Herrera, Cruz, Paras, Feliciano, Gancayco, Padilla, Bidin,
Sarmiento, Griño-Aquino, Medialdea and Regalado, JJ., concur.
Decided Cases by the Supreme Court







This case stemmed from the leave application for foreign travel[1] sent through
mail by Wilma Salvacion P. Heusdens (respondent), Staff Clerk IV of the Municipal
Trial Court in Cities, Tagum City, Davao del Norte.

Records disclose that on July 10, 2009, the Employees Leave Division, Office of
Administrative Services, Office of the Court Administrator (OCA), received
respondent’s leave application for foreign travel from September 11, 2009 to
October 11, 2009. Respondent left for abroad without waiting for the result of her
application. It turned out that no travel authority was issued in her favor because
she was not cleared of all her accountabilities as evidenced by the Supreme Court
Certificate of Clearance. Respondent reported back to work on October 19, 2009.
The OCA, in its Memorandum[3] dated November 26, 2009, recommended the
disapproval of respondent’s leave application. It further advised that respondent
be directed to make a written explanation of her failure to secure authority to
travel abroad in violation of OCA Circular No. 49-2003. On December 7, 2009, then
Chief Justice Reynato S. Puno approved the OCA recommendation.

Accordingly, in a letter[4] dated January 6, 2010, OCA Deputy Court Administrator

Nimfa C. Vilches informed respondent that her leave application was disapproved
and her travel was considered unauthorized. Respondent was likewise directed to
explain within fifteen (15) days from notice her failure to comply with the OCA

In her Comment[5] dated February 2, 2010, respondent admitted having travelled

overseas without the required travel authority. She explained that it was not her
intention to violate the rules as she, in fact, mailed her leave application which
was approved by her superior, Judge Arlene Lirag-Palabrica, as early as June 26,
2009. She honestly believed that her leave application would be eventually
approved by the Court.

The OCA, in its Report[6] dated March 8, 2011, found respondent to have violated
OCA Circular No. 49-2003 for failing to secure the approval of her application for
travel authority.

Hence, the OCA recommended that the administrative complaint be re-docketed as

a regular administrative matter and that respondent be deemed guilty for violation
of OCA Circular No. 49-2003 and be reprimanded with a warning that a repetition of
the same or similar offense in the future would be dealt with more severely.

OCA Circular No. 49-2003 (B) specifically requires that:

B. Vacation Leave to be Spent Abroad.

Pursuant to the resolution in A.M. No. 99-12-08-SC dated 6 November 2000,[7] all
foreign travels of judges and court personnel, regardless of the number of days,
must be with prior permission from the Supreme Court through the Chief Justice
and the Chairmen of the Divisions.

1. Judges and court personnel who wish to travel abroad must secure a travel
authority from the Office of the Court Administrator. The judge or court personnel
must submit the following:

(a) For Judges

x x x

(b) For Court Personnel:

• application or letter-request addressed to the Court Administrator stating the

purpose of the travel abroad;

• application for leave covering the period of the travel abroad, favorably
recommended by the Presiding Judge or Executive Judge;

• clearance as to money and property accountability;

• clearance as to pending criminal and administrative case filed against him/her, if

• for court stenographer, clearance as to pending stenographic notes for
transcription from his/her court and from the Court of Appeals; and

• Supreme Court clearance.

2. Complete requirements should be submitted to and received by the Office of the

Court Administrator at least two weeks before the intended period. No action
shall be taken on requests for travel authority with incomplete requirements.
Likewise, applications for travel abroad received less than two weeks of the
intended travel shall not be favorably acted upon. [ nderscoring supplied]

Paragraph 4 of the said circular also provides that “judges and personnel who shall
leave the country without travel authority issued by the Office of the Court
Administrator shall be subject to disciplinary action.” In addition, Section 67 of
the Civil Service Omnibus Rules on Leave[8] expressly provides that “any violation
of the leave laws, rules or regulations, or any misrepresentation or deception in
connection with an application for leave, shall be a ground for disciplinary action.”
In fact, every government employee who files an application for leave of absence
for at least thirty (30) calendar days is instructed to submit a clearance as to
money and property accountabilities.[9]

In this case, respondent knew that she had to secure the appropriate clearance as
to money and property accountability to support her application for travel
authority. She cannot feign ignorance of this requirement because she had her
application for clearance circulated through the various divisions. She, however,
failed to secure clearance from the Supreme Court Savings and Loan Association
(SCSLA) where she had an outstanding loan.

There is no dispute, therefore, that although respondent submitted her leave

application for foreign travel, she failed to comply with the clearance and
accountability requirements. As the OCA Circular specifically cautions that “no
action shall be taken on requests for travel authority with incomplete
requirements,” it was expected that her leave application would, as a
consequence, be disapproved by the OCA.

Considering that respondent was aware that she was not able to complete the
requirements, her explanation that she honestly believed that her application
would be approved is unacceptable. Thus, her leaving the country, without first
awaiting the approval or non-approval of her application to travel abroad from the
OCA, was violative of the rules.

On the Constitutional Right to Travel

It has been argued that OCA Circular No. 49-2003 (B) on vacation leave to be spent
abroad unduly restricts a citizen’s right to travel guaranteed by Section 6, Article
III of the 1987 Constitution.[10] Section 6 reads:

Sec. 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed
by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall
the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public
safety, or public health, as may be provided by law. [ mphases supplied]

Let there be no doubt that the Court recognizes a citizen’s constitutional right to
travel. It is, however, not the issue in this case. The only issue in this case is the
non-compliance with the Court’s rules and regulations. It should be noted that
respondent, in her Comment, did not raise any constitutional concerns. In fact,
she was apologetic and openly admitted that she went abroad without the
required travel authority. Hence, this is not the proper vehicle to thresh out issues
on one’s constitutional right to travel.

Nonetheless, granting that it is an issue, the exercise of one’s right to travel or the
freedom to move from one place to another,[11] as assured by the Constitution, is
not absolute. There are constitutional, statutory and inherent limitations
regulating the right to travel. Section 6 itself provides that “neither shall the right
to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety or
public health, as may be provided by law.” Some of these statutory limitations are
the following:

1] The Human Security Act of 2010 or Republic Act (R.A.) No. 9372. The law
restricts the right to travel of an individual charged with the crime of terrorism
even though such person is out on bail.

2] The Philippine Passport Act of 1996 or R.A. No. 8239. Pursuant to said law, the
Secretary of Foreign Affairs or his authorized consular officer may refuse the
issuance of, restrict the use of, or withdraw, a passport of a Filipino citizen.

3] The “Anti- Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003” or R.A. No. 9208. Pursuant to the
provisions thereof, the Bureau of Immigration, in order to manage migration and
curb trafficking in persons, issued Memorandum Order Radjr No. 2011-011,[12]
allowing its Travel Control and Enforcement Unit to “offload passengers with
fraudulent travel documents, doubtful purpose of travel, including possible victims
of human trafficking” from our ports.

4] The Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 or R. A. No. 8042, as
amended by R.A. No. 10022. In enforcement of said law, the Philippine Overseas
Employment Administration (POEA) may refuse to issue deployment permit to a
specific country that effectively prevents our migrant workers to enter such

5] The Act on Violence against Women and Children or R.A. No. 9262. The law
restricts movement of an individual against whom the protection order is intended.

6] Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 or R.A. No. 8043. Pursuant thereto, the Inter-
Country Adoption Board may issue rules restrictive of an adoptee’s right to travel
“to protect the Filipino child from abuse, exploitation, trafficking and/or sale or any
other practice in connection with adoption which is harmful, detrimental, or
prejudicial to the child.”

Inherent limitations on the right to travel are those that naturally emanate from
the source. These are very basic and are built-in with the power. An example of
such inherent limitation is the power of the trial courts to prohibit persons charged
with a crime to leave the country.[13] In such a case, permission of the court is
necessary. Another is the inherent power of the legislative department to conduct
a congressional inquiry in aid of legislation. In the exercise of legislative inquiry,
Congress has the power to issue a subpoena and subpoena duces tecum to a
witness in any part of the country, signed by the chairperson or acting chairperson
and the Speaker or acting Speaker of the House;[14] or in the case of the Senate,
signed by its Chairman or in his absence by the Acting Chairman, and approved by
the Senate President.[15]

Supreme Court has administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel

With respect to the power of the Court, Section 5 (6), Article VIII of the 1987
Constitution provides that the “Supreme Court shall have administrative
supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof.” This provision empowers
the Court to oversee all matters relating to the effective supervision and
management of all courts and personnel under it. Recognizing this mandate,
Memorandum Circular No. 26 of the Office of the President, dated July 31, 1986,
[16] considers the Supreme Court exempt and with authority to promulgate its own
rules and regulations on foreign travels. Thus, the Court came out with OCA
Circular No. 49-2003 (B).

Where a person joins the Judiciary or the government in general, he or she swears
to faithfully adhere to, and abide with, the law and the corresponding office rules
and regulations. These rules and regulations, to which one submits himself or
herself, have been issued to guide the government officers and employees in the
efficient performance of their obligations. When one becomes a public servant, he
or she assumes certain duties with their concomitant responsibilities and gives up
some rights like the absolute right to travel so that public service would not be

As earlier stated, with respect to members and employees of the Judiciary, the
Court issued OCA Circular No. 49-2003 to regulate their foreign travel in an
unofficial capacity. Such regulation is necessary for the orderly administration of
justice. If judges and court personnel can go on leave and travel abroad at will and
without restrictions or regulations, there could be a disruption in the
administration of justice. A situation where the employees go on mass leave and
travel together, despite the fact that their invaluable services are urgently needed,
could possibly arise. For said reason, members and employees of the Judiciary
cannot just invoke and demand their right to travel.

To permit such unrestricted freedom can result in disorder, if not chaos, in the
Judiciary and the society as well. In a situation where there is a delay in the
dispensation of justice, litigants can get disappointed and disheartened. If their
expectations are frustrated, they may take the law into their own hands which
results in public disorder undermining public safety. In this limited sense, it can
even be considered that the restriction or regulation of a court personnel’s right to
travel is a concern for public safety, one of the exceptions to the non-impairment
of one’s constitutional right to travel.

Given the exacting standard expected from each individual called upon to serve in
the Judiciary, it is imperative that every court employee comply with the travel
notification and authority requirements as mandated by OCA Circular No. 49-2003.
A court employee who plans to travel abroad must file his leave application prior
to his intended date of travel with sufficient time allotted for his application to be
processed and approved first by the Court. He cannot leave the country without
his application being approved, much less assume that his leave application would
be favorably acted upon. In the case at bench, respondent should have exercised
prudence and asked for the status of her leave application before leaving for

Indeed, under the Omnibus Rules Implementing Book V of Executive Order (EO) No.
292, a leave application should be acted upon within five (5) working days after its
receipt, otherwise the leave application shall be deemed approved. Section 49,
Rule XVI of the Omnibus Rules on Leave reads:

SEC. 49. Period within which to act on leave applications. – Whenever the
application for leave of absence, including terminal leave, is not acted upon by the
head of agency or his duly authorized representative within five (5) working days
after receipt thereof, the application for leave of absence shall be deemed

Applying this provision, the Court held in the case of Commission on Appointments
v. Paler[17] that an employee could not be considered absent without leave since
his application was deemed approved. In said case, there was no action on his
application within five (5) working days from receipt thereof.[18]

The ruling in Paler, however, is not squarely applicable in this case. First, the
employee in said case was governed by CSC Rules only. In the case of respondent,
like the others who are serving the Judiciary, she is governed not only by CSC
Rules but also by OCA Circular No. 49-2003 which imposes guidelines on requests
for travel abroad for judges and court personnel. Second, in Paler, the employee
submitted his leave application with complete requirements before his intended
travel date. No additional requirement was asked to be filed. In the case of
respondent, she submitted her leave application but did not fully comply with the
clearance and accountability requirements enumerated in OCA Circular No. 49-
2003. Third, in Paler, there was no approval or disapproval of his application within
5 working days from the submission of the requirements. In this case, there was
no submission of the clearance requirements and, hence, the leave application
could not have been favorably acted upon.
SCSLA membership is voluntary

Regarding the requirement of the OCA that an employee must also seek clearance
from the SCSLA, the Court finds nothing improper in it. OCA is not enforcing the
collection of a loan extended to such employee.[19] Although SCSLA is a private
entity, it cannot be denied that its functions and operations are inextricably
connected with the Court. First, SCSLA was primarily established as a savings
vehicle for Supreme Court and lower court employees. The membership, which is
voluntary, is open only to Supreme Court justices, officials, and employees with
permanent, coterminous, or casual appointment, as well as to first and second-
level court judges and their personnel.[20] An eligible employee who applies for
membership with SCSLA must submit, together with his application, his latest
appointment papers issued by the Supreme Court.[21] Second, when an employee-
member applies for a SCSLA loan, he or she is asked to authorize the Supreme
Court payroll office to deduct the amount due and remit it to SCSLA. Third, the
employee-borrower likewise undertakes to assign in favor of SCSLA, in case of
non-payment, his capital deposit, including earned dividends, all monies and
monetary benefits due or would be due from his office, Government Service
Insurance System or from any government office or other sources, to answer the
remaining balance of his loan.[22] Fourth, every employee-borrower must procure
SCSLA members to sign as co-makers for the loan[23] and in case of leave
applications that would require the processing of a Supreme Court clearance,
another co-maker’s undertaking would be needed.

The Court stresses that it is not sanctioning respondent for going abroad with an
unpaid debt but for failing to comply with the requirements laid down by the office
of which she is an employee. When respondent joined the Judiciary and
volunteered to join the SCSLA, she agreed to follow the requirements and
regulations set forth by both offices. When she applied for a loan, she was not
forced or coerced to accomplish the requirements. Everything was of her own
In this regard, having elected to become a member of the SCSLA, respondent
voluntarily and knowingly committed herself to honor these undertakings. By
accomplishing and submitting the said undertakings, respondent has clearly
agreed to the limitations that would probably affect her constitutional right to
travel. By her non-compliance with the requirement, it can be said that she has
waived, if not constricted, her right. An employee cannot be allowed to enjoy the
benefits and privileges of SCSLA membership and at the same time be exempted
from her voluntary obligations and undertakings.

A judiciary employee who leaves for abroad without authority must be prepared to
face the consequences

Lest it be misunderstood, a judge or a member of the Judiciary, who is not being

restricted by a criminal court or any other agency pursuant to any statutory
limitation, can leave for abroad without permission but he or she must be prepared
to face the consequences for his or her violation of the Court’s rules and
regulations. Stated otherwise, he or she should expect to be subjected to a
disciplinary action. In the past, the Court was not hesitant to impose the
appropriate sanctions and penalties.

In Office of the Administrative Services (OAS)-Office of the Court Administrator

(OCA) v. Calacal,[24] a utility worker of the Metropolitan Trial Court was found
guilty of violating OCA Circular No. 49-2003 for going overseas without the
required travel authority and was reprimanded and warned that a repetition of the
same or similar offense would be penalized more severely. In that case, the Court
stressed that unawareness of the circular was not an excuse from non-compliance

In Reyes v. Bautista,[26] a court stenographer was found guilty of violation of OCA

Circular No. 49-2003 for traveling abroad without securing the necessary
permission for foreign travel. She was also found guilty of dishonesty when she
indicated in her application that her leave would be spent in the Philippines, when
in truth it was spent abroad. Because of the employee’s numerous infractions, she
was dismissed from the service with forfeiture of all benefits and privileges,
except accrued leave credits, with prejudice to re-employment in any branch or
instrumentality of the government, including government owned or controlled

In Concerned Employees of the Municipal Trial Court of Meycauayan, Bulacan v.

Paguio-Bacani,[27] a branch clerk of court of the Municipal Trial Court of
Meycauayan, Bulacan, was found guilty of dishonesty for falsifying her Daily Time
Record and leaving the country without the requisite travel authority. She was
suspended from the service for one (1) year without pay, with a warning that a
repetition of the same or similar offense would be dealt with more severely.

Following the Uniform Rules on Administrative Cases in the Civil Service, the Court
considers a violation of reasonable office rules and regulations as a light offense
and punishable with reprimand on the first offense; suspension for one to thirty
days on the second; and dismissal from the service on the third infraction.
Considering that this appears to be respondent’s first infraction, the OCA
recommended that she be penalized with a reprimand and warned that a repetition
of the same or similar offense would be dealt with more severely.

The Court, nonetheless, takes note of the belated action (4 months) of the Leave
Division on her application for leave which she submitted two months before her
intended departure date. The Leave Division should have acted on the application,
favorably or unfavorably, before the intended date with sufficient time to
communicate it to the applicant. If an applicant has not complied with the
requirements, the Leave Division should deny the same and inform him or her of
the adverse action. As respondent was not informed of the denial of her
application within a reasonable time, respondent should only be admonished.

WHEREFORE, respondent Wilma Salvacion P. Heusdens, Clerk IV Municipal Trial

Court in Cities, Tagum City, is hereby ADMONISHED for traveling abroad without
any travel authority in violation of OCA Circular No. 49-2003, with a WARNING that
a repetition of the same or similar offense would be dealt with more severely.
The Leave Division, OAS-OCA, is hereby directed to act upon applications for travel
abroad at least five (5) working days before the intended date of departure.



Associate Justice



Chief Justice


Associate Justice


Associate Justice


Associate Justice